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Genetic OR biological psychiatry

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433458/linking-the-biological-underpinnings-of-depression-role-of-mitochondria-interactions-with-melatonin-inflammation-sirtuins-tryptophan-catabolites-dna-repair-and-oxidative-and-nitrosative-stress-with-consequences-for-classification-and-cognition
#1
REVIEW
George Anderson
The pathophysiological underpinnings of neuroprogressive processes in recurrent major depressive disorder (rMDD) are reviewed. A wide array of biochemical processes underlie MDD presentations and their shift to a recurrent, neuroprogressive course, including: increased immune-inflammation, tryptophan catabolites (TRYCATs), mitochondrial dysfunction, aryl hydrocarbonn receptor activation, and oxidative and nitrosative stress (O&NS), as well as decreased sirtuins and melatonergic pathway activity. These biochemical changes may have their roots in central, systemic and/or peripheral sites, including in the gut, as well as in developmental processes, such as prenatal stressors and breastfeeding consequences...
April 19, 2017: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426908/clinically-useful-brain-imaging-for-neuropsychiatry-how-can-we-get-there
#2
REVIEW
Michael P Milham, R Cameron Craddock, Arno Klein
Despite decades of research, visions of transforming neuropsychiatry through the development of brain imaging-based "growth charts" or "lab tests" have remained out of reach. In recent years, there is renewed enthusiasm about the prospect of achieving clinically useful tools capable of aiding the diagnosis and management of neuropsychiatric disorders. The present work explores the basis for this enthusiasm. We assert that there is no single advance that currently has the potential to drive the field of clinical brain imaging forward...
April 20, 2017: Depression and Anxiety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28423808/security-policy-and-infrastructure-in-the-context-of-a-multi-centeric-information-system-dedicated-to-autism-spectrum-disorder
#3
Mohamed Ben Said, Laurence Robel, Bernard Golse, Jean Philippe Jais
Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are complex neuro-developmental disorders affecting children in their early age. The diagnosis of ASD relies on multidisciplinary investigations, in psychiatry, neurology, genetics, electrophysiology, neuro-imagery, audiology and ophthalmology. In order to support clinicians, researchers and public health decision makers, we designed an information system dedicated to ASD, called TEDIS. TEDIS was designed to manage systematic, exhaustive and continuous multi-centric patient data collection via secured Internet connections...
2017: Studies in Health Technology and Informatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28417336/treatment-of-depression-in-adults-with-fabry-disease
#4
Nadia Ali, Scott Gillespie, Dawn Laney
Fabry disease (FD) is a genetic X-linked, multisystemic, progressive lysosomal storage disorder (LSD). Depression has emerged as a disease complication, with prevalence estimates ranging from 15 to 62%. This is a pilot study examining the effects of psychological counseling for depression in FD on depression, adaptive functioning (AF), quality of life (QOL), and subjective pain experience. Telecounseling was also piloted, as it has beneficial effects in other chronic diseases which make in-person counseling problematic...
April 18, 2017: JIMD Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28407461/the-biological-basis-to-personality-disorders
#5
Malathi L Perugula, Puneet D Narang, Steven B Lippmann
Objective: To provide understanding into the biological basis of thinking and behavior in people with personality disorders, explain anatomic findings, and appraise therapeutic options. Data Sources: PubMed was searched with no date restrictions using the terms personality disorders DSM-5, cluster B personality disorders, biological psychiatry of personality disorders, neurobiology of personality disorders, and neurobiology of cluster B personality disorders. Study Selection/Data Extraction: We identified 2,790 English-language articles and utilized 18 in this report...
April 13, 2017: Primary Care Companion to CNS Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28398342/two-subgroups-of-antipsychotic-naive-first-episode-schizophrenia-patients-identified-with-a-gaussian-mixture-model-on-cognition-and-electrophysiology
#6
N Bak, B H Ebdrup, B Oranje, B Fagerlund, M H Jensen, S W Düring, M Ø Nielsen, B Y Glenthøj, L K Hansen
Deficits in information processing and cognition are among the most robust findings in schizophrenia patients. Previous efforts to translate group-level deficits into clinically relevant and individualized information have, however, been non-successful, which is possibly explained by biologically different disease subgroups. We applied machine learning algorithms on measures of electrophysiology and cognition to identify potential subgroups of schizophrenia. Next, we explored subgroup differences regarding treatment response...
April 11, 2017: Translational Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28397838/mapping-autosomal-recessive-intellectual-disability-combined-microarray-and-exome-sequencing-identifies-26-novel-candidate-genes-in-192-consanguineous-families
#7
R Harripaul, N Vasli, A Mikhailov, M A Rafiq, K Mittal, C Windpassinger, T I Sheikh, A Noor, H Mahmood, S Downey, M Johnson, K Vleuten, L Bell, M Ilyas, F S Khan, V Khan, M Moradi, M Ayaz, F Naeem, A Heidari, I Ahmed, S Ghadami, Z Agha, S Zeinali, R Qamar, H Mozhdehipanah, P John, A Mir, M Ansar, L French, M Ayub, J B Vincent
Approximately 1% of the global population is affected by intellectual disability (ID), and the majority receive no molecular diagnosis. Previous studies have indicated high levels of genetic heterogeneity, with estimates of more than 2500 autosomal ID genes, the majority of which are autosomal recessive (AR). Here, we combined microarray genotyping, homozygosity-by-descent (HBD) mapping, copy number variation (CNV) analysis, and whole exome sequencing (WES) to identify disease genes/mutations in 192 multiplex Pakistani and Iranian consanguineous families with non-syndromic ID...
April 11, 2017: Molecular Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28397836/efhd2-swiprosin-1-is-a-common-genetic-determinator-for-sensation-seeking-low-anxiety-and-alcohol-addiction
#8
D Mielenz, M Reichel, T Jia, E B Quinlan, T Stöckl, M Mettang, D Zilske, E Kirmizi-Alsan, P Schönberger, M Praetner, S E Huber, D Amato, M Schwarz, P Purohit, S Brachs, J Spranger, A Hess, C Büttner, A B Ekici, F Perez-Branguli, B Winner, V Rauschenberger, T Banaschewski, A L W Bokde, C Büchel, P J Conrod, S Desrivières, H Flor, V Frouin, J Gallinat, H Garavan, P Gowland, A Heinz, J-L Martinot, H Lemaitre, F Nees, T Paus, M N Smolka, A Schambony, T Bäuerle, V Eulenburg, C Alzheimer, A Lourdusamy, G Schumann, C P Müller
In many societies, the majority of adults regularly consume alcohol. However, only a small proportion develops alcohol addiction. Individuals at risk often show a high sensation-seeking/low-anxiety behavioural phenotype. Here we asked which role EF hand domain containing 2 (EFhd2; Swiprosin-1) plays in the control of alcohol addiction-associated behaviours. EFhd2 knockout (KO) mice drink more alcohol than controls and spontaneously escalate their consumption. This coincided with a sensation-seeking and low-anxiety phenotype...
April 11, 2017: Molecular Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28375061/novel-biotherapies-are-needed-in-youth-mental-health
#9
G Paul Amminger, Maximus Berger, Simon M Rice, Christopher G Davey, Miriam R Schäfer, Patrick D McGorry
Adverse effects and lack of efficacy in a significant number of patients limit pharmaceutical interventions in youth psychiatry. This is exemplified by the fact that no medication is currently approved for the treatment of non-OCD anxiety disorders or major depressive disorder in young people younger than 18 years of age in Australia. Here, emerging biological therapies for youth with mental health problems are discussed. There is an urgent need for more research into biological interventions with acceptable risk-benefit balances...
April 2017: Australasian Psychiatry: Bulletin of Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28373794/evaluation-of-oxidative-stress-in-bipolar-disorder-in-terms-of-total-oxidant-status-total-antioxidant-status-and-oxidative-stress-index
#10
Merve Cingi Yirün, Kübranur Ünal, Neslihan Altunsoy Şen, Onur Yirün, Çiğdem Aydemir, Erol Göka
INTRODUCTION: Bipolar disorder is one of the most debilitating psychiatric disorders characterized by disruptive episodes of mania/hypomania and depression. Considering the complex role of biological and environmental factors in the etiology of affective disorders, recent studies have focused on oxidative stress, which may damage nerve cell components and take part in pathophysiology. The aim of the present study was to contribute to the data about oxidative stress in bipolar disorder by detecting the total antioxidant status (TAS), total oxidant status (TOS), and oxidative stress index (OSI) levels of manic episode (ME) and euthymic (EU) patients and by comparing these results with those of healthy controls (HCs)...
September 2016: Noro Psikiyatri Arsivi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28373691/blocking-human-fear-memory-with-the-matrix-metalloproteinase-inhibitor-doxycycline
#11
D R Bach, A Tzovara, J Vunder
Learning to predict threat is a fundamental ability of many biological organisms, and a laboratory model for anxiety disorders. Interfering with such memories in humans would be of high clinical relevance. On the basis of studies in cell cultures and slice preparations, it is hypothesised that synaptic remodelling required for threat learning involves the extracellular enzyme matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) 9. However, in vivo evidence for this proposal is lacking. Here we investigate human Pavlovian fear conditioning under the blood-brain barrier crossing MMP inhibitor doxycyline in a pre-registered, randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial...
April 4, 2017: Molecular Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28373686/an-update-on-stem-cell-biology-and-engineering-for-brain-development
#12
C J C Parr, S Yamanaka, H Saito
Two recent technologies, induced-pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) and direct somatic reprogramming, have shown enormous potential for cell-based therapies against intractable diseases such as those that affect the central nervous system. Already, methods that generate most major cell types of the human brain exist. Whether the cell types are directly reprogrammed from human somatic cells or differentiated from an iPSC intermediate, the overview presented here demonstrates how these protocols vary greatly in their efficiencies, purity and maturation of the resulting cells...
April 4, 2017: Molecular Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28367707/pharmacological-treatment-of-unipolar-depressive-disorders-summary-of-wfsbp-guidelines
#13
Michael Bauer, Emanuel Severus, Hans-Jürgen Möller, Allan H Young
OBJECTIVE: Major depressive disorder (MDD) is a severe mood disorder affecting individuals of all ages and is characterised by single or recurrent major depressive episodes. Key elements of acute and maintenance treatment of MDD include pharmacotherapy, and psychological approaches such as psychoeducation and adherence monitoring. METHODS: This summary of the 'Practice guidelines for the biological treatment of unipolar depressive disorders' comprises acute, continuation and maintenance treatment developed by an international Task Force of the World Federation of Societies of Biological Psychiatry (WFSBP), and focuses on pharmacological treatment options...
April 3, 2017: International Journal of Psychiatry in Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28365467/the-lipidome-in-major-depressive-disorder-shared-genetic-influence-for-ether-phosphatidylcholines-a-plasma-based-phenotype-related-to-inflammation-and-disease-risk
#14
E E M Knowles, K Huynh, P J Meikle, H H H Göring, R L Olvera, S R Mathias, R Duggirala, L Almasy, J Blangero, J E Curran, D C Glahn
BACKGROUND: The lipidome is rapidly garnering interest in the field of psychiatry. Recent studies have implicated lipidomic changes across numerous psychiatric disorders. In particular, there is growing evidence that the concentrations of several classes of lipids are altered in those diagnosed with MDD. However, for lipidomic abnormalities to be considered potential treatment targets for MDD (rather than secondary manifestations of the disease), a shared etiology between lipid concentrations and MDD should be demonstrated...
February 21, 2017: European Psychiatry: the Journal of the Association of European Psychiatrists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28361166/-the-first-mental-health-act-in-china-2013-an%C3%A2-historical-step-towards-human-rights
#15
X Zhao
In the past, the mentally ill used to be relentlessly stigmatized and their basic needs grossly neglected in China. Only the coastal cities with their Western oriented universities provided Western type mental healthcare. In general, traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) embracing medicinal herbs and acupuncture was practiced. Mental hospitals were non-existent before 1889 and care of the chronically mentally ill rested with their families and the community; however, the prevalence and spectrum of mental disorders were similar to those in Western countries...
March 30, 2017: Der Nervenarzt
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28360851/neuroimaging-genetics-and-clinical-data-sharing-in-python-using-the-cubicweb-framework
#16
Antoine Grigis, David Goyard, Robin Cherbonnier, Thomas Gareau, Dimitri Papadopoulos Orfanos, Nicolas Chauvat, Adrien Di Mascio, Gunter Schumann, Will Spooren, Declan Murphy, Vincent Frouin
In neurosciences or psychiatry, the emergence of large multi-center population imaging studies raises numerous technological challenges. From distributed data collection, across different institutions and countries, to final data publication service, one must handle the massive, heterogeneous, and complex data from genetics, imaging, demographics, or clinical scores. These data must be both efficiently obtained and downloadable. We present a Python solution, based on the CubicWeb open-source semantic framework, aimed at building population imaging study repositories...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28358316/theranostic-biomarkers-for-schizophrenia
#17
REVIEW
Matea Nikolac Perkovic, Gordana Nedic Erjavec, Dubravka Svob Strac, Suzana Uzun, Oliver Kozumplik, Nela Pivac
Schizophrenia is a highly heritable, chronic, severe, disabling neurodevelopmental brain disorder with a heterogeneous genetic and neurobiological background, which is still poorly understood. To allow better diagnostic procedures and therapeutic strategies in schizophrenia patients, use of easy accessible biomarkers is suggested. The most frequently used biomarkers in schizophrenia are those associated with the neuroimmune and neuroendocrine system, metabolism, different neurotransmitter systems and neurotrophic factors...
March 30, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28353229/the-utility-of-multiplex-assays-for-identification-of-proteomic-signatures-in-psychiatry
#18
Junfang Chen, Paul C Guest, Emanuel Schwarz
As substantial efforts are being made to identify biological markers of psychiatric illnesses, it is becoming clear that clinically useful accuracy will require larger sets of readouts that potentially span different technological platforms. For discovery of proteomic biomarkers, simultaneous measurement of analytes in small sample quantities has developed into a widely used technology of similar quality as the respective single-plex assays. Multiplex assay systems therefore hold promise for biomarker discovery and development in many complex disease areas including psychiatry...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28348386/perinatal-risk-factors-in-tourette-s-and-chronic-tic-disorders-a-total-population-sibling-comparison-study
#19
G Brander, M Rydell, R Kuja-Halkola, L Fernández de la Cruz, P Lichtenstein, E Serlachius, C Rück, C Almqvist, B M D'Onofrio, H Larsson, D Mataix-Cols
Adverse perinatal events may increase the risk of Tourette's and chronic tic disorders (TD/CTD), but previous studies have been unable to control for unmeasured environmental and genetic confounding. We aimed to prospectively investigate potential perinatal risk factors for TD/CTD, taking unmeasured factors shared between full siblings into account. A population-based birth cohort, consisting of all singletons born in Sweden in 1973-2003, was followed until December 2013. A total of 3 026 861 individuals were identified, 5597 of which had a registered TD/CTD diagnosis...
March 28, 2017: Molecular Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28348383/prefrontal-gray-matter-volume-mediates-genetic-risks-for-obesity
#20
N Opel, R Redlich, C Kaehler, D Grotegerd, K Dohm, W Heindel, H Kugel, A Thalamuthu, N Koutsouleris, V Arolt, A Teuber, H Wersching, B T Baune, K Berger, U Dannlowski
Genetic and neuroimaging research has identified neurobiological correlates of obesity. However, evidence for an integrated model of genetic risk and brain structural alterations in the pathophysiology of obesity is still absent. Here we investigated the relationship between polygenic risk for obesity, gray matter structure and body mass index (BMI) by the use of univariate and multivariate analyses in two large, independent cohorts (n=330 and n=347). Higher BMI and higher polygenic risk for obesity were significantly associated with medial prefrontal gray matter decrease, and prefrontal gray matter was further shown to significantly mediate the effect of polygenic risk for obesity on BMI in both samples...
March 28, 2017: Molecular Psychiatry
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