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Steve Taylor, Kimberly Eisenstein, Vanessa Gildenstern, Harper Price, Pooja Hingorani, Apurvi Patel, Nathan Page, Smita Bailey, David Carpentieri
Infantile choriocarcinoma (ICC) is a rare, highly malignant form of gestational trophoblastic neoplasia. Rapid diagnosis and initiation of treatment are paramount in reaching a successful outcome. Patients with these tumors typically present with a triad of anemia, hepatomegaly, and precocious puberty. Cutaneous manifestations of ICC are extraordinarily rare with few documented cases. Here, we describe a male neonate who presented to our Dermatology clinic with a rapidly growing, markedly vascular glabellar mass associated with abnormal laboratory values suggestive of Kasabach-Merritt phenomenon...
January 1, 2018: Pediatric and Developmental Pathology
Phealay May, Patricia Bremond, Christophe Sauzet, Philippe Piccerelle, Frédérique Grimaldi, Serge Champion, Pierre-Henri Villard
(1) Objective: Highlight the in vitro effects of 3T3-L1 cell exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB118 and 153) or benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) alone or as a cocktail on adipogenesis (ADG) by focusing on changes in lipid metabolism and inflammatory-related genes expression (INFG) and ADG-related genes expression (ADGG); (2) Results: Treatment from the early stage of cell differentiation by BaP alone or in combination with PCBs decreased the expression of some of the ADGG ( PPARγ Glut-4 , FAS , Lipin-1a , Leptin , and Adiponectin )...
March 13, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Huijun Wang, Mark Fowler, David Messenge, Leon A Terry, Xuelan Gu, Luxian Zhou, Ruimin Liu, Juan Su, Songshan Shi, Jos Eacute Ordaz-Ortiz, Guoping Lian, Mark Berry, Shunchun Wang
Foods of high carbohydrate content such as sucrose or starch increase postprandial blood glucose concentrations. The glucose absorption system in the intestine comprises two components: sodium-dependent glucose transporter-1 (SGLT1) and glucose transporter 2 (GLUT2). Here five sappanin-type (SAP) homoisoflavonoids were identified as novel potent GLUT2 inhibitors, with three of them isolated from the fibrous roots of Polygonatum odoratum (Mill.) Druce. SAP homoisolflavonoids had a stronger inhibitory effect on 25 mM glucose transport (41...
March 13, 2018: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Camila Dalmolin, Daniela Volcan Almeida, Marcio Azevedo Figueiredo, Luis Fernando Marins
The brain is a highly demanding organ in terms of energy requirements, and precise regulatory mechanisms must operate to ensure adequate energy delivery to maintain normal neuronal activity. Of the energy-promoting substrates present in the circulation, glucose is preferred by the brain, and as with all other substrates, its utilization depends on the presence of humoral factors such as hormones including growth hormone (GH). Glucose enters the cells though specific transport proteins. Among all transporter families and subtypes described to date, the most studied ones are the glucose transporters (GLUTs)...
March 9, 2018: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part A, Molecular & Integrative Physiology
Apichaya Niyomchan, Daranee Visitnonthachai, Sumitra Suntararuks, Pronrumpa Ngamsiri, Piyajit Watcharasit, Jutamaad Satayavivad
A strong correlation between chronic arsenic exposure and neuropsychological disorders leads to a growing concern about a potential risk of arsenic related neurodegeneration. Evidently, brain insulin signaling contributes to physiological effects, including energy homeostasis, and learning and memory. Arsenic has been shown to impair insulin signaling in adipocytes and myocytes, however, this impairment has not yet been explored in neurons. Here we showed that NaAsO2 caused significant reduction in basal levels of glucose, plasma membrane glucose transporter, GLUT 3 and Akt phosphorylation in differentiated human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells...
March 8, 2018: Neurotoxicology
Ting Deng, Yu Zhang, Yang Wu, Ping Ma, Jiufei Duan, Wei Qin, Xu Yang, Mingqing Chen
Epidemiological studies suggest a positive relationship between phthalate exposure and diabetes. However, little is known about the impact of dibutyl phthalate (DBP) exposure on the development of diabetes. To determine the role of DBP exposure on the development of type 2 diabetes, mice were orally exposed to DBP dosages of 0.5, 5, 50 mg/kg/day for 7 weeks, combined with a high fat diet and injections of a low dose of streptozotocin (STZ). The results showed that exposure to 50 mg/kg/day DBP alone induced a marked decrease in insulin secretion and glucose intolerance, but had no influence on insulin resistance...
March 8, 2018: Toxicology Letters
Maia Kavanagh Williamson, Naomi Coombes, Florian Juszczak, Marios Athanasopoulos, Mariam B Khan, Thomas R Eykyn, Ushani Srenathan, Leonie S Taams, Julianna Dias Zeidler, Andrea T Da Poian, Hendrik Huthoff
Infection of primary CD4+ T cells with HIV-1 coincides with an increase in glycolysis. We investigated the expression of glucose transporters (GLUT) and glycolytic enzymes in human CD4+ T cells in response to infection with HIV-1. We demonstrate the co-expression of GLUT1, GLUT3, GLUT4, and GLUT6 in human CD4+ T cells after activation, and their concerted overexpression in HIV-1 infected cells. The investigation of glycolytic enzymes demonstrated activation-dependent expression of hexokinases HK1 and HK2 in human CD4+ T cells, and a highly significant increase in cellular hexokinase enzyme activity in response to infection with HIV-1...
March 7, 2018: Viruses
Akram Ahangarpour, Ali Akbar Oroojan, Layasadat Khorsandi, Maryam Kouchak, Mohammad Badavi
Hyperglycemia induced oxidative stress inside the cells. Myricitrin, as an antioxidant plant-derived component, may be useful in hyperglycemia. Hence, the aim of this study was conducted to evaluate the antioxidant effects of myricitrin on hyperglycemia-induced oxidative damage in myotubes (C2C12 cells). In this experimental study, mouse myoblast cell line (C2C12) was obtained and divided into five groups: control, hyperglycemia, hyperglycemia + myricitrin 1, 3, and 10 μM. After treatment period for 48 h, cells were collected, homogenized, and centrifuged at 2000 rpm for 10 min...
March 7, 2018: Cell Stress & Chaperones
Debora Vignali, Elisa Cantarelli, Carlotta Bordignon, Adriana Canu, Antonio Citro, Andrea Annoni, Lorenzo Piemonti, Paolo Monti
Stem memory T cells (Tscm) constitute the earliest developmental stage of memory T cells, displaying stem cell-like properties such as self-renewal capacity. Their superior immune reconstitution potential has sparked interest in cancer immune-therapy, vaccine development and immune reconstitution, whereas their role in autoimmunity is largely unexplored. Here we show that autoreactive CD8+ Tscm specific for β cell antigens GAD65, insulin and IGRP are present in patients with type 1 diabetes (T1D). In vitro, generation of autoreactive Tscm from naïve precursors required the presence of the homeostatic cytokine interleukin-7 (IL-7)...
March 5, 2018: Diabetes
Alexandra Bukchin, Guillem Pascual-Pasto, Maria Cuadrado-Vilanova, Helena Castillo-Ecija, Carles Monterrubio, Nagore G Olaciregui, Monica Vila-Ubach, Laia Ordeix, Jaume Mora, Ángel M Carcaboso, Alejandro Sosnik
We report for the first time on a nano-drug delivery system based on glucosylated polymeric nanomicelles to actively target the second-generation tyrosine kinase inhibitor dasatinib to glucose-avid pediatric sarcomas by the intravenous route. After a comprehensive physicochemical characterization that confirmed the substantially lower critical micellar concentration and the higher encapsulation capacity of the glucosylated amphiphilic nanocarrier with respect to the pristine counterpart, we showed a 9-fold decrease of the half maximal inhibitory concentration of dasatinib in a rhabdomyosarcoma cell line, Rh30, in vitro...
February 28, 2018: Journal of Controlled Release: Official Journal of the Controlled Release Society
Soma Behera, Bandish Kapadia, Vasundhara Kain, Neeraja P Alamuru-Yellapragada, Vachana Murunikkara, Sireesh T Kumar, Phanithi Prakash Babu, Sriram Seshadri, Prasad Shivarudraiah, Jagadheshan Hiriyan, Narmadha Reddy Gangula, Subbareddy Maddika, Parimal Misra, Kishore V L Parsa
Nutritional abundance associated with chronic inflammation and dyslipidemia impairs the functioning of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) thereby hampering cellular responses to insulin. PHLPP1 was identified as a phosphatase which inactivates Akt, the master regulator of insulin mediated glucose homeostasis. Given the suggestive role of PHLPP1 phosphatase in terminating insulin signalling pathways, deeper insights into its functional role in inducing insulin resistance are warranted. Here, we show that PHLPP1 expression is enhanced in skeletal muscle of insulin resistant rodents which also displayed ER stress, an important mediator of insulin resistance...
February 27, 2018: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
Jyotibala Banjare, Prerna Raina, Prakash Mansara, Ruchika Kaul Ghanekar, Supriya Bhalerao
Background: Triphala, an Ayurvedic polyherbal formulation, is used for the treatment of various diseases including obesity. Objective: The present study was planned to evaluate the anti-adipogenic potential of aqueous extract of Triphala (TPaq ) using 3T3-L1 adipocyte cell line model. Methods: The effect of aqueous extract of Triphala (TPaq ) was tested on the viability of 3T3- L1 cells by MTT assay. The cells were treated with a cocktail of dexamethasone (DEX), isobutylmethylxanthine (IBMX) and insulin to induce adipogenesis...
January 2018: Pharmacognosy Magazine
Guo-Shuai Yang, Xiao-Yan Zhou, Xue-Fang An, Xuan-Jun Liu, Yan-Jun Zhang, Dan Yu
Stroke is considered an underlying etiology of the development of seizures. Stroke leads to glucose and oxygen deficiency in neurons, resulting in brain dysfunction and injury. Mild hypothermia is a therapeutic strategy to inhibit stroke‑induced seizures, which may be associated with the regulation of energy metabolism of the brain. Mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling and solute carrier family 2, facilitated glucose transporter member (GLUT)‑1 are critical for energy metabolism. Furthermore, mTOR overactivation and GLUT‑1 deficiency are associated with genetically acquired seizures...
February 22, 2018: Molecular Medicine Reports
Taiming Liu, Meijuan Zhang, Michael H Terry, Hobe Schroeder, Sean Wilson, Gordon Power, Qian Li, Trent Tipple, Dan Borchardt, Arlin Blood
Glutathione-liganded binuclear dinitrosyl iron complex (glut-BDNIC) has been proposed to be a donor of nitric oxide (NO). This study was undertaken to investigate the mechanisms of vasoactivity, systemic hemodynamic effects, and pharmacokinetics of glut-BDNIC. To test the hypothesis that glut-BDNICs vasodilate by releasing NO in its reduced (HNO) state, a bioassay method of isolated, preconstricted ovine mesenteric arterial rings was used in the presence of selective scavengers of HNO or NO free radical (NO⋅), the vasodilatory effects of glut-BDNIC were found to have characteristics similar to those of an HNO donor and markedly different than a NO⋅ donor...
February 23, 2018: Molecular Pharmacology
Kuo-Ping Shen, Hui-Li Lin, Hsueh-Wei Yen, Su-Ling Hsieh, Li-Mei An, Bin-Nan Wu
This study examined the effects of eugenosedin-A (Eu-A) in a streptozotocin (STZ)/nicotinamide-induced rat model of type II diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Six-week-old Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into three groups: (1) RD group, normal rats fed a regular diet (RD), (2) DM group, T2DM rats fed a high-fat diet, and (3) Eu-A group, T2DM rats fed a high fat diet plus oral Eu-A (5 mg/kg/day). After 30 days, the DM group had higher body weight, higher blood glucose and lower insulin levels than the RD group...
March 2018: Kaohsiung Journal of Medical Sciences
Anuradha, Amitabh Krishna
The aim of the present study was to evaluate the mechanism by which embryonic development in Cynopterus sphinx is impaired during the period of increased accumulation of white adipose tissue during winter scarcity of food. The change in the mass of white adipose tissue during adipogenesis showed significant positive correlation with the circulating glucose level. But increase in circulating glucose level during the adipogenesis showed negative correlation with circulating progesterone and adiponectin levels...
February 20, 2018: General and Comparative Endocrinology
Sonam Kumari, Sheema Khan, Subash C Gupta, Vivek K Kashyap, Murali M Yallapu, Subhash C Chauhan, Meena Jaggi
Pancreatic tumors are rewired for high-glucose metabolism and typically present with exceptionally poor prognosis. Recently, we have shown that MUC13, which is highly expressed in pancreatic tumors, promotes tumor progression via modulation of HER2 receptor tyrosine kinase activity. Herein, we investigate a novel, MUC13-mediated molecular mechanism responsible for higher glucose metabolism in pancreatic tumors. Our results demonstrate that MUC13 expression leads to the activation/nuclear translocation of NF-κB p65 and phosphorylation of IκB, which in turn upregulates the expression of important proteins (Glut-1, c-Myc, and Bcl-2) that are involved in glucose metabolism...
February 22, 2018: Oncogenesis
Tsai-Mu Cheng, Hsueh-Liang Chu, Yi-Cheng Lee, Di-Yan Wang, Che-Chang Chang, Kuan-Lan Chung, Hung-Chi Yen, Chu-Wen Hsiao, Xi-Yu Pan, Tsung-Rong Kuo, Chia-Chun Chen
The glucose metabolism rate in cancer cells is a crucial piece of information for the cancer aggressiveness. A feasible method to monitor processes of oncogenic mutations has been demonstrated in this work. The fluorescent gold nanoclusters conjugated with glucose (glucose-AuNCs) were successfully synthesized as a cancer-targeting probe for glucose transporters (Gluts) overexpressed by U-87 MG cancer cells, which can be observed under confocal microscopy. The structural and optical characterizations of fluorescent glucose-AuNCs were confirmed by transmission electron microscope (TEM) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR)...
February 21, 2018: Analytical Chemistry
Mingyao Liu, Hongwei Cao, Yuting Hou, Guopeng Sun, Deshan Li, Wenfei Wang
BACKGROUND/AIMS: The liver is a vital organ in vertebrates and has a wide range of functions, including glucose absorption, glycogen storage and glucose production. Fibroblast growth factor (FGF)-21 is a metabolic regulator that is primarily produced by the liver. In this paper, we studied the effect of FGF-21 on glucose metabolism in the liver. METHODS: The glucose uptake of cells was detected by 2-Deoxy-d-[3H] glucose; the synergy between insulin and FGF-21 was evaluated...
February 15, 2018: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
Jacqueline C Silva, Edson M de Oliveira, Walter M Turato, Gustavo H G Trossini, Vinícius G Maltarollo, Marina G R Pitta, Ivan R Pitta, Beatriz de Las Heras, Lisardo Boscá, Martina Rudnicki, Dulcineia S P Abdalla
BACKGROUND: Obesity and insulin resistance/diabetes are important risk factors for cardiovascular diseases and demand safe and efficacious therapeutics. OBJECTIVE: To assess the effects of a new thiazolidine compound-GQ-11-on obesity and insulin resistance induced by a diabetogenic diet in LDL receptor-deficient (LDLr -/- ) mice. METHODS: Molecular docking simulations of GQ-11, PPARα and PPARγ structures were performed. Male C57BL/6J LDLr -/- mice fed a diabetogenic diet for 24 weeks were treated with vehicle, GQ-11 or pioglitazone or (20 mg/kg/day) for 28 days by oral gavage...
January 30, 2018: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
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