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Genetic OR biological psychiatry

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324134/-between-psyche-and-brain-state-of-the-art-in-psychiatry
#1
T Fuchs
Since its development around 1800 psychiatry has been oscillating between the poles of the sciences and the humanities, being directed towards subjective experience on the one hand and towards the neural substrate on the other hand. Today, this dualism seems to have been overcome by a naturalism, which identifies subjective experience with neural processes, according to Griesinger's frequently quoted statement "mental diseases are brain diseases". The progress achieved by the neurobiological paradigm on the level of a fundamental science is in contrast to the tendency to isolate mental illnesses from the patients' social relationships and to neglect subjectivity and intersubjectivity in their explanation...
March 21, 2017: Der Nervenarzt
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28289284/the-schizophrenia-risk-gene-znf804a-clinical-associations-biological-mechanisms-and-neuronal-functions
#2
REVIEW
H Chang, X Xiao, M Li
ZNF804A (zinc-finger protein 804A) has been recognized as a schizophrenia risk gene across multiple world populations. Its intronic single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) rs1344706 is among one of the strongest susceptibility variants that have achieved genome-wide significance in genome-wide association studies (GWAS) for schizophrenia and has been widely and intensively studied. To elucidate the biological mechanisms underlying the genetic risk conferred by rs1344706, we retrospectively analyzed the progresses in brain gene expression quantitative trait loci (eQTL) analyses, ZNF804A-induced pathway alterations in neural cells and changes in synaptic phenotypes associated with ZNF804A expression...
March 14, 2017: Molecular Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28289280/biochemical-physiological-and-clinical-effects-of-l-methylfolate-in-schizophrenia-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#3
J L Roffman, L J Petruzzi, A S Tanner, H E Brown, H Eryilmaz, N F Ho, M Giegold, N J Silverstein, T Bottiglieri, D S Manoach, J W Smoller, D C Henderson, D C Goff
Folic acid supplementation confers modest benefit in schizophrenia, but its effectiveness is influenced by common genetic variants in the folate pathway that hinder conversion to its active form. We examined physiological and clinical effects of l-methylfolate, the fully reduced and bioactive form of folate, in schizophrenia. In this randomized, double-blind trial, outpatients with schizophrenia (n=55) received l-methylfolate 15 mg or placebo for 12 weeks. Patients were maintained on stable doses of antipsychotic medications...
March 14, 2017: Molecular Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28289279/next-gen-sequencing-identifies-non-coding-variation-disrupting-mirna-binding-sites-in-neurological-disorders
#4
P Devanna, X S Chen, J Ho, D Gajewski, S D Smith, A Gialluisi, C Francks, S E Fisher, D F Newbury, S C Vernes
Understanding the genetic factors underlying neurodevelopmental and neuropsychiatric disorders is a major challenge given their prevalence and potential severity for quality of life. While large-scale genomic screens have made major advances in this area, for many disorders the genetic underpinnings are complex and poorly understood. To date the field has focused predominantly on protein coding variation, but given the importance of tightly controlled gene expression for normal brain development and disorder, variation that affects non-coding regulatory regions of the genome is likely to play an important role in these phenotypes...
March 14, 2017: Molecular Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28289276/david-skae-and-his-nineteenth-century-etiologic-psychiatric-diagnostic-system-looking-forward-by-looking-back
#5
K S Kendler
The Kraepelinian syndromal approach to diagnosis taken by DSM-III and its successors, which defines disorders by their clinical phenomenon, has come under rising criticism with increasing calls for an etiologically based nosology. The relative virtues of a syndromal versus etiologic psychiatric nosology have actually been debated within our field for a long time. To deepen and historically contextualize our current discussion, I review in detail the proposal for etiologic diagnostic systems for insanity by David Skae (1814-1873)...
March 14, 2017: Molecular Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28286989/a-precision-medicine-initiative-for-alzheimer-s-disease-the-road-ahead-to-biomarker-guided-integrative-disease-modeling
#6
REVIEW
H Hampel, S E O'Bryant, S Durrleman, E Younesi, K Rojkova, V Escott-Price, J-C Corvol, K Broich, B Dubois, S Lista
After intense scientific exploration and more than a decade of failed trials, Alzheimer's disease (AD) remains a fatal global epidemic. A traditional research and drug development paradigm continues to target heterogeneous late-stage clinically phenotyped patients with single 'magic bullet' drugs. Here, we propose that it is time for a paradigm shift towards the implementation of precision medicine (PM) for enhanced risk screening, detection, treatment, and prevention of AD. The overarching structure of how PM for AD can be achieved will be provided through the convergence of breakthrough technological advances, including big data science, systems biology, genomic sequencing, blood-based biomarkers, integrated disease modeling and P4 medicine...
April 2017: Climacteric: the Journal of the International Menopause Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28283186/imaging-genetics-and-genomics-in-psychiatry-a-critical-review-of-progress-and-potential
#7
REVIEW
Ryan Bogdan, Betty Jo Salmeron, Caitlin E Carey, Arpana Agrawal, Vince D Calhoun, Hugh Garavan, Ahmad R Hariri, Andreas Heinz, Matthew N Hill, Andrew Holmes, Ned H Kalin, David Goldman
Imaging genetics and genomics research has begun to provide insight into the molecular and genetic architecture of neural phenotypes and the neural mechanisms through which genetic risk for psychopathology may emerge. As it approaches its third decade, imaging genetics is confronted by many challenges, including the proliferation of studies using small sample sizes and diverse designs, limited replication, problems with harmonization of neural phenotypes for meta-analysis, unclear mechanisms, and evidence that effect sizes may be more modest than originally posited, with increasing evidence of polygenicity...
January 13, 2017: Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28282077/-endophenotypes-in-psychiatry
#8
Salvador M Guinjoan
We review the concept of endophenotype, and its relationship with related terms in use in the scientific literature, including "biomarker" and "intermediate phenotype". We then explain the importance of the concept in current psychiatry research. Specifically, we focus in the potential importance of endophenotypes in both disentangling the genetic causes, and improving the dimensional and pathophysiologic definition, of psychiatric nosological categories. After delineating which types of variables could constitute valid endophenotypes, we describe efforts in defining neurobiological signatures of social cognitive deficits in schizophrenia as an example with potential heuristic value...
September 2016: Vertex: Revista Argentina de Psiquiatriá
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28282076/-concepts-applied-to-psychiatry-pharmacogenomics
#9
María A Zorrilla Zubilete
Pharmacogenetics studies the action of a drug in order to predict the response based on the genetic makeup of an individual. The objective of pharmacogenetic studies is to minimize the adverse effects and to ensure therapeutic benefit. Since psychotropic drugs have a high rate of variability in patient response, the aim of this paper is to update the pharmacogenetic concepts in psychopharmacology in a review that provides tools for rigorous analysis when prescribing a psychotropic drug. The purpose of clinical pharmacogenetic testing is to be able to distinguish between patients who are more or less responders to certain drugs, or on contrary, who are at increased risk for adverse events...
September 2016: Vertex: Revista Argentina de Psiquiatriá
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28282075/-psychiatry-and-genetics-a-bond-to-face-uncertainty
#10
Paula Woloski, Catalina P Kaminker
This article complements a previous one, in which theoretical concepts about etiologic categories, suspicion criteria and timely referral to the specialist were explained. This time we will focus on genetic counselling (GC), describing this process and its characteristics, in particular we will emphasize on psychiatry genetic counseling (PGC). PGC has particular characteristics considering the fact that there are still no tools (genetic testing) for diagnosis and that most mental pathologies are multifactorial inheritance disorders...
September 2016: Vertex: Revista Argentina de Psiquiatriá
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28282074/-epigenetics-2-0-the-multiple-faces-of-the-genome
#11
Marcelo Rubinstein
Epigenetics is the branch of genetics that studies the dynamic relationship between stable genotypes and varying phenotypes. To this end, epigenetics aims to discover the molecular mechanisms that explain how different nutrients and hormones, environmental changes, and emotional, social and cognitive experiences modify gene expression and behaviors, even permanently so. Psychiatry has learned that diseases with strong genetic predisposition, such as schizophrenia, show a concordance of around 50% between monozygotic twins, thus evidencing the importance of the genetic background and the presence of environmental variables that stimulate or block phenotypic development...
September 2016: Vertex: Revista Argentina de Psiquiatriá
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28282072/-genetics-and-psychiatry
#12
Santiago A Levín
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2016: Vertex: Revista Argentina de Psiquiatriá
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28277568/neurodevelopmental-perspectives-on-wnt-signaling-in-psychiatry
#13
REVIEW
Kimberly A Mulligan, Benjamin N R Cheyette
Mounting evidence indicates that Wnt signaling is relevant to pathophysiology of diverse mental illnesses including schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, and autism spectrum disorder. In the 35 years since Wnt ligands were first described, animal studies have richly explored how downstream Wnt signaling pathways affect an array of neurodevelopmental processes and how their disruption can lead to both neurological and behavioral phenotypes. Recently, human induced pluripotent stem cell (hiPSC) models have begun to contribute to this literature while pushing it in increasingly translational directions...
February 2017: Molecular Neuropsychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28274209/mental-health-literacy-about-schizophrenia-and-depression-a-survey-among-chinese-caregivers-of-patients-with-mental-disorder
#14
Shubao Chen, Qiuxia Wu, Chang Qi, Huiqiong Deng, Xuyi Wang, Haoyu He, Jiang Long, Yifan Xiong, Tieqiao Liu
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the knowledge of schizophrenia and depression among caregivers of patients with mental disorder in China. METHOD: A convenience sample of 402 caregivers at the Department of Psychiatry of a general hospital in China was investigated (response rate 95.7%), using vignettes based investigation methodology. RESULTS: The number of caregivers using the term "depression" to describe the depression vignette was 43.6%, which was significantly higher than the number of caregivers using the term "schizophrenia" to describe the schizophrenia one (28...
March 9, 2017: BMC Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28265120/a-genome-wide-gene-by-trauma-interaction-study-of-alcohol-misuse-in-two-independent-cohorts-identifies-prkg1-as-a-risk-locus
#15
R Polimanti, J Kaufman, H Zhao, H R Kranzler, R J Ursano, R C Kessler, J Gelernter, M B Stein
Traumatic life experiences are associated with alcohol use problems, an association that is likely to be moderated by genetic predisposition. To understand these interactions, we conducted a gene-by-environment genome-wide interaction study (GEWIS) of alcohol use problems in two independent samples, the Army STARRS (STARRS, N=16 361) and the Yale-Penn (N=8084) cohorts. Because the two cohorts were assessed using different instruments, we derived separate dimensional alcohol misuse scales and applied a proxy-phenotype study design...
March 7, 2017: Molecular Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28242873/reduction-of-smoking-urges-with-intranasal-insulin-a-randomized-crossover-placebo-controlled-clinical-trial
#16
A Hamidovic, M Khafaja, V Brandon, J Anderson, G Ray, A M Allan, M R Burge
Many cigarette smokers express a desire to quit smoking, but ~85% of cessation attempts fail. In our attempt to delineate genetic modulators of smoking persistence, we have earlier shown that a locus within an ~250 kb haplotype block spanning the 5' untranslated region region of insulin-degrading enzyme is associated with serum cotinine levels; the study's measure of smoking quantity. Based on our findings, and coupled with recent preclinical studies showing the importance of multiple neuropeptides in reinstatement of drug use, we formulated intranasal insulin to evaluate its efficacy during acute abstinence from smoking...
February 28, 2017: Molecular Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28242872/the-familial-co-aggregation-of-asd-and-adhd-a-register-based-cohort-study
#17
L Ghirardi, I Brikell, R Kuja-Halkola, C M Freitag, B Franke, P Asherson, P Lichtenstein, H Larsson
Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) frequently co-occur. The presence of a genetic link between ASD and ADHD symptoms is supported by twin studies, but the genetic overlap between clinically ascertained ASD and ADHD remains largely unclear. We therefore investigated how ASD and ADHD co-aggregate in individuals and in families to test for the presence of a shared genetic liability and examined potential differences between low- and high-functioning ASD in the link with ADHD...
February 28, 2017: Molecular Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28242870/neurons-derived-from-patients-with-bipolar-disorder-divide-into-intrinsically-different-sub-populations-of-neurons-predicting-the-patients-responsiveness-to-lithium
#18
S Stern, R Santos, M C Marchetto, A P D Mendes, G A Rouleau, S Biesmans, Q-W Wang, J Yao, P Charnay, A G Bang, M Alda, F H Gage
Bipolar disorder (BD) is a progressive psychiatric disorder with more than 3% prevalence worldwide. Affected individuals experience recurrent episodes of depression and mania, disrupting normal life and increasing the risk of suicide greatly. The complexity and genetic heterogeneity of psychiatric disorders have challenged the development of animal and cellular models. We recently reported that hippocampal dentate gyrus (DG) neurons differentiated from induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC)-derived fibroblasts of BD patients are electrophysiologically hyperexcitable...
February 28, 2017: Molecular Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28242200/nutritional-psychiatry-where-to-next
#19
REVIEW
Felice N Jacka
The nascent field of 'Nutritional Psychiatry' offers much promise for addressing the large disease burden associated with mental disorders. A consistent evidence base from the observational literature confirms that the quality of individuals' diets is related to their risk for common mental disorders, such as depression. This is the case across countries and age groups. Moreover, new intervention studies implementing dietary changes suggest promise for the prevention and treatment of depression. Concurrently, data point to the utility of selected nutraceuticals as adjunctive treatments for mental disorders and as monotherapies for conditions such as ADHD...
February 21, 2017: EBioMedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28236993/-what-role-for-paraclinical-investigations-within-clinical-trials-conducted-in-psychiatric-patients
#20
A Kaladjian, M Adida, N Simon, R Belzeaux, O Blin, E Fakra, J-M Azorin
As in the usual care of patients, paraclinical investigations have today only a very modest role in clinical trials in psychiatry, mainly to complete the pre-therapeutical assessments prior to inclusion of subjects or to monitor treatment tolerance. Yet, the accumulation of data in neurosciences suggests the next emergence of biomarkers, whose interest is that they are closely associated to the biological disturbances underlying psychiatric illnesses, and that they are accessible by means of technological tools such as imaging devices...
December 2016: L'Encéphale
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