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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28615661/increased-levels-of-ascorbic-acid-in-the-cerebrospinal-fluid-of-cognitively-intact-elderly-patients-with-major-depression-a-preliminary-study
#1
Kenji Hashimoto, Tamaki Ishima, Yasunori Sato, Davide Bruno, Jay Nierenberg, Charles R Marmar, Henrik Zetterberg, Kaj Blennow, Nunzio Pomara
Major depressive disorder (MDD) in the elderly is a risk factor for dementia, but the precise biological basis remains unknown, hampering the search for novel biomarkers and treatments. In this study, we performed metabolomics analysis of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) from cognitively intact elderly patients (N = 28) with MDD and age- and gender-matched healthy controls (N = 18). The CSF levels of 177 substances were measured, while 288 substances were below the detection limit. Only ascorbic acid was significantly different, with higher levels in the MDD group at baseline...
June 14, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28614491/depression-and-psychodynamic-psychotherapy
#2
Ângela Ribeiro, João P Ribeiro, Orlando von Doellinger
Depression is a complex condition, and its classical biological/psychosocial distinction is fading. Current guidelines are increasingly advocating psychotherapy as a treatment option. Psychodynamic psychotherapy models encompass a heterogeneous group of interventions derived from early psychoanalytic conceptualizations. Growing literature is raising awareness in the scientific community about the importance of these treatment options, as well as their favorable impact on post-treatment outcomes and relapse prevention...
June 12, 2017: Revista Brasileira de Psiquiatria
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28585435/creating-animal-models-why-not-use-the-chinese-tree-shrew-tupaia-belangeri-chinensis
#3
Yong-Gang Yao
The Chinese tree shrew (Tupaia belangeri chinensis), a squirrel-like and rat-sized mammal, has a wide distribution in Southeast Asia, South and Southwest China and has many unique characteristics that make it suitable for use as an experimental animal. There have been many studies using the tree shrew (Tupaia belangeri) aimed at increasing our understanding of fundamental biological mechanisms and for the modeling of human diseases and therapeutic responses. The recent release of a publicly available annotated genome sequence of the Chinese tree shrew and its genome database (www...
May 18, 2017: Zoological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28578134/investigation-of-copy-number-variation-in-subjects-with-major-depression-based-on-whole-genome-sequencing-data
#4
Chenglong Yu, Bernhard T Baune, Ma-Li Wong, Julio Licinio
BACKGROUND: Despite recent intensive research using genome-wide association studies, the underlying biological basis of major depressive disorder (MDD) still remains unknown. In contrast to genotyping platforms which identify specific variations, whole-genome sequencing (WGS) allows us to detect all private genetic variations within an individual. So far there have been no studies investigating copy number variations (CNVs) in subjects with MDD using WGS data. METHODS: We obtained complete WGS paired-end reads data of 15 MDD patients and 10 ethnically matched healthy controls...
May 30, 2017: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28555108/is-the-comparison-between-exercise-and-pharmacologic-treatment-of-depression-in-the-clinical-practice-guideline-of-the-american-college-of-physicians-evidence-based
#5
Yael Netz
Major depression disorder is most commonly treated with antidepressants. However, due to their side effects clinicians seek non-pharmacologic options, and one of these is exercise. The literature on the benefits of exercise for depression is extensive. Nevertheless, two recent reviews focusing on antidepressants vs. other therapies as a basis for clinical practice guidelines recommended mainly antidepressants, excluding exercise as a viable choice for treatment of depression. The aim of this perspective is to analyze the literature exploring the reasons for this discrepancy...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545486/depression-in-patients-with-sapho-syndrome-and-its-relationship-with-brain-activity-and-connectivity
#6
Jie Lu, Yanping Duan, Zhentao Zuo, Wenrui Xu, Xuewei Zhang, Chen Li, Rong Xue, Hanzhang Lu, Weihong Zhang
BACKGROUND: Synovitis-acne-pustulosis-hyperostosis-osteitis (SAPHO) syndrome is a rare disease and there is no related literature concerning psychiatric symptoms in SAPHO patients. Thus, we believe that this will be the first paper to explore the episode and the neurobiological basis of depression symptoms in SAPHO patients using resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI). Twenty-eight SAPHO patients and fifteen age- and gender- matched normal controls (NC) were consecutively submitted to psychiatric evaluation and rs-fMRI scanning...
May 25, 2017: Orphanet Journal of Rare Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28532165/16p11-2-microduplication-and-associated-symptoms-a-case-study
#7
Martin Knoll, Kirsten Arnett, Jeremy Hertza
The minimal amount known regarding chromosomal microduplications and microdeletions presents a fascinating new direction of research into better understanding misunderstood symptoms and overall genomic influence. Specifically, the 16p11.2 microduplication has been associated with a myriad of possible cognitive, physical, and emotional symptoms. The purpose of this study is to inform the reader of the biological basis of the 16p11.2 microduplication, review sources that suggest a link between the microduplication and clinically relevant diagnoses/sources of impairment, and to better understand the implications and development of symptoms through the illustration of a case example...
May 22, 2017: Applied Neuropsychology. Child
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28498576/a-critique-of-the-ultra-high-risk-and-transition-paradigm
#8
Jim van Os, Sinan Guloksuz
The transdiagnostic expression of psychotic experiences in common mental disorder (anxiety/depression/substance use disorder) is associated with a poorer prognosis, and a small minority of people may indeed develop a clinical picture that meets criteria for schizophrenia. However, it appears neither useful nor valid to observe early states of multidimensional psychopathology in young people through the "schizo"-prism, and apply misleadingly simple, unnecessary and inefficient binary concepts of "risk" and "transition"...
June 2017: World Psychiatry: Official Journal of the World Psychiatric Association (WPA)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28449649/a-case-of-recurrent-depressive-disorder-presenting-with-alice-in-wonderland-syndrome-psychopathology-and-pre-and-post-treatment-fdg-pet-findings
#9
Tatsushi Yokoyama, Tsuyoshi Okamura, Miwako Takahashi, Toshimitsu Momose, Shinsuke Kondo
BACKGROUND: Alice in Wonderland syndrome (AIWS) is a rare neuropsychiatric syndrome that typically manifests in distortion of extrapersonal visual image, altered perception of one's body image, and a disturbed sense of the passage of distance and time. Several conditions have been reported to contribute to AIWS, although its biological basis is still unknown. Here, we present the first case demonstrating a clear concurrence of recurrent depressive disorder and AIWS. The clinical manifestations and pre- and post-treatment fluorodeoxyglucose positron-emission tomographic (FDG-PET) images provide insights into the psychopathological and biological basis of AIWS...
April 27, 2017: BMC Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28418035/chronic-social-defeat-reduces-myelination-in-the-mouse-medial-prefrontal-cortex
#10
Michael L Lehmann, Thaddeus K Weigel, Abdel G Elkahloun, Miles Herkenham
The medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) plays a key role in top-down control of the brain's stress axis, and its structure and function are particularly vulnerable to stress effects, which can lead to depression in humans and depressive-like states in animals. We tested whether chronic social defeat produces structural alterations in the mPFC in mice. We first performed a microarray analysis of mPFC gene expression changes induced by defeat, and biological pathway analysis revealed a dominant pattern of down-regulation of myelin-associated genes...
April 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28407461/the-biological-basis-to-personality-disorders
#11
Malathi L Perugula, Puneet D Narang, Steven B Lippmann
Objective: To provide understanding into the biological basis of thinking and behavior in people with personality disorders, explain anatomic findings, and appraise therapeutic options. Data Sources: PubMed was searched with no date restrictions using the terms personality disorders DSM-5, cluster B personality disorders, biological psychiatry of personality disorders, neurobiology of personality disorders, and neurobiology of cluster B personality disorders. Study Selection/Data Extraction: We identified 2,790 English-language articles and utilized 18 in this report...
April 13, 2017: Primary Care Companion to CNS Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28402697/the-prenatal-distress-measure-adaptation-of-the-postpartum-distress-measure-for-a-prenatal-sample
#12
Niela M Hirsch, Randy Fingerhut, Kelly C Allison
BACKGROUND: Pregnancy is a significant transition period for women that can be markedly stressful. The presence of elevated depressed mood and anxiety during pregnancy places mothers, fetuses, and neonates at greater risk for developing biological and psychological difficulties. It appears that no general measures of distress currently exist that can be used to screen for both prenatal anxiety and mood. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This study explores the applicability of postpartum distress measure (PDM), a validated general distress postpartum screening tool, in a prenatal sample...
April 12, 2017: Journal of Women's Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28385601/reconsidering-depression-as-a-risk-factor-for-substance-use-disorder-insights-from-rodent-models
#13
REVIEW
Virginie Rappeneau, Anne Bérod
Depression and substance use disorder (SUD) often co-exist and are typically associated with an inaccurate diagnosis, worsened clinical course and poor medication adherence compared to either disorder alone. To date, the biological mechanisms contributing to their strong association remain largely unknown. In this review, we critically analyze preclinical literature on psychostimulant drugs and reconsider the common view that depression is a risk factor for drug use and the development of SUD. Unexpectedly, this investigation led us to conclude that depressive-like states in rodents are associated with a low predisposition to drug intake, at least when considering initial, voluntary and regulated psychostimulant intake...
June 2017: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28237672/interleukin-10-a-compelling-therapeutic-target-in-patients-with-irritable-bowel-syndrome
#14
REVIEW
Sunil Kumar, Ratnakar Shukla, Prabhat Ranjan, Awanish Kumar
PURPOSE: Pro- and antiinflammatory cytokines are important modulators of the immune response and play a major role in conditions of intestinal inflammation, such as irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). Cytokine production is regulated genetically, and imbalances in cytokine secretion may affect disease susceptibility and clinical outcomes of various conditions. There is a rapidly growing body of evidence to support an etiologic role for gastrointestinal infection and the associated immune activation in the development of postinfectious IBS...
February 23, 2017: Clinical Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28236764/the-response-of-isidorella-newcombi-to-copper-exposure-using-an-integrated-biological-framework-to-interpret-transcriptomic-responses-from-rna-seq-analysis
#15
Rodney P Ubrihien, Tariq Ezaz, Anne M Taylor, Mark M Stevens, Frank Krikowa, Simon Foster, William A Maher
This study describes the transcriptomic response of the Australian endemic freshwater gastropod Isidorella newcombi exposed to 80±1μg/L of copper for 3days. Analysis of copper tissue concentration, lysosomal membrane destabilisation and RNA-seq were conducted. Copper tissue concentrations confirmed that copper was bioaccumulated by the snails. Increased lysosomal membrane destabilisation in the copper-exposed snails indicated that the snails were stressed as a result of the exposure. Both copper tissue concentrations and lysosomal destabilisation were significantly greater in snails exposed to copper...
April 2017: Aquatic Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28221057/-understanding-the-neural-basis-of-cognitive-bias-modification-as-a-clinical-treatment-for-depression-correction-to-eguchi-et-al-2016
#16
(no author information available yet)
Reports an error in "Understanding the neural basis of cognitive bias modification as a clinical treatment for depression" by Akihiro Eguchi, Daniel Walters, Nele Peerenboom, Hannah Dury, Elaine Fox and Simon Stringer (Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, Advanced Online Publication, Dec 19, 2016, np). In the article, there was an error in the Discussion section's first paragraph for Implications and Future Work. The in-text reference citation for Penton-Voak et al. (2013) was incorrectly listed as "Blumenfeld, Preminger, Sagi, and Tsodyks (2006)"...
March 2017: Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28203105/association-of-fatigue-and-depression-with-circulating-levels-of-proinflammatory-cytokines-and-epidermal-growth-factor-receptor-ligands-a-correlative-study-of-a-placebo-controlled-fatigue-trial
#17
Tyvin Rich, Fengmin Zhao, Ricardo A Cruciani, David Cella, Judith Manola, Michael J Fisch
CONTEXT: The biology of fatigue and depression in cancer patients is poorly understood. Hypotheses regarding cytokines and growth factors related to sickness behavior and disruption of circadian signaling have been proposed. OBJECTIVES: We prospectively examined proinflammatory cytokines (e.g., sickness behavior model) and epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) ligands (e.g., circadian disruption model) in the serum of cancer patients enrolled in a clinical trial testing levocarnitine for fatigue...
2017: Cancer Management and Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28179814/prenatal-stress-immune-programming-of-sex-differences-in-comorbidity-of-depression-and-obesity-metabolic-syndrome
#18
Jill M Goldstein, Laura Holsen, Grace Huang, Bradley D Hammond, Tamarra James-Todd, Sara Cherkerzian, Taben M Hale, Robert J Handa
Major depressive disorder (MDD) is the number one cause of disability worldwide and is comorbid with many chronic diseases, including obesity/metabolic syndrome (MetS). Women have twice as much risk for MDD and comorbidity with obesity/MetS as men, although pathways for understanding this association remain unclear. On the basis of clinical and preclinical studies, we argue that prenatal maternal stress (ie, excess glucocorticoid expression and associated immune responses) that occurs during the sexual differentiation of the fetal brain has sex-dependent effects on brain development within highly sexually dimorphic regions that regulate mood, stress, metabolic function, the autonomic nervous system, and the vasculature...
December 2016: Dialogues in Clinical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28149649/hepatitis-c-virus-infection-and-neurological-and-psychiatric-disorders-a-review
#19
REVIEW
Lydia Yarlott, Eleanor Heald, Daniel Forton
An association between hepatitis C virus infection and neuropsychiatric symptoms has been proposed for some years. A variety of studies have been undertaken to assess the nature and severity of these symptoms, which range from fatigue and depression to defects in attention and verbal reasoning. There is evidence of mild neurocognitive impairment in some patients with HCV infection, which is not fully attributable to liver dysfunction or psychosocial factors. Further evidence of a biological cerebral effect has arisen from studies using magnetic resonance spectroscopy; metabolic abnormalities correlate with cognitive dysfunction and resemble the patterns of neuroinflammation that have been described in HIV infection...
March 2017: Journal of Advanced Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27993607/a-biological-perspective-on-differences-and-similarities-between-burnout-and-depression
#20
REVIEW
Ariane Orosz, Andrea Federspiel, Sarie Haisch, Christian Seeher, Thomas Dierks, Katja Cattapan
To compare and contrast burnout and depression is not only a conceptual issue, but may deliver important directions for treatment approaches and stabilize the awareness of disease which is essential for affected individuals. Because of the symptomatic overlap, it is a subject of multidimensional research and discussion to find specific signatures to differentiate between the two phenomena or to present evidence that they are different aspects of the same disorder. Both pathologies are regarded as stress-related disorders...
February 2017: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
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