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Biological basis of depress*

Manish K Jha, Shereen Wakhlu, Neha Dronamraju, Abu Minhajuddin, Tracy L Greer, Madhukar H Trivedi
BACKGROUND: Currently, there are no valid clinical or biological markers to personalize the treatment of depression. Recent evidence suggests that body mass index (BMI) may guide the selection of antidepressant medications with different mechanisms of action. METHODS: Combining Medications to Enhance Depression Outcomes (CO-MED) trial participants with BMI measurement (n = 662) were categorized as normal- or underweight (<25), overweight (25-<30), obese I (30-<35), and obese II+ (≥35)...
February 27, 2018: Journal of Affective Disorders
Roseann E Peterson, Na Cai, Andy W Dahl, Tim B Bigdeli, Alexis C Edwards, Bradley T Webb, Silviu-Alin Bacanu, Noah Zaitlen, Jonathan Flint, Kenneth S Kendler
OBJECTIVE: The extent to which major depression is the outcome of a single biological mechanism or represents a final common pathway of multiple disease processes remains uncertain. Genetic approaches can potentially identify etiologic heterogeneity in major depression by classifying patients on the basis of their experience of major adverse events. METHOD: Data are from the China, Oxford, and VCU Experimental Research on Genetic Epidemiology (CONVERGE) project, a study of Han Chinese women with recurrent major depression aimed at identifying genetic risk factors for major depression in a rigorously ascertained cohort carefully assessed for key environmental risk factors (N=9,599)...
March 2, 2018: American Journal of Psychiatry
Moshe Gavish, Leo Veenman
In 1999, the enigma of the 18kDa mitochondrial translocator protein (TSPO), also known as the peripheral-type benzodiazepine receptor, was the seeming disparity of the many functions attributed to TSPO, ranging from the potential of TSPO acting as a housekeeping gene at molecular biological levels to adaptations to stress, and even involvement in higher emotional and cognitive functioning, such as anxiety and depression. In the years since then, knowledge regarding the many functions modulated by TSPO has expanded, and understanding has deepened...
2018: Advances in Pharmacology
Blanca Bolea-Alamanac, Sarah J Bailey, Thelma A Lovick, Dirk Scheele, Rita Valentino
There is increasing recognition that women have a higher prevalence of certain psychiatric illnesses, and a differential treatment response and course of illness compared to men. Additionally, clinicians deal with a number of disorders like premenstrual syndrome, premenstrual dysphoric disorder, and postpartum depression, which affect women specifically and for which treatment and biological pathways are still unclear. In this article we highlight recent research which suggests that different biological mechanisms may underlie sex differences in responsiveness to stress...
January 1, 2018: Journal of Psychopharmacology
Guy M Goodwin, Emily A Holmes, Erik Andersson, Michael Browning, Andrew Jones, Johanna Lass-Hennemann, Kristoffer Nt Månsson, Carolin Moessnang, Elske Salemink, Alvaro Sanchez, Linda van Zutphen, Renée M Visser
This ECNP meeting was designed to build bridges between different constituencies of mental illness treatment researchers from a range of backgrounds with a specific focus on enhancing the development of novel, evidence based, psychological treatments. In particular we wished to explore the potential for basic neuroscience to support the development of more effective psychological treatments, just as this approach is starting to illuminate the actions of drugs. To fulfil this aim, a selection of clinical psychologists, psychiatrists and neuroscientists were invited to sit at the same table...
January 19, 2018: European Neuropsychopharmacology: the Journal of the European College of Neuropsychopharmacology
Yuliya S Nikolova, Keith A Misquitta, Brad R Rocco, Thomas D Prevot, Annchen R Knodt, Jacob Ellegood, Aristotle N Voineskos, Jason P Lerch, Ahmad R Hariri, Etienne Sibille, Mounira Banasr
Parallel clinical and preclinical research have begun to illuminate the biological basis of stress-related disorders, including major depression, but translational bridges informing discrete mechanistic targets for intervention are missing. To address this critical need, we used structural MRI in a mouse model and in a large human sample to examine stress effects on brain structure that may be conserved across species. Specifically, we focused on a previously unexplored approach, whole-brain structural covariance, as it reflects synchronized changes in neuroanatomy, potentially due to mutual trophic influences or shared plasticity across regions...
January 22, 2018: Translational Psychiatry
Ali Bozorgmehr, Fatemeh Alizadeh, Sattar Norouzi Ofogh, Mohammad Reza Abdollahzadeh Hamzekalayi, Sara Herati, Atefeh Moradkhani, Ali Shahbazi, Mohammad Ghadirivasfi
BACKGROUND: Available sources indicate that the risk of suicide in people with major depression is higher than other psychiatric disorders. Although it seems that these two conditions may have a shared cause in some cases, no studies have been conducted to identify a common basis for them. METHODS: In this study, following an extensive review of literature, we found almost all the genes that are involved in major depression and suicidal behavior, and we isolated genes shared between the two conditions...
January 8, 2018: Journal of Affective Disorders
Susana García-Gutierrez, Miren Orive, Cristina Sarasqueta, Maria Jose Legarreta, Nerea Gonzalez, Maximino Redondo, Amado Rivero, Pedro Serrano-Aguilar, Xavier Castells, Jose Maria Quintana, Maria Sala
BACKGROUND: Though breast cancer remains a major health problem, there is a lack of information on health care provided to patients with this disease and associated costs. In addition, there is a need to update and validate risk stratification tools in Spain. Our purpose is to evaluate the health services provided for breast cancer in Spain, from screening and diagnosis to treatment and prognosis. METHODS: Prospective cohort study involving 13 hospitals in Spain with a follow-up period of up to 5 years after diagnostic biopsy...
January 8, 2018: BMC Cancer
Joey Ward, Rona J Strawbridge, Mark E S Bailey, Nicholas Graham, Amy Ferguson, Donald M Lyall, Breda Cullen, Laura M Pidgeon, Jonathan Cavanagh, Daniel F Mackay, Jill P Pell, Michael O'Donovan, Valentina Escott-Price, Daniel J Smith
Mood instability is a core clinical feature of affective and psychotic disorders. In keeping with the Research Domain Criteria approach, it may be a useful construct for identifying biology that cuts across psychiatric categories. We aimed to investigate the biological validity of a simple measure of mood instability and evaluate its genetic relationship with several psychiatric disorders, including major depressive disorder (MDD), bipolar disorder (BD), schizophrenia, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), anxiety disorder and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD)...
November 30, 2017: Translational Psychiatry
Paul J Harrison, John R Geddes, Elizabeth M Tunbridge
Bipolar disorder (BD) is a leading cause of global disability. Its biological basis is unknown, and its treatment unsatisfactory. Here, we review two recent areas of progress. First, the discovery of risk genes and their implications, with a focus on voltage-gated calcium channels as part of the disease process and as a drug target. Second, facilitated by new technologies, it is increasingly apparent that the bipolar phenotype is more complex and nuanced than simply one of recurring manic and depressive episodes...
January 2018: Trends in Neurosciences
Ashley Acheson, Andrea S Vincent, Andrew J Cohoon, William R Lovallo
Individuals with a family history of alcohol and other drug use disorders (FH+) are at increased risk for developing substance use disorders themselves relative to those with no such histories (FH-). Here we sought to identify key characteristics associated with FH+ status and alcohol and other drug use disorder status in a large cohort of FH+ and FH- young adults. We conducted principal component analyses on demographic, temperament, and cognitive measures differentiating 506 FH+ and 528 FH- young adults. Three principal components were identified, and these component scores were then used to predict the odds of being FH+ and the odds of having an alcohol or other drug use disorder...
October 20, 2017: Addictive Behaviors
Bonnie Klimes-Dougan, Melinda Westlund Schreiner, Michelle Thai, Meredith Gunlicks-Stoessel, Kristina Reigstad, Kathryn R Cullen
OBJECTIVE: Typically, about 30 to 50% of adolescents with depression fail to respond to evidence-based treatments, including antidepressant medications such as selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs). Efforts for identifying predictors and moderators of treatment response are needed to begin to address critical questions relevant to personalized care in adolescent depression. In this pilot study, we aim to identify biological predictors of response to antidepressant treatment...
February 2, 2018: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
N Bouras
Psychiatry and society are interrelated and the biopsychosocial model continues to dominate the clinical psychiatric practice. Some doubts have been expressed in recent years about the value and the wide acceptance of the biopsychosocial model. Ghaemi (2009)1 considers it to be anti-humanistic and advocates the use of less eclectic, less generic, and less vague alternatives. The fundamental changes that have been witnessed in our times across the spectrum of biology, psychology and sociology have made necessary that a conceptual clarity should prevail...
July 2017: Psychiatrikē, Psychiatriki
Hang Zhou, Renato Polimanti, Bao-Zhu Yang, Qian Wang, Shizhong Han, Richard Sherva, Yaira Z Nuñez, Hongyu Zhao, Lindsay A Farrer, Henry R Kranzler, Joel Gelernter
Importance: Alcohol dependence (AD) and major depression (MD) are leading causes of disability that often co-occur. Genetic epidemiologic data have shown that AD and MD share a common possible genetic cause. The molecular nature of this shared genetic basis is poorly understood. Objectives: To detect genetic risk variants for comorbid AD and MD and to determine whether polygenic risk alleles are shared with neuropsychiatric traits or subcortical brain volumes. Design, Setting, and Participants: This genome-wide association study analyzed criterion counts of comorbid AD and MD in African American and European American data sets collected as part of the Yale-Penn study of the genetics of drug and alcohol dependence from February 14, 1999, to January 13, 2015...
December 1, 2017: JAMA Psychiatry
Rachel F Buckley, Bernard Hanseeuw, Aaron P Schultz, Patrizia Vannini, Sarah L Aghjayan, Michael J Properzi, Jonathan D Jackson, Elizabeth C Mormino, Dorene M Rentz, Reisa A Sperling, Keith A Johnson, Rebecca E Amariglio
Importance: The ability to explore associations between reports of subjective cognitive decline (SCD) and biomarkers of early Alzheimer disease (AD) pathophysiologic processes (accumulation of neocortical β-amyloid [Aβ] and tau) provides an important opportunity to understand the basis of SCD and AD risk. Objective: To examine associations between SCD and global Aβ and tau burdens in regions of interest in clinically healthy older adults. Design, Setting, and Participants: This imaging substudy of the Harvard Aging Brain Study included 133 clinically healthy older participants (Clinical Dementia Rating Scale global scores of 0) participating in the Harvard Aging Brain Study who underwent cross-sectional flortaucipir F 18 (previously known as AV 1451, T807) positron emission tomography (FTP-PET) imaging for tau and Pittsburgh compound B carbon 11-labeled PET (PiB-PET) imaging for Aβ...
October 2, 2017: JAMA Neurology
Samuel B Harvey, Simon Øverland, Stephani L Hatch, Simon Wessely, Arnstein Mykletun, Matthew Hotopf
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of the present study was to address 1) whether exercise provides protection against new-onset depression and anxiety and 2) if so, the intensity and amount of exercise required to gain protection and, lastly, 3) the mechanisms that underlie any association. METHOD: A "healthy" cohort of 33,908 adults, selected on the basis of having no symptoms of common mental disorder or limiting physical health conditions, was prospectively followed for 11 years...
October 3, 2017: American Journal of Psychiatry
Caroline Cosnard, Sébastien De Maistre, Jacques H Abraini, Laurent Chazalviel, Jean-Eric Blatteau, Jean-Jacques Risso, Nicolas Vallée
According to the OECD statistical base for 2014, anti-depressants will, on average, be distributed at a rate of 62 daily doses per 1,000 inhabitants for the 25 countries surveyed (Health at a glance: Europe 2014; OECD Health Statistics; World Health Organization and OECD Health Statistics, 2014). Divers must be concerned. On another hand, divers are potentially exposed to decompression sickness including coagulation inflammation and ischemia, which can result in neurological lesions or even death. The purpose of this study is to assess whether chronic treatment with anti-depressants may represent a contraindication to the practice of an at-risk activity, such as, scuba diving, or even presents a benefit by attenuating the severity of the symptoms...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
N Tsankov, D Mateev, R Darlenski
BACKGROUND: The skin is the primary defence of the human body against external factors from physical, chemical, mechanical and biologic origin. Climatic factors together with low temperature and sun radiation affect the skin. The effect of climatic conditions in Antarctica on healthy skin has not been previously addressed. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to evaluate the changes in the skin hydration, greasiness and microrelief due to the extreme climatic environmental factors during the stay of the members of the Bulgarian Antarctic expedition...
July 27, 2017: Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology: JEADV
Alberto Foletti, Mario Ledda, Maria Grazia Lolli, Settimio Grimaldi, Antonella Lisi
Several beneficial effects of the electromagnetic information transfer through aqueous system (EMITTAS) procedure have previously been reported in vitro. The clinical potential of this procedure has also started to be evaluated. Information flow in biological systems can be investigated through chemical and molecular approaches or by a biophysical approach focused on endogenous electrodynamic activities. Electromagnetic signals are endogenously generated at different levels of the biological organization and, likely, play an active role in synchronizing internal cell function or local/systemic adaptive response...
July 13, 2017: Electromagnetic Biology and Medicine
Kenji Hashimoto, Tamaki Ishima, Yasunori Sato, Davide Bruno, Jay Nierenberg, Charles R Marmar, Henrik Zetterberg, Kaj Blennow, Nunzio Pomara
Major depressive disorder (MDD) in the elderly is a risk factor for dementia, but the precise biological basis remains unknown, hampering the search for novel biomarkers and treatments. In this study, we performed metabolomics analysis of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) from cognitively intact elderly patients (N = 28) with MDD and age- and gender-matched healthy controls (N = 18). The CSF levels of 177 substances were measured, while 288 substances were below the detection limit. Only ascorbic acid was significantly different, with higher levels in the MDD group at baseline...
June 14, 2017: Scientific Reports
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