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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29356051/optical-coherence-tomography-angiography-of-normal-skin-and-inflammatory-dermatologic-conditions
#1
Anthony J Deegan, Faezeh Talebi-Liasi, Shaozhen Song, Yuandong Li, Jingjiang Xu, Shaojie Men, Michi M Shinohara, Mary E Flowers, Stephanie J Lee, Ruikang K Wang
BACKGROUND: In clinical dermatology, the identification of subsurface vascular and structural features known to be associated with numerous cutaneous pathologies remains challenging without the use of invasive diagnostic tools. OBJECTIVE: To present an advanced optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA) method to directly visualize capillary-level vascular and structural features within skin in vivo. METHODS: An advanced OCTA system with a 1310 nm wavelength was used to image the microvascular and structural features of various skin conditions...
January 22, 2018: Lasers in Surgery and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29354672/impact-of-heated-humidified-high-flow-air-via-nasal-cannula-on-respiratory-effort-in-patients-with-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease
#2
Charles W Atwood, Sharon Camhi, Kathryn C Little, Colleen Paul, Hobart Schweikert, Nicholas J Macmillan, Thomas L Miller
Background: High flow nasal cannula therapy (HFNC) has been widely adopted for respiratory distress, and evidence suggests that purging dead space of the upper airway improves gas fractions in the lung. This study tests the hypothesis that HFNC with room air could be as effective as low flow oxygen in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Methods: Thirty-two COPD patients prescribed 1 - 2 L/min of oxygen were studied. The conditions tested consisted of a control (CTRL; no therapy), then in random order HFNC and prescribed low flow oxygen (LFO)...
August 15, 2017: Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Diseases: Journal of the COPD Foundation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352054/increased-blood-brain-barrier-permeability-in-contralateral-hemisphere-predicts-worse-outcome-in-acute-ischemic-stroke-after-reperfusion-therapy
#3
Chang Liu, Shenqiang Yan, Ruiting Zhang, Zhicai Chen, Feina Shi, Ying Zhou, Meixia Zhang, Min Lou
AIMS: We sought to investigate the risk factors of blood-brain barrier (BBB) disruption, and its potential impact on 90-day clinical outcome in acute ischemic stroke (AIS) patients after reperfusion therapy. METHODS: Consecutive acute anterior circulation AIS patients imaged with computed tomographic perfusion (CTP) before reperfusion therapy were included. Tmax >6 s was used for the volumetric measurement of the hypoperfusion area. BBB permeability (BBBP) was calculated as the average relative permeability-surface area product (rPS) within the hypoperfusion region (rPShypo-i) and its contralateral mirror region (rPShypo-c) on CTP-derived PS color maps...
January 19, 2018: Journal of Neurointerventional Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351473/sympathetically-mediated-cardiac-responses-to-isolated-muscle-metaboreflex-activation-following-exercise-are-modulated-by-body-position-in-humans
#4
André L Teixeira, Mauricio Daher, Mayara Souza, Plinio Santos Ramos, James P Fisher, Lauro C Vianna
Isolated muscle metaboreflex activation with post-handgrip exercise ischemia (PEI) increases sympathetic nerve activity and partially maintains the exercise-induced increase in blood pressure, but a smaller heart rate (HR) response occurs. The cardiopulmonary baroreceptors, mechanically sensitive receptors that respond to changes in central blood volume and pressure, are strongly associated with changes in body position and upon activation elicit reflex sympathoinhibition. Here, we tested the hypothesis that postural changes modulate the sympathetically-mediated cardiac response to PEI in humans...
December 15, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29349824/reduced-left-ventricular-filling-following-blood-volume-extraction-does-not-result-in-compensatory-augmentation-of-cardiac-mechanics
#5
Rachel Lord, David MacLeod, Keith George, David Oxborough, Rob Shave, Mike Stembridge
An acute non-invasive reduction in preload has been shown to augment cardiac mechanics to maintain stroke volume and cardiac output. Such interventions induce concomitant changes in heart rate (HR), whereas blood volume extraction reduces preload without HR changes. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to determine whether a preload reduction in isolation resulted in augmented stroke volume achieved via enhanced cardiac mechanics. Nine healthy volunteers (4 female, age 29 ± 11 years) underwent echocardiography for the assessment of left ventricular (LV) volumes and mechanics in a supine position at baseline and end-extraction following the controlled removal of 25% of total blood volume (1062 ± 342 ml)...
January 18, 2018: Experimental Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29347819/presence-of-rigid-red-blood-cells-in-blood-flow-interfere-with-the-vascular-wall-adhesion-of-leukocytes
#6
Mario Gutierrez, Margaret B Fish, Alexander W Golinski, Omolola Eniola-Adefeso
The symptoms of many blood diseases can often be attributed to irregularities in cellular dynamics produced by abnormalities in blood cells, particularly red blood cells (RBCs). Contingent on the disease and its severity, RBCs can be afflicted with increased membrane rigidity as seen in malaria and sickle cell disease. Despite this understanding, little experimental work has been conducted towards understanding the effect of RBC rigidity on cellular dynamics in physiologic blood flow. Though many have computationally modeled complex blood flow to postulate how RBC rigidity may disrupt normal hemodynamics, to date, there lacks a clear understanding of how rigid RBCs affect the blood cell segregation behavior in blood flow, known as margination, and the resulting change in the adhesion of white blood cells (WBCs)...
January 18, 2018: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346831/postoperative-reduction-of-intraventricular-hemorrhage-volume-single-versus-dual-catheter-drainage
#7
Syed Shahzad Hussain, Asif Raza, Saman Shahid, Hafiz Hamza Asif, Usman Ahmad, Naveed Ashraf
BACKGROUND/AIMS:  The use of single/dual external ventricular drains (EVD) for reducing intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH) is under investigation. A randomized controlled trial was conducted to compare postoperative reduction of IVH volume using single- and dual-catheter drainage in spontaneous IVH patients. We investigated factors that may influence an effective hematoma volume reduction by EVDs. MATERIALS AND METHODS:  The average cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) drainage volumes were analyzed...
January 18, 2018: Journal of Neurological Surgery. Part A, Central European Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29345431/the-effect-of-diuresis-on-extravascular-lung-water-and-pulmonary-function-in-acute-decompensated-heart-failure
#8
Steven C Chase, Caitlin C Fermoyle, Courtney M Wheatley, Jacob J Schaefer, Lyle J Olson, Bruce D Johnson
AIMS: The effect of extravascular lung water (EVLW) and relationship to functional status as a result of acute decompensated heart failure (ADHF) are not well understood. We sought to quantify changes in clinical variables, EVLW, airway anatomy, spirometry, and diffusing capacity for carbon monoxide before and after treatment for ADHF. METHODS AND RESULTS: Fifteen patients were recruited within 24 h of hospital admission. Spirometry, diffusing capacity for carbon monoxide, and surrogates of EVLW by computed tomography were measured and were then repeated within 24 h of discharge...
January 18, 2018: ESC Heart Failure
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29344913/cardiac-basal-autophagic-activity-and-increased-exercise-capacity
#9
Fang-Hui Li, Tao Li, Ying-Min Su, Jing-Yi Ai, Rui Duan, Timon Cheng-Yi Liu
To investigate whether high-intensity interval training (HIIT) and continuous moderate-intensity training (CMT) have different impacts on exercise performance and cardiac function and to determine the influence of these exercise protocols on modulating basal autophagy in the cardiac muscle of rats. Rats were assigned to three groups: sedentary control (SC), CMT, and HIIT. Total exercise volume and mean intensity were matched between the two protocols. After a 10-week training program, rats were evaluated for exercise performance, including exercise tolerance and grip strength...
January 17, 2018: Journal of Physiological Sciences: JPS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29344027/plasma-volume-and-renal-function-predict-six-month-survival-after-hospitalization-for-acute-decompensated-heart-failure
#10
Kenneth C Bilchick, Nathaniel Chishinga, Alex M Parker, David X Zhuo, Mitchell H Rosner, LaVone A Smith, Hunter Mwansa, Jacob N Blackwell, Peter A McCullough, Sula Mazimba
Background: Plasma volume (PV) is contracted in stable patients with heart failure (HF) due to decongestion strategies. On the other hand, increased PV can adversely affect the trajectory of HF. We therefore examined the effects of increased percentage change in PV (%ΔPV), blood urea nitrogen (BUN), and %ΔPV stratified by BUN and glomerular filtration rate (GFR) on survival after discharge in patients hospitalized for acute decompensated HF (ADHF). Methods: We used the Strauss-Davis-Rosenbaum formula to calculate the %ΔPV between baseline and hospital discharge in a cohort from the Evaluation Study of Congestive Heart Failure and Pulmonary Artery Catheterization Effectiveness trial (ESCAPE)...
December 2017: Cardiorenal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29343036/-analysis-of-genotype-and-hematological-phenotype-of-14-patients-with-coinheritance-hk%C3%AE-%C3%AE-and-south-east-deletion-thalassemia
#11
L Y Zhong, F Wang, P S Chen, Y J Xie, J Y Tan, M Liu, B Huang, W B Lin
Objective: To analyze the genotype-phenotype correlations among those thalassemia samples with the presence of -α(3.7,) --(SEA) and normal α(2) alleles on their α-globin gene clusters. Methods: Fourteen patients(including 1fetus, 4 males and 9 females, aged 0- 56 years old)who were suspected diagnosed by hematologic analysis and genetic testing among 16 080 participants in our laboratory since from August 2011 to August 2016, were enrolled. Complete blood cell count was performed on XE4000i automatic hemocyte analyzer...
January 9, 2018: Zhonghua Yi Xue za Zhi [Chinese medical journal]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29342932/interstitial-glucose-and-physical-exercise-in-type-1-diabetes-integrative-physiology-technology-and-the-gap-in-between
#12
REVIEW
Othmar Moser, Jane E Yardley, Richard M Bracken
Continuous and flash glucose monitoring systems measure interstitial fluid glucose concentrations within a body compartment that is dramatically altered by posture and is responsive to the physiological and metabolic changes that enable exercise performance in individuals with type 1 diabetes. Body fluid redistribution within the interstitial compartment, alterations in interstitial fluid volume, changes in rate and direction of fluid flow between the vasculature, interstitium and lymphatics, as well as alterations in the rate of glucose production and uptake by exercising tissues, make for caution when interpreting device read-outs in a rapidly changing internal environment during acute exercise...
January 15, 2018: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341020/mri-in-the-study-of-animal-models-of-stroke
#13
Pedro Ramos-Cabrer, Daniel Padro
Stroke consists of the loss of cerebral functions resulting from the interruption of blood supply to a region of the brain, and represents the second cause of death and the leading cause of major disability in adults in Europe. Stroke is a very active field of research at preclinical and clinical levels, and Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) is one of the most powerful tools that scientist and clinicians have for the study of the onset, evolution and consequences of this devastating disease, as well as for the monitoring of the success of available treatments, or for the development of novel therapeutic strategies...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339208/targeted-shrna-loaded-liposome-complex-combined-with-focused-ultrasound-for-blood-brain-barrier-disruption-and-suppressing-glioma-growth
#14
Guanjian Zhao, Qin Huang, Feng Wang, Xiang Zhang, Jiangang Hu, Ying Tan, Ning Huang, Zhigang Wang, Zhibiao Wang, Yuan Cheng
Our previous studies have demonstrated that focused ultrasound (FUS) combined with DNA-loaded microbubbles (MBs) can induce noninvasive, reversible, local disruption of the blood brain barrier (BBB) and enable targeted exogenous gene transfer into the central nervous system. However, due to low gene loading or the absence of positive targeting, to date, there has been no therapeutic effect of MBs combined with FUS in tumor treatment. In the current study, we adopted a phospholipid complex that exhibited sufficient gene loading and peptide-mediated targeting to delay glioma growth...
January 12, 2018: Cancer Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29338821/factors-influencing-regional-cerebral-oxygen-saturation-during-one-lung-ventilation-in-thoracic-surgery
#15
Ya Hong Gong, Wei Jia Wang, Wei Wei, Yu Guang Huang
Objective To identify factors influencing regional cerebral oxygen saturation (rScO2) during one-lung ventilation (OLV) in thoracic surgery. Methods Totally 33 patients with an ASA physical status of 1-3 scheduled for elective thoracic surgery with one-lung ventilation under general anesthesia were recruited. After anesthesia was induced with propofol,fentanyl/sufentanil,and rocuronium. All patients received balanced anesthesia using sevoflurane. During OLV,volume-controlled ventilation was used with a tidal volume of 6-7 ml/kg and an inspiration:expiration ratio of 1:1...
December 20, 2017: Zhongguo Yi Xue Ke Xue Yuan Xue Bao. Acta Academiae Medicinae Sinicae
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29338729/computational-study-of-the-effects-of-arterial-bifurcation-on-the-temperature-distribution-during-cryosurgery
#16
Yong-Chang Zheng, Jun-Hong Wu, Zhi-Zhu He, Shao-Jiong Huang
BACKGROUND: Thermally significant blood flows into locally cooled diseased tissues and warm them during cryosurgery so that the iceball is often hard to cover the whole diseased volume. This paper is aimed at investigating the effects of large arterial bifurcation on the temperature distribution during cryosurgery through simulation method. METHODS: A parametric geometry model is introduced to construct a close-to-real arterial bifurcation. The three-dimensional transient conjugate heat transfer between bifurcated artery and solid tissues with phase change during cryosurgery is performed by finite volume method...
January 16, 2018: Biomedical Engineering Online
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29337197/brain-perfusion-alterations-in-tick-borne-encephalitis-preliminary-report
#17
Zuzanna Tyrakowska-Dadełło, Eugeniusz Tarasów, Dariusz Janusek, Anna Moniuszko-Malinowska, Joanna Zajkowska, Sławomir Pancewicz
BACKGROUND: Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) changes in Tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) are nonspecific and pathophysiologic mechanisms leading to their formation remain unclear. This study aimed to investigate brain perfusion in TBE patients using dynamic susceptibility contrast (DSC) MR perfusion imaging. METHODS: MRI scans were performed in 12 patients in the acute phase, 3-5days after TBE diagnosis, with conventional MR images and DSC-MRI perfusion studies. Cerebral blood flow (CBF), cerebral blood volume (CBV), mean transit time (MTT) and time to peak (TTP) parametric maps were created...
January 11, 2018: International Journal of Infectious Diseases: IJID
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29335617/cardiovascular-function-of-modern-pigs-does-not-comply-with-allometric-scaling-laws
#18
Gerard J van Essen, Maaike Te Lintel Hekkert, Oana Sorop, Ilkka Heinonen, Jolanda van der Velden, Daphne Merkus, Dirk J Duncker
Growing concerns have been expressed regarding cardiovascular performance in modern farm pigs, which has been proposed as a critical factor contributing to the reduced adaptability of modern pigs to stress. Here we tested the hypothesis that cardiac dimensions and pump function in modern heavy farm pigs are disproportionally low for their body weight, and investigated potential underlying mechanisms. The results from the present study indeed demonstrate disproportionally low values for stroke volume and cardiac output in pigs with bodyweights over 150 kg...
January 15, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334723/methacholine-bronchial-provocation-test-in-patients-with-asthma-serial-measurements-and-clinical-significance
#19
Hyun-Jung Seo, Pureun-Haneul Lee, Byeong-Gon Kim, Sun-Hye Lee, Jong-Sook Park, Junehyuck Lee, Sung-Woo Park, Do-Jin Kim, Choon-Sik Park, An-Soo Jang
Background/Aims: The methacholine bronchial provocation test (MBPT) is used to detect and quantify airway hyper-responsiveness (AHR). Since improvements in the severity of asthma are associated with improvements in AHR, clinical studies of asthma therapies routinely use the change of airway responsiveness as an objective outcome. The aim of this study was to assess the relationship between serial MBPT and clinical profiles in patients with asthma. Methods: A total of 323 asthma patients were included in this study...
January 17, 2018: Korean Journal of Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334490/differential-impact-of-local-and-regional-aortic-stiffness-on-left-ventricular-remodeling-a-cardiovascular-magnetic-resonance-study
#20
Thiago Quinaglia, Mourad Z Bensalah, Emilie Bollache, Nadjia Kachenoura, Gilles Soulat, Pierre Boutouyrie, Stéphane Laurent, Elie Mousseaux
BACKGROUND: Left ventricular (LV) remodeling and aortic stiffness have independent predictive value for all causes and cardiovascular mortality. Because elastic properties of the arterial wall vary along the aortic pathway, we hypothesized that local and regional aortic stiffness could differently impact on LV remodeling. METHODS AND RESULTS: Regional aortic stiffness was determined from carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (cfPWV) measured by aplanation tonometry...
January 13, 2018: Journal of Hypertension
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