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Behavioural and psychiatric symptoms of dementia

V E Korhonen, E Solje, N M Suhonen, T Rauramaa, R Vanninen, A M Remes, V Leinonen
Behavioural variant frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD) and idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus (iNPH) are neurodegenerative diseases that can present with similar symptoms. These include decline in executive functions, psychomotor slowness, and behavioural and personality changes. Ventricular enlargement is a key radiological finding in iNPH that may also be present in bvFTD caused by the C9ORF72 expansion mutation. Due to this, bvFTD has been hypothesized as a potential comorbidity to iNPH but bvFTD patients have never been identified in studies focusing in clinical comorbidities with iNPH...
April 19, 2017: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS
Shiraz Tyebji, Anthony J Hannan
Dementia encapsulates a set of symptoms that include loss of mental abilities such as memory, problem solving or language, and reduces a person's ability to perform daily activities. Alzheimer's disease is the most common form of dementia, however dementia can also occur in other neurological disorders such as Huntington's disease (HD). Many studies have demonstrated that loss of neuronal cell function manifests pre-symptomatically and thus is a relevant therapeutic target to alleviate symptoms. Synaptopathy, the physiological dysfunction of synapses, is now being approached as the target for many neurological and psychiatric disorders, including HD...
April 1, 2017: Progress in Neurobiology
Massimiliano Buoli, Marta Serati, Alice Caldiroli, Daniela Galimberti, Elio Scarpini, Alfredo Carlo Altamura
Psychiatric symptoms in patients with frontotemporal dementia (FTD) are highly prevalent and may complicate clinical management of these patients. Purpose of the present article is to present and discuss available data about the pharmacological treatment of psychiatric symptoms in patients with FTD. A research in the main database sources has been conducted to obtain an overview of the pharmacological management of psychiatric symptoms in patients with FTD. The search strategy included the following terms-"FTD and psychiatry," "FTD and behavioural disturbances," and "FTD and treatment"...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry and Neurology
Takako Morikawa, Kiyoshi Maeda, Tohmi Osaki, Hiroyuki Kajita, Kayano Yotsumoto, Toshio Kawamata
AIM: People exhibiting serious behavioural and psychological symptoms of dementia are usually voluntarily or involuntarily committed to psychiatric hospitals for treatment. In Japan, the average hospital stay for individuals with dementia is about 2 years. Ideally, individuals should be discharged once their symptoms have subsided. However, we see cases in Japan where individuals remain institutionalized long after behavioural and psychological symptoms of dementia are no longer apparent...
February 10, 2017: Psychogeriatrics: the Official Journal of the Japanese Psychogeriatric Society
Ting-Kuang Chao, Jing Hu, Tamara Pringsheim
Huntington's disease (HD) is an autosomal dominant neurodegenerative disorder characterized by chorea, behavioural and psychiatric manifestations, and dementia, caused by a CAG triplet repeat expansion in the huntingtin gene. Systematic review of the literature was conducted to determine the risk factors for the onset and progression of HD. Multiple databases were searched, using terms specific to Huntington disease and to studies of aetiology, risk, prevention and genetics, limited to studies on human subjects published in English or French between 1950 and 2010...
January 20, 2017: Neurotoxicology
Philippe Fernandez
Behavioural disorders linked to dementia are common. The intertwining of psychiatric and neurodegenerative pathologies means caregivers are faced with complex situations on a daily basis. The expertise of the geriatric psychiatry teams helps to guide the clinical reasoning and to find the best nursing approach in order to understand the symptom and support the patient.
January 2017: Revue de L'infirmière
Rangaswamy, V Ranjith, L Vikas, R Santosh
Fahr's disease or Fahr's syndrome is a rare neurodegenerative disorder characterized by abnormal symmetrical calcifications of the basal ganglia, thalami, sub-cortical hemispheric white matter and deep cerebellar nuclei. It can be idiopathic or associated with an endocrinopathy, frequently with parathyroid disorder. Clinical spectrum of the disease is wide ranging from neurological features like seizure, syncope, stroke like events, extra-pyramidal symptoms often combined with frontal sub-cortical pattern of behavioural dysfunction and psychiatric symptoms such as psychosis, mood disorder and dementia...
August 2016: Journal of the Association of Physicians of India
Samrah Ahmed, Ian Baker, Christopher R Butler
Although the risk of developing dementia increases with age, onset can be as early as the third or fourth decade of life. Genetic influences play a more important role in younger than in older people with dementia, so young onset dementia may cluster in families. Diagnosing young onset dementia is challenging. The range of possible presenting features is broad, encompassing behavioural, cognitive, psychiatric and neurological domains, and symptoms are often subtle initially. Frequently the complaints are misattributed to stress or depression, and the patient is falsely reassured that they are too young to have dementia...
May 2016: Practitioner
Hannah B Edwards, Jelena Savović, Penny Whiting, Verity Leach, Alison Richards, Sarah Cullum, Richard Cheston
INTRODUCTION: Serious adverse outcomes for people with dementia include institutionalisation, hospitalisation, death, development of behavioural and psychiatric symptoms, and reduced quality of life. The quality of the relationship between the person with dementia and their informal/family carer is thought to affect the risk of these outcomes. However, little is known about which aspects of relationship quality are important, or how they affect outcomes for people with dementia. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: This will be a systematic review of the literature...
April 4, 2016: BMJ Open
John V Hindle, Tamlyn J Watermeyer, Julie Roberts, Anthony Martyr, Huw Lloyd-Williams, Andrew Brand, Petra Gutting, Zoe Hoare, Rhiannon Tudor Edwards, Linda Clare
BACKGROUND: There is growing interest in developing non-pharmacological treatments to address the cognitive deficits apparent in Parkinson's disease dementia and dementia with Lewy bodies. Cognitive rehabilitation is a goal-oriented behavioural intervention which focuses on improving everyday functioning through management of cognitive difficulties; it has been shown to be effective in Alzheimer's disease. To date, no studies have assessed its potential efficacy for addressing the impact of cognitive impairment in people with Parkinson's disease or dementia with Lewy bodies...
March 22, 2016: Trials
Bernard McCarthy
Appreciative Inquiry is an approach to organisational change that has been effective and popular around the world for the past two decades. What could it have to offer us as an alternative to traditional 'behaviour management'? Traditionally, in modern dementia care, we take a psychiatric approach to the range of actions that people engage in when stressed or traumatised by the cognitive, social and psychological losses associated with dementia. We call them symptoms of an illness - Behavioural and Psychological Symptoms of Dementia...
February 2017: Dementia
Carlo Wilke, Jörn K Pomper, Saskia Biskup, Cornelia Puskás, Daniela Berg, Matthis Synofzik
While C9orf72 repeat expansions usually present with frontotemporal dementia (FTD) and/or amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), an increasing number of reports suggests that the primary phenotype of C9orf72 patients may also include movement disorders. We here provide the first systematic clinical characterisation of C9orf72-associated parkinsonism. We report a C9orf72 expansion carrier presenting with a clinical syndrome of progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP), pronounced mesencephalic atrophy on MRI and PSP-characteristic electrooculography findings...
March 2016: Journal of Neurology
Takayuki Munechika, Hiroshige Fujishiro, Masato Okuda, Kunihiro Iwamoto, Youta Torii, Shuji Iritani, Norio Ozaki
BACKGROUND: Lewy body disease (LBD), including Parkinson's disease (PD) and dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB), is defined pathologically as degeneration in the central and peripheral nervous system associated with Lewy bodies. Somatic symptom disorder often predates the clinical diagnosis of PD and DLB. It is crucial to make an initial diagnosis of LBD in patients with psychiatric symptoms because administering psychotropic drugs often causes or exacerbates extrapyramidal signs. Given the close association between rapid eye movement (REM) sleep behaviour disorder and LBD, REM sleep without atonia on polysomnography may help to diagnose LBD in middle-aged and older patients with somatic symptom disorder...
January 2017: Psychogeriatrics: the Official Journal of the Japanese Psychogeriatric Society
Pieter W Molleman, J B M Hanneke van Kesteren, Carola J M Ubink-Bontekoe, Machteld P D Zoomer-Hendriks, Roland B Wetzels
Patients with dementia almost all have one or more symptoms of problem behaviour. This problem behaviour includes a wide range of symptoms including depression, anxiety and apathy, and behavioural problems such as aggression, general restlessness, compulsion to walk, disinhibition and calling, and psychotic disorders such as delusions and hallucinations. Due to the persistence and complexity of problem behaviour in patients with dementia, doctors often prescribe psychotropic drugs for long periods of time. In nursing homes there is a great need for non-pharmacological treatments for patients with psychological or psychiatric problems...
2015: Nederlands Tijdschrift Voor Geneeskunde
Ichiro Ishikawa, Hideto Shinno, Nobuo Ando, Takahiro Mori, Yu Nakamura
OBJECTIVE: Behavioural and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD) are commonly present in patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD). Disturbed sleep quality is also observed in AD patients. However, the effects of memantine on sleep architecture have not been investigated. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of memantine on polysomnography (PSG) variables and BPSD. METHODS: In total, 12 patients with AD (mean age: 79.0±4.1 years old) were enrolled in this study...
June 2016: Acta Neuropsychiatrica
Alexandra B Linds, Alana B Kirstein, Morris Freedman, Nicolaas P L G Verhoeff, Uri Wolf, Tiffany W Chow
OBJECTIVE: To replicate a previous finding that the trajectory of the Neuropsychiatric Inventory (NPI) shifts in the sixth year of behavioural variant frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD). We evaluated longitudinal tracking with both the Frontal Behavioural Inventory (FBI) and NPI, comparing bvFTD against other dementias. METHODS: Chart reviews over two to five years for patients with bvFTD (n=30), primary progressive aphasia (PPA, n=13) and Alzheimer's disease (AD, n=118) at an urban Canadian tertiary clinic specializing in dementia...
November 2015: Canadian Journal of Neurological Sciences. le Journal Canadien des Sciences Neurologiques
E Oikonomou, Th Paparrigopoulos
Parkinson's disease (PD) is the second most common neurodegenerative disease after Alzheimer's disease affecting 1-2% of the population over 60. Although diagnosed by its characteristic motor manifestations, PD may be preceded, and is frequently accompanied, by a wide range of psychiatric and cognitive symptoms. These symptoms are often more debilitating than its motor complications and it is nowadays appreciated that they can be an important cause of excess disability in PD, frequently necessitating hospitalization and institutionalization...
April 2015: Psychiatrikē, Psychiatriki
Eino Solje, Heidi Aaltokallio, Heli Koivumaa-Honkanen, Noora M Suhonen, Virpi Moilanen, Anna Kiviharju, Bryan Traynor, Pentti J Tienari, Päivi Hartikainen, Anne M Remes
BACKGROUND: The C9ORF72 expansion is one of the most common genetic etiologies observed with behavioural variant frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD). Revised diagnostic criteria for bvFTD (FTDC) were recently introduced but only a few studies have evaluated the accuracy of these criteria. OBJECTIVE: The objective of the study was to evaluate the applicability of the FTDC criteria and assess the psychiatric history of these patients. METHODS: The study examined 36 patients carrying the C9ORF72 expansion and suffering from bvFTD (N = 32) or from bvFTD with motor neuron disease (bvFTD-MND, N = 4)...
2015: PloS One
Dieneke Smit, Jacomine de Lange, Bernadette Willemse, Jos Twisk, Anne Margriet Pot
OBJECTIVES: Involvement in activities is assumed to positively influence the quality of life of people with dementia, yet activity provision in long-term care remains limited. This study aims to provide more insight into the value of activity involvement for domains of the quality of life of long-term dementia care residents, taking resident characteristics and cognitive status into account. METHOD: Data were derived from 144 long-term care facilities participating in the second measurement (2010/2011) of the living arrangements for dementia study...
2016: Aging & Mental Health
Atsuko Yoshimura, Adam Lebowitz, Shogyoku Bun, Miyuki Aiba, Chiaki Ikejima, Takashi Asada
BACKGROUND: In Japan, the number of dementia patients admitted to hospitals and other care facilities has been increasing and their hospital stays prolonged. Until now, there has been no study examining the differences between patients in psychiatric hospitals and other care facilities. Here we attempt a comparative analysis of characteristics of dementia patients in psychiatric hospitals and other types of facilities based on a nationwide survey. METHOD: A nationwide, cross-sectional survey was conducted in 2009-2011...
January 2016: Psychogeriatrics: the Official Journal of the Japanese Psychogeriatric Society
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