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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28331094/herpes-simplex-virus-ge-gi-and-us9-promote-both-envelopment-and-sorting-of-virus-particles-in-the-cytoplasm-of-neurons-two-processes-that-precede-anterograde-transport-in-axons
#1
Grayson DuRaine, Todd W Wisner, Paul Howard, David C Johnson
Herpes simplex virus (HSV) anterograde transport in neuronal axons is vital, allowing spread from latently-infected ganglia to epithelial tissues where viral progeny are produced in numbers allowing spread to other hosts. HSV membrane proteins gE/gI and US9 initiate the process of anterograde axonal transport ensuring that virus particles are transported from the cytoplasm into the most proximal segments of axons. These proteins do not appear to be important once HSV is inside axons. Previously we described HSV double mutants lacking both gE and US9 that failed to transport virus particles into axons...
March 22, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326944/fatty-acid-binding-protein-inhibition-produces-analgesic-effects-through-peripheral-and-central-mechanisms
#2
Xiaoxue Peng, Keith Studholme, Martha P Kanjiya, Jennifer Luk, Diane Bogdan, Matthew W Elmes, Gregory Carbonetti, Simon Tong, Yu-Han Gary Teng, Robert C Rizzo, Huilin Li, Dale G Deutsch, Iwao Ojima, Mario J Rebecchi, Michelino Puopolo, Martin Kaczocha
Background Fatty-acid-binding proteins (FABPs) are intracellular carriers for endocannabinoids, N-acylethanolamines, and related lipids. Previous work indicates that systemically administered FABP5 inhibitors produce analgesia in models of inflammatory pain. It is currently not known whether FABP inhibitors exert their effects through peripheral or central mechanisms. Here, we examined FABP5 distribution in dorsal root ganglia and spinal cord and examined the analgesic effects of peripherally and centrally administered FABP5 inhibitors...
January 2017: Molecular Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322925/il-22-suppresses-the-infection-of-porcine-enteric-coronaviruses-and-rotavirus-by-activating-stat3-signal-pathway
#3
Mei Xue, Jing Zhao, Lan Ying, Fang Fu, Lin Li, Yanlong Ma, Hongyan Shi, Jiaoer Zhang, Li Feng, Pinghuang Liu
Interleukin-22 (IL-22), a member of the IL-10 superfamily, plays essential roles in fighting against mucosal microbial infection and maintaining mucosal barrier integrity within the intestine. However, little knowledge exists on the ability of porcine IL-22 (pIL-22) to fight against viral infection in the gut. In this study, we found that recombinant mature pIL-22 (mpIL-22) inhibited the infection of multiple diarrhea viruses, including alpha coronavirus, porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV), transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV), and porcine rotavirus (PoRV), in the intestinal porcine epithelial cell line J2 (IPEC-J2) cells...
March 16, 2017: Antiviral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28320263/duck-virus-enteritis-duck-plague-a-comprehensive-update
#4
Kuldeep Dhama, Naveen Kumar, Mani Saminathan, Ruchi Tiwari, Kumaragurubaran Karthik, M Asok Kumar, M Palanivelu, Muhammad Zubair Shabbir, Yashpal Singh Malik, Raj Kumar Singh
Duck virus enteritis (DVE), also called duck plague, is one of the major contagious and fatal diseases of ducks, geese and swan. It is caused by duck enteritis virus (DEV)/Anatid herpesvirus-1 of the genus Mardivirus, family Herpesviridae, and subfamily Alpha-herpesvirinae. Of note, DVE has worldwide distribution, wherein migratory waterfowl plays a crucial role in its transmission within and between continents. Furthermore, horizontal and/ or vertical transmission plays a significant role in disease spread through oral-fecal discharges...
December 2017: Veterinary Quarterly
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317045/fibrolamellar-variant-of-hepatocellular-carcinoma-presenting-during-pregnancy-management-dilemmas
#5
Nagalapuram Vishnu, Aditya V Kulkarni, Sreenivasan Vidhyalakshmi, Swaminathan Sambandam, Prerna Garg, Venkatakrishnan LeelaKrishnan, Krishnaveni Janarthan, Gursharan Singh, Maninder Kaur, T V Chitra, Biku Joseph John
The Fibrolamellar variant of Hepatocellular Carcinoma (FLHCC) is a rare form of liver cancer that presents in the 3(rd) decade of life, is rarely associated with cirrhosis or chronic Hepatitis B/C virus infection, and usually presents with normal serum alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) levels. FLHCC presenting during pregnancy is extremely rare, with only 4 cases reported. We present a case of FLHCC in pregnancy and discuss the dilemmas in management. A 26 year-old primigravida, 26 weeks of gestation presented with a month's history of obstructive jaundice secondary...
February 2017: Ann Hepatobiliary Pancreat Surg
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28302110/beneficial-effects-of-a-coriolus-versicolor-based-vaginal-gel-on-cervical-epithelization-vaginal-microbiota-and-vaginal-health-a-pilot-study-in-asymptomatic-women
#6
Santiago Palacios, Fernando Losa, Damián Dexeus, Javier Cortés
BACKGROUND: To assess the effect of a 12-day treatment using a vaginal gel based on niosomes containing hyaluronic acid, ß-glucan, alpha-glucan oligosaccharide, Coriolus versicolor, Asian centella, Azadirachta indica and Aloe vera on vaginal microbiota, cervical epithelization and vaginal health. METHODS: Open-label, prospective pilot study conducted in asymptomatic women in daily practice. Cervical epithelization was evaluated by colposcopy using an ectopy epithelization score (from 5: no ectopy to 1: severe ectopy and bleeding), vaginal microbiota using the VaginaStatus-Diagnostic test (Instiüt für Mikroökologie, Herborn, Germany) and further rated by the investigator using a 5-point Liker scale (from 5: normal to 1: very severe deterioration in which all evaluated species were altered), and vaginal health using the Vaginal Health Index...
March 16, 2017: BMC Women's Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28301738/active-immunization-against-transforming-growth-factor-beta1-prevents-hepatic-fibrosis-in-a-rat-model-of-liver-disease
#7
Hong Ji, Gerald Y Minuk, Zhikang Peng, Yongping Chen, Chenwei Pan, Yuewen Gong
Transforming growth factor-beta1 (TGF-β1) plays an important role in hepatic fibrogenesis. To document the effects of active immunization against TGF-β1 on hepatic fibrosis in an animal model of chronic liver disease. BALB/c mice were immunized against three different peptides of TGF-β1 ligated into hepatitis B virus core protein (HBVc). Titers of TGF-β1 antibodies were documented by enzyme linked immunoassays and antibody activity by cell membrane receptor binding and proliferation assays. The most immunogenic recombinant HBVc+TGF-β1 peptide (HBVc+C) then served as a vaccine in Sprague-Dawley rats with dimethylnitrosamine-induced chronic liver disease...
March 16, 2017: Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28300076/evaluation-of-reference-genes-at-different-developmental-stages-for-quantitative-real-time-pcr-in-aedes-aegypti
#8
Najat Dzaki, Karima N Ramli, Azali Azlan, Intan H Ishak, Ghows Azzam
The mosquito Aedes aegypti (Ae. aegypti) is the most notorious vector of illness-causing viruses such as Dengue, Chikugunya, and Zika. Although numerous genetic expression studies utilizing quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) have been conducted with regards to Ae. aegypti, a panel of genes to be used suitably as references for the purpose of expression-level normalization within this epidemiologically important insect is presently lacking. Here, the usability of seven widely-utilized reference genes i.e. actin (ACT), eukaryotic elongation factor 1 alpha (eEF1α), alpha tubulin (α-tubulin), ribosomal proteins L8, L32 and S17 (RPL8, RPL32 and RPS17), and glyceraldeyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) were investigated...
March 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28295503/nuclear-magnetic-resonance-structure-of-the-human-polyoma-jc-virus-agnoprotein
#9
Pascale Coric, A Sami Saribas, Magid Abou-Gharbia, Wayne Childers, Jon Condra, Martyn K White, Mahmut Safak, Serge Bouaziz
Agnoprotein is an important regulatory protein of the human polyoma JC virus (JCV) and plays critical roles during the viral replication cycle. It forms highly stable dimers and oligomers through its Leu/Ile/Phe-rich domain, which is important for the stability and function of the protein. We recently resolved the partial 3D structure of this protein by NMR using a synthetic peptide encompassing amino acids Thr17 to Gln52, where the Leu/Ile/Phe- rich domain was found to adopt a major alpha-helix conformation spanning amino acids 23 to 39...
March 10, 2017: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28292546/novel-insights-into-host-responses-and-reproductive-pathophysiology-of-porcine-reproductive-and-respiratory-syndrome-caused-by-prrsv-2
#10
REVIEW
John C S Harding, Andrea Ladinig, Predrag Novakovic, Susan E Detmer, Jamie M Wilkinson, Tianfu Yang, Joan K Lunney, Graham S Plastow
A large challenge experiment using North American porcine reproductive and respiratory virus (PRRSV-2) provided new insights into the pathophysiology of reproductive PRRS. Deep phenotyping of dams and fetuses identified maternal and fetal predictors of PRRS severity and resilience. PRRSV infection resulted in dramatic decreases in all leukocyte subsets by 2days post inoculation. Apoptosis in the interface region was positively related to endometrial vasculitis, viral load in endometrium and fetal thymus, and odds of meconium staining...
March 2, 2017: Veterinary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28288626/hepatitis-c-related-hepatocellular-carcinoma-in-the-era-of-new-generation-antivirals
#11
REVIEW
Thomas F Baumert, Frank Jühling, Atsushi Ono, Yujin Hoshida
Hepatitis C virus infection is a major cause of hepatocellular carcinoma worldwide. Interferon has been the major antiviral treatment, yielding viral clearance in approximately half of patients. New direct-acting antivirals substantially improved the cure rate to above 90%. However, access to therapies remains limited due to the high costs and under-diagnosis of infection in specific subpopulations, e.g., baby boomers, inmates, and injection drug users, and therefore, hepatocellular carcinoma incidence is predicted to increase in the next decades even in high-resource countries...
March 14, 2017: BMC Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28287099/double-stranded-rna-virus-outer-shell-assembly-by-bona-fide-domain-swapping
#12
Zhaoyang Sun, Kamel El Omari, Xiaoyu Sun, Serban L Ilca, Abhay Kotecha, David I Stuart, Minna M Poranen, Juha T Huiskonen
Correct outer protein shell assembly is a prerequisite for virion infectivity in many multi-shelled dsRNA viruses. In the prototypic dsRNA bacteriophage φ6, the assembly reaction is promoted by calcium ions but its biomechanics remain poorly understood. Here, we describe the near-atomic resolution structure of the φ6 double-shelled particle. The outer T=13 shell protein P8 consists of two alpha-helical domains joined by a linker, which allows the trimer to adopt either a closed or an open conformation. The trimers in an open conformation swap domains with each other...
March 13, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28285495/pharmacological-interventions-for-acute-hepatitis-c-infection-an-attempted-network-meta-analysis
#13
REVIEW
Maria Kalafateli, Elena Buzzetti, Douglas Thorburn, Brian R Davidson, Emmanuel Tsochatzis, Kurinchi Selvan Gurusamy
BACKGROUND: Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a single-stranded RNA (ribonucleic acid) virus that has the potential to cause inflammation of the liver. The traditional definition of acute HCV infection is the first six months following infection with the virus. Another commonly used definition of acute HCV infection is the absence of HCV antibody and subsequent seroconversion (presence of HCV antibody in a person who was previously negative for HCV antibody). Approximately 40% to 95% of people with acute HCV infection develop chronic HCV infection, that is, have persistent HCV RNA in their blood...
March 13, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28270578/human-cytomegalovirus-micrornas-mir-us5-1-and-mir-ul112-3p-block-proinflammatory-cytokine-production-in-response-to-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-activating-factors-through-direct-downregulation-of-ikk%C3%AE-and-ikk%C3%AE
#14
Meaghan H Hancock, Lauren M Hook, Jennifer Mitchell, Jay A Nelson
Emerging evidence indicates that human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) manipulates host cell signaling pathways using both proteins and noncoding RNAs. Several studies have shown that HCMV induces NF-κB signaling early in infection, resulting in the induction of antiviral proinflammatory cytokines with a subsequent reduction of these cytokines late in infection. The mechanism for late cytokine reduction is unknown. In this study, we show that HCMV microRNAs (miRNAs) miR-US5-1 and miR-UL112-3p target the IκB kinase (IKK) complex components IKKα and IKKβ to limit production of proinflammatory cytokines in response to interleukin 1β (IL-1β) and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α)...
March 7, 2017: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28270340/adult-t-cell-leukemia-lymphoma-treatment-in-bahia-brazil
#15
Pedro Dantas Oliveira, Ítala Gomes, Victor Hugo Gomes Souza, Ernesto Cunha Pires, Glória Bomfim Arruda, Achiléa Bittencourt
BACKGROUND: Adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma is a peripheral disease associated with human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 1. Treatment is carried out according to clinical type with watchful waiting being recommended for less aggressive types. Aggressive adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma is generally treated with chemotherapy and/or antivirals. The objective of this study was to correlate the survival of patients diagnosed in Bahia, Brazil, with the therapeutic approaches employed and to evaluate what issues existed in their treatment processes...
January 2017: Revista Brasileira de Hematologia e Hemoterapia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28265266/helz2-is-an-ifn-effector-mediating-suppression-of-dengue-virus
#16
Dahlene N Fusco, Henry Pratt, Stephen Kandilas, Scarlett Se Yun Cheon, Wenyu Lin, D Alex Cronkite, Megha Basavappa, Kate L Jeffrey, Anthony Anselmo, Ruslan Sadreyev, Clarence Yapp, Xu Shi, John F O'Sullivan, Robert E Gerszten, Takuya Tomaru, Satoshi Yoshino, Tetsurou Satoh, Raymond T Chung
Flaviviral infections including dengue virus are an increasing clinical problem worldwide. Dengue infection triggers host production of the type 1 IFN, IFN alpha, one of the strongest and broadest acting antivirals known. However, dengue virus subverts host IFN signaling at early steps of IFN signal transduction. This subversion allows unbridled viral replication which subsequently triggers ongoing production of IFN which, again, is subverted. Identification of downstream IFN antiviral effectors will provide targets which could be activated to restore broad acting antiviral activity, stopping the signal to produce endogenous IFN at toxic levels...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28260989/correlation-of-chitinase-3-like-1-single-nucleotide-polymorphisms-with-hepatocellular-carcinoma-in-taiwan
#17
Wayne Shih-Wei Huang, Hung-Yu Lin, Chao-Bin Yeh, Li-You Chen, Ying-Erh Chou, Shun-Fa Yang, Yu-Fan Liu
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the second leading cause of cancer death in Taiwan. Multiple risk factors, such as chronic hepatitis B or C virus infection, carcinogen exposure, cirrhosis, and various single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), are considered to contribute to hepatocarcinogenesis. Chitinase-3-like protein 1 (CHI3L1), a biomarker implicated in inflammation and tissue remodeling, plays a promoting role in angiogenesis, antiapoptosis, and cell proliferation. This study investigated the role of CHI3L1 SNPs in HCC susceptibility and clinicopathology...
2017: International Journal of Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28257598/structural-basis-for-dimerization-and-rna-binding-of-avian-infectious-bronchitis-virus-nsp9
#18
Tingting Hu, Cheng Chen, Huiyan Li, Yanshu Dou, Ming Zhou, Deren Lu, Qi Zong, Yulei Li, Cheng Yang, Zhihui Zhong, Namit Singh, Honggang Hu, Rundong Zhang, Haitao Yang, Dan Su
The potential for infection by coronaviruses (CoVs) has become a serious concern with the recent emergence of Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) and severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) in the human population. CoVs encode two large polyproteins, which are then processed into 15-16 nonstructural proteins (nsps) that make significant contributions to viral replication and transcription by assembling the RNA replicase complex. Among them, nsp9 plays an essential role in viral replication by forming a homodimer that binds single-stranded RNA...
March 3, 2017: Protein Science: a Publication of the Protein Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28257038/establishment-of-hk-2-cells-as-a-relevant-model-to-study-tenofovir-induced-cytotoxicity
#19
Rachel A Murphy, Reagan M Stafford, Brooke A Petrasovits, Megann A Boone, Monica A Valentovic
Tenofovir (TFV) is an antiviral drug approved for treating Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) and Hepatitis B. TFV is administered orally as the prodrug tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) which then is deesterified to the active drug TFV. TFV induces nephrotoxicity characterized by renal failure and Fanconi Syndrome. The mechanism of this toxicity remains unknown due to limited experimental models. This study investigated the cellular mechanism of cytotoxicity using a human renal proximal tubular epithelial cell line (HK-2)...
March 1, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28255168/mapping-sites-of-herpes-simplex-virus-type-1-glycoprotein-d-that-permit-insertions-and-impact-gd-and-gb-receptors-usage
#20
Qing Fan, Sarah Kopp, Sarah A Connolly, William J Muller, Richard Longnecker
Glycoprotein D (gD) of herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) is one of four glycoproteins essential for HSV entry and cell fusion. The purpose of this study was to determine the plasticity of gD to tolerate insertion or deletion mutations and to construct an oncolytic HSV-1 that utilizes the disialoganglioside GD2 as a HSV-1 entry receptor. We found that the N-terminus of gD tolerates long insertions, whereas residues adjacent to the gD Ig-like V-type core tolerated shorter insertions (up to 15 amino acids), but not greater than 60 amino acids...
March 3, 2017: Scientific Reports
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