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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29314300/low-grade-fibromyxoid-sarcoma-arising-within-the-median-nerve
#1
Amy A Swanson, Caterina Giannini, Andrew L Folpe, Daniel L Van Dyke, Kimberly K Amrami, William A Michalak, Rachael A Vaubel
We report a case of low-grade fibromyxoid sarcoma arising within the median nerve. A 31-year-old woman presented with symptoms of carpal tunnel syndrome and an enlarging mass in her right palm over 1 year. MRI demonstrated a mass associated with the right median nerve with solid and cystic components. At surgery, the mass was located within the epineurium, could be bluntly dissected from the nerve fascicles, and was suspected to be a schwannoma. A 3.4 cm, tan-pink, glistening, smooth, homogenous mass was submitted to pathology...
January 3, 2018: Neuropathology: Official Journal of the Japanese Society of Neuropathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29310812/pgbr-extract-ameliorates-tnf-%C3%AE-induced-insulin-resistance-in-hepatocytes
#2
Fu-Chih Chen, Kuo-Ping Shen, Jin-Bor Chen, Hui-Li Lin, Chi-Long Hao, Hsueh-Wei Yen, Shyh-Yu Shaw
Pre-germinated brown rice (PGBR) could ameliorate metabolic syndrome, however, not much research estimates the effect of PGBR extract on insulin resistance. The aim of this study is to examine the effects of PGBR extract in TNF-α induced insulin resistance. HepG2 cells, hepatocytes, were cultured in DMEM medium and added with 5 μM insulin or with insulin and 30 ng/ml TNF-α or with insulin, TNF-α and PGBR extract (50, 100, 300 μg/ml). The glucose levels of the medium were decreased by insulin, demonstrating insulin promoted glucose uptake into cell...
January 2018: Kaohsiung Journal of Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29306057/the-effects-of-omega-3-and-vitamin-e-co-supplementation-on-parameters-of-mental-health-and-gene-expression-related-to-insulin-and-inflammation-in-subjects-with-polycystic-ovary-syndrome
#3
Mehri Jamilian, Azadeh Shojaei, Mansooreh Samimi, Faraneh Afshar Ebrahimi, Esmat Aghadavod, Maryam Karamali, Mohsen Taghizadeh, Hamidreza Jamilian, Somayeh Alaeinasab, Sadegh Jafarnejad, Zatollah Asemi
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of omega-3 and vitamin E co-supplementation on parameters of mental health and gene expression related to insulin and inflammation in subjects with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). METHODS: Forty PCOS women were allocated into two groups and treated with 1000mg omega-3 fatty acids plus 400 IU vitamin E supplements (n = 20) or placebo (n = 20) per day for 12 weeks. Parameters of mental health were recorded at baseline and after the 12-week intervention...
December 28, 2017: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29304807/laquinimod-ameliorates-excitotoxic-damage-by-regulating-glutamate-re-uptake
#4
Antonietta Gentile, Alessandra Musella, Francesca De Vito, Diego Fresegna, Silvia Bullitta, Francesca Romana Rizzo, Diego Centonze, Georgia Mandolesi
BACKGROUND: Laquinimod is an immunomodulatory drug under clinical investigation for the treatment of the progressive form of multiple sclerosis (MS) with both anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective effects. Excitotoxicity, a prominent pathophysiological feature of MS and of its animal model, experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), involves glutamate transporter (GluT) dysfunction in glial cells. The aim of this study was to assess whether laquinimod might exert direct neuroprotective effects by interfering with the mechanisms of excitotoxicity linked to GluT function impairments in EAE...
January 5, 2018: Journal of Neuroinflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29303961/individualizing-treatment-approaches-for-epileptic-patients-with-glucose-transporter-type1-glut-1-deficiency
#5
REVIEW
Armond Daci, Adnan Bozalija, Fisnik Jashari, Shaip Krasniqi
Monogenic and polygenic mutations are important contributors in patients suffering from epilepsy, including metabolic epilepsies which are inborn errors of metabolism with a good respond to specific dietetic treatments. Heterozygous variation in solute carrier family 2, facilitated glucose transporter member 1 (SLC2A1) and mutations of the GLUT1/SLC2A2 gene results in the failure of glucose transport, which is related with a glucose type-1 transporter (GLUT1) deficiency syndrome (GLUT1DS). GLUT1 deficiency syndrome is a treatable disorder of glucose transport into the brain caused by a variety of mutations in the SLC2A1 gene which are the cause of different neurological disorders also with different types of epilepsy and related clinical phenotypes...
January 5, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29303786/aerobic-glycolysis-in-amyotrophic-lateral-sclerosis-and-huntington-s-disease
#6
REVIEW
Alexandre Vallée, Yves Lecarpentier, Rémy Guillevin, Jean-Noël Vallée
Neurodegenerative cells are the sites of numerous metabolic and energetic abnormalities with abnormalities in energy production. Energy is the primary determinant of neuronal viability. In neurodegenerative cells, metabolic enzymes are modified by the dysregulation of the canonical WNT/β-catenin pathway. In amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and Huntington's disease (HD), WNT/β-catenin pathway is upregulated. We focused this review on the hypothesis of aerobic glycolysis stimulated by the upregulation of WNT/β-catenin pathway in ALS and HD...
January 5, 2018: Reviews in the Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29301575/warburg-effect-hypothesis-in-autism-spectrum-disorders
#7
REVIEW
Alexandre Vallée, Jean-Noël Vallée
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a neurodevelopmental disease which is characterized by a deficit in social interactions and communication with repetitive and restrictive behavior. In altered cells, metabolic enzymes are modified by the dysregulation of the canonical WNT/β-catenin pathway. In ASD, the canonical WNT/β-catenin pathway is upregulated. We focus this review on the hypothesis of Warburg effect stimulated by the overexpression of the canonical WNT/β-catenin pathway in ASD. Upregulation of WNT/β-catenin pathway induces aerobic glycolysis, named Warburg effect, through activation of glucose transporter (Glut), pyruvate kinase M2 (PKM2), pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase 1(PDK1), monocarboxylate lactate transporter 1 (MCT-1), lactate dehydrogenase kinase-A (LDH-A) and inactivation of pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (PDH)...
January 4, 2018: Molecular Brain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29300939/cgmp-pkg-i-pathway-mediated-glut1-4-regulation-by-no-nitric-oxide-in-female-rat-granulosa-cells
#8
Ye Tian, Dai Heng, Kaili Xu, Wenbo Liu, Xuechun Weng, Xusong Hu, Cheng Zhang
Nitric oxide (NO) is a multifunctional gaseous molecule that plays important roles in mammalian reproductive functions including follicular growth and development. Although our previous study showed that NO mediated 3,5,3'-triiodothyronine (T3) and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH)-induced granulosa cell development via upregulation of GLUT1 (glucose transporter protein ) and GLUT4 in granulosa cells, little is known about the precise mechanisms regulating ovarian development via glucose. The objective of the present study was to determine the cellular and molecular mechanism by which NO regulates GLUT expression and glucose uptake in granulosa cells...
December 28, 2017: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29300317/phytotherapy-in-the-management-of-diabetes-a-review
#9
REVIEW
Paolo Governa, Giulia Baini, Vittoria Borgonetti, Giulia Cettolin, Daniela Giachetti, Anna Rosa Magnano, Elisabetta Miraldi, Marco Biagi
Phytotherapy has long been a source of medicinal products and over the years there have been many attempts to use herbal medicines for the treatment of diabetes. Several medicinal plants and their preparations have been demonstrated to act at key points of glucidic metabolism. The most common mechanisms of action found include the inhibition of α-glucosidase and of AGE formation, the increase of GLUT-4 and PPARs expression and antioxidant activity. Despite the large amount of literature available, the actual clinical effectiveness of medicinal plants in controlling diabetes-related symptoms remains controversial and there is a crucial need for stronger evidence-based data...
January 4, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29298529/shbg-expression-is-correlated-with-pi3k-akt-pathway-activity-in-a-cellular-model-of-human-insulin-resistance
#10
Chong Feng, Zhen Jin, Xinshu Chi, Bao Zhang, Xiaoyan Wang, Lei Sun, Jiehui Fan, Qian Sun, Xuan Zhang
Decreased sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) expression is an independent risk factor for gestational diabetes mellitus(GDM).However, the mechanisms that link low SHBG expression and insulin resistance in GDM is unclear. In this study, we investigated the placenta SHBG in the PI3K/AKT pathway to reveal the mechanism that links decreased SHBG to insulin resistance. A insulin resistance cells model was established by the method of insulin stimulation. Two groups were set up, HTR8/Svneo cells and insulin-resistance cells of HTR8/SVneo...
January 3, 2018: Gynecological Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29298131/a-systematic-review-of-p53-regulation-of-oxidative-stress-in-skeletal-muscle
#11
Kaitlyn Beyfuss, David A Hood
BACKGROUND: p53 is a tumor suppressor protein involved in regulating a wide array of signaling pathways. The role of p53 in the cell is determined by the type of imposed oxidative stress, its intensity and duration. The last decade of research has unravelled a dual nature in the function of p53 in mediating the oxidative stress burden. However, this is dependent on the specific properties of the applied stress and thus requires further analysis. METHODS: A systematic review was performed following an electronic search of Pubmed, Google Scholar, and ScienceDirect databases...
January 3, 2018: Redox Report: Communications in Free Radical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29290263/abundant-tumor-promoting-stromal-cells-in-lung-adenocarcinoma-with-hypoxic-regions
#12
Hiroshi Nakamura, Tomohiro Ichikawa, Shoko Nakasone, Tomohiro Miyoshi, Masato Sugano, Motohiro Kojima, Satoshi Fujii, Atsushi Ochiai, Takeshi Kuwata, Keiju Aokage, Kenji Suzuki, Masahiro Tsuboi, Genichiro Ishii
OBJECTIVES: Carbonic anhydrase IX (CAIX) is a marker of hypoxia and its expression by cancer associated fibroblasts (CAFs) was reportedly associated with the poor prognosis of lung adenocarcinoma. This study aimed to characterize the hypoxic microenvironment containing CAIX (+) CAFs. MATERIALS AND METHODS: First, we evaluated the clinicopathological significance of CAIX expression by CAFs in 3cm and above lung adenocarcinoma (n=188). We then compared the expressions of E-cadherin, ezrin, ALDH-1, CD44, EGFR, HSF-1, Glut-1, and PD-L1 in cancer cells, as well as those of CD204 and podoplanin in stromal cells between CAIX (+) CAFs and CAIX (-) CAFs cases (n=25, each)...
January 2018: Lung Cancer: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29284375/one-week-exposure-to-a-free-choice-high-fat-high-sugar-diet-does-not-disrupt-blood-brain-barrier-permeability-in-fed-or-overnight-fasted-rats
#13
M Rijnsburger, U A Unmehopa, L Eggels, M J Serlie, S E la Fleur
OBJECTIVES: The hypothalamus lies adjacent to the third ventricle and is in close proximity with the median eminence (ME), a circumventricular organ with an incomplete blood-brain barrier (BBB) which controls direct entry of nutrients into the brain. The blood-CSF barrier of the hypothalamus shows dynamic changes upon neuroendocrine events and adjusts permeability with the tight junction (TJ) complex. It has been shown that chronic exposure to a high-fat diet (HFD) affects BBB permeability...
December 29, 2017: Nutritional Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29274367/the-effects-of-incretin-hormones-on-cerebral-glucose-metabolism-in-health-and-disease
#14
REVIEW
Malin Nilsson, Albert Gjedde, Birgitte Brock, Michael Gejl, Jørgen Rungby
Incretin hormones, notably glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), are gluco-regulatory hormones with pleiotropic effects also in the central nervous system. Apart from a local production of GLP-1, systemic administration of the hormone has been shown to influence a number of cerebral pathologies, including neuroinflammation. Given the brains massive dependence on glucose as its major fuel, we here review the mechanistics of cerebral glucose transport and metabolism, focusing on the deleterious effects of both hypo- and hyperglycaemia...
December 20, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29262366/a-loose-relationship-incomplete-h-sugar-coupling-in-the-mfs-sugar-transporter-glcp
#15
Andre Bazzone, Annas J Zabadne, Anastasia Salisowski, M Gregor Madej, Klaus Fendler
The glucose transporter from Staphylococcus epidermidis, GlcPSe, is a homolog of the human GLUT sugar transporters of the major facilitator superfamily. Together with the xylose transporter from Escherichia coli, XylEEc, the other prominent prokaryotic GLUT homolog, GlcPSe, is equipped with a conserved proton-binding site arguing for an electrogenic transport mode. However, the electrophysiological analysis of GlcPSe presented here reveals important differences between the two GLUT homologs. GlcPSe, unlike XylEEc, does not perform steady-state electrogenic transport at symmetrical pH conditions...
December 19, 2017: Biophysical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29233733/regulation-mechanism-of-dioscin-on-uric-acid-excretion
#16
Yi Zhang, Lijun Jin, Jinchang Liu, Wei Wang, Haiyang Yu, Jian Li, Qian Chen, Tao Wang
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGY RELEVANCE: Dioscin, a spirostane glycoside, the rhizoma of Dioscorea septemloba (Diocoreacea) is used for diuresis, rheumatism, and joints pain. Given the poor solubility and stability of Dioscin, we proposed a hypothesis that Dioscin's metabolite(s) are the active substance(s) in vivo to contribute to the reducing effects on serum uric acid levels. AIM OF THE STUDY: The aim of this study is to identify the active metabolite(s) of Dioscin in vivo and to explore the mechanism of its antihyperuricemic activity...
December 9, 2017: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29233707/phylogenetic-characterization-of-transporter-proteins-in-the-cnidarian-dinoflagellate-symbiosis
#17
Ashley E Sproles, Nathan L Kirk, Sheila A Kitchen, Clinton A Oakley, Arthur R Grossman, Virginia M Weis, Simon K Davy
Metabolic exchange between cnidarians and their symbiotic dinoflagellates is central to maintaining their mutualistic relationship. Sugars are translocated to the host, while ammonium and nitrate are utilized by the dinoflagellates (Symbiodinium spp.). We investigated membrane protein sequences of each partner to identify potential transporter proteins that move sugars into cnidarian cells and nitrogen products into Symbiodinium cells. We examined the facilitated glucose transporters (GLUT), sodium/glucose cotransporters (SGLT), and aquaporin (AQP) channels in the cnidarian host as mechanisms for sugar uptake, and the ammonium and high-affinity nitrate transporters (AMT and NRT2, respectively) in the algal symbiont as mechanisms for nitrogen uptake...
December 9, 2017: Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228630/transplantation-of-ips-cell-derived-neural-progenitors-overexpressing-sdf-1%C3%AE-increases-regeneration-and-functional-recovery-after-ischemic-stroke
#18
Monica Chau, Todd C Deveau, Mingke Song, Zheng Z Wei, Xiaohuan Gu, Shan Ping Yu, Ling Wei
Ischemic stroke is a leading cause of human death and disability while clinical treatments are limited. The adult brain possesses endogenous regenerative activities that may benefit tissue repair after stroke. Trophic factors such as stromal cell-derived factor 1 alpha (SDF-1α) are upregulated in the ischemic brain, which promote endogenous regeneration. The regenerative response, however, is normally insufficient. Transplantation of exogenous cells has been explored as regenerative therapies. One promising cell type for transplantation is induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells which are cells genetically reprogrammed from adult somatic cells...
November 14, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218530/tracking-glut2-translocation-by-live-cell-imaging
#19
Sabina Tsytkin-Kirschenzweig, Merav Cohen, Yaakov Nahmias
The facilitative glucose transporter (GLUT) family plays a key role in metabolic homeostasis, controlling the absorption rates and rapid response to changing carbohydrate levels. The facilitative GLUT2 transporter is uniquely expressed in metabolic epithelial cells of the intestine, pancreas, liver, and kidney. GLUT2 dysfunction is associated with several pathologies, including Fanconi-Bickel syndrome, a glycogen storage disease, characterized by growth retardation and renal dysfunction. Interestingly, GLUT2 activity is modulated by its cellular localization...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218529/quantification-of-cell-surface-glucose-transporters-in-the-heart-using-a-biotinylated-photolabeling-assay
#20
Zahra Maria, Véronique A Lacombe
The biotinylated photolabeling assay enables quantification of cell-surface glucose transporters (GLUTs). This technique has been successfully applied to quantify the cell-surface GLUT protein content in striated muscles and adipose tissue, as a means to evaluate GLUT trafficking. Here, we describe the detailed method of quantifying the cell-surface content of several GLUT isoforms (1, 4, 8, and 12) in isolated cardiac myocytes, as well as in the intact perfused atria and ventricle.
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
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