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tissue and organ homologues

Kazunori Yamada, Masahiko Zuka, Kiyoaki Ito, Keishi Mizuguchi, Yasushi Kakuchi, Tamehito Onoe, Yasunori Suzuki, Masakazu Yamagishi, Shozo Izui, Marie Malissen, Bernard Malissen, Mitsuhiro Kawano
BACKGROUND: The adaptor protein Linker for activation of T cell (LAT) is a key signaling hub used by the T cell antigen receptor. Mutant mice expressing loss-of-function mutations affecting LAT and including a mutation in which tyrosine 136 is replaced by a phenylalanine (LatY136F) develop lymphoproliferative disorder involving T helper type 2 effector cells capable of triggering a massive polyclonal B cell activation that leads to hypergammaglobulinemia G1 and E and to non-resolving inflammation and autoimmunity...
2018: PloS One
Tanara V Peres, Leticia P Arantes, Mahfuzur R Miah, Julia Bornhorst, Tanja Schwerdtle, Aaron B Bowman, Rodrigo B Leal, Michael Aschner
Excessive levels of the essential metal manganese (Mn) may cause a syndrome similar to Parkinson's disease. The model organism Caenorhabditis elegans mimics some of Mn effects in mammals, including dopaminergic neurodegeneration, oxidative stress, and increased levels of AKT. The evolutionarily conserved insulin/insulin-like growth factor-1 signaling pathway (IIS) modulates worm longevity, metabolism, and antioxidant responses by antagonizing the transcription factors DAF-16/FOXO and SKN-1/Nrf-2. AKT-1, AKT-2, and SGK-1 act upstream of these transcription factors...
June 7, 2018: Neurotoxicity Research
Ling Jiang, Donghao Li, Lu Jin, Ying Ruan, Wen-Hui Shen, Chunlin Liu
Although increasing experimental evidence demonstrates that histone methylations play important roles in Arabidopsis plant growth and development, little information is available regarding Brassica napus. In this study, we characterized two genes encoding homologues of the Arabidopsis histone 3 lysine 36 (H3K36) methyltransferase SDG8, namely, BnaSDG8.A and BnaSDG8.C. Although no duplication of SDG8 homologous genes had been previously reported to occur during the evolution of any sequenced species, a domain-duplication was uncovered in BnaSDG8...
May 24, 2018: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
Fu Guo, Haidao Zhang, Wu Liu, Xingming Hu, Ning Han, Qian Qian, Lin Xu, Hongwu Bian
Callus formation in tissue culture follows the rooting pathway and newly formed callus seems to be a group of root primordium-like cells. However, it is not clear whether there are multiple mechanisms of callus initiation in different species and in different organs. Here we show that the OsIAA11-mediated pathway is specifically and strictly required for callus initiation in the lateral root (LR) formation region of the primary root (PR) but not for callus initiation at the root tip or the stem base in rice...
May 16, 2018: Plant & Cell Physiology
Yanyan Lu, Won Gi Yoo, Fuhong Dai, Ji-Yun Lee, Jhang Ho Pak, Woon-Mok Sohn, Sung-Jong Hong
Clonorchis sinensis is a liver fluke that can dwell in the bile ducts of mammals. Bile acid transporters function to maintain the homeostasis of bile acids in C. sinensis, as they induce physiological changes or have harmful effects on C. sinensis survival. The organic solute transporter (OST) transports mainly bile acid and belongs to the SLC51 subfamily of solute carrier transporters. OST plays a critical role in the recirculation of bile acids in higher animals. In this study, we cloned full-length cDNA of the 480- amino acid OST from C...
April 27, 2018: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Yali Shi, Robin Vestergren, Therese Haugdahl Nost, Zhen Zhou, Yaqi Cai
Understanding the bioaccumulation mechanisms of per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) across different chain-lengths, isomers and functional groups represents a monumental scientific challenge with implications for chemical regulation. Here, we investigate how the differential tissue distribution and bioaccumulation behavior of 25 PFASs in crucian carp from two field sites impacted by point sources can provide information about the processes governing uptake, distribution and elimination of PFASs. Median tissue/blood ratios (TBRs) were consistently <1 for all PFASs and tissues except bile which displayed a distinct distribution pattern and enrichment of several perfluoroalkyl sulfonic acids...
April 17, 2018: Environmental Science & Technology
Marta Martins, Ana Silva, Maria H Costa, Célia Miguel, Pedro M Costa
Addressing the risk of mixed carcinogens in vivo under environmentally-realistic scenarios is still a challenge. Searching for adequate biomarkers of exposure requires understanding molecular pathways and their connection with neoplasia-related benchmark pathologies. Subjecting the zebrafish model to realistic concentrations of two genotoxicants and carcinogens, cadmium and benzo[a]pyrene, isolated and combined, yielded low levels of DNA damage. Altogether, the organisms' mechanisms of DNA repair, oxidative stress and phases I and II were not overwhelmed after two weeks of treatment...
February 26, 2018: Scientific Reports
Huan Ye, Huamei Yue, Xiaoge Yang, Chuangju Li, Qiwei Wei
In many organisms, germ cells are specified during embryogenesis by the inheritance of maternally deposited RNAs and proteins termed germ plasm. In vertebrates, the bucky ball (buc) gene plays an essential role in the germ plasm aggregation. In this study, the full-length cDNA of buc homologue in Dabry's sturgeon, Adbuc, was isolated and characterized. Multiple sequence alignments showed that the BUVE domain of Buc was highly conserved in vertebrates, despite exhibiting low identities with each other across the whole protein...
June 2018: Gene Expression Patterns: GEP
Jun Zhang, Zanchao Liu, Yuanyuan Pei, Wen Yang, Chicu Xie, Shiqi Long
Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is a crucial regulator to support synaptic plasticity and neuronal survival, its significant decrease is a pathophysiological hallmark in Alzheimer's disease (AD) brains and accounts for poor prognosis. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) interfere with the translation of target mRNAs and control a variety of physiological and pathological processes. MiR-322 is the rodent homologue of human miR-424, it is involved in the modulation of cell differentiation, proliferation, apoptosis and metabolic activities in diverse tissues and organs...
March 2018: Neurochemical Research
Aldo Nicosia, Carmelo Bennici, Girolama Biondo, Salvatore Costa, Marilena Di Natale, Tiziana Masullo, Calogera Monastero, Maria Antonietta Ragusa, Marcello Tagliavia, Angela Cuttitta
Gene family encoding translationally controlled tumour protein (TCTP) is defined as highly conserved among organisms; however, there is limited knowledge of non-bilateria. In this study, the first TCTP homologue from anthozoan was characterised in the Mediterranean Sea anemone, Anemonia viridis . The release of the genome sequence of Acropora digitifera , Exaiptasia pallida , Nematostella vectensis and Hydra vulgaris enabled a comprehensive study of the molecular evolution of TCTP family among cnidarians. A comparison among TCTP members from Cnidaria and Bilateria showed conserved intron exon organization, evolutionary conserved TCTP signatures and 3D protein structure...
January 11, 2018: Genes
Hyukjae Kwon, Hyerim Yang, Seongdo Lee, Jehanathan Nilojan, S D N K Bathige, Bo-Hye Nam, Qiang Wan, Jehee Lee
Kazal-type serine protease inhibitors (KSPIs) play important roles in the regulation of endogenous proteases, cell development, blood coagulation, and immune response. In this study, we identified and characterized a KSPI homologue (SsKSPI) in black rockfish, Sebastes schlegelii. The full-length cDNA sequence of SsKSPI was 532 base pairs (bp), including an open reading frame (ORF) of 330 bp, which encodes a polypeptide of 110 amino acids with a signal peptide of 21 amino acids. The greatest value for identity (42...
March 2018: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
Sandybell Anorga, Jessica M Overstreet, Lucas L Falke, Jiaqi Tang, Roel G Goldschmeding, Paul J Higgins, Rohan Samarakoon
Although yes-associated protein (YAP) and transcriptional coactivator with PDZ-binding motif (TAZ), nuclear transducers of the Hippo pathway, are mostly silent in adult organs, aberrant activation of YAP/TAZ promotes tumorigenesis and abnormal tissue repair. The extent of involvement of TAZ in chronic kidney disease (CKD) is unknown. In our study, increased TAZ nuclear accumulation and expression in the tubulointerstitium was readily evident in 3 models of renal injury including obstructive, aristolochic acid (AA), and diabetic nephropathy, correlating with fibrosis progression...
May 2018: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
Flávia Rezende, Franziska Moll, Maria Walter, Valeska Helfinger, Fabian Hahner, Patrick Janetzko, Christian Ringel, Andreas Weigert, Ingrid Fleming, Norbert Weissmann, Carsten Kuenne, Mario Looso, Michael A Rieger, Peter Nawroth, Thomas Fleming, Ralf P Brandes, Katrin Schröder
AIM: NADPH oxidases are important sources of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Several Nox homologues are present together in the vascular system but whether they exhibit crosstalk at the activity level is unknown. To address this, vessel function of knockout mice for the cytosolic Nox organizer proteins p47phox, NoxO1 and a p47phox-NoxO1-double knockout were studied under normal condition and during streptozotocin-induced diabetes. RESULTS: In the mouse aorta, mRNA expression for NoxO1 was predominant in smooth muscle and endothelial cells, whereas p47phox was markedly expressed in adventitial cells comprising leukocytes and tissue resident macrophages...
May 2018: Redox Biology
Kirstine Lavrsen, Sally Dabelsteen, Sergey Y Vakhrushev, Asha M R Levann, Amalie Dahl Haue, August Dylander, Ulla Mandel, Lars Hansen, Morten Frödin, Eric P Bennett, Hans H Wandall
Aberrant expression of O -glycans is a hallmark of epithelial cancers. Mucin-type O- glycosylation is initiated by a large family of UDP-GalNAc:polypeptide N -acetylgalactosaminyltransferases (GalNAc-Ts) that target different proteins and are differentially expressed in cells and organs. Here, we investigated the expression patterns of all of the GalNAc-Ts in colon cancer by analyzing transcriptomic data. We found that GalNAc-T6 was highly up-regulated in colon adenocarcinomas but absent in normal-appearing adjacent colon tissue...
January 26, 2018: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Janet Velázquez, Jannel Acosta, Naylin Herrera, Antonio Morales, Osmany González, Fidel Herrera, Mario Pablo Estrada, Yamila Carpio
Interferon gamma (IFN-γ) has important roles in both innate and adaptive immune responses. This cytokine plays a very important role in defining Th1 immune response in all vertebrates. In the present study, we identified and isolated for the first time the gene coding for Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) IFNγ from spleen lymphocytes. The isolated tilapia IFNγ has between 24 and 62% of amino acid identity as compared to reported sequences for other teleost fishes. It has close phylogenetic relationships with IFNγ molecules belonging to the group of Perciforms and presents the typical structural characteristics of gamma interferon molecules...
October 7, 2017: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
S O Fetissov, Romain Legrand, Nicolas Lucas
Background Specific peptide molecules classified as hormones, neuropeptides and cytokines are involved in intercellular signaling regulating various physiological processes in all organs and tissues. This justifies the peptidergic signaling as an attractive pharmacological target. Recently, a protein mimetic of a peptide hormone has been identified in Escherichia coli suggesting the potential use of specific bacterial proteins as a new type of peptide-like drugs. Objective This paper describes the scientific rational and the technological approach leading to the identification of the E...
October 5, 2017: Current Medicinal Chemistry
Hengchuan Xia, Dandan Shao, Xiaoyong Liu, Qiang Wang, Yang Zhou, Keping Chen
Vps20-associated 1 (Vta1) positively regulates Vacuolar protein sorting 4 (Vps4) to disassemble endosomal sorting complex required for transport III (ESCRT-III) for repeated uses in multivesicular body (MVB) pathway, virus budding and other processes. Currently, these proteins have mainly been studied in yeast and mammalian cells, while identities of them in insects remain largely unknown. We previously identified BmVps4, a Vps4 homologue from Bombyx mori. Here, we report the identification of a homologue for Vta1, designated as BmVta1...
May 1, 2017: Journal of Insect Science
Samuel K Barnes, Yvonne A Eiby, Soohyun Lee, Barbara E Lingwood, Paul A Dawson
Sulfate is an obligate nutrient for fetal growth and development. In mice, the renal Slc13a1 sulfate transporter maintains high maternal circulating levels of sulfate in pregnancy, and the placental Slc13a4 sulfate transporter mediates sulfate supply to the fetus. Both of these genes have been linked to severe embryonal defects and fetal loss in mice. However, the clinical significance of SLC13A1 and SLC13A4 in human gestation is unknown. One approach towards understanding the potential involvement of these genes in human fetal pathologies is to use an animal model, such as the pig, which mimics the developmental trajectory of the human fetus more closely than the previously studied mouse models...
July 2017: Biochemistry and Biophysics Reports
Laura Carrel, Carolyn J Brown
A tribute to Mary Lyon was held in October 2016. Many remarked about Lyon's foresight regarding many intricacies of the X-chromosome inactivation process. One such example is that a year after her original 1961 hypothesis she proposed that genes with Y homologues should escape from X inactivation to achieve dosage compensation between males and females. Fifty-five years later we have learned many details about these escapees that we attempt to summarize in this review, with a particular focus on recent findings...
November 5, 2017: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
A L Zygulska, K Krzemieniecki, P Pierzchalski
The Hippo pathway is the major regulator of organ growth and proliferation. Described initially in Drosophila, it is now recognized as one of the most conserved molecular pathways in all metazoan. Recent studies have revealed the Hippo signalling pathway might contribute to tumorigenesis and cancer development. The core components of the Hippo pathway include the mammalian sterile 20-like kinases (MSTs), large tumour suppressor kinases (LATSs), the adaptor proteins Salvador homologue 1 (SAV1, also called WW45) and Mps One Binder kinase activator proteins...
June 2017: Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology: An Official Journal of the Polish Physiological Society
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