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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895323/elevated-cyp2c19-expression-is-associated-with-depressive-symptoms-and-hippocampal-homeostasis-impairment
#1
M M Jukić, N Opel, J Ström, T Carrillo-Roa, S Miksys, M Novalen, A Renblom, S C Sim, E M Peñas-Lledó, P Courtet, A Llerena, B T Baune, D J de Quervain, A Papassotiropoulos, R F Tyndale, E B Binder, U Dannlowski, M Ingelman-Sundberg
The polymorphic CYP2C19 enzyme metabolizes psychoactive compounds and is expressed in the adult liver and fetal brain. Previously, we demonstrated that the absence of CYP2C19 is associated with lower levels of depressive symptoms in 1472 Swedes. Conversely, transgenic mice carrying the human CYP2C19 gene (2C19TG) have shown an anxious phenotype and decrease in hippocampal volume and adult neurogenesis. The aims of this study were to: (1) examine whether the 2C19TG findings could be translated to humans, (2) evaluate the usefulness of the 2C19TG strain as a tool for preclinical screening of new antidepressants and (3) provide an insight into the molecular underpinnings of the 2C19TG phenotype...
November 29, 2016: Molecular Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895322/gestational-vitamin-d-deficiency-and-autism-related-traits-the-generation-r-study
#2
A A E Vinkhuyzen, D W Eyles, T H J Burne, L M E Blanken, C J Kruithof, F Verhulst, V W Jaddoe, H Tiemeier, J J McGrath
There is intense interest in identifying modifiable risk factors associated with autism-spectrum disorders (ASD). Autism-related traits, which can be assessed in a continuous fashion, share risk factors with ASD, and thus can serve as informative phenotypes in population-based cohort studies. Based on the growing body of research linking gestational vitamin D deficiency with altered brain development, this common exposure is a candidate modifiable risk factor for ASD and autism-related traits. The association between gestational vitamin D deficiency and a continuous measure of autism-related traits at ~6 years (Social Responsiveness Scale; SRS) was determined in a large population-based cohort of mothers and their children (n=4229)...
November 29, 2016: Molecular Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27877000/psychiatric-aspects-of-toxoplasmosis-an-indian-perspective
#3
Ajish G Mangot
Toxoplasma gondii is one of the well-studied parasites because of its medical and veterinary importance, and its suitability as a model for cell biology and molecular studies. Latent toxoplasmosis in an immunocompetent host was considered benign until recently. The importance of this parasite has been steadily rising in the field of psychiatry and neurology as it has been implicated in numerous neuropsychiatric disorders. Researchers in India have unfortunately restricted themselves to finding the prevalence of toxoplasma antibodies in special populations and animals...
December 2016: Journal of Parasitic Diseases: Official Organ of the Indian Society for Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27871720/-guidelines-for-the-prescription-of-mood-stabilizers-for-adolescents-a-literature-review
#4
G Munch, N Godart
INTRODUCTION: Adolescence is a unique phase of the human developmental process. In adolescents, psychotropic medications may have different efficacy and tolerance profiles compared to those at other stages of the lifespan. Mood stabilizers are a complex pharmacological category including lithium, some anticonvulsants, and some second generation antipsychotics. Focusing on this class of pharmacological agents, we aim to answer the following questions: in which indications and according to which modalities should mood stabilizers be prescribed during adolescence? METHODS: Information was sought from the websites of the French Haute Autorité de santé (HAS) and Agence nationale de sécurité du médicament et des produits de santé (ANSM), the American Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the British National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (NICE)...
November 18, 2016: L'Encéphale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27867364/an-objective-screening-method-for-major-depressive-disorder-using-logistic-regression-analysis-of-heart-rate-variability-data-obtained-in-a-mental-task-paradigm
#5
Guanghao Sun, Toshikazu Shinba, Tetsuo Kirimoto, Takemi Matsui
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Heart rate variability (HRV) has been intensively studied as a promising biological marker of major depressive disorder (MDD). Our previous study confirmed that autonomic activity and reactivity in depression revealed by HRV during rest and mental task (MT) conditions can be used as diagnostic measures and in clinical evaluation. In this study, logistic regression analysis (LRA) was utilized for the classification and prediction of MDD based on HRV data obtained in an MT paradigm...
2016: Frontiers in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27857045/long-term-pharmacotherapy-by-methylfenidate-or-atomoxetine-dat-1-10-10-adhd-children-in-correlation-with-results-of-the-imaging-methods
#6
(no author information available yet)
OBJECTIVES: ADHD is one of the most significant diagnostic units in child and adolescent psychiatry. The occurrence in children is 5-6% and 50-80% continued to adult age. The presence of individual genes (polymorphism) on particular symptoms and processes in ADHD are not known. It is estimated that ADHD symptoms are up to 80% to genetic. The higher density of resultant DAT 1 protein was observed in ADHD patients in comparison with controls. The question was if DAT 1 10/10 predicted bad prognoses in long term therapy...
September 18, 2016: Neuro Endocrinology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27856950/the-role-of-epigenetics-in-social-psychiatry
#7
REVIEW
Jacob Peedicayil
BACKGROUND: Epigenetics refers to the study of heritable changes in gene expression not involving changes in DNA sequence and is presently an active area of research in biology and medicine. There is increasing evidence that epigenetics is involved in the pathogenesis of psychiatric disorders. AIMS AND METHODS: Several studies conducted to date have suggested that psychosocial factors act by modifying epigenetic mechanisms of gene expression in the brain in the pathogenesis of psychiatric disorders...
November 16, 2016: International Journal of Social Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27843152/additive-effects-of-oxytocin-receptor-gene-polymorphisms-on-reward-circuitry-in-youth-with-autism
#8
L M Hernandez, K Krasileva, S A Green, L E Sherman, C Ponting, R McCarron, J K Lowe, D H Geschwind, S Y Bookheimer, M Dapretto
Several common alleles in the oxytocin receptor gene (OXTR) are associated with altered brain function in reward circuitry in neurotypical adults and may increase risk for autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Yet, it is currently unknown how variation in the OXTR relates to brain functioning in individuals with ASD, and, critically, whether neural endophenotypes vary as a function of aggregate genetic risk. Here, for we believe the first time, we use a multi-locus approach to examine how genetic variation across several OXTR single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) affect functional connectivity of the brain's reward network...
November 15, 2016: Molecular Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27817095/polygenic-score-%C3%A3-intervention-moderation-an-application-of-discrete-time-survival-analysis-to-model-the-timing-of-first-marijuana-use-among-urban-youth
#9
Rashelle J Musci, Brian Fairman, Katherine E Masyn, George Uhl, Brion Maher, Danielle Y Sisto, Sheppard G Kellam, Nicholas S Ialongo
The present study examines the interaction between a polygenic score and an elementary school-based universal preventive intervention trial and its effects on a discrete-time survival analysis of time to first smoking marijuana. Research has suggested that initiation of substances is both genetically and environmentally driven (Rhee et al., Archives of general psychiatry 60:1256-1264, 2003; Verweij et al., Addiction 105:417-430, 2010). A previous work has found a significant interaction between the polygenic score and the same elementary school-based intervention with tobacco smoking (Musci et al...
November 5, 2016: Prevention Science: the Official Journal of the Society for Prevention Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27810706/how-to-measuring-blood-cytokines-in-biological-psychiatry-using-commercially-available-multiplex-immunoassays
#10
Raoul Belzeaux, Marie-Noëlle Lefebvre, Anne Lazzari, Tifenn Le Carpentier, Julia-Lou Consoloni, Xavier Zendjidjian, Mocrane Abbar, Philippe Courtet, Jean Naudin, José Boucraut, Pierre Gressens, Nicolas Glaichenhaus, El Chérif Ibrahim
Cytokines produced by both immune and non-immune cells are likely to play roles in the development and/or progression of psychiatric disorders. Indeed, many investigators have compared the blood cytokine levels in psychiatric patients with those of healthy controls or monitored their levels in patients during disease progression to identify biomarkers. Nevertheless, very few studies have confirmed that such cytokines remain stable in healthy individuals through periods of weeks and months. This is an important issue to consider before using blood cytokine levels as biomarkers of disease traits, disease state, or treatment response...
January 2017: Psychoneuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27807243/paul-wender-a-pioneer-in-adhd-and-biological-psychiatry
#11
Fred Reimherr
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2016: Journal of Attention Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27793702/clinical-and-biological-predictors-of-response-to-electroconvulsive-therapy-ect-a-review
#12
REVIEW
Martina Pinna, Mirko Manchia, Rossana Oppo, Filomena Scano, Gianluca Pillai, Anna Paola Loche, Piergiorgio Salis, Gian Paolo Minnai
Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT), developed in the 30's by Bini and Cerletti, remains a key element of the therapeutic armamentarium in psychiatry, particularly for severe and life-threatening psychiatric symptoms. However, despite its well-established clinical efficacy, the prescription of ECT has declined constantly over the years due to concerns over its safety (cognitive side effects) and an increasingly negative public perception. As for other treatments in the field of psychiatry, ECT is well suited to a personalized approach that would increment its efficacy, as well as reducing the impact of side effects...
October 25, 2016: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27786187/translating-genome-wide-association-findings-into-new-therapeutics-for-psychiatry
#13
Gerome Breen, Qingqin Li, Bryan L Roth, Patricio O'Donnell, Michael Didriksen, Ricardo Dolmetsch, Paul F O'Reilly, Héléna A Gaspar, Husseini Manji, Christopher Huebel, John R Kelsoe, Dheeraj Malhotra, Alessandro Bertolino, Danielle Posthuma, Pamela Sklar, Shitij Kapur, Patrick F Sullivan, David A Collier, Howard J Edenberg
Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) in psychiatry, once they reach sufficient sample size and power, have been enormously successful. The Psychiatric Genomics Consortium (PGC) aims for mega-analyses with sample sizes that will grow to >1 million individuals in the next 5 years. This should lead to hundreds of new findings for common genetic variants across nine psychiatric disorders studied by the PGC. The new targets discovered by GWAS have the potential to restart largely stalled psychiatric drug development pipelines, and the translation of GWAS findings into the clinic is a key aim of the recently funded phase 3 of the PGC...
October 26, 2016: Nature Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27786179/the-road-to-precision-psychiatry-translating-genetics-into-disease-mechanisms
#14
REVIEW
Michael J Gandal, Virpi Leppa, Hyejung Won, Neelroop N Parikshak, Daniel H Geschwind
Hundreds of genetic loci increasing risk for neuropsychiatric disorders have recently been identified. This success, perhaps paradoxically, has posed challenges for therapeutic development, which are amplified by the highly polygenic and pleiotropic nature of these genetic contributions. Success requires understanding the biological impact of single genetic variants and predicting their effects within an individual. Comprehensive functional genomic annotation of risk loci provides a framework for interpretation of neurobiological impact, requiring experimental validation with in vivo or in vitro model systems...
October 26, 2016: Nature Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27777418/the-phf21b-gene-is-associated-with-major-depression-and-modulates-the-stress-response
#15
M-L Wong, M Arcos-Burgos, S Liu, J I Vélez, C Yu, B T Baune, M C Jawahar, V Arolt, U Dannlowski, A Chuah, G A Huttley, R Fogarty, M D Lewis, S R Bornstein, J Licinio
Major depressive disorder (MDD) affects around 350 million people worldwide; however, the underlying genetic basis remains largely unknown. In this study, we took into account that MDD is a gene-environment disorder, in which stress is a critical component, and used whole-genome screening of functional variants to investigate the 'missing heritability' in MDD. Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) using single- and multi-locus linear mixed-effect models were performed in a Los Angeles Mexican-American cohort (196 controls, 203 MDD) and in a replication European-ancestry cohort (499 controls, 473 MDD)...
October 25, 2016: Molecular Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27772665/-reconciliating-neurology-and-psychiatry-the-prototypical-case-of-frontotemporal-dementia
#16
J Lagarde, M Sarazin
Frontotemporal degeneration (FTD) in its behavioral variant (bvFTD) is probably one of the conditions that best illustrates the links between psychiatry and neurology. It is indeed admitted that between a third and half of patients with this condition, especially in early-onset forms, receive an initial diagnosis of psychiatric disorder (depression, schizophrenia, bipolar disorder) and are then referred to a psychiatric ward. BvFTD can thus be considered a neurological disorder with a psychiatric presentation...
October 20, 2016: L'Encéphale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27757065/personalized-prescribing-a-new-medical-model-for-clinical-implementation-of-psychotropic-drugs
#17
Chin B Eap
The use of pharmacogenetic tests was already being proposed in psychiatry in the early 2000s because genetic factors were known to influence drug pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics. However, sufficient levels of evidence to justify routine use have been achieved for only a few tests (eg, major histocompatibility complex, class I, B, allele 1502 [HLA-B*1502] for carbamazepine in epilepsy and bipolar disorders); many findings are too preliminary or, when replicated, of low clinical relevance because of a small effect size...
September 2016: Dialogues in Clinical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27755933/psychoradiology-the-frontier-of-neuroimaging-in-psychiatry
#18
Su Lui, Xiaohong Joe Zhou, John A Sweeney, Qiyong Gong
Unlike neurologic conditions, such as brain tumors, dementia, and stroke, the neural mechanisms for all psychiatric disorders remain unclear. A large body of research obtained with structural and functional magnetic resonance imaging, positron emission tomography/single photon emission computed tomography, and optical imaging has demonstrated regional and illness-specific brain changes at the onset of psychiatric disorders and in individuals at risk for such disorders. Many studies have shown that psychiatric medications induce specific measurable changes in brain anatomy and function that are related to clinical outcomes...
November 2016: Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27752082/inhibition-of-step61-ameliorates-deficits-in-mouse-and-hipsc-based-schizophrenia-models
#19
J Xu, B J Hartley, P Kurup, A Phillips, A Topol, M Xu, C Ononenyi, E Foscue, S-M Ho, T D Baguley, N Carty, C S Barros, U Müller, S Gupta, P Gochman, J Rapoport, J A Ellman, C Pittenger, B Aronow, A C Nairn, M W Nestor, P J Lombroso, K J Brennand
The brain-specific tyrosine phosphatase, STEP (STriatal-Enriched protein tyrosine Phosphatase) is an important regulator of synaptic function. STEP normally opposes synaptic strengthening by increasing N-methyl D-aspartate glutamate receptor (NMDAR) internalization through dephosphorylation of GluN2B and inactivation of the kinases extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 and Fyn. Here we show that STEP61 is elevated in the cortex in the Nrg1(+/-) knockout mouse model of schizophrenia (SZ). Genetic reduction or pharmacological inhibition of STEP prevents the loss of NMDARs from synaptic membranes and reverses behavioral deficits in Nrg1(+/-) mice...
October 18, 2016: Molecular Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27748696/how-to-move-beyond-the-diagnostic-and-statistical-manual-of-mental-disorders-international-classification-of-diseases
#20
Barbara Schildkrout
A new nosology for mental disorders is needed as a basis for effective scientific inquiry. Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders and International Classification of Diseases diagnoses are not natural, biological categories, and these diagnostic systems do not address mental phenomena that exist on a spectrum. Advances in neuroscience offer the hope of breakthroughs for diagnosing and treating major mental illness in the future. At present, a neuroscience-based understanding of brain/behavior relationships can reshape clinical thinking...
October 2016: Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease
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