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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28638873/protective-effect-of-camel-milk-as-anti-diabetic-supplement-biochemical-molecular-and-immunohistochemical-study
#1
Ahmed A Mansour, Mohammed A Nassan, Osama M Saleh, Mohamed M Soliman
BACKGROUND: Diabetes is a serious disease affects human health. Diabetes in advanced stages is accompanied by general weakness and alteration in fats and carbohydrates metabolism. Recently there are some scientific trends about the usage of camel milk (CM) in the treatment of diabetes and its associated alterations. CM contains vital active particles with insulin like action that cure diabetes and its complications but how these effects occur, still unclear. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Seventy-five adult male rats of the albino type divided into five equal groups...
2017: African Journal of Traditional, Complementary, and Alternative Medicines: AJTCAM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636761/molecular-tools-for-facilitative-carbohydrate-transporters
#2
Marina Tanasova, Joseph R Fedie
Facilitative carbohydrate transporters - Gluts - have received a wide attention over decades due to their essential role in the nutrient uptake and links with various metabolic disorders, including diabetes, obesity, and cancer. Endeavors into understanding mechanisms of Glut-mediated nutrient uptake have resulted in the multidisciplinary research field, branching protein chemistry, chemical biology, organic synthesis, crystallography, and biomolecular modeling. Gluts became attractive targets for cancer research and medicinal chemistry, leading to the development of new approaches to cancer diagnostics and providing avenues for cancer-targeting therapeutics...
June 21, 2017: Chembiochem: a European Journal of Chemical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631582/effect-of-green-tea-extract-supplementation-on-glycogen-replenishment-in-exercised-human-skeletal-muscle
#3
Tsen-Wei Tsai, Chia-Chen Chang, Su-Fen Liao, Yi-Hung Liao, Chien-Wen Hou, Jung-Piao Tsao, I-Shiung Cheng
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of 8-week green tea extract (GTE) supplementation on promoting postexercise muscle glycogen resynthesis and systemic energy substrate utilisation in young college students. A total of eight healthy male participants (age: 22·0 (se 1·0) years, BMI: 24·2 (se 0·7) kg/m2, VO2max: 43·2 (se 2·4) ml/kg per min) participated in this study. GTE (500 mg/d for 8 weeks) was compared with placebo in participants in a double-blind/placebo-controlled and crossover study design with an 8-week washout period...
June 20, 2017: British Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625822/comparison-of-the-expression-and-spatial-localization-of-glucose-transporters-in-the-rat-bovine-and-human-lens
#4
Julie C Lim, Rebecca D Perwick, Bo Li, Paul J Donaldson
The energy required to drive lens transparency is derived from the metabolism of glucose. In the lens, the uptake of glucose is likely to involve either facilitative glucose uptake mediated by members of the GLUT family or Na(+) dependent glucose uptake via members of the SGLT family, or both. While GLUT1 and GLUT3 have previously been identified in the rat lens, the expression of SGLTs is unknown. Since antibodies directed against the N and C-terminal epitopes of the GLUT and SGLT family are now commercially available, the purpose of this study is to extend our screening of glucose transporters in the rat lens to include the SGLTs and compare the expression profiles of GLUTs and SGLTs in the different regions of the lens...
June 15, 2017: Experimental Eye Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625360/hypoxia-primed-placental-mesenchymal-stem-cells-for-wound-healing
#5
Suja Ann Mathew, Bhawna Chandravanshi, Ramesh Bhonde
AIMS: To investigate how Placental Mesenchymal Stem Cells (P-MSCs) would adapt themselves and survive under hypoxic conditions which are prevalent in most injury sites. MAIN METHODS: P-MSCs were isolated from term placenta and characterised under normoxia and hypoxia (2-2.5% O2). Cells were examined for morphology and surface marker variations by flow cytometry analysis. Glucose stimulated insulin secretion was assayed by Insulin ELISA Kit. Gene expression levels were estimated using Real Time PCR for hypoxia inducible factor1 alpha, Insulin (INS), Glucose transporters (GLUT-1, GLUT-2 and GLUT-3), Adhesion Proteins- Integrins, Fibronectin1 (FN1), E-Cadherin (CDH1), and N-Cadherin (CDH2) and angiogenesis marker VEGFA...
June 15, 2017: Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624040/hyperglycemia-attenuates-receptor-activator-of-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-ligand-induced-macrophage-activation-by-suppressing-insulin-signaling
#6
Chitaru Kurihara, Teruyoshi Tanaka, Dai Yamanouchi
BACKGROUND: Although male gender, aging, hypertension, dyslipidemia, and smoking are common risk factors for abdominal aortic aneurysm, diabetes mellitus is an independent negative risk factor. In aneurysm tissue, matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) expressed by activated macrophages degrades extracellular matrix proteins. In our previous experimental study, we demonstrated that the aneurysmal formation and macrophage activity were suppressed by inhibiting mimicking hyperglycemia (HG) through upregulation of glucose-sensing nuclear receptor, Nr1h2...
June 15, 2017: Journal of Surgical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28623979/placental-glucose-transporter-glut-1-is-down-regulated-in-preeclampsia
#7
Benjamin P Lüscher, Camilla Marini, Marianne S Joerger-Messerli, Xiao Huang, Matthias A Hediger, Christiane Albrecht, Marc U Baumann, Daniel V Surbek
INTRODUCTION: Transplacental fetal glucose supply is predominantly regulated by glucose transporter-1 (GLUT1). Altered expression and/or function of GLUT1 may affect the intrauterine environment, which could compromise fetal development and may contribute to fetal programming. To date it is unknown whether placental GLUT1 is affected by preeclampsia, which is often associated with intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR). We addressed the hypothesis that preeclampsia leads to decreased expression and function of placental GLUT1...
July 2017: Placenta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28619363/acute-hypoxic-stress-effect-on-blood-parameters-antioxidant-enzymes-and-expression-of-hif-1alpha-and-glut-1-genes-in-largemouth-bass-micropterus-salmoides
#8
S Yang, T Yan, H Wu, Q Xiao, H M Fu, J Luo, J Zhou, L L Zhao, Y Wang, S Y Yang, J L Sun, X Ye, S J Li
Dissolved oxygen (DO) plays a crucial role in survival, growth, and normal physiological functions of aquatic organisms. Nevertheless, the mechanisms involved in hypoxic stress and adaptation have not been fully elucidated in Largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides). To reveal the effect of acute hypoxia on Largemouth bass, we simulated acute hypoxia (DO: 1.2 ± 0.2 mg/L) in the laboratory and analyzed physiological parameters (RBCs, Hb, SOD, CAT, NA(+)/K(+)-ATPase, GPx, and MDA) and gene expression (HIF-1alpha and GLUT-1) in Largemouth bass exposed to various durations of acute hypoxia (0, 1, 2, 4, 8, 12, and 24 h)...
June 12, 2017: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28608654/comparative-evaluation-of-probiotics-effects-on-plasma-glucose-lipid-and-insulin-levels-in-streptozotocin-induced-diabetic-rats
#9
Faeghe Memarrast, Soudeh Ghafouri-Fard, Sedighe Kolivand, Saeedeh Jafary-Nodooshan, Nadia Neyazi, Esmaeil Sadroddiny, Elahe Motevaseli
BACKGROUND: Diabetes is a chronic disorder caused by the relative decrease in insulin production from the pancreas, tissue resistance to insulin, or both of them. Daily consumption of probiotics, particularly Lactobacilli has been proposed as a new strategy for prevention or control of diabetes. METHODS: In the current study, the effects of various probiotics including Lactobacillus reuteri (L.reuteri), Lactobacillus crispatus (L.crispatus) and Bacillus subtilis on the levels of blood glucose, lipid and insulin as well as HbA1c were investigated in rat models of streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetes and compared with metformin...
June 13, 2017: Diabetes/metabolism Research and Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28608234/genomics-guided-precise-anti-epileptic-drug-development
#10
Norman Delanty, Gianpiero Cavallleri
Traditional antiepileptic drug development approaches have yielded many important clinically valuable anti-epileptic drugs. However, the screening of promising compounds has been naturally agnostic to epilepsy etiology in individual human patients. Now, genomic medicine is changing the way we view human disease. International collaborations are unraveling the many molecular genetic causes of the epilepsies, including the early onset epileptic encephalopathies, and some of the familial focal epilepsies. Further advances in precision diagnostics will be facilitated by ongoing large collaborations and the wider availability of whole exome and whole genome sequencing in clinical practice...
June 12, 2017: Neurochemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28605494/glutamate-transport-a-new-bench-to-bedside-mechanism-for-treating-drug-abuse
#11
Sade Spencer, Peter W Kalivas
Drug addiction has often been described as a "hijacking" of the brain circuits involved in learning and memory. Glutamate is the principal excitatory neurotransmitter in the brain, and its contribution to synaptic plasticity and learning processes is well established in animal models. Likewise, over the past twenty years the addiction field has ascribed a critical role for glutamatergic transmission in the development of addiction. Chronic drug use produces enduring neuroadaptations in corticostriatal projections that are believed to contribute to a maladaptive deficit in inhibitory control over behavior...
June 12, 2017: International Journal of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28603992/glycosylated-platinum-iv-complexes-as-substrates-for-glucose-transporters-gluts-and-organic-cation-transporters-octs-exhibited-cancer-targeting-and-human-serum-albumin-binding-properties-for-drug-delivery
#12
Jing Ma, Qingpeng Wang, Zhonglv Huang, Xiande Yang, Quandeng Nie, Wenpei Hao, Peng George Wang, Xin Wang
Glycosylated platinum(IV) complexes were synthesized as substrates for GLUTs and OCTs for the first time, and the cytotoxicity, and detailed mechanism were determined in vitro and in vivo. Galactoside Pt(IV), glucoside Pt(IV) and mannoside Pt(IV) were highly cytotoxic and showed specific cancer-targeting properties in vitro and in vivo. Glycosylated platinum(IV) complexes 5, 6, 7 and 8 (IC50 0.24 μM-3.97 μM) had better antitumor activity of nearly 166-fold higher than the positive controls cisplatin (1a), oxaliplatin (3a) and satraplatin (5a)...
June 12, 2017: Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28602263/immunohistochemical-and-histochemical-characterization-of-intraosseous-arteriovenous-malformations-of-the-jaws-analysis-of-16-cases-with-emphasis-on-glut-1-immunophenotype
#13
Reda Taleb, Ioannis G Koutlas, Prokopios P Argyris
OBJECTIVES: Intraosseous vascular lesions of the craniofacial region are rare and may cause diagnostic and therapeutic challenges. The purpose of this study was to characterize 16 cases of intraosseous arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) affecting the jaws. STUDY DESIGN: Immunohistochemical evaluation was performed using antibodies against α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA), desmin, CD31, D2-40, and glucose transporter 1 (GLUT-1). Staining with elastic Verhoeff-Van Gieson and Masson trichrome histochemical stains was also performed...
April 25, 2017: Oral Surgery, Oral Medicine, Oral Pathology and Oral Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28593472/l-glutamine-in-vitro-modulates-some-immunomodulatory-properties-of-bone-marrow-mesenchymal-stem-cells
#14
Guilherme Galvão Dos Santos, Araceli Aparecida Hastreiter, Talita Sartori, Primavera Borelli, Ricardo Ambrósio Fock
Glutamine (GLUT) is a nonessential amino acid that can become conditionally essential under stress conditions, being able to act in the modulation of the immune responses. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are known to their capability in the modulation of immune responses through cell-cell contact and by the secretion of soluble factors. Considering that GLUT is an immunonutrient and little is known about the influence of GLUT on the capability of MSCs to modulate immune cells, this work aims to investigate how variations in GLUT concentrations in vitro could affect some immunomodulatory properties of MSCs...
June 7, 2017: Stem Cell Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28591573/phosphorylation-of-txnip-by-akt-mediates-acute-influx-of-glucose-in-response-to-insulin
#15
Althea N Waldhart, Holly Dykstra, Anderson S Peck, Elissa A Boguslawski, Zachary B Madaj, Jennifer Wen, Kelsey Veldkamp, Matthew Hollowell, Bin Zheng, Lewis C Cantley, Timothy E McGraw, Ning Wu
Growth factors, such as insulin, can induce both acute and long-term glucose uptake into cells. Apart from the rapid, insulin-induced fusion of glucose transporter (GLUT)4 storage vesicles with the cell surface that occurs in muscle and adipose tissues, the mechanism behind acute induction has been unclear in other systems. Thioredoxin interacting protein (TXNIP) has been shown to be a negative regulator of cellular glucose uptake. TXNIP is transcriptionally induced by glucose and reduces glucose influx by promoting GLUT1 endocytosis...
June 6, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28588000/effect-of-maternal-obesity-on-fetal-growth-and-the-expression-of-placental-fatty-acid-transporters
#16
Kui Ye, Li Li, Dan Zhang, Yi Li, Hai Qing Wang, Han Lin Lai, Chuan Lai Hu
OBJECTIVE: To explore the effects of maternal high-fat diet induced obesity on fetal growth and the expression of placental nutrient transporters. METHODS: Maternal obesity was established in rats by 8 weeks of pre-pregnancy high-fat (HF) diet feeding, while rats in the control group were fed with normal (CON) diet. Diet induced obesity (DIO) rats and diet induced obesity resistant (DIR) rats were selected according to body weight gain over this period. After copulation, the CON rats were divided into two groups: switched to HF diet (CON-HF group) or maintained on the CON diet (CON-CON group)...
June 7, 2017: Journal of Clinical Research in Pediatric Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28585218/lipotoxicity-in-obesity-benefit-of-olive-oil
#17
Saad Elias, Sbeit Wisam, Arraf Luai, Barhoum Massad, Assy Nimer
The clinical implication of Lipotoxicity in obesity derives primarily from its potential to progress to insulin resistance, endothelial dysfunction and atherosclerosis. Olive oil rich diet decrease accumulation of triglyceride in the liver, improved postprandial triglyceride levels, improve glucose and GLP-1 response in insulin resistant subjects, and up regulate GLUT-2 expression in the liver. The exact molecular mechanism is unknown but, decreasing NFkB activation, decreasing LDL oxidation and improving insulin resistance by less production of inflammatory cytokines (TNF-a, IL-6) and improvement of kinases JNK-mediated phosphorylation of IRS-1 are the principle mechanisms...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28583471/expression-of-glucose-transporter-proteins-in-human-diabetic-placenta
#18
REVIEW
Paweł Jan Stanirowski, Dariusz Szukiewicz, Monika Pazura-Turowska, Włodzimierz Sawicki, Krzysztof Cendrowski
Gestational diabetes mellitus and pregestational diabetes mellitus constitute carbohydrate metabolism disorders, which, if not diagnosed and adequately treated, lead to serious and often life-threatening pregnancy complications. According to a recently formulated hypothesis, some diabetes-related complications, such as fetal macrosomia, may be the result of disturbances in the transplacental transport of nutrients-in particular, excessive maternal-fetal glucose transfer. Throughout pregnancy, glucose flux across the placenta is mediated by the group of facilitative glucose transporters (GLUT), the expression of which in different placental compartments is the precondition for effective glucose uptake from maternal blood and its subsequent transfer to the fetal circulation...
June 2, 2017: Canadian Journal of Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28580288/restoration-of-lepr-in-%C3%AE-cells-of-lepr-null-mice-does-not-prevent-hyperinsulinemia-and-hyperglycemia
#19
Anna M D'souza, Timothy J Kieffer
OBJECTIVE: The adipose-derived hormone leptin plays an important role in regulating body weight and glucose homeostasis. Leptin receptors are expressed in the central nervous system as well as peripheral tissues involved in regulating glucose homeostasis, including insulin-producing β cells of the pancreas. Previous studies assessing the role of leptin receptors in β cells used Cre-loxP to disrupt the leptin receptor gene (Lepr) in β cells, but variable results were obtained. Furthermore, recombination of Lepr was observed in the hypothalamus or exocrine pancreas, in addition to the β cells, and Lepr in non-β cells may have compensated for the loss of Lepr in β cells, thus making it difficult to assess the direct effects of Lepr in β cells...
June 2017: Molecular Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28570686/acute-bout-of-exercise-induced-prolonged-muscle-glucose-transporter-4-translocation-and-delayed-counter-regulatory-hormone-response-in-type-1-diabetes
#20
Koji Sato, Takeshi Nishijima, Takumi Yokokawa, Satoshi Fujita
Previous studies have demonstrated that an acute bout of aerobic exercise induces a subsequent delayed onset of hypoglycemia among patients with type 1 diabetes. However, the mechanisms of exercise-induced hypoglycemia in type 1 diabetes are still unclear. Streptozotocin (STZ) was injected to 6-week-old male Wistar rats, and three days after STZ injection, animals were randomly assigned into 2 groups: STZ with insulin only (STZ) and STZ with insulin and exercise (STZ+EX). Normal Wistar rats with exercise were used as control (CON+EX)...
2017: PloS One
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