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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29343250/evaluation-of-health-status-in-patients-with-hepatitis-c-treated-with-and-without-interferon
#1
R Ragusa, G Bertino, A Bruno, E Frazzetto, F Cicciu, G Giorgianni, L Lupo
BACKGROUND: The evolution of technology in healthcare has increased the health care's costs and, the universal healthcare systems, in developed countries, need to ensure proper allocation of resources. Thus, the major issue is assessing the effectiveness of new medical technologies. The evaluation of quality of life in response to new treatments has become a key indicator in chronic conditions for which medical interventions are evaluated not only in terms of increasing the number of expected life years but also in terms of increasing quality of life...
January 17, 2018: Health and Quality of Life Outcomes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29342871/interferons-reprogramming-the-metabolic-network-against-viral-infection
#2
REVIEW
Kavita Raniga, Chen Liang
Viruses exploit the host and induce drastic metabolic changes to ensure an optimal environment for replication and the production of viral progenies. In response, the host has developed diverse countermeasures to sense and limit these alterations to combat viral infection. One such host mechanism is through interferon signaling. Interferons are cytokines that enhances the transcription of hundreds of interferon-stimulated genes (ISGs) whose products are key players in the innate immune response to viral infection...
January 13, 2018: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341898/induction-of-alpha-synuclein-pathology-in-the-enteric-nervous-system-of-the-rat-and-non-human-primate-results-in-gastrointestinal-dysmotility-and-transient-cns-pathology
#3
Fredric P Manfredsson, Kelvin C Luk, Matthew J Benskey, Aysegul Guezer, Joanna Garcia, Nathan C Kuhn, Ivette M Sandoval, Joseph R Patterson, Alana O'Mara, Reid Yonkers, Jeffrey H Kordower
Alpha-Synuclein (α-syn) is by far the most highly vetted pathogenic and therapeutic target in Parkinson's disease. Aggregated α-syn is present in sporadic Parkinson's disease, both in the central nervous system (CNS) and peripheral nervous system (PNS). The enteric division of the PNS is of particular interest because 1) gastric dysfunction is a key clinical manifestation of Parkinson's disease, and 2) Lewy pathology in myenteric and submucosal neurons of the enteric nervous system (ENS) has been referred to as stage zero in the Braak pathological staging of Parkinson's disease...
January 13, 2018: Neurobiology of Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341496/association-of-genetic-variants-in-the-interleukin-18-gene-promoter-with-risk-of-hepatocellular-carcinoma-and-metastasis-in-patients-with-hepatitis-c-virus-infection
#4
Noha M Bakr, Ashraf Awad, Emad A Moustafa
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a primary malignancy of the liver, characterized by high vascularization and rapid tumor progression. The current case-control study aimed to analyze the influence of -607C/A and -137G/C polymorphisms in the interleukin-18 (IL-18) promoter on the risk of HCC occurrence and metastasis in Egyptian patients infected with hepatitis C virus (HCV). Both genetic variations were genotyped in 279 subjects including HCV patients with and without HCC and unrelated healthy subjects, using the allele-specific polymerase chain reaction (AS-PCR) method...
January 17, 2018: IUBMB Life
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331670/circulation-of-alphacoronavirus-betacoronavirus-and-paramyxovirus-in-hipposideros-bat-species-in-zimbabwe
#5
Mathieu Bourgarel, Davies M Pfukenyi, Vanina Boué, Loïc Talignani, Ngoni Chiweshe, Fodé Diop, Alexandre Caron, Gift Matope, Dorothée Missé, Florian Liégeois
Bats carry a great diversity of zoonotic viruses with a high-impact on human health and livestock. Since the emergence of new coronaviruses and paramyxoviruses in humans (e.g. Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus (SARS-CoV) and Nipah virus), numerous studies clearly established that bats can maintain some of these viruses. Improving our understanding on the role of bats in the epidemiology of the pathogens they harbour is necessary to prevent cross-species spill over along the wild/domestic/human gradient...
January 10, 2018: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29328990/the-amyloidogenicity-of-the-influenza-virus-pb1-derived-peptide-sheds-light-on-its-antiviral-activity
#6
Yana A Zabrodskaya, Dmitry V Lebedev, Marja A Egorova, Aram A Shaldzhyan, Alexey V Shvetsov, Alexander I Kuklin, Daria S Vinogradova, Nikolay V Klopov, Oleg V Matusevich, Taisiia A Cheremnykh, Rajeev Dattani, Vladimir V Egorov
The influenza virus polymerase complex is a promising target for new antiviral drug development. It is known that, within the influenza virus polymerase complex, the PB1 subunit region from the 1st to the 25th amino acid residues has to be is in an alpha-helical conformation for proper interaction with the PA subunit. We have previously shown that PB1(6-13) peptide at low concentrations is able to interact with the PB1 subunit N-terminal region in a peptide model which shows aggregate formation and antiviral activity in cell cultures...
January 8, 2018: Biophysical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29328881/factors-affecting-the-virological-response-among-chronic-hepatitis-c-virus-patients-in-yemen
#7
Zaid Mutahar Mohammed Alezzi, Ayman Yosry Abd El Rehim, Waleed Fouad Fathallah, Mansour Ali Alamrani, Fouad Hezam Othman
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is increasingly seen as a major public health problem, threat, and concern worldwide. In Yemen about 1.7% of the population is infected with chronic hepatitis C. This study aimed to detect the predictors for response to pegylated interferon and ribavirin (Peg-IFN/RBV) in chronic HCV Yemeni patients. The study was conducted on 100 patients with chronic HCV who received Peg-IFN/RBV in the 48th Military Hospital in Sana'a Yemen, from 2011 to 2013. All patients were subjected to complete history taking, thorough clinical examinations, routine laboratory investigation, and abdominal ultrasonography...
January 2018: Journal of Interferon & Cytokine Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29304344/endogenous-reprogramming-of-alpha-cells-into-beta-cells-induced-by-viral-gene-therapy-reverses-autoimmune-diabetes
#8
Xiangwei Xiao, Ping Guo, Chiyo Shiota, Ting Zhang, Gina M Coudriet, Shane Fischbach, Krishna Prasadan, Joseph Fusco, Sabarinathan Ramachandran, Piotr Witkowski, Jon D Piganelli, George K Gittes
Successful strategies for treating type 1 diabetes need to restore the function of pancreatic beta cells that are destroyed by the immune system and overcome further destruction of insulin-producing cells. Here, we infused adeno-associated virus carrying Pdx1 and MafA expression cassettes through the pancreatic duct to reprogram alpha cells into functional beta cells and normalized blood glucose in both beta cell-toxin-induced diabetic mice and in autoimmune non-obese diabetic (NOD) mice. The euglycemia in toxin-induced diabetic mice and new insulin+ cells persisted in the autoimmune NOD mice for 4 months prior to reestablishment of autoimmune diabetes...
January 4, 2018: Cell Stem Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29304337/alpha-to-beta-cell-reprogramming-stepping-toward-a-new-treatment-for-diabetes
#9
Anna B Osipovich, Mark A Magnuson
Beta cell replacement strategies hold promise for permanently treating type 1 diabetes. In Cell Stem Cell, Xiao et al. (2018) restore pancreatic beta cell mass and normalize blood glucose in diabetic mice by reprogramming pancreatic alpha to beta cells using Pdx1- and Mafa-expressing adeno-associated virus infused into the pancreatic duct.
January 4, 2018: Cell Stem Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29295737/immunomodulatory-liver-depot-gene-therapy-for-pompe-disease
#10
J E Bond, P S Kishnani, D D Koeberl
Pompe disease is caused by mutations in acid alpha glucosidase (GAA) that causes accumulation of lysosomal glycogen affecting the heart and skeletal muscles, and can be fatal. Enzyme replacement therapy (ERT) with recombinant human GAA (rhGAA) improves muscle function by reducing glycogen accumulation. Limitations of ERT include a short half-life and the formation of antibodies that result in reduced efficacy. By harnessing the immune tolerance induction properties of the liver, liver-targeted gene delivery (with an adeno-associated virus vector containing a liver specific promoter), suppresses immunity against the GAA introduced by gene therapy...
December 29, 2017: Cellular Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29290966/development-of-a-nomogram-for-screening-of-hepatitis-b-virus-associated-hepatocellular-carcinoma
#11
Jung Wha Chung, Eun Sun Jang, Jaihwan Kim, Sook-Hyang Jeong, Nayoung Kim, Dong Ho Lee, Kyung Ho Lee, Jin-Wook Kim
Current strategy of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) surveillance evaluates individual risks of HCC for defining candidates for surveillance, but estimated risks are not utilized for clinical decision-making during actual screening. We sought to determine whether consideration of individual risks improve the performance of ultrasound (US)-based HCC screening in a real-world chronic hepatitis B (CHB) cohort. This single center retrospective cohort study analyzed 27,722 screening US tests from 4,175 consecutive CHB patients...
December 5, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29281894/adeno-associated-virus-2-aav2-mediated-reintroduction-of-microrna-19b-attenuates-hepatic-fibrosis
#12
Elizabeth Brandon-Warner, Jennifer H Benbow, Jacob H Swet, Nicole A Feilen, Catherine R Culberson, Iain H McKillop, Andrew S deLemos, Mark W Russo, Laura W Schrum
Fibrotic liver injury is a significant healthcare burden in the United States that represents a major cause of morbidity and mortality for which there are no effective FDA approved treatment strategies. Fibrosis is considered a disruption of normal wound healing responses mediated by fibroblastic cells which are triggered and sustained by pro-fibrotic cytokines such as transforming growth factor-beta1 (TGFβ1). TGFβ1-mediated transdifferentiation of hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) from quiescent to activated myofibroblast is a pivotal event in the development of fibrosis...
December 27, 2017: Human Gene Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29274324/apoptosis-induction-and-inhibition-of-hela-cell-proliferation-by-alpha-naphthoflavone-and-resveratrol-are-aryl-hydrocarbon-receptor-independent
#13
Alegre Flores-Pérez, Guillermo Elizondo
Human papilloma viruses 16 and 18 express E6 and E7 oncoproteins. E6 activates and redirects E6-associated protein (E6AP), an E3 ubiquitin ligase. E6AP interacts with Ube2l3, an E2 ubiquitin conjugating enzyme protein (also known as UbcH7), to promote p53 ubiquitination and degradation by the 26S proteasome. Therefore, blocking E6-mediated p53 degradation might be an alternative treatment for cervical cancer. In addition, activation of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) induces Ube2l3 expression, resulting in p53 ubiquitination and degradation...
December 20, 2017: Chemico-biological Interactions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29273042/coronavirus-and-paramyxovirus-in-bats-from-northwest-italy
#14
Francesca Rizzo, Kathryn M Edenborough, Roberto Toffoli, Paola Culasso, Simona Zoppi, Alessandro Dondo, Serena Robetto, Sergio Rosati, Angelika Lander, Andreas Kurth, Riccardo Orusa, Luigi Bertolotti, Maria Lucia Mandola
BACKGROUND: Bat-borne virus surveillance is necessary for determining inter-species transmission risks and is important due to the wide-range of bat species which may harbour potential pathogens. This study aimed to monitor coronaviruses (CoVs) and paramyxoviruses (PMVs) in bats roosting in northwest Italian regions. Our investigation was focused on CoVs and PMVs due to their proven ability to switch host and their zoonotic potential. Here we provide the phylogenetic characterization of the highly conserved polymerase gene fragments...
December 22, 2017: BMC Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29259593/viral-trna-mimicry-from-a-biocommunicative-perspective
#15
REVIEW
Ascensión Ariza-Mateos, Jordi Gómez
RNA viruses have very small genomes which limits the functions they can encode. One of the strategies employed by these viruses is to mimic key factors of the host cell so they can take advantage of the interactions and activities these factors typically participate in. The viral RNA genome itself was first observed to mimic cellular tRNA over 40 years ago. Since then researchers have confirmed that distinct families of RNA viruses are accessible to a battery of cellular factors involved in tRNA-related activities...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29259521/nuclease-mediated-gene-therapies-for-inherited-metabolic-diseases-of-the-liver%C3%A2-%C3%A2
#16
REVIEW
Taylor E Bryson, Caitlin M Anglin, P Hudson Bridges, Renee N Cottle
Inherited metabolic diseases (IMDs) of the liver represent a vast and diverse group of rare genetic diseases characterized by the loss or dysfunction of enzymes or proteins essential for metabolic pathways in the liver. Conventional gene therapy involving adeno-associated virus (AAV) serotype 8 vectors provide therapeutically high levels of hepatic transgene expression facilitating the correction of the disease phenotype in pre-clinical studies and are currently being evaluated in clinical trials for multiple IMDs...
December 2017: Yale Journal of Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29259080/identification-of-a-second-binding-site-on-the-trim25-b30-2-domain
#17
Akshay A D'Cruz, Nadia J Kershaw, Thomas J Hayman, Edmond M Linossi, Jessica J Chiang, May K Wang, Laura F Dagley, Tatiana B Kolesnik, Jian-Guo Zhang, Seth L Masters, Michael Dw Griffin, Michaela U Gack, James M Murphy, Nicos A Nicola, Jeffrey J Babon, Sandra E Nicholson
The retinoic acid-inducible gene-I (RIG-I) receptor recognizes short 5'-di and triphosphate base-paired viral RNA and is a critical mediator of the innate immune response against viruses such as influenza A, ebola, HIV and hepatitis C. This response is reported to require an orchestrated interaction with the tripartite motif 25 (TRIM25) B30.2 protein-interaction domain. Here we present a novel second RIG-I-binding interface on the TRIM25 B30.2 domain that interacts with CARD1 and CARD2 of RIG-I and is revealed by removal of an N-terminal alpha-helix that mimics dimerization of the full-length protein...
December 19, 2017: Biochemical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29250481/the-loss-of-binary-pushing-the-herpesvirus-latency-paradigm
#18
Donna Collins-McMillen, Felicia D Goodrum
Purpose of Review: Herpesvirus latency has been viewed as a binary state where replication is either on or off. During latency, gene expression is thought to be restricted to non-coding RNAs or very few proteins so that the virus avoids detection by the immune system. However, a number of recent studies across herpesvirus families call into question the existence of a binary switch for latency, and suggest that latency is far more dynamic than originally presumed. These studies are the focus of this review...
September 2017: Current Clinical Microbiology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29249322/saponin-quil-a-up-regulates-type-i-interferon-regulated-gene-and-type-i-and-ii-interferon-expressions-which-are-suppressed-by-porcine-reproductive-and-respiratory-syndrome-virus
#19
Wasin Charerntantanakul, Dante Fabros
Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) suppresses innate immune response following infection of myeloid antigen-presenting cells. Poor innate immune response results in weak and delayed PRRSV-specific adaptive immunity, and facilitates PRRSV replication, pathogenesis, and persistent infection. Numerous efforts have been made to enhance the effective innate and adaptive immune defenses to PRRSV, however, only a few attempts have so far elicited satisfactory results. The present study aims to evaluate in vitro the potential of saponin quil A to enhance the expression of type I interferon (IFN)-regulated gene, type I and II IFNs, and pro-inflammatory cytokines in PRRSV-inoculated peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC)...
January 2018: Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29248968/contradictory-intrahepatic-immune-responses-activated-in-high-load-hepatitis-c-virus-livers-compared-with-low-load-livers
#20
Mariko Ishibashi, Hiromi Yamaguchi, Yukari Hirotani, Akihisa Sakurada, Toshihide Endo, Masahiko Sugitani, Tadatoshi Takayama, Makoto Makishima, Mariko Esumi
We found a HLA class II histocompatibility antigen gene, DQ alpha 1 chain (HLA-DQA1), that was expressed more than 9-fold higher in high-load hepatitis C virus (HCV) livers than low-load HCV livers using transcriptomics of chronic HCV-infected livers. To further investigate this finding, we examined which cells were positive for HLA-DQA1 and what liver immune responses were different between HCV-high and -low livers. HLA-DQA1-positive cells were significantly increased in the HCV-high group, and most positive cells were identified as non-parenchymal sinusoid cells and lymphocytic infiltrates in the portal area...
December 16, 2017: Archives of Virology
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