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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317812/evaluation-of-pulmonary-tuberculosis-case-detection-improvement-with-the-deployment-of-xpertmtb-rif-in-the-tuberculosis-control-program-of-cross-river-state-nigeria
#1
Ernest Afu Ochang, Ubleni E Emanghe, Atana Ewa, Akaninyene Otu, Jonah B Offor, Micheal Odo, Aniekan Etokidem, Barinadaa Afirima, Oju Eni Owuna, Sunday M Obeten, Martin M Meremikwu
OBJECTIVE/BACKGROUND: Global indices show that Nigeria has the highest tuberculosis (TB)-related mortality rate. Overdependence on Ziehl-Neelsen (ZN) smear microscopy for diagnosis and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/AIDS has limited control efforts. The new polymerase chain reaction-based XpertMTB/Rif (Cepheid Inc., CA, USA), which detects Mycobacterium tuberculosis and rifampicin resistance, was introduced in Cross River State in 2014. We evaluated the increment in pulmonary TB case detection following introduction of XpertMTB/Rif into the Cross River State TB control program...
January 2017: International Journal of Mycobacteriology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317811/performance-of-the-xpert-mtb-rif-assay-in-the-diagnosis-of-tuberculosis-in-formalin-fixed-paraffin-embedded-tissues
#2
Pascal Polepole, Mwila Kabwe, Mpanga Kasonde, John Tembo, Aaron Shibemba, Justin O'Grady, Nathan Kapata, Alimuddin Zumla, Matthew Bates
OBJECTIVE/BACKGROUND: Extrapulmonary tuberculosis (EPTB), which accounts for 10%-40% of the global burden of TB, with the highest incidence in Sub-Saharan Africa, is strongly associated with human immunodeficiency virus infection. Diagnosing EPTB is challenging, and recently, there has been a concerted effort to evaluate the latest molecular diagnostics for diagnosing TB in a range of specimen types. The Xpert MTB/RIF assay (Cepheid, Sunnyvale, CA, USA) is one such technology, which simultaneously detects Mycobacterium tuberculosis and rifampicin resistance...
January 2017: International Journal of Mycobacteriology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28284252/operational-modelling-the-mechanisms-influencing-tb-diagnostic-yield-in-an-xpert-%C3%A2-mtb-rif-based-algorithm
#3
R Dunbar, P Naidoo, N Beyers, I Langley
SETTING: Cape Town, South Africa. OBJECTIVE: To compare the diagnostic yield for smear/culture and Xpert® MTB/RIF algorithms and to investigate the mechanisms influencing tuberculosis (TB) yield. METHOD: We developed and validated an operational model of the TB diagnostic process, first with the smear/culture algorithm and then with the Xpert algorithm. We modelled scenarios by varying TB prevalence, adherence to diagnostic algorithms and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) status...
April 1, 2017: International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28262820/a-temporal-proteome-dynamics-study-reveals-the-molecular-basis-of-induced-phenotypic-resistance-in-mycobacterium-smegmatis-at-sub-lethal-rifampicin-concentrations
#4
Alexander D Giddey, Elise de Kock, Kehilwe C Nakedi, Shaun Garnett, Andrew J M Nel, Nelson C Soares, Jonathan M Blackburn
In the last 40 years only one new antitubercular drug has been approved, whilst resistance to current drugs, including rifampicin, is spreading. Here, we used the model organism Mycobacterium smegmatis to study mechanisms of phenotypic mycobacterial resistance, employing quantitative mass spectrometry-based proteomics to investigate the temporal effects of sub-lethal concentrations of rifampicin on the mycobacterial proteome at time-points corresponding to early response, onset of bacteriostasis and early recovery...
March 6, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28260584/determination-of-antimicrobial-resistance-of-enterococcus-strains-isolated-from-pigs-and-their-genotypic-characterization-by-method-of-amplification-of-dna-fragments-surrounding-rare-restriction-sites-adsrrs-fingerprinting
#5
Aneta Nowakiewicz, Grażyna Ziółkowska, Aleksandra Trościańczyk, Przemysław Zięba, Sebastian Gnat
PURPOSE: In this study, we analysed phenotypic resistance profiles and their reflection in the genomic profiles of Enterococcus spp. strains isolated from pigs raised on different farms. METHODOLOGY: Samples were collected from five pig farms (n=90 animals) and tested for Enterococcus. MICs of 12 antimicrobials were determined using the broth microdilution method, and epidemiological molecular analysis of strains belonging to selected species (faecalis, faecium and hirae) was performed using the ADSRRS-fingerprinting (amplification of DNA fragments surrounding rare restriction sites) method with a few modifications...
March 2017: Journal of Medical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28258004/evaluation-of-genexpert-mtb-rif-for-detection-of-pulmonary-tuberculosis-at-peripheral-tuberculosis-clinics
#6
Yan Shao, Hong Peng, Cheng Chen, Tao Zhu, Ming Ji, Wei Jiang, Wei Zhu, Xiang Jun Zhai, Wei Lu
Tuberculosis is one of the most common infectious diseases in China, while delayed patient finding obstructed disease control, especially for smear-negative patients. The current study was undertaken to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of GeneXpert MTB/RIF compared with conventional methods in the detection of pulmonary tuberculosis patients. A total of 295 spot sputum samples from confirmed pulmonary tuberculosis patients were evaluated from September 2014 to June 2015. Each sample was examined by acid-fast bacillus smear microscopy, culture and GeneXpert MTB/RIF...
February 28, 2017: Microbial Pathogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28243227/rifampicin-resistance-mutations-in-the-rpob-gene-in-bacillus-velezensis-cc09-have-pleiotropic-effects
#7
Xun-Chao Cai, Huan Xi, Li Liang, Jia-Dong Liu, Chang-Hong Liu, Ya-Rong Xue, Xiang-Yang Yu
Rifampicin resistance (Rif(r)) mutations in the RNA polymerase β subunit (rpoB) gene exhibit pleiotropic phenotypes as a result of their effects on the transcription machinery in prokaryotes. However, the differences in the effects of the mutations on the physiology and metabolism of the bacteria remain unknown. In this study, we isolated seven Rif(r) mutations in rpoB, including six single point mutations (H485Y, H485C, H485D, H485R, Q472R, and S490L) and one double point mutation (S490L/S617F) from vegetative cells of an endophytic strain, Bacillus velezensis CC09...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28221837/environmental-occurrence-and-antibiotic-susceptibility-profile-of-listeria-monocytogenes-at-a-slaughterhouse-raw-processing-plant-in-romania
#8
Claudia Sala, Adriana Morar, Emil Tîrziu, Ileana Nichita, Mirela Imre, Kálmán Imre
This survey was conducted to investigate the occurrence and antimicrobial susceptibility of Listeria monocytogenes isolates in the environment of a pig slaughterhouse raw processing plant complex in western Romania. A total of 97 environmental samples from food contact (n = 60) and nonfood contact (n = 37) surfaces were examined with standard methods. The susceptibility of the isolates to 17 antimicrobial agents was determined with the VITEK 2 automated system. Overall, 25 (25.8%) samples were positive for L...
October 2016: Journal of Food Protection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28167550/acquisition-of-rifampin-resistance-in-pulmonary-tuberculosis
#9
Xavier A Kayigire, Sven O Friedrich, Lize van der Merwe, Andreas H Diacon
Mycobacterium tuberculosis with spontaneous mutations conferring resistance to rifampin (RIF) are exceedingly rare and fixed drug combinations typically prevent augmentation of resistance. Fourteen newly diagnosed tuberculosis patients were treated with RIF only for 14 days and bacterial loads including mutation frequencies were determined. A statistical model estimated that 1% of the remaining viable mycobacteria could be resistant after 30 days of monotherapy, indicating that pharmacodynamic variation could contribute to the acquisition of resistance against RIF...
February 6, 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28167538/application-of-physiologically-based-pharmacokinetic-modeling-to-the-understanding-of-bosutinib-pharmacokinetics-prediction-of-drug-drug-and-drug-disease-interactions
#10
Chiho Ono, Poe-Hirr Hsyu, Richat Abbas, Cho-Ming Loi, Shinji Yamazaki
Bosutinib is an orally available Src/Abl tyrosine kinase inhibitor indicated for the treatment of patients with Philadelphia chromosome-positive chronic myelogenous leukemia. Bosutinib is predominantly metabolized by CYP3A4 as the primary clearance mechanism. The main objectives of this study were to 1) develop physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) models of bosutinib; 2) verify and refine the PBPK models based on clinical study results of bosutinib single-dose drug-drug interaction (DDI) with ketoconazole and rifampin, as well as single-dose drug-disease interaction (DDZI) in patients with renal and hepatic impairment; 3) apply the PBPK models to predict DDI outcomes in patients with weak and moderate CYP3A inhibitors; and 4) apply the PBPK models to predict DDZI outcomes in renally and hepatically impaired patients after multiple-dose administration...
April 2017: Drug Metabolism and Disposition: the Biological Fate of Chemicals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108285/rifampin-suppresses-osteoclastogenesis-and-titanium-particle-induced-osteolysis-via-modulating-rankl-signaling-pathways
#11
Liang Zhu, Hui Kang, Chang-An Guo, Wen-Shuai Fan, Yi-Ming Wang, Lian-Fu Deng, Zuo-Qin Yan
Wear particles liberated from the surface of prostheses are considered to be main reason for osteoclast bone resorption and that extensive osteoclastogenesis leads to peri-implant osteolysis and subsequent prosthetic loosening. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of rifampin on osteoclastogenesis and titanium (Ti) particle-induced osteolysis. The Ti particle-induced osteolysis mouse calvarial model and bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMMs) were used. Rifampin, at dose of 10 or 50 mg/kg/day, was respectively given intraperitoneally for 14 days in vivo...
January 18, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100194/interspecies-transfer-of-vancomycin-erythromycin-and-tetracycline-resistance-among-enterococcus-species-recovered-from-agrarian-sources
#12
M Conwell, V Daniels, P J Naughton, J S G Dooley
BACKGROUND: Enterococci are now well recognised for their ability to transfer antibiotic resistance and for their association with nosocomial infections, but less is known regarding their relevance in the wider environment. Enterococcus faecalis and Enterococcus faecium were isolated from a range of agrarian associated sources (low-flow water, septic tank, poultry litter, high flow water, slurry/soil) and were assessed for latent ability to transfer antimicrobial resistance. RESULTS: The isolates were tested for phenotypic clumping in the presence of cell-free supernatant from other isolates...
January 18, 2017: BMC Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28091937/ocular-mycobacteriosis-dual-infection-of-m-tuberculosis-complex-with-m-fortuitum-and-m-bovis
#13
Kusum Sharma, Natasha Gautam, Megha Sharma, Mohit Dogra, Priya Bajgai, Basavaraj Tigari, Aman Sharma, Vishali Gupta, Surya Prakash Sharma, Ramandeep Singh
BACKGROUND: We report unfavorable outcome in a patient with subretinal granuloma caused by dual infection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex with Mycobacterium fortuitum and Mycobacterium bovis in an immunosuppressed, non-HIV patient. We did a systematic review of literature on dual infection due to M. tuberculosis and M. fortuitum via MEDLINE and PUBMED and could not find any case reported of causing this kind of dual infection in the eye. RESULTS: A 38-year-old Indian male patient presented with decreased vision in the left eye for 3 months, diagnosed as tubercular choroidal granuloma with associated retinal angiomatosis proliferans (RAP) lesion...
December 2017: Journal of Ophthalmic Inflammation and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077325/role-of-14-3-3-sigma-in-over-expression-of-p-gp-by-rifampin-and-paclitaxel-stimulation-through-interaction-with-pxr
#14
So Won Kim, Md Hasanuzzaman, Munju Cho, Nam Hyun Kim, Hye-Young Choi, Jung Woo Han, Hyun June Park, Ji Won Oh, Jae-Gook Shin
In this study, we presented the role of 14-3-3σ to activate CK2-Hsp90β-PXR-MDR1 pathway on rifampin and paclitaxel treated LS174T cells and in vivo LS174T cell-xenografted nude mouse model. Following several in vitro and in vivo experiments, rifampin and paclitaxel were found to be stimulated the CK2-Hsp90β-PXR-MDR1 pathway. Of the proteins in this pathway, Pregnane X receptor (PXR) is a representative transcription factor of multidrug resistance protein 1 (MDR1). We constructed FLAG-PXR-LS174T stable cell lines and discovered 22 proteins that interacted with PXR on rifampin treatment...
February 2017: Cellular Signalling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28052338/quantitative-prediction-of-the-effect-of-cyp3a-inhibitors-and-inducers-on-venetoclax-pharmacokinetics-using-a-physiologically-based-pharmacokinetic-model
#15
Kevin J Freise, Mohamad Shebley, Ahmed Hamed Salem
The objectives of the analysis were to develop and verify a venetoclax physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model to predict the effects of cytochrome P450 3A (CYP3A) inhibitors and inducers on the PK of venetoclax and inform dosing recommendations. A minimal PBPK model was developed based on prior in vitro and in vivo clinical data using a "middle-out" approach. The PBPK model was independently verified against clinical studies of the strong CYP3A inhibitor ketoconazole, the strong CYP3A inducer, multiple-dose rifampin, and the steady-state venetoclax PK in chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) subjects by comparing predicted to observed ratios of the venetoclax maximum concentration (Cmax R) and area under the curve from time 0 to infinity (AUC∞ R) from these studies...
January 4, 2017: Journal of Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28043605/xpert-mtb-rif-for-rapid-detection-of-rifampicin-resistant-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-from-pulmonary-tuberculosis-patients-in-southwest-ethiopia
#16
Mulualem Tadesse, Dossegnaw Aragaw, Belayneh Dimah, Feyisa Efa, Gemeda Abebe
OBJECTIVE/BACKGROUND: Accurate and rapid detection of drug-resistant strains of tuberculosis (TB) is critical for early initiation of treatment and for limiting the transmission of drug-resistant TB. Here, we investigated the accuracy of Xpert MTB/RIF for detection of rifampicin (RIF) resistance, and whether this detection predicts the presence of multidrug resistant (MDR) TB in Southwest Ethiopia. METHODS: Smear- or culture-positive sputa obtained from TB patients with increased suspicion of drug resistance were included in this study...
December 2016: International Journal of Mycobacteriology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28043565/drug-susceptibility-testing-of-mycobacterium-avium-subsp-avium-isolates-from-naturally-infected-domestic-pigeons-to-avian-tuberculosis
#17
Kaveh Parvandar, Mansour Mayahi, Nader Mosavari, Reza Aref Pajoohi
OBJECTIVE: Avian tuberculosis is one of the most important infections affecting most species of birds. Several mycobacterial species have been identified causing avian tuberculosis, and the organisms confirmed most frequently are Mycobacterium avium and Mycobacterium genavense. Any species of birds can be infected with M. avium. Generally, domesticated fowl or captive wild birds are affected more frequently than those living in the wild. M. avium can not only infect all species of birds, but can also infect some domesticated mammals to cause disease, usually with localized lesion...
December 2016: International Journal of Mycobacteriology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28043515/evaluation-of-rifampicin-resistance-and-81-bp-rifampicin-resistant-determinant-region-of-rpob-gene-mutations-of-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-detected-with-xpertmtb-rif-in-cross-river-state-nigeria
#18
Ernest A Ochang, Ubong A Udoh, Ubleni E Emanghe, Gerald O Tiku, Jonah B Offor, Micheal Odo, Emmanuel Nkombe, Oju E Owuna, Sunday M Obeten, Martin M Meremikwu
OBJECTIVE/BACKGROUND: World Health Organization tuberculosis (TB) indices from 2014 to 2016 showed that Nigeria had the 6th highest prevalence, 4th highest incidence, and the highest mortality rate globally. In efforts to improve TB care, the XpertMTB/Rif (GeneXpert) technology, Cepheid, Sunnyvale, California, USA, which has revolutionized TB detection with concomitant rifampicin-resistance molecular detection, was introduced in Cross River State, South-South Nigeria, in 2014. The GeneXpert uses molecular beacons to detect five overlapping 81-bp regions in the rpoB gene known as the Rifampicin Resistant Determinant Region (RRDR)...
December 2016: International Journal of Mycobacteriology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28042217/performance-of-xpert-mtb-rif-on-ascitic-fluid-samples-for-detection-of-abdominal-tuberculosis
#19
Syed Beenish Rufai, Sarman Singh, Amit Singh, Parveen Kumar, Jitendra Singh, Anand Vishal
BACKGROUND: Diagnosis of abdominal tuberculosis (TB) from ascitic fluid samples using routinely available diagnostic methods is challenging due to its paucibacillary nature. Although performance of Xpert MTB/RIF assay has been evaluated extensively on pulmonary samples, its performance on extrapulmonary samples is still under evaluation. OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study was to find out the performance of Xpert MTB/RIF on ascitic fluid samples obtained from suspected cases of abdominal TB...
January 2017: Journal of Laboratory Physicians
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28040477/design-of-novel-antimicrobial-peptide-dimer-analogues-with-enhanced-antimicrobial-activity-in-vitro-and-in-vivo-by-intermolecular-triazole-bridge-strategy
#20
Beijun Liu, Haifeng Huang, Zhibin Yang, Beiyin Liu, Sanhu Gou, Chao Zhong, Xiufeng Han, Yun Zhang, Jingman Ni, Rui Wang
Currently, antimicrobial peptides have attracted considerable attention because of their broad-sprectum activity and low prognostic to induce antibiotic resistance. In our study, for the first time, a series of side-chain hybrid dimer peptides J-AA (Anoplin-Anoplin), J-RR (RW-RW), and J-AR (Anoplin-RW) based on the wasp peptide Anoplin and the arginine- and tryptophan-rich hexapeptide RW were designed and synthesized by click chemistry, with the intent to improve the antimicrobial efficacy of peptides against bacterial pathogens...
February 2017: Peptides
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