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L-Y Hu, J-B Cui, X-M Xu, Z-H Huang, H-T Jiao
OBJECTIVE: Traumatic lung injury (TLI) can cause inflammation and oxidative stress, or even leads to acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and death. Nuclear factor erythroid-2 related factor 2 (Nrf2)-Kelch-like ECH-associated protein 1 (Keap1)-antioxidant response element (ARE) signal pathway participates in disease occurrence and progression via regulating inflammatory and oxidative stress response, but with its expression and functional roles in TLI largely unknown. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Wistar rats were randomly divided into control group, TLI group by crushing method, and Nrf2 activation group which received Nrf2 specific agonist sulforaphane 30 min before TLI treatment...
March 2018: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
Z Xing, H-Y Wang, W-Y Su, Y-F Liu, X-X Wang, P Zhan, T-F Lv, Y Song
OBJECTIVE: Aberrant activation of (Wingless and mouse homolog Int-1) Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathways closely involved in the occurrence and progression of several types of human malignancies. This research was undertaken to elucidate the important role of (Wingless and mouse homolog Int-1) in lung cancer. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Wnt3 expression in lung cancers and their respective normal tissues were examined by immunoblotting and immunohistochemistry. Then, Wnt3 was regulated with RNA interference (RNAi) technology in human lung cancer A549 cells, and the cell proliferation, cell cycle, cell invasion/metastasis, and apoptosis were evaluated...
March 2018: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
X Yang, W Zhang, S-Q Cheng, R-L Yang
OBJECTIVE: To clarify the role of long non-coding RNA (lncRNA) GACAT3 in invasion and metastasis of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and its effect on radiotherapy. PATIENTS AND METHODS: The expression of GACAT3 and TIMP2 in cells and tissues of NSCLC were detected by quantitative Real-time PCR (qRT-PCR). The influence of GACAT3 on cell proliferation and the capacity of colony formation were estimated by MTT test and colony forming experiment respectively. Luciferase reporting assay was used to confirm the correlation between GACAT3 and TIMP2...
March 2018: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
Yunhu Pan, Hongmei Wang, Debin Ma, Zhiyu Ji, Limin Luo, Fangyu Cao, Fangfang Huang, Yangyang Liu, Yushu Dong, Yitan Chen
The incidence of lung cancer in China increases annually, and effective targets for the diagnosis and treatment of lung cancer are urgently needed. miRNAs are currently considered to be involved in the regulation of tumor development and growth. miR‑24 has been found to contribute to the development of several tumors. Menin is a key tumor suppressor gene, and its expression is generally low in lung cancer. The effects of miR‑24 on the biological behavior of lung cancer cells were detected by MTT and Transwell assays...
May 2018: Oncology Reports
Taxiarchis Konstantinos Nikolouzakis, Loukia Vassilopoulou, Persefoni Fragkiadaki, Theodoros Mariolis Sapsakos, George Papadakis, Demetrios A Spandidos, Aristides M Tsatsakis, John Tsiaoussis
Colorectal cancer (CRC) is among the most common cancers. In fact, it is placed in the third place among the most diagnosed cancer in men, after lung and prostate cancer, and in the second one for the most diagnosed cancer in women, following breast cancer. Moreover, its high mortality rates classifies it among the leading causes of cancer‑related death worldwide. Thus, in order to help clinicians to optimize their practice, it is crucial to introduce more effective tools that will improve not only early diagnosis, but also prediction of the most likely progression of the disease and response to chemotherapy...
March 21, 2018: Oncology Reports
Song Xu, Fan Yang, Renwang Liu, Xiongfei Li, Haiyang Fan, Jinghao Liu, Sen Wei, Gang Chen, Jun Chen, Yurong Da
Bone remodeling can be interrupted by tumor cells which leads to an inappropriate balance of osteoblasts and osteoclasts. As the progenitors of osteoblasts, mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have been reported to exhibit an abnormal osteogenic differentiation potential in some cancer‑related bone lesions. However, the evidence is very limited in terms of the biological alterations of MSCs in the bone metastasis of non‑small cell lung cancers (NSCLC). We investigated the expression and function of miR‑139‑5p in MSC osteogenic differentiation in vitro in normal and NSCLC-exposed condition...
May 2018: Oncology Reports
Yue Li, Yunyan Wei, Weiwei Yuan, Qiqing Huang, Yaya Zhao, Weihong Zhao, Wei Xu, Jianqing Wu
The ligand of CD40, known as CD154 or CD40L, is the key to immunostimulatory and anticancer activity, but how CD40L affects cellular senescence is unclear. Thus, we studied a membrane‑stable mutant form CD40L (CD40L‑M) to explore tumor growth and cellular senescence in CD40‑positive NSCLC cells. We found that CD40L‑M‑expressing cells had senescent characteristics, including reduced cell proliferation and enlargement, increased SA‑β‑gal staining activity, and overexpression of several cell cycle regulators p53 and p21...
May 2018: Oncology Reports
Yi Jhen Wu, Yu Chiuan Wu, I-Fen Chen, Yi-Lung Wu, Chin Wen Chuang, Han Hsiang Huang, Shyh Ming Kuo
Astaxanthin (Asta), a xanthophyll carotenoid, has been reported to be a strong antioxidative agent and has anti-inflammatory, antitumor and free radical-scavenging activities. However, inadequate stability and water solubility results in its low bioavailability. This study incorporated Asta into hydrophilic hyaluronan nanoparticles (HAn) to produce Asta-HAn aggregates (AHAna) using an electrostatic field system and investigated the restorative effects of AHAna on retrorsine-CCl₄-induced liver fibrosis in rats in vivo...
March 22, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Thanasekaran Jayakumar, Chao-Hong Liu, Guan-Yi Wu, Tzu-Yin Lee, Manjunath Manubolu, Cheng-Ying Hsieh, Chih-Hao Yang, Joen-Rong Sheu
Hinokitiol, a natural monoterpenoid from the heartwood of Calocedrus formosana , has been reported to have anticancer effects against various cancer cell lines. However, the detailed molecular mechanisms and the inhibiting roles of hinokitiol on adenocarcinoma A549 cells remain to be fully elucidated. Thus, the current study was designed to evaluate the effect of hinokitiol on the migration of human lung adenocarcinoma A549 cells in vitro. The data demonstrates that hinokitiol does not effectively inhibit the viability of A549 cells at up to a 10 µM concentration...
March 22, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Peter A Muller, Jennifer L Mueller, Michelle Mellenthin, Rashmi Murthy, Michael Capps, Brandie Wagner, Melody Alsaker, Robin Deterding, Scott D Sagel, Jordana Hoppe
Lung function monitoring by spiromety plays a critical role in the clinical care of pediatric cystic fibrosis (CF) patients, but many young children are unable to perform spirometry, and the outputs are often normal even in the presence of lung disease. Measures derived from electrical impedance tomography (EIT) images were studied for their utility as potential surrogates for spirometry in CF patients and to assess response to intravenous antibiotic treatment for acute pulmonary exacerbations (PEx) in a subset of patients...
March 22, 2018: Physiological Measurement
Melissa Preissner, Rhiannon P Murrie, Isaac Pinar, Freda Werdiger, Richard P Carnibella, Graeme R Zosky, Andreas Fouras, Stephen Dubsky
We have developed an X-ray imaging system for <i>in vivo</i> four-dimensional computed tomography (4DCT) of small animals for pre-clinical lung investigations. Our customized laboratory facility is capable of high resolution <i>in vivo</i> imaging at high frame rates. Characterization using phantoms demonstrate a spatial resolution of slightly below 50 μm at imaging rates of 30 Hz, and the ability to quantify material density differences of at least 3%...
March 22, 2018: Physics in Medicine and Biology
Kátia R Groch, Josué Díaz-Delgado, Carlos Sacristán, Denyiélim E Oliveira, Gabriela Souza, Angélica M Sánchez-Sarmiento, Samira Costa-Silva, Juliana Marigo, Pedro V Castilho, Marta J Cremer, Aline Rodrigues Hoffmann, Fernando Esperón, José L Catão-Dias
We report the gross and microscopic findings and molecular identification of 2 cases of hyphate fungal infection in cetaceans from Brazil. The first case involved an adult male Atlantic spotted dolphin Stenella frontalis with localized pulmonary disease characterized by pyogranulomatous and necrotizing bronchopneumonia with intralesional hyphae. The second case involved an adult male Bryde's whale Balaenoptera edeni with orchitis, periorchitis, mesenteric lymphadenitis and pyogranulomatous bronchopneumonia with intralesional hyphae...
March 22, 2018: Diseases of Aquatic Organisms
Elena Guerini-Rocco, Antonio Passaro, Chiara Casadio, Valeria Midolo De Luca, Juliana Guarize, Filippo de Marinis, Davide Vacirca, Massimo Barberis
CONTEXT: - Molecular testing is essential for the diagnostic workup of patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancers. Cytology specimens from minimally invasive procedures, such as endobronchial ultrasound-guided transbronchial needle aspiration, are often the only available samples for these patients. The implementation of molecular diagnostic testing, and in particular next-generation sequencing-based testing, on these cytologic specimens is currently an evolving field for lung cytopathology...
April 2018: Archives of Pathology & Laboratory Medicine
Peter Mancuso, Jeffrey L Curtis, Christine M Freeman, Marc Peters-Golden, Jason B Weinberg, Martin G Myers
Leptin is a pleiotropic hormone produced by white adipose tissue that regulates appetite and many physiologic functions including the immune response to infection. Genetic leptin deficiency in humans and mice impairs host defenses against respiratory tract infections. Since leptin deficiency is associated with obesity and other metabolic abnormalities, we generated mice that lack the leptin receptor (LepRb) in cells of the myeloid linage (LysM-LepRb-KO) to evaluate its impact in lean metabolically normal mice in a murine model of pneumococcal pneumonia...
March 22, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology
Tsukasa Okamoto, Susan K Mathai, Corinne E Hennessy, Laura A Hancock, Avram D Walts, Adrianne L Stefanski, Kevin K Brown, David A Lynch, Gregory P Cosgrove, Steve D Groshong, Carlyne D Cool, Marvin I Schwarz, Nirmal K Banda, Joshua M Thurman, Ivana V Yang, Vernon Michael Holers, David A Schwartz
The common gain-of-function MUC5B promoter variant (rs35705950) is the strongest risk factor for the development of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF). While the role of complement in IPF is controversial, both MUC5B and the complement system play a role in lung host defense. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between C3 and MUC5B in patients with IPF and in bleomycin-induced lung injury in mice. To do this, we evaluated C3 gene expression in whole lung tissue from 300 subjects with IPF and 175 healthy controls...
March 22, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology
Diego Luigi Cortinovis
In recent years immunotherapy has become a fundamental part of the treatment of many solid tumors, including non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). With the results of trials investigating the role of monoclonal antibodies against immuno-checkpoints in particular, today these drugs have become part of everyday clinical practice, even though many questions still remain unresolved (optimal duration of treatment, prognostic and predictive role of biomarkers, management of immuno-related toxicity). Here we report the case of our patient with diagnosis of metastatic lung adenocarcinoma "non oncogene driven" successfully treated in second line with nivolumab, analyzing the problems and the questions most frequently evidenced during treatment with these new molecules...
March 2018: Recenti Progressi in Medicina
L Daniel Maxim, Mark J Utell
This literature review on refractory ceramic fibers (RCF) summarizes relevant information on manufacturing, processing, applications, occupational exposure, toxicology and epidemiology studies. Rodent toxicology studies conducted in the 1980s showed that RCF caused fibrosis, lung cancer and mesothelioma. Interpretation of these studies was difficult for various reasons (e.g. overload in chronic inhalation bioassays), but spurred the development of a comprehensive product stewardship program under EPA and later OSHA oversight...
March 22, 2018: Inhalation Toxicology
José Luis Martínez-Rodríguez, Rosalinda Gutiérrez-Hernández, Claudia Araceli Reyes-Estrada, Angelica Judith Granados-López, Tatiana Arcos-Ortega, Jesús Adrián López
The metabolism of aromatic hydrocarbons by the organism forms products that cause cell death depending on the type of exposure. Benzene exposure has been linked to oxidative stress, hepatic damage, aplastic anemia and hematopoietic cancer as lymphoid and myeloid leukemia. However, there are not fast methods to evaluate chronically benzene exposure in human blood. The objective of this work was the evaluation of the correlation between oxidative damage with benzene exposure and the level of Cellular Plasma Membrane Stability (CPMS) in erythrocytes to use it as a future indicator to determine the grade of benzene intoxications...
March 22, 2018: Toxicology Mechanisms and Methods
Jiro Abe, Toshimasa Okazaki, Naohiko Kikuchi, Satomi Takahashi, Akira Sakurada, Yoshinori Okada
OBJECTIVE: This study was conducted to evaluate the risk of recurrence possibly caused by preoperative bronchoscopic cancer confirmation in stage1A non-small cell lung cancer. METHODS: One hundred and seventy-nine cases of peripheral non-small cell lung cancer (including 151 adenocarcinoma) with no more than 3 cm in their tumor longer diameter were selected. All patients underwent preoperative diagnostic bronchoscopy followed by lobectomy, and were demonstrated to have pathologically free of lymph node involvement and pleural involvement...
March 21, 2018: General Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery
Magdalena Kostrzewska, Tomasz Trafas, Barbara Bromińska, Halina Batura-Gabryel, Sławomir Michalak, Beata Brajer-Luftmann, Agata Nowicka, Marcin Grabicki, Przemysław Guzik, Tomasz Piorunek
Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a condition of breathing pathology occurring during sleep, characterized by repeated episodes of upper airway obstruction. The aim of the study was to determine the occurrence of airway obstruction in smoking males with OSA in whom lung function tests had not been performed before. One hundred and four current smokers selected from 1241 patients were enrolled for the research. The subjects included in the study smoked minimum 20 cigarettes a day for at least 10 years. The diagnosis of OSA was confirmed by polysomnography (PSG) in the Sleep Laboratory and subjects were assigned to one of three groups, depending on the severity of OSA...
March 22, 2018: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
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