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tissue and organ homologues

D Sivaramakrishna, Musti J Swamy
N-Acyl-β-alanines (NABAs) are structural homologues of N-acylglycines (NAGs) and N-acyl-γ-aminobutyric acids (NAGABAs), and achiral isomers of N-acylalanines, which are all present in mammalian brain and other tissues and modulate activity of biological receptors with various functions. In the present study, we synthesized and characterized a homologous series of NABAs bearing saturated acyl chains (n=8-20) and investigated their supramolecular organization and thermotropic phase behavior. In differential scanning calorimetric (DSC) studies, most of the NABAs gave one or two minor transitions before the main chain-melting phase transition in the dry state as well as upon hydration with water, but gave only a single transition when hydrated with buffer (pH7...
October 19, 2016: Chemistry and Physics of Lipids
Andrzej M Woyda-Ploszczyca, Wieslawa Jarmuszkiewicz
Uncoupling proteins (UCPs) belong to the mitochondrial anion carrier protein family and mediate regulated proton leak across the inner mitochondrial membrane. Free fatty acids, aldehydes such as hydroxynonenal, and retinoids activate UCPs. However, there are some controversies about the effective action of retinoids and aldehydes alone; thus, only free fatty acids are commonly accepted positive effectors of UCPs. Conversely, purine nucleotides such as GTP inhibit UCP-mediated mitochondrial proton leak. In turn, membranous coenzyme Q may play a role as a redox state-dependent metabolic sensor that modulates the complete activation/inhibition of UCPs...
October 14, 2016: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
Knud Larsen, Kaja Kjær Kristensen, Jamal Momeni, Leila Farajzadeh, Christian Bendixen
The IGFBP7 gene encodes insulin-like growth factor protein 7. IGFPB7 is involved in diverse biological functions including cell growth regulation, senescence and apoptosis, and also acts as a tumor suppressor in multiple cancers. The IGFBP7 mRNA is subject to A-to-I RNA editing mediated by adenosine deaminases acting on RNA 1 and 2 (ADAR1 and ADAR2). In the current study we have examined molecular characteristics of the porcine IGFBP7 gene, and determined the mRNA editing in different tissues. The A-to-I RNA editing of human IGFBP7 in positions Arg78 and Lys95 was shown to be conserved in the porcine homologue...
October 21, 2016: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
Faiza Kalfalah, Linda Janke, Alfonso Schiavi, Julia Tigges, Alexander Ix, Natascia Ventura, Fritz Boege, Hans Reinke
Autophagy and the circadian clock counteract tissue degeneration and support longevity in many organisms. Accumulating evidence indicates that aging compromises both the circadian clock and autophagy but the mechanisms involved are unknown. Here we show that the expression levels of transcriptional repressor components of the circadian oscillator, most prominently the human Period homologue PER2, are strongly reduced in primary dermal fibroblasts from aged humans, while raising the expression of PER2 in the same cells partially restores diminished autophagy levels...
August 28, 2016: Aging
Ruilong Yang, Mingxia Ren, Qi Rui, Dayong Wang
Recently, several dysregulated microRNAs (miRNAs) have been identified in organisms exposed to graphene oxide (GO). However, their biological functions and mechanisms of the action are still largely unknown. Here, we investigated the molecular mechanism of mir-231 in the regulation of GO toxicity using in vivo assay system of Caenorhabditis elegans. We found that GO exposure inhibited the expression of mir-231::GFP in multiple tissues, in particular in the intestine. mir-231 acted in intestine to regulate the GO toxicity, and overexpression of mir-231 in intestine caused a susceptible property of nematodes to GO toxicity...
2016: Scientific Reports
Dannielle H Upton, Kirsty A Walters, Rachel E Allavena, Mark Jimenez, Reena Desai, David J Handelsman, Charles M Allan
Phosphatase and tensin homologue (PTEN) is a known tumour suppressor. To explore the role of Pten in ovarian tumorigenesis, we used transgenic (Tg) SOX2. Cre and AMH. Cre mouse models to direct global Pten haploinsufficiency (Pten (+/-)) or ovary-specific granulosa cell (GC) Pten disruption (Pten (GC) ). Pten mutant models were combined with progressively rising Tg-follicle-stimulating hormone (TgFSH) levels to study the tumorigenic potential of combined genetic/endocrine modification in vivo. Global Pten (+/-) mice exhibited grossly detectable tumours in multiple organs including uterine and mammary tissue and displayed reduced survival...
August 9, 2016: Hormones & Cancer
Jesús Montiel, Manoj-Kumar Arthikala, Luis Cárdenas, Carmen Quinto
Plant NADPH oxidases, formerly known as respiratory burst oxidase homologues (RBOHs), are plasma membrane enzymes dedicated to reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. These oxidases are implicated in a wide variety of processes, ranging from tissue and organ growth and development to signaling pathways in response to abiotic and biotic stimuli. Research on the roles of RBOHs in the plant's response to biotic stresses has mainly focused on plant-pathogen interactions; nonetheless, recent findings have shown that these oxidases are also involved in the legume-rhizobia symbiosis...
2016: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Olena Poretska, Saiqi Yang, Delphine Pitorre, Wilfried Rozhon, Karin Zwerger, Marcos Castellanos Uribe, Sean May, Peter McCourt, Brigitte Poppenberger, Tobias Sieberer
ALTERED MERISTEM PROGRAM1 (AMP1) is a member of the M28 family of carboxypeptidases with a pivotal role in plant development and stress adaptation. Its most prominent mutant defect is a unique hypertrophic shoot phenotype combining a strongly increased organ formation rate with enhanced meristem size and the formation of ectopic meristem poles. However, so far the role of AMP1 in shoot development could not be assigned to a specific molecular pathway nor is its biochemical function resolved. In this work we evaluated the level of functional conservation between AMP1 and its human homolog HsGCPII, a tumor marker of medical interest...
June 2016: Plant Physiology
Hana Elicharová, Barbora Hušeková, Hana Sychrová
Yeasts usually have one or two high-affinity potassium transporters. Two complete and one interrupted gene encoding three types of putative potassium uptake system exist in Candida albicans SC5314. As high intracellular potassium is essential for many yeast cell functions, the existence of three transporters with differing transport mechanisms (Trk uniporter, Hak cation-proton symporter, Acu ATPase) may help pathogenic C. albicans cells to acquire the necessary potassium in various organs and tissues of the host...
June 2016: FEMS Yeast Research
E M Merzetti, B E Staveley
F-box proteins act as the protein recognition component of the Skp-Cul-F-box class of ubiquitin ligases. Two members of a gene sub-family encoding these proteins, FBXO7 and FBXO32, have been implicated in the onset and progression of degenerative disease. FBXO7 is responsible for rare genetic forms of Parkinson disease, while FBXO32 has been implicated in muscle wasting. The third gene in this family, FBXO9, is related to growth signaling, but the role of this gene in degenerative disease pathways has not been thoroughly investigated...
2016: Genetics and Molecular Research: GMR
Chih-Wen Chu, Olga Ossipova, Andriani Ioannou, Sergei Y Sokol
PCP proteins maintain planar polarity in many epithelial tissues and have been implicated in cilia development in vertebrate embryos. In this study we examine Prickle3 (Pk3), a vertebrate homologue of Drosophila Prickle, in Xenopus gastrocoel roof plate (GRP). GRP is a tissue equivalent to the mouse node, in which cilia-generated flow promotes left-right patterning. We show that Pk3 is enriched at the basal body of GRP cells but is recruited by Vangl2 to anterior cell borders. Interference with Pk3 function disrupted the anterior polarization of endogenous Vangl2 and the posterior localization of cilia in GRP cells, demonstrating its role in PCP...
2016: Scientific Reports
Alaide Domínguez-Calderón, Antonia Ávila-Flores, Arturo Ponce, Esther López-Bayghen, José-Víctor Calderón-Salinas, José Luis Reyes, Bibiana Chávez-Munguía, José Segovia, Carla Angulo, Leticia Ramírez, Helios Gallego-Gutiérrez, Lourdes Alarcón, Dolores Martín-Tapia, Pablo Bautista-García, Lorenza González-Mariscal
Renal compensatory hypertrophy (RCH) restores normal kidney function after disease or loss of kidney tissue and is characterized by an increase in organ size due to cell enlargement and not to cell proliferation. In MDCK renal epithelial cells, silencing of the tight junction protein zona occludens 2 (ZO-2 KD) induces cell hypertrophy by two mechanisms: prolonging the time that cells spend at the G1 phase of the cell cycle due to an increase in cyclin D1 level, and augmenting the rate of protein synthesis. The latter is triggered by the nuclear accumulation and increased transcriptional activity of Yes-associated protein (YAP), the main target of the Hippo pathway, which results in decreased expression of phosphatase and tensin homologue...
May 15, 2016: Molecular Biology of the Cell
Jeff Hardin
The classic cadherin-catenin complex (CCC) mediates cell-cell adhesion in metazoans. Although substantial insights have been gained by studying the CCC in vertebrate tissue culture, analyzing requirements for and regulation of the CCC in vertebrates remains challenging. Caenorhabditis elegans is a powerful system for connecting the molecular details of CCC function with functional requirements in a living organism. Recent data, using an "angstroms to embryos" approach, have elucidated functions for key residues, conserved across all metazoans, that mediate cadherin/β-catenin binding...
2015: F1000Research
Matthew N Baron, Christen M Klinger, Richard A Rachubinski, Andrew J Simmonds
Peroxisomes are membrane-bound organelles found in almost all eukaryotic cells. They perform specialized biochemical functions that vary with organism, tissue or cell type. Mutations in human genes required for the assembly of peroxisomes result in a spectrum of diseases called the peroxisome biogenesis disorders. A previous sequence-based comparison of the predicted proteome of Drosophila melanogaster (the fruit fly) to human proteins identified 82 potential homologues of proteins involved in peroxisomal biogenesis, homeostasis or metabolism...
May 2016: Traffic
Hai-ping Lu, Wei-qin Pang, Wen-xu Li, Yuan-yuan Tan, Qing Wang, Hai-jun Zhao, Qing-yao Shu
The OsLpa1 gene (LOC_Os57400) was identified to be involved in phytic acid (PA) metabolism because its knockout and missense mutants reduce PA content in rice grain. However, little is known about the molecular characteristics of OsLpa rice and of its homologues in other plants. In the present study, the spatial pattern of OsLpa1 expression was revealed using OsLpa1 promoter::GUS transgenic plants (GUS: β-glucuronidase); GUS histochemical assay showed that OsLpa1 was strongly expressed in stem, leaf, and root tissues, but in floral organ it is expressed mainly and strongly in filaments...
February 2016: Journal of Zhejiang University. Science. B
Knud Larsen, Jamal Momeni, Leila Farajzadeh, Christian Bendixen
The HTR2C gene encodes the 5-Hydroxytryptamine (serotonin) receptor 2C, G-protein-coupled protein which functions as a serotonin receptor. The HTR2C mRNA is subject to A-to-I RNA editing mediated by adenosine deaminases acting on RNA 1 and 2 (ADAR1 and ADAR2). In the current study we examined the molecular characteristics of the porcine HTR2C gene and determined the mRNA editing of the HTR2C transcript in different tissues. The A-to-I RNA editing of HTR2C was shown to be conserved in the porcine homologue with five nucleotides edited in exon 5...
February 2016: Biochimie
Huan Liu, Elizabeth J Leslie, Zhonglin Jia, Tiffany Smith, Mekonen Eshete, Azeez Butali, Martine Dunnwald, Jeffrey Murray, Robert A Cornell
Non-syndromic (NS) cleft lip with or without cleft palate (CL/P) is a common disorder with a strong genetic underpinning. Genome-wide association studies have detected common variants associated with this disorder, but a large portion of the genetic risk for NSCL/P is conferred by unidentified rare sequence variants. Mutations in IRF6 (Interferon Regulatory Factor 6) and GRHL3 (Grainyhead-like 3) cause Van der Woude syndrome, which includes CL/P. Both genes encode members of a regulatory network governing periderm differentiation in model organisms...
February 15, 2016: Human Molecular Genetics
Rachel Kaletsky, Vanisha Lakhina, Rachel Arey, April Williams, Jessica Landis, Jasmine Ashraf, Coleen T Murphy
Insulin/insulin-like growth factor signalling (IIS) is a critical regulator of an organism's most important biological decisions from growth, development, and metabolism to reproduction and longevity. It primarily does so through the activity of the DAF-16 transcription factor (forkhead box O (FOXO) homologue), whose global targets were identified in Caenorhabditis elegans using whole-worm transcriptional analyses more than a decade ago. IIS and FOXO also regulate important neuronal and adult behavioural phenotypes, such as the maintenance of memory and axon regeneration with age, in both mammals and C...
January 7, 2016: Nature
V Zima, K Šebková, K Šimečková, T Dvořák, V Saudek, M Kostrouchová
The prorenin receptor (ATP6AP2) is a multifunctional transmembrane protein; it is a constituent of proton-translocating V-ATPase, a non-proteolytic activator of renin and an adaptor in the Wnt/β-catenin pathway. Here, we studied vha-20, one of the two prorenin receptor homologues that are identified by sequence similarity in the C. elegans genome. We show that vha-20 (R03E1.2) is prominently expressed in the intestine, in the excretory cell and in amphid neurons, tissues critical for regulation of ion and water management...
2015: Folia Biologica (Praha)
Simone Kurz, Jonas G King, Rhoel R Dinglasan, Katharina Paschinger, Iain B H Wilson
Fucoconjugates are key mediators of protein-glycan interactions in prokaryotes and eukaryotes. As examples, N-glycans modified with the non-mammalian core α1,3-linked fucose have been detected in various organisms ranging from plants to insects and are immunogenic in mammals. The rabbit polyclonal antibody raised against plant horseradish peroxidase (anti-HRP) is able to recognize the α1,3-linked fucose epitope and is also known to specifically stain neural tissues in the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster...
January 2016: Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
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