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Genetic OR biological psychiatry

Timothy C Bates, Brion S Maher, Sarah E Medland, Kerrie McAloney, Margaret J Wright, Narelle K Hansell, Kenneth S Kendler, Nicholas G Martin, Nathan A Gillespie
Research on environmental and genetic pathways to complex traits such as educational attainment (EA) is confounded by uncertainty over whether correlations reflect effects of transmitted parental genes, causal family environments, or some, possibly interactive, mixture of both. Thus, an aggregate of thousands of alleles associated with EA (a polygenic risk score; PRS) may tap parental behaviors and home environments promoting EA in the offspring. New methods for unpicking and determining these causal pathways are required...
March 13, 2018: Twin Research and Human Genetics: the Official Journal of the International Society for Twin Studies
James A Roberts, Karl J Friston, Michael Breakspear
Brain activity derives from intrinsic dynamics (due to neurophysiology and anatomical connectivity) in concert with stochastic effects that arise from sensory fluctuations, brainstem discharges, and random microscopic states such as thermal noise. The dynamic evolution of systems composed of both dynamic and random fluctuations can be studied with stochastic dynamic models (SDMs). This article, Part II of a two-part series, reviews applications of SDMs to large-scale neural systems in health and disease. Stochastic models have already elucidated a number of pathophysiological phenomena, such as epilepsy and hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy, although their use in biological psychiatry remains rather nascent...
April 2017: Biological Psychiatry: Cognitive Neuroscience and Neuroimaging
James A Roberts, Karl J Friston, Michael Breakspear
Biological phenomena arise through interactions between an organism's intrinsic dynamics and stochastic forces-random fluctuations due to external inputs, thermal energy, or other exogenous influences. Dynamic processes in the brain derive from neurophysiology and anatomical connectivity; stochastic effects arise through sensory fluctuations, brainstem discharges, and random microscopic states such as thermal noise. The dynamic evolution of systems composed of both dynamic and random effects can be studied with stochastic dynamic models (SDMs)...
April 2017: Biological Psychiatry: Cognitive Neuroscience and Neuroimaging
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 2017: Biological Psychiatry: Cognitive Neuroscience and Neuroimaging
Agnes Norbury, Ben Seymour
Response rates to available treatments for psychological and chronic pain disorders are poor, and there is a considerable burden of suffering and disability for patients, who often cycle through several rounds of ineffective treatment. As individuals presenting to the clinic with symptoms of these disorders are likely to be heterogeneous, there is considerable interest in the possibility that different constellations of signs could be used to identify subgroups of patients that might preferentially benefit from particular kinds of treatment...
2018: F1000Research
E M Peter-Ross
The pathobiological causes, the shared cellular and molecular pathways in catatonia and in catatonic presentation in neuropsychiatric disorders are yet to be determined. The hypotheses in this paper have been deduced from the latest scientific research findings and clinical observations of patients with genetic disorders, behavioral phenotypes and other family members suffering mental disorders. The first hypothesis postulates that catatonia and the heterogeneity of catatonic signs and symptoms involve nucleolar dysfunction arising from abnormalities of the brain-specific, non-coding micro-RNA, SNORD115 genes (either duplications or deletions) which result in pathobiological dysfunction of various combinations in the downstream pathways (possibly along with other genes in these shared pathways)...
April 2018: Medical Hypotheses
J van Os
Personalised psychiatry is the promise that biological stratification and analysis of 'big' data will enable clinical prediction.<br/> AIM: To analyse promises and problems regarding personalised medicine in the psychiatry.<br/> METHOD: Analysis of current challenges.<br/> RESULTS: Essential challenges are: 1. Biological psychiatry yields weak findings and clinically negligible diagnostic likelihood ratios. 2. The impact of biological stratification in medicine is relatively small yet may result in explosive health care costs...
2018: Tijdschrift Voor Psychiatrie
T A M J van Amelsvoort, M C Klaassen, O A van den Heuvel
BACKGROUND: There is an increasing awareness that the current approach to clinical thought and work in psychiatry in relation to psychiatric diagnosis, treatment and research has its limitations. This necessitates a process to reform both the clinical practice and future scientific research. One way to reform this is the transdiagnostic approach. AIM: To clarify the psychological, biological and therapeutic aspects of a transdiagnostic approach in psychiatry. METHOD: An analysis of new approaches based on recent findings from the recent literature...
2018: Tijdschrift Voor Psychiatrie
K R Goethals
Personalised medicine promises to provide us with a diagnostic predictive system of stratification that is based on a wide variety of tests; these can include biological, cognitive, demographic, psychopathological tests and other clearly defined tests. The purpose of forensic psychiatry is not only to take care of and treat mentally impaired patients but also to engage in risk assessment and risk management.<br/> AIM: To explain risk assessment in forensic psychiatry as a nomothetic approach to personalised medicine, and also to demonstrate the link with offence paralleling behaviour, which is an illustration of the ideographic approach...
2018: Tijdschrift Voor Psychiatrie
M W Hengeveld, A T F Beekman
BACKGROUND: Personalised psychiatry requires a psychiatric diagnosis which aims to determine the causes of the mental disorder and the context within which it has developed, including the factors of most importance for the choice of an appropriate treatment. AIM: To show that psychiatric diagnosis is personalised by definition. METHOD: Description of the differences between psychiatric classification and psychiatric diagnosis, including a discussion of symptom network diagnosis and diagnosis of meaningful connections...
2018: Tijdschrift Voor Psychiatrie
Sarah L Karalunas, Damien Fair, Erica D Musser, Kamari Aykes, Swathi P Iyer, Joel T Nigg
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 7, 2018: JAMA Psychiatry
Jessica Janine Liu, John Justin Matelski, Chaim M Bell
BACKGROUND: Physician ratings websites have emerged as a novel forum for consumers to comment on their health care experiences. Little is known about such ratings in Canada. OBJECTIVE: We investigated the scope and trends for specialty, geographic region, and time for online physician ratings in Canada using a national data source from the country's leading physician-rating website. METHODS: This observational retrospective study used online ratings data from Canadian physicians (January 2005-September 2013; N=640,603)...
March 7, 2018: Journal of Medical Internet Research
Anna Sundby, Merete Watt Boolsen, Kristoffer Sølvsten Burgdorf, Henrik Ullum, Thomas Folkmann Hansen, Ole Mors
BACKGROUND: Genomic sequencing of children in research raises complex ethical issues. This study aims to gain more knowledge on the attitudes towards the inclusion of children as research subjects in genomic research and towards the disclosure of pertinent and incidental findings to the parents and the child. METHODS: Qualitative data were collected from interviews with a wide range of informants: experts engaged in genomic research, clinical geneticists, persons with mental disorders, relatives, and blood donors...
March 5, 2018: Human Genomics
Anne-Laure Lemaitre, Gilles Lafargue, Hugues Duffau, Guillaume Herbet
A growing body of evidence suggests that individuals with pronounced schizotypal traits also display particular neurophysiological and morphological features - notably with regard to left frontotemporal connectivity. However, the studies published to date have focused on subclinical subjects and psychiatric patients, rather than brain-damaged patients. Here, we used the French version of the Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire to assess schizotypal traits in a sample of 97 patients having undergone surgical resection of a diffuse low-grade glioma...
February 27, 2018: Schizophrenia Research
Cynthia Shannon Weickert, Debora A Rothmond, Tertia D Purves-Tyson
Schizophrenia is a disabling disease impacting millions of people around the world, for which there is no known cure. Current antipsychotic treatments for schizophrenia mainly target psychotic symptoms, do little to ameliorate social or cognitive deficits, have side-effects that cause weight gain, and diabetes and 30% of people do not respond. Thus, better therapeutics for schizophrenia aimed at the route biologic changes are needed and discovering the underlying neurobiology is key to this quest. Postmortem brain studies provide the most direct and detailed way to determine the pathophysiology of schizophrenia...
2018: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
Matthias Miesch, Arno Deister
AIMS AND METHODS: To examine the 12-month prevalence, risk factors, and comorbidity of ADHD in a collective of adult psychiatric patients admitted to an open general ward in a psychiatric hospital in Schleswig-Holstein (Germany) over a period of one year (n = 166). RESULTS: The 12 months prevalence of ADHD was 59.0 % (severe symptomatology: 33.1 %), high rates of comorbid disorders (92.9 % depression, 5.1 % bipolar disorder, 28.6 % anxiety disorder, 30...
February 28, 2018: Fortschritte der Neurologie-Psychiatrie
N G Christodoulou, M L Wassenhoven, S T Rassia
The relationship between schizophrenia and the city is well known and widely documented in the literature, albeit with many questions still unanswered. While it is clear that there is a higher incidence of schizophrenia in cities, there is little known on causality - or its direction - in that relationship. Also, despite the fact that several clinical and epidemiological parameters play a role in the relationship between schizophrenia and the city, this relationship has not been investigated or interpreted holistically...
October 2017: Psychiatrikē, Psychiatriki
Danilo Bzdok, Andreas Meyer-Lindenberg
The nature of mental illness remains a conundrum. Traditional disease categories are increasingly suspected to misrepresent the causes underlying mental disturbance. Yet psychiatrists and investigators now have an unprecedented opportunity to benefit from complex patterns in brain, behavior, and genes using methods from machine learning (e.g., support vector machines, modern neural-network algorithms, cross-validation procedures). Combining these analysis techniques with a wealth of data from consortia and repositories has the potential to advance a biologically grounded redefinition of major psychiatric disorders...
March 2018: Biological Psychiatry: Cognitive Neuroscience and Neuroimaging
I Trofimova, T W Robbins, W H Sulis, J Uher
This Editorial highlights a unique focus of this theme issue on the biological perspectives in deriving psychological taxonomies coming from neurochemistry, neuroanatomy, neurophysiology, genetics, psychiatry, developmental and comparative psychology-as contrasted to more common discussions of socio-cultural concepts (personality) and methods (lexical approach). It points out the importance of the distinction between temperament and personality for studies in human and animal differential psychophysiology, psychiatry and psycho-pharmacology, sport and animal practices during the past century...
April 19, 2018: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
K Oliver Schubert, David Stacey, Georgia Arentz, Scott R Clark, Tracy Air, Peter Hoffmann, Bernhard T Baune
In order to accelerate the understanding of pathophysiological mechanisms and clinical biomarker discovery and in psychiatry, approaches that integrate multiple -omics platforms are needed. We introduce a workflow that investigates a narrowly defined psychiatric phenotype, makes use of the potent and cost-effective discovery technology of gene expression microarrays, applies Weighted Gene Co-Expression Network Analysis (WGCNA) to better capture complex and polygenic traits, and finally explores gene expression findings on the proteomic level using targeted mass-spectrometry (MS) technologies...
February 20, 2018: Journal of Proteomics
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