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Christen Ravn, Ulrika Furustrand Tafin, Bertrand Bétrisey, Søren Overgaard, Andrej Trampuz
Background and purpose - Antibiotic treatment of patients before specimen collection reduces the ability to detect organisms by culture. We investigated the suppressive effect of antibiotics on the growth of non-adherent, planktonic, and surface-related biofilm bacteria in vitro by using sonication and microcalorimetry methods. Patients and methods - Biofilms of Staphylococcus aureus, S. epidermidis, Escherichia coli, and Propionibacterium acnes were formed on porous glass beads and exposed for 24 h to antibiotic concentrations from 1 to 1,024 times the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) of vancomycin, daptomycin, rifampin, flucloxacillin, or ciprofloxacin...
October 24, 2016: Acta Orthopaedica
Soumya Swaminathan, Jotam G Pasipanodya, Geetha Ramachandran, A K Hemanth Kumar, Shashikant Srivastava, Devyani Deshpande, Eric Nuermberger, Tawanda Gumbo
BACKGROUND:  The role of drug concentrations in clinical outcomes in children with tuberculosis is unclear. Target concentrations for dose optimization are unknown. METHODS:  Plasma drug concentrations measured in Indian children with tuberculosis were modeled using compartmental pharmacokinetic analyses. The children were followed until end of therapy to ascertain therapy failure or death. An ensemble of artificial intelligence algorithms, including random forests, was used to identify predictors of clinical outcome from among 30 clinical, laboratory, and pharmacokinetic variables...
November 1, 2016: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
Samuel G Schumacher, Maarten van Smeden, Nandini Dendukuri, Lawrence Joseph, Mark P Nicol, Madhukar Pai, Heather J Zar
Evaluation of tests for the diagnosis of childhood pulmonary tuberculosis (CPTB) is complicated by the absence of an accurate reference test. We present a Bayesian latent class analysis in which we evaluated the accuracy of 5 diagnostic tests for CPTB. We used data from a study of 749 hospitalized South African children suspected to have CPTB from 2009 to 2014. The following tests were used: mycobacterial culture, smear microscopy, Xpert MTB/RIF (Cepheid Inc.), tuberculin skin test (TST), and chest radiography...
October 13, 2016: American Journal of Epidemiology
A Jayakumar, R M Savic, C K Everett, D Benator, D Alland, C M Heilig, M Weiner, S O Friedrich, N A Martinson, A Kerrigan, C Zamudio, S V Goldberg, W C Whitworth, J L Davis, P Nahid
The Xpert® MTB/RIF assay is both sensitive and specific as a diagnostic test. Xpert also reports quantitative output in cycle thresholds (Ct), which may provide a dynamic measure of sputum bacillary burden when used longitudinally. We evaluated the relationship between Xpert Ct trajectory and drug exposure during TB treatment to evaluate the potential utility of Xpert Ct for treatment monitoring. We obtained serial sputum samples from patients with smear-positive pulmonary TB consecutively enrolled at ten international clinical trial sites participating in Study 29X, a CDC-sponsored TB Trials Consortium study evaluating the tolerability, safety, and antimicrobial activity of rifapentine at daily doses up to 20 mg/kg...
October 12, 2016: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
Sabine Hofmann-Thiel, Nikolay Molodtsov, Uladzimir Antonenka, Harald Hoffmann
Abbott RealTime MTB (RT MTB) is a new automated nucleic acid amplification test for the detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC) in clinical specimens. In combination with RealTime MTB INH/RIF Resistance (RT MTB INH/RIF), which can be applied to RT MTB positive specimens as add-on assay, the tests also indicate genetic markers of resistance to isoniazid and rifampicin. We aimed to evaluate the diagnostic sensitivity and specificity of RT MTB using different types of respiratory and extra-pulmonary specimens and to compare performance characteristics directly with the FluoroType MTB assay...
October 12, 2016: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
Laura C Luciani-Giacobbe, María V Ramírez-Rigo, Yamila Garro-Linck, Gustavo A Monti, Ruben H Manzo, María E Olivera
One of the main obstacles to the successful treatment of tuberculosis is the poor and variable oral bioavailability of rifampicin (RIF), which is mainly due to its low hydrophilicity and dissolution rate. The aim of this work was to obtain a hydrophilic new material that allows a very fast dissolution rate of RIF and therefore is potentially useful in the development of oral solid dosage forms. The acid form of carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) was co-processed with RIF by solvent impregnation to obtain CMC-RIF powder, which was characterized by polarized optical microscopy, powder x-ray diffraction, DSC-TGA, hot stage microscopy, (13)C and (15)N solid-state NMR and FT-IR spectroscopy...
October 6, 2016: European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
Fuguo Shi, Xiaobing Li, Hong Pan, Li Ding
Rifampicin (RIF) is used in regimens for infections caused by Mycobacteria accompanied by serious adverse reactions. Rifampicin-quinone (RIF-Q) is a major autoxidation product of RIF. It is not clear whether RIF-Q plays a role in RIF induced adverse reactions. Investigation of the systemic exposure of RIF-Q is helpful to better understand the role of RIF-Q in RIF induced adverse reactions. In this study, a simple and reproducible high performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) method involving a procedure to prevent the RIF from oxidation for simultaneous quantification of RIF and RIF-Q in rat plasma has been developed and validated, and applied to elucidate the systemic exposure of RIF-Q in rats...
September 26, 2016: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis
Yanan Li, Yuling Wang, Zhi Zhang, Huixia Gao, Haibin Wang, Jinfeng Cao, Shumin Zhang, Yuzhen Liu, Jianhua Lu, Zungui Xu, Erhei Dai
Ethambutol (EMB) is an essential first-line drug for tuberculosis (TB) treatment. Nucleotide substitutions at embB codon 306 have been proposed as a potential marker for EMB resistance and a predictor for broad drug resistance in clinical Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) isolates. However, discordant findings about the association between embB306 mutation and EMB resistance were reported. The Hebei province is located in the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei integration region; however, little information about the genetic diversity of embB locus is available in this area...
September 26, 2016: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
J M Puente, A Fabris, J Patel, A Patel, M Cerrillo, A Requena, J A Garcia-Velasco
BACKGROUND: Adenomyosis is linked to infertility, but the mechanisms behind this relationship are not clearly established. Similarly, the impact of adenomyosis on ART outcome is not fully understood. Our main objective was to use ultrasound imaging to investigate adenomyosis prevalence and severity in a population of infertile women, as well as specifically among women experiencing recurrent miscarriages (RM) or repeated implantation failure (RIF) in ART. METHODS: Cross-sectional study conducted in 1015 patients undergoing ART from January 2009 to December 2013 and referred for 3D ultrasound to complete study prior to initiating an ART cycle, or after ≥3 IVF failures or ≥2 miscarriages at diagnostic imaging unit at university-affiliated private IVF unit...
2016: Reproductive Biology and Endocrinology: RB&E
Willy Ssengooba, Durval Respeito, Edson Mambuque, Silvia Blanco, Helder Bulo, Inacio Mandomando, Bouke C de Jong, Frank G Cobelens, Alberto L García-Basteiro
INTRODUCTION: Early diagnosis and initiation to appropriate treatment is vital for tuberculosis (TB) control. The XpertMTB/RIF (Xpert) assay offers rapid TB diagnosis and quantitative estimation of bacterial burden through Cycle threshold (Ct) values. We assessed whether the Xpert Ct value is associated with delayed TB diagnosis as a potential monitoring tool for TB control programme performance. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This analysis was nested in a prospective study under the routine TB surveillance procedures of the National TB Control Program in Manhiça district, Maputo province, Mozambique...
2016: PloS One
Chang-Ho Kang, YuJin Shin, SeokCheol Jang, Yeojung Jung, Jae-Seong So
Pathogenic Vibrio alginolyticus, a cause of severe infection in shellfish, as well as in humans, has been found at high frequency around all coastal areas of Korea. The aim of this study was to determine the occurrence of V. alginolyticus, to identify the strains isolated from oysters in West Sea, and to investigate their antimicrobial resistance profiles. Biochemical analyses of the 90 initially recovered presumptive V. alginolyticus colonies indicated that 16 isolates were V. alginolyticus. PCR analysis to detect the presence of the gyrB gene confirmed that 15 (93...
August 20, 2016: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Saeed Shoja, Mojtaba Moosavian, Soodabeh Rostami, Fariba Abbasi, Mohammad Amin Tabatabaiefar, Amir Peymani
BACKGROUND: Carbapenem resistant Acinetobacter baumannii is an important nosocomial pathogen associated with a variety of infections. OBJECTIVES: The current study aimed to characterize the antimicrobial susceptibility, analyze the prevalence of oxacillinase and metallo-β-lactamase (MBL) genes and molecular typing of clinical isolates of A. baumannii. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 124 non-repetitive isolates of A. baumannii were collected from various clinical specimens in two teaching hospitals in Ahvaz, south-west of Iran...
May 2016: Jundishapur Journal of Microbiology
Salaheddine Essaghi, M'hamed Hachmi, Mohammed Yessef, Mohammed Dehhaoui
Leaf shrinkage provides insights into the potential variation of foliar SVR, within the same species, when leaf moisture content is changing in response to water deficit. Since SVR is among the most significant plant flammability features, leaf shrinkage would be a relevant component of fuel hazard assessment through its influence on SVR, enhancing-if it is taken into account-thereby the wildfire prediction accuracy. The purpose of this work is, first, to consider the leaf shrinkage by characterizing the plant species towards the shrinkability of their leaves, taking account the possible site effect, to characterize the behavior of shrinkage as a function of moisture content and finally to perform a classification for some dominant Mediterranean species based on the shrinkage levels...
2016: SpringerPlus
Benjamin B Williams, Huagang Hou, Rachel Coombs, Harold M Swartz
A number of studies have reported benefits associated with the application of hyperbaric oxygen treatment (HBO) delivered immediately prior to radiation therapy. While these studies provide evidence that pre-treatment with HBO may be beneficial, no measurements of intratumoral pO2 were carried out and they do not directly link the apparent benefits to decreased hypoxic fractions at the time of radiation therapy. While there is empirical evidence and some theoretical basis for HBO to enhance radiation therapy, without direct and repeated measurements of its effects on pO2, it is unlikely that the use of HBO can be understood and optimized for clinical applications...
2016: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
Cihadiye Elif Öztürk, İdris Şahin, Şükrü Öksüz, Nida Kılıç, Özge Kılınçel, Leyla Aydın, Dursun Atik, Emine Afşin
Throughout the history of mankind, tuberculosis (TB) has caused serious illness and still continues to do so. Archaeobiological studies indicated that TB in humans dates back to 4000-8000 BC, and cases were shown to be due to Mycobacterium bovis subsp.bovis rather than Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Moreover, this situation was thought to begin with domestication of animals, consumption of their milk, and living together in the same environment with them. Over time, with the consumption of boiled milk and with the establishment of separate animal shelters, M...
July 2016: Mikrobiyoloji Bülteni
Serap Yücel, Bilgehan Şahin, Zeynep Güral, Vakur Olgaç, Görkem Aksu, Fulya Ağaoğlu, Esra Sağlam, Işik Aslay, Emin Darendeliler
AIM: Radiation-induced fibrosis (RIF) has since long been considered as irreversible. Further understanding of its mechanisms has led to trials investigating RIF treatment and prevention. The effect of superoxide dismutase (SOD)-gliadin, an oral form of SOD that resists gastrointestinal inactivation, on RIF treatment was evaluated in this experimental study. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 36 Wistar albino mice were randomly distributed into four groups. According to group, 25 Gy radiation or sham-radiation were performed on day 0...
July 2016: In Vivo
Ridvan Tupai-Firestone, Jia-Yun Catherine Tsai, Philippa Anderson, Laura Broome, Tracy McKee, Diana R Lennon
AIM: To evaluate antimicrobial usage in the school-based clinics against operating guidelines. METHOD: Antimicrobial prescribing data (2014) from 10/18 participating pharmacies serving 14,153/23,588 primary school children of the programme were accessible. Prescriptions from 5/10 pharmacies were available for identifying type, amount, and indication of the medicine. One pharmacy serving a defined population (n=3,513) with single healthcare provider delivering the school programme was selected for detailed evaluation and identifying individuals receiving multiple treatments...
2016: New Zealand Medical Journal
S Aubrey Stoch, Jeanine Ballard, Christopher Gibson, Filippos Kesisoglou, Rose Witter, Kelem Kassahun, Stefan Zajic, Anish Mehta, Christine Brandquist, Cynthia Dempsey, Daria Stypinski, Marc L Reitman
This open-label, 2-period study assessed the effect of multiple-dose administration of rifampin, a strong cytochrome P450 3A (CYP3A) and P-glycoprotein (P-gp) inducer, on the pharmacokinetics of odanacatib, a cathepsin K inhibitor. In Period 1, 12 healthy male subjects (mean age 30 years) received a single dose of odanacatib 50 mg on Day 1 followed by a 28-day washout. In Period 2, subjects received rifampin 600 mg/day for 28 days; odanacatib 50 mg was co-administered on Day 14. Blood samples for odanacatib pharmacokinetics were collected at predose and Day 1 of Period 1 and Day 14 of Period 2...
June 20, 2016: Journal of Clinical Pharmacology
Patricia Bento da Silva, Eduardo Sinésio de Freitas, Jessica Bernegossi, Maíra Lima Gonçalez, Mariana Rillo Sato, Clarice Queico Fujimura Leite, Fernando Rogério Pavan, Marlus Chorilli
Tuberculosis (TB) is an infectious and transmissible disease that is caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis and primarily affects the lungs, although it can affect other organs and systems. The pulmonary presentation of TB, in addition to being more frequent, is also the most relevant to public health because it is primarily responsible for the transmission of the disease. The to their low World Health Organization (WHO) recommends a combined therapeutic regimen of several drugs, such as rifampicin (RIF), isoniazid (INH), pyrazinamide (PZA) and ethambutol (ETB)...
February 2016: Journal of Biomedical Nanotechnology
Amit Kumar Goyal, Tarun Garg, Goutam Rath, Umesh Datta Gupta, Pushpa Gupta
The major goal of the current research was to develop and evaluate the therapeutic potential of anti-tubercular drugs (ATDs) loaded natural polysaccharide comprising of galacto mannan subunit in experimental tuberculosis (TB). Experimental formulations were prepared by ionotropic gelation technique followed by spray drying. Morphological analysis suggested that optimized nanoparticles were found to be discrete and spherical in nature with a particle size distribution range from 230 ± 4.5 nm to 310 ± 6.2 nm...
March 2016: Journal of Biomedical Nanotechnology
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