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tissue and organ homologues

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28254500/molecular-characterization-and-expression-analysis-during-embryo-development-of-cd4-1-homologue-in-large-yellow-croaker-larimichthys-crocea
#1
Kaiqiong Mao, Wei Chen, Yinnan Mu, Jingqun Ao, Xinhua Chen
CD4(+) helper T (Th) cells are a master component of the adaptive immune response. CD4 is one of the most effective surface markers for identifying Th cells. In the present study, we cloned and characterized a CD4-1 homologue, LycCD4-1, from large yellow croaker Larimichthys crocea. The full-length cDNA of LycCD4-1 is 1695 bp long, encoding a protein of 462 amino acids. The deduced LycCD4-1 protein has a typical domain architecture as found in mammalian CD4 molecules, including a signal peptide, four extracellular immunoglobulin-like (Ig-like) domains, a transmembrane region, and a CXC signaling motif in the cytoplasmic tail...
February 27, 2017: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28231393/effects-of-tissue-culture-and-mycorrhiza-applications-in-organic-farming-on-concentrations-of-phytochemicals-and-antioxidant-capacities-in-ginger-zingiber-officinale-roscoe-rhizomes-and-leaves
#2
Byungrok R Min, Lurline E Marsh, Keegan Brathwaite, Adebola O Daramola
Tissue culture and mycorrhiza applications can provide disease-free seedlings and enhanced nutrient absorption, respectively, for organic farming. Ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) is rich in phytochemicals and has various health-protective potentials. This study was aimed at determining effects of tissue culture and mycorrhiza applications alone or in combinations in organic farming on phytochemical contents (total phenolics and flavonoids [TP and TF, respectively], gingerol and shogaol homologues, phenolic acids, and carotenoids) and antioxidant capacities (DPPH [2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl] radical scavenging, oxygen radical absorbance (ORAC), and iron-chelating capacities [ICC]) in solvent-extractable (Free) and cell-wall-matrix-bound (Bound) fractions of ginger rhizome and Free fraction of the leaves in comparison with non-organics...
February 23, 2017: Journal of Food Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28210849/developmental-changes-in-notch1-and-nle1-expression-in-a-genetic-model-of-absence-epilepsy
#3
Fariba Karimzadeh, Sayed Mostafa Modarres Mousavi, Fatemeh Alipour, Hassan Hosseini Ravandi, Stjepana Kovac, Ali Gorji
Childhood absence epilepsy (CAE) is an epilepsy syndrome with seizures occurring in the early childhood, highlighting that seizures susceptibility in CAE is dependent on brain development. The Notch 1 signalling pathway is important in brain development, yet the role of the Notch1 signalling pathway in CAE remains elusive. We here explored Notch1 and its modulator notchless homologue 1 (NLE1) expression in WAG/Rij and control rats using immunohistochemistry. Functional Notch 1 effects were assessed in WAG/Rij rats in vivo...
February 16, 2017: Brain Structure & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28201995/zoonotic-necrotizing-myositis-caused-by-streptococcus-equi-subsp-zooepidemicus-in-a-farmer
#4
Bård Reiakvam Kittang, Veronika Kuchařová Pettersen, Oddvar Oppegaard, Dag Harald Skutlaberg, Håvard Dale, Harald G Wiker, Steinar Skrede
BACKGROUND: Streptococcus equi subsp. zooepidemicus is a beta-hemolytic group C streptococcus mainly causing infections in domesticated animals. Here we describe the first case of zoonotic necrotizing myositis caused by this bacterium. CASE PRESENTATION: The patient was a 73-year-old, previously healthy farmer with two asymptomatic Shetland ponies in his stable. After close contact with the ponies while feeding them, he rapidly developed erythema of his left thigh and sepsis with multiple organ failure...
February 15, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28188746/context-dependent-epigenetic-regulation-of-nuclear-factor-of-activated-t-cells-1-in-pancreatic-plasticity
#5
Nai-Ming Chen, Albrecht Neesse, Moritz Lino Dyck, Benjamin Steuber, Alexander O Koenig, Clara Lubeseder-Martellato, Thore Winter, Teresa Forster, Hanibal Bohnenberger, Julia Kitz, Kirsten-Reuter Jessen, Heidi Griesmann, Jochen Gaedcke, Marian Grade, Jin-San Zhang, Wan-Chi Tsai, Jens Siveke, Hans-Ulrich Schildhaus, Philipp Ströbel, Steven A Johnsen, Volker Ellenrieder, Elisabeth Hessmann
BACKGROUND & AIMS: The ability of exocrine pancreatic cells to change the cellular phenotype is required for tissue regeneration upon injury but also contributes to their malignant transformation and tumor progression. We investigated context-dependent signaling and transcription mechanisms that determine pancreatic cell fate decisions toward regeneration and malignancy. In particular, we studied the function and regulation of the inflammatory transcription factor nuclear factor of activated T cells 1 (NFATC1) in pancreatic cell plasticity and tissue adaptation...
February 7, 2017: Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28174623/expression-patterns-of-passiflora-edulis-apetala1-fruitfull-homologues-shed-light-onto-tendril-and-corona-identities
#6
Livia C T Scorza, Jose Hernandes-Lopes, Gladys F A Melo-de-Pinna, Marcelo C Dornelas
BACKGROUND: Passiflora (passionflowers) makes an excellent model for studying plant evolutionary development. They are mostly perennial climbers that display axillary tendrils, which are believed to be modifications of the inflorescence. Passionflowers are also recognized by their unique flower features, such as the extra whorls of floral organs composed of corona filaments and membranes enclosing the nectary. Although some work on Passiflora organ ontogeny has been done, the developmental identity of both Passiflora tendrils and the corona is still controversial...
2017: EvoDevo
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28124980/evolutionary-conservation-of-pou5f3-genomic-organization-and-its-dynamic-distribution-during-embryogenesis-and-in-adult-gonads-in-japanese-flounder-paralichthys-olivaceus
#7
Jinning Gao, Xubo Wang, Quanqi Zhang
Octamer-binding transcription factor 4 (Oct4) is a member of POU (Pit-Oct-Unc) transcription factor family Class V that plays a crucial role in maintaining the pluripotency and self-renewal of stem cells. Though it has been deeply investigated in mammals, its lower vertebrate homologue, especially in the marine fish, is poorly studied. In this study, we isolated the full-length sequence of Paralichthys olivaceus pou5f3 (Popou5f3), and we found that it is homologous to mammalian Oct4. We identified two transcript variants with different lengths of 3'-untranslated regions (UTRs) generated by alternative polyadenylation (APA)...
January 23, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095410/cardiomyocyte-regulation-of-systemic-lipid-metabolism-by-the-apolipoprotein-b-containing-lipoproteins-in-drosophila
#8
Sunji Lee, Hong Bao, Zachary Ishikawa, Weidong Wang, Hui-Ying Lim
The heart has emerged as an important organ in the regulation of systemic lipid homeostasis; however, the underlying mechanism remains poorly understood. Here, we show that Drosophila cardiomyocytes regulate systemic lipid metabolism by producing apolipoprotein B-containing lipoproteins (apoB-lipoproteins), essential lipid carriers that are so far known to be generated only in the fat body. In a Drosophila genetic screen, we discovered that when haplo-insufficient, microsomal triglyceride transfer protein (mtp), required for the biosynthesis of apoB-lipoproteins, suppressed the development of diet-induced obesity...
January 2017: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077262/virus-innexins-induce-alterations-in-insect-cell-and-tissue-function
#9
Daniel K Hasegawa, Stephanie L Erickson, Bradley M Hersh, Matthew W Turnbull
Polydnaviruses are dsDNA viruses that induce immune and developmental alterations in their caterpillar hosts. Characterization of polydnavirus gene families and family members is necessary to understand mechanisms of pathology and evolution of these viruses, and may aid to elucidate the role of host homologues if present. For example, the polydnavirus vinnexin gene family encodes homologues of insect gap junction genes (innexins) that are expressed in host immune cells (hemocytes). While the roles of Innexin proteins and gap junctions in insect immunity are largely unclear, we previously demonstrated that Vinnexins form functional gap junctions and alter the junctional characteristics of a host Innexin when co-expressed in paired Xenopus oocytes...
January 7, 2017: Journal of Insect Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27966893/enhancing-pet-signal-at-target-tissue-in-vivo-dendritic-and-multimeric-tris-hydroxypyridinone-conjugates-for-molecular-imaging-of-%C3%AE-v%C3%AE-3-integrin-expression-with-gallium-68
#10
Cinzia Imberti, Samantha Y A Terry, Carleen Cullinane, Fiona Clarke, Georgina H Cornish, Nisha K Ramakrishnan, Peter Roselt, Andrew P Cope, Rodney J Hicks, Philip J Blower, Michelle T Ma
Tris(hydroxypyridinone) chelators conjugated to peptides can rapidly complex the positron-emitting isotope gallium-68 ((68)Ga) under mild conditions, and the resulting radiotracers can delineate peptide receptor expression at sites of diseased tissue in vivo. We have synthesized a dendritic bifunctional chelator containing nine 1,6-dimethyl-3-hydroxypyridin-4-one groups (SCN-HP9) that can coordinate up to three Ga(3+) ions. This derivative has been conjugated to a trimeric peptide (RGD3) containing three peptide groups that target the αvβ3 integrin receptor...
February 15, 2017: Bioconjugate Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27927697/absence-of-11-keto-reduction-of-cortisone-and-11-ketotestosterone-in-the-model-organism-zebrafish
#11
Maria Tsachaki, Arne Meyer, Benjamin Weger, Denise V Kratschmar, Janina Tokarz, Jerzy Adamski, Heinz-Georg Belting, Markus Affolter, Thomas Dickmeis, Alex Odermatt
Zebrafish are widely used as model organism. Their suitability for endocrine studies, drug screening and toxicity assessements depends on the extent of conservation of specific genes and biochemical pathways between zebrafish and human. Glucocorticoids consist of inactive 11-keto (cortisone, 11-dehydrocorticosterone) and active 11β-hydroxyl forms (cortisol, corticosterone). In mammals, two 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenases (11β-HSD1, 11β-HSD2) interconvert active and inactive glucocorticoids, allowing tissue-specific regulation of glucocorticoid action...
December 7, 2016: Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914912/identification-of-foxj1-effectors-during-ciliogenesis-in-the-foetal-respiratory-epithelium-and-embryonic-left-right-organiser-of-the-mouse
#12
Michael Stauber, Marina Weidemann, Oliver Dittrich-Breiholz, Katharina Lobschat, Leonie Alten, Michaela Mai, Anja Beckers, Michael Kracht, Achim Gossler
Formation of motile cilia in vertebrate embryos is essential for proper development and tissue function. Key regulators of motile ciliogenesis are the transcription factors FOXJ1 and NOTO, which are conserved throughout vertebrates. Downstream target genes of FOXJ1 have been identified in a variety of species, organs and cultured cell lines; in murine embryonic and foetal tissues, however, FOXJ1 and NOTO effectors have not been comprehensively analysed and our knowledge of the downstream genetic programme driving motile ciliogenesis in the mammalian lung and ventral node is fragmentary...
December 1, 2016: Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27771218/structure-supramolecular-organization-and-phase-behavior-of-n-acyl-%C3%AE-alanines-structural-homologues-of-mammalian-brain-constituents-n-acylglycine-and-n-acyl-gaba
#13
D Sivaramakrishna, Musti J Swamy
N-Acyl-β-alanines (NABAs) are structural homologues of N-acylglycines (NAGs) and N-acyl-γ-aminobutyric acids (NAGABAs), and achiral isomers of N-acylalanines, which are all present in mammalian brain and other tissues and modulate activity of biological receptors with various functions. In the present study, we synthesized and characterized a homologous series of NABAs bearing saturated acyl chains (n=8-20) and investigated their supramolecular organization and thermotropic phase behavior. In differential scanning calorimetric (DSC) studies, most of the NABAs gave one or two minor transitions before the main chain-melting phase transition in the dry state as well as upon hydration with water, but gave only a single transition when hydrated with buffer (pH7...
October 19, 2016: Chemistry and Physics of Lipids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27751905/the-conserved-regulation-of-mitochondrial-uncoupling-proteins-from-unicellular-eukaryotes-to-mammals
#14
REVIEW
Andrzej M Woyda-Ploszczyca, Wieslawa Jarmuszkiewicz
Uncoupling proteins (UCPs) belong to the mitochondrial anion carrier protein family and mediate regulated proton leak across the inner mitochondrial membrane. Free fatty acids, aldehydes such as hydroxynonenal, and retinoids activate UCPs. However, there are some controversies about the effective action of retinoids and aldehydes alone; thus, only free fatty acids are commonly accepted positive effectors of UCPs. Purine nucleotides such as GTP inhibit UCP-mediated mitochondrial proton leak. In turn, membranous coenzyme Q may play a role as a redox state-dependent metabolic sensor that modulates the complete activation/inhibition of UCPs...
January 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27687550/a-to-i-rna-editing-of-the-igfbp7-transcript-increases-during-aging-in-porcine-brain-tissues
#15
Knud Larsen, Kaja Kjær Kristensen, Jamal Momeni, Leila Farajzadeh, Christian Bendixen
The IGFBP7 gene encodes insulin-like growth factor protein 7. IGFPB7 is involved in diverse biological functions including cell growth regulation, senescence and apoptosis, and also acts as a tumor suppressor in multiple cancers. The IGFBP7 mRNA is subject to A-to-I RNA editing mediated by adenosine deaminases acting on RNA 1 and 2 (ADAR1 and ADAR2). In the current study we have examined molecular characteristics of the porcine IGFBP7 gene, and determined the mRNA editing in different tissues. The A-to-I RNA editing of human IGFBP7 in positions Arg78 and Lys95 was shown to be conserved in the porcine homologue...
October 21, 2016: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27574892/crosstalk-of-clock-gene-expression-and-autophagy-in-aging
#16
Faiza Kalfalah, Linda Janke, Alfonso Schiavi, Julia Tigges, Alexander Ix, Natascia Ventura, Fritz Boege, Hans Reinke
Autophagy and the circadian clock counteract tissue degeneration and support longevity in many organisms. Accumulating evidence indicates that aging compromises both the circadian clock and autophagy but the mechanisms involved are unknown. Here we show that the expression levels of transcriptional repressor components of the circadian oscillator, most prominently the human Period homologue PER2, are strongly reduced in primary dermal fibroblasts from aged humans, while raising the expression of PER2 in the same cells partially restores diminished autophagy levels...
August 28, 2016: Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27558892/a-mir-231-regulated-protection-mechanism-against-the-toxicity-of-graphene-oxide-in-nematode-caenorhabditis-elegans
#17
Ruilong Yang, Mingxia Ren, Qi Rui, Dayong Wang
Recently, several dysregulated microRNAs (miRNAs) have been identified in organisms exposed to graphene oxide (GO). However, their biological functions and mechanisms of the action are still largely unknown. Here, we investigated the molecular mechanism of mir-231 in the regulation of GO toxicity using in vivo assay system of Caenorhabditis elegans. We found that GO exposure inhibited the expression of mir-231::GFP in multiple tissues, in particular in the intestine. mir-231 acted in intestine to regulate the GO toxicity, and overexpression of mir-231 in intestine caused a susceptible property of nematodes to GO toxicity...
2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27506975/global-or-granulosa-cell-specific-pten-mutations-in-combination-with-elevated-fsh-levels-fail-to-cause-ovarian-tumours-in-mice
#18
Dannielle H Upton, Kirsty A Walters, Rachel E Allavena, Mark Jimenez, Reena Desai, David J Handelsman, Charles M Allan
Phosphatase and tensin homologue (PTEN) is a known tumour suppressor. To explore the role of Pten in ovarian tumorigenesis, we used transgenic (Tg) SOX2. Cre and AMH. Cre mouse models to direct global Pten haploinsufficiency (Pten (+/-)) or ovary-specific granulosa cell (GC) Pten disruption (Pten (GC) ). Pten mutant models were combined with progressively rising Tg-follicle-stimulating hormone (TgFSH) levels to study the tumorigenic potential of combined genetic/endocrine modification in vivo. Global Pten (+/-) mice exhibited grossly detectable tumours in multiple organs including uterine and mammary tissue and displayed reduced survival...
August 9, 2016: Hormones & Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27213330/legume-nadph-oxidases-have-crucial-roles-at-different-stages-of-nodulation
#19
REVIEW
Jesús Montiel, Manoj-Kumar Arthikala, Luis Cárdenas, Carmen Quinto
Plant NADPH oxidases, formerly known as respiratory burst oxidase homologues (RBOHs), are plasma membrane enzymes dedicated to reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. These oxidases are implicated in a wide variety of processes, ranging from tissue and organ growth and development to signaling pathways in response to abiotic and biotic stimuli. Research on the roles of RBOHs in the plant's response to biotic stresses has mainly focused on plant-pathogen interactions; nonetheless, recent findings have shown that these oxidases are also involved in the legume-rhizobia symbiosis...
May 18, 2016: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27208298/the-small-molecule-hyperphyllin-enhances-leaf-formation-rate-and-mimics-shoot-meristem-integrity-defects-associated-with-amp1-deficiency
#20
Olena Poretska, Saiqi Yang, Delphine Pitorre, Wilfried Rozhon, Karin Zwerger, Marcos Castellanos Uribe, Sean May, Peter McCourt, Brigitte Poppenberger, Tobias Sieberer
ALTERED MERISTEM PROGRAM1 (AMP1) is a member of the M28 family of carboxypeptidases with a pivotal role in plant development and stress adaptation. Its most prominent mutant defect is a unique hypertrophic shoot phenotype combining a strongly increased organ formation rate with enhanced meristem size and the formation of ectopic meristem poles. However, so far the role of AMP1 in shoot development could not be assigned to a specific molecular pathway nor is its biochemical function resolved. In this work we evaluated the level of functional conservation between AMP1 and its human homolog HsGCPII, a tumor marker of medical interest...
June 2016: Plant Physiology
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