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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786807/-pharmacotherapy-of-epilepsy
#1
Torbjörn Tomson, Olof Rask
Pharmacotherapy of epilepsy is usually initiated after two or more unprovoked seizures, a decision that should be made after assessment of the individual risk of further seizures. Antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) are selected based on documented efficacy for the type of seizures, the epilepsy and possible epilepsy syndrome of the patient, taking potential adverse effects and comorbidity into account. For many AEDs, the mechanisms of action are incompletely understood. More than half of patients with newly diagnosed epilepsy achieve sustained seizure freedom with their first or second drug trials...
May 21, 2018: Läkartidningen
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786562/application-of-hepatocyte-like-cells-to-enhance-hepatic-safety-risk-assessment-in-drug-discovery
#2
REVIEW
Dominic P Williams
Hepatic stress and injury from drugs continues to be a major concern within the pharmaceutical industry, leading to preclinical and clinical attrition precautionary warnings and post-market withdrawal of drugs. There is a requirement for more predictive and mechanistically accurate models to aid risk assessment. Primary human hepatocytes, subject to isolation stress, cryopreservation, donor-to-donor variation and a relatively short period of functional capability in two-dimensional cultures, are not suitable for high-throughput screening procedures...
July 5, 2018: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786560/microfabrication-of-liver-and-heart-tissues-for-drug-development
#3
REVIEW
Grace E Brown, Salman R Khetani
Drug-induced liver- and cardiotoxicity remain among the leading causes of preclinical and clinical drug attrition, marketplace drug withdrawals and black-box warnings on marketed drugs. Unfortunately, animal testing has proven to be insufficient for accurately predicting drug-induced liver- and cardiotoxicity across many drug classes, likely due to significant differences in tissue functions across species. Thus, the field of in vitro human tissue engineering has gained increasing importance over the last 10 years...
July 5, 2018: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785554/interactions-between-kappa-and-mu-opioid-receptor-agonists-effects-of-the-ratio-of-drugs-in-mixtures
#4
Vanessa Minervini, Hannah Y Lu, Jahnavi Padarti, Daniela C Osteicoechea, Charles P France
RATIONALE: Pain is the leading reason for seeking health care, and mu opioid receptor agonists continue to be prescribed despite well-documented adverse effects. Kappa opioid receptor agonists have antinociceptive effects with little to no abuse liability and might be useful for treating pain in mixtures. Kappa:mu opioid mixtures might be useful if therapeutic effects of each drug can be selectively increased while reducing or avoiding the adverse effects that occur with larger doses of each drug alone...
May 22, 2018: Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29784079/analgesic-efficacy-and-safety-of-hydromorphone-in-chinchillas-chinchilla-lanigera
#5
Emily A Evenson, Christoph Mans
Limited information is available regarding the efficacy of opioid analgesics in chinchillas. Here we sought to evaluate the analgesic efficacy and safety of hydromorphone in chinchillas. In a randomized, controlled, blind, complete crossover design, hydromorphone was administered at 0.5, 1, and 2 mg/kg SC to 16 chinchillas. Analgesic efficacy was determined by measuring hindlimb withdrawal latencies after a thermal noxious stimulus (Hargreaves method) at 0, 1, 2, 4, and 8 h after drug administration. Changes in daily food intake and fecal output after hydromorphone administration were recorded...
May 1, 2018: Journal of the American Association for Laboratory Animal Science: JAALAS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782979/chondroitin-sulfate-from-sturgeon-bone-ameliorates-pain-of-osteoarthritis-induced-by-monosodium-iodoacetate-in-rats
#6
Yingjiao Sun, Guozhuan Zhang, Qian Liu, Xudong Liu, Lei Wang, Jianfeng Wang, Lishuang Liang
Chondroitin sulfate (CS) is an important component of the extracellular matrix of cartilage and has been widely used as one of the main drugs for the treatment of joint pain-related nutraceuticals and medicines. Sturgeon bone (SB) is the main waste during deep processing of sturgeons in fishery production. The present study was evaluated the therapeutic effect of CS from SB (CSSB) on monosodium iodoacetate (MIA)-induced osteoarthritis (OA) pain and further explored the potential medicinal value of CSSB. The OA pain model was induced by intra-articular injection of MIA and then treated with CSSB...
May 18, 2018: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782303/clindamycin-induced-maculopapular-exanthema-with-preferential-involvement-of-striae-distensae-a-koebner-phenomenon
#7
Benigno Monteagudo, Miguel Cabanillas, Pilar Iriarte, Aquilina Ramírez-Santos, Elvira León-Muinos, Daniel González-Vilas, Óscar Suárez-Amor
Clindamycin is a lincomycin-derived antibiotic useful for the treatment of anaerobic and Gram-positive aerobic bacterial infections. Cutaneous adverse reactions are usually maculopapular exanthemas, although hypersensitivity syndrome, acute generalized exanthematous pustulosis, and Stevens-Johnson syndrome have also been reported (1). We report the case of a patient with a maculopapular rash triggered by clindamycin who developed cutaneous lesions on striae distensae (SD). A 47-year-old woman was referred to our clinic for pruritic cutaneous lesions which had started 6 days earlier...
April 2018: Acta Dermatovenerologica Croatica: ADC
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29781554/children-who-face-development-risks-due-to-maternal-addiction-during-pregnancy-require-extra-medical-and-psychosocial-resources
#8
Jenny Rangmar, Maria Lilja, Marie Köhler, Antonia Reuter
AIM: This study examined medical and psychosocial risk factors in children born to women with addiction problems during pregnancy and the children's needs for extra medical and psychosocial resources. METHODS: Swedish midwives routinely screen pregnant women for drugs and alcohol and refer women with addictions to the Maternity and Child Healthcare Resource Team. We investigated the medical records of 127 children (51% girls) whose mothers were referred to the Resource Team from 2009-2015...
May 21, 2018: Acta Paediatrica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778098/hydrochlorothiazide-and-risk-of-hearing-disorder-a-case-series
#9
Natnael Belai, Selamawit Gebrehiwet, Yodit Fitsum, Mulugeta Russom
BACKGROUND: Hydrochlorothiazide is not known to cause hearing disorder. The Eritrean Pharmacovigilance Centre, however, has received cases of hearing disorder, including irreversible deafness, associated with hydrochlorothiazide. The aim of this study is, therefore, to assess the causal relationship between hydrochlorothiazide and hearing disorder. METHODS: Data was retrieved from the WHO global adverse drug reaction database, VigiBase™. A search on VigiBase™ was made on August 6, 2017 using "hydrochlorothiazide" as drug substance, and "ototoxicity", "decreased hearing", and "vestibular disorder" as reaction terms...
May 20, 2018: Journal of Medical Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778010/exposure-to-cannabinoid-agonist-win-55-212-2-during-early-adolescence-increases-alcohol-preference-and-anxiety-in-cd1-mice
#10
Jimena Laura Frontera, Victoria María Gonzalez Pini, Fernando Luis Messore, Alicia Brusco
The endocannabinoid (eCB) system is involved in the modulation of the reward system and participates in the reinforcing effects of different drugs of abuse, including alcohol. The most abundant receptor of the eCB system in the central nervous system is the CB1 receptor (CB1R), which is predominantly expressed in areas involved in drug addiction, such as the nucleus accumbens, the ventral tegmental area, the substantia nigra and the raphe nucleus. CB1R is expressed in early stages during development, and reaches maximum levels during early adolescence...
May 16, 2018: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29776349/randomised-controlled-trial-rct-of-cannabinoid-replacement-therapy-nabiximols-for-the-management-of-treatment-resistant-cannabis-dependent-patients-a-study-protocol
#11
Anjali K Bhardwaj, David J Allsop, Jan Copeland, Iain S McGregor, Adrian Dunlop, Marian Shanahan, Raimondo Bruno, Nghi Phung, Mark Montebello, Craig Sadler, Jessica Gugusheff, Melissa Jackson, Jennifer Luksza, Nicholas Lintzeris
BACKGROUND: The cannabis extract nabiximols (Sativex®) effectively supresses withdrawal symptoms and cravings in treatment resistant cannabis dependent individuals, who have high relapse rates following conventional withdrawal treatments. This study examines the efficacy, safety and cost-effectiveness of longer-term nabiximols treatment for outpatient cannabis dependent patients who have not responded to previous conventional treatment approaches. METHODS/DESIGN: A phase III multi-site outpatient, randomised, double-blinded, placebo controlled parallel design, comparing a 12-week course of nabiximols to placebo, with follow up at 24 weeks after enrolment...
May 18, 2018: BMC Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774169/phase-2-study-of-everolimus-for-relapsed-or-refractory-classical-hodgkin-lymphoma
#12
Patrick B Johnston, Lauren C Pinter-Brown, Ghulam Warsi, Kristen White, Radhakrishnan Ramchandren
Background: The current standard of care for classical Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) is multiagent chemotherapy with or without radiation. In patients who relapse or fail to respond, additional high-dose chemotherapy with autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (AHSCT) can improve progression-free survival (PFS). Novel therapies are required for patients refractory to chemotherapy and AHSCT. The mammalian target of rapamycin inhibitor everolimus has shown preliminary activity in preclinical models of HL and promising efficacy in patients with relapsed or refractory HL...
2018: Experimental Hematology & Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29770801/corrigendum-monte-carlo-simulations-suggest-current-chlortetracycline-drug-residue-based-withdrawal-periods-would-not-control-antimicrobial-resistance-dissemination-from-feedlot-to-slaughterhouse
#13
Casey L Cazer, Lucas Ducrot, Victoriya V Volkova, Yrjö T Gröhn
[This corrects the article on p. 1753 in vol. 8, PMID: 29033901.].
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29769132/toots-tastes-and-tester-shots-user-accounts-of-drug-sampling-methods-for-gauging-heroin-potency
#14
Sarah G Mars, Jeff Ondocsin, Daniel Ciccarone
BACKGROUND: Internationally, overdose is the primary cause of death among people injecting drugs. However, since 2001, heroin-related overdose deaths in the United States (US) have risen sixfold, paralleled by a rise in the death rate attributed to synthetic opioids, particularly the fentanyls. This paper considers the adaptations some US heroin injectors are making to protect themselves from these risks. METHODS: Between 2015 and 2016, a team of ethnographers collected data through semi-structured interviews and observation captured in field notes and video recording of heroin preparation/consumption...
May 16, 2018: Harm Reduction Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29768629/controversial-issues-in-the-management-of-hyperprolactinemia-and-prolactinomas-an-overview-by-the-neuroendocrinology-department-of-the-brazilian-society-of-endocrinology-and-metabolism
#15
Lucio Vilar, Julio Abucham, José Luciano Albuquerque, Luiz Antônio Araujo, Monalisa F Azevedo, Cesar Luiz Boguszewski, Luiz Augusto Casulari, Malebranche B C Cunha Neto, Mauro A Czepielewski, Felipe H G Duarte, Manuel Dos S Faria, Monica R Gadelha, Heraldo M Garmes, Andrea Glezer, Maria Helane Gurgel, Raquel S Jallad, Manoel Martins, Paulo A C Miranda, Renan M Montenegro, Nina R C Musolino, Luciana A Naves, Antônio Ribeiro-Oliveira Júnior, Cíntia M S Silva, Camila Viecceli, Marcello D Bronstein
Prolactinomas are the most common pituitary adenomas (approximately 40% of cases), and they represent an important cause of hypogonadism and infertility in both sexes. The magnitude of prolactin (PRL) elevation can be useful in determining the etiology of hyperprolactinemia. Indeed, PRL levels > 250 ng/mL are highly suggestive of the presence of a prolactinoma. In contrast, most patients with stalk dysfunction, drug-induced hyperprolactinemia or systemic diseases present with PRL levels < 100 ng/mL. However, exceptions to these rules are not rare...
March 2018: Archives of Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29765246/efficacy-of-opioids-versus-placebo-in-chronic-pain-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-of-enriched-enrollment-randomized-withdrawal-trials
#16
Diana S Meske, Oluwadolapo D Lawal, Harrison Elder, Valerie Langberg, Florence Paillard, Nathaniel Katz
Introduction: Opioids have been used for millennia for the treatment of pain. However, the long-term efficacy of opioids to treat chronic non-cancer pain continues to be debated. To evaluate opioids' efficacy in chronic non-cancer pain, we performed a meta-analysis of published clinical trials for μ-opioid receptor agonists performed for US Food and Drug Administration approval. Methods: MEDLINE and Cochrane trial register were searched for enriched enrollment randomized withdrawal studies (before June 2016)...
2018: Journal of Pain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29760674/validation-of-a-spanish-questionnaire-on-mobile-phone-abuse
#17
María A Olivencia-Carrión, Isabel Ramírez-Uclés, Pablo Holgado-Tello, Francisca López-Torrecillas
Mobile phone addiction has attracted much attention recently and is showing similarity to other substance use disorders. Because no studies on mobile phone addiction had yet been conducted in Spain, we developed and validated a questionnaire (Cuestionario de Abuso del Teléfono Móvil, ATeMo) to measure mobile phone abuse among young adults in Spanish. The ATeMo questionnaire was designed based on relevant DSM-5 diagnostic criteria and included craving as a diagnostic symptom. Using stratified sampling, the ATeMo questionnaire was administered to 856 students (mean age 21, 62% women)...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29759132/the-gamma-aminobutyric-acid-b-receptor-in-depression-and-reward
#18
REVIEW
Laura H Jacobson, Styliani Vlachou, David A Slattery, Xia Li, John F Cryan
The metabotropic gamma-aminobutyric acid B (GABAB ) receptor was the first described obligate G protein-coupled receptor heterodimer and continues to set the stage for discoveries in G protein-coupled receptor signaling complexity. In this review, dedicated to the life and work of Athina Markou, we explore the role of GABAB receptors in depression, reward, and the convergence of these domains in anhedonia, a shared symptom of major depressive disorder and withdrawal from drugs of abuse. GABAB receptor expression and function are enhanced by antidepressants and reduced in animal models of depression...
June 1, 2018: Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29758393/phase-i-trial-of-brentuximab-vedotin-for-steroid-refractory-chronic-graft-versus-host-disease-after-allogeneic-hematopoietic-cell-transplantation
#19
Zachariah DeFilipp, Shuli Li, Maria E Kempner, Jami Brown, Candice Del Rio, Betsy Valles, Chrisa Hunnewell, Meredith Saylor, Julie Vanderklish, Bimalangshu R Dey, Areej El-Jawahri, Steven L McAfee, Thomas R Spitzer, Yi-Bin Chen
We conducted a phase I study of brentuximab vedotin (BV), an antibody-drug conjugate targeting CD30, for the treatment of steroid-refractory chronic graft-versus-host disease (cGVHD). A modified 3+3 study design was used with the primary endpoint to determine the maximum tolerated dose (MTD) of BV in this population. Escalating doses of BV were planned, starting with 0.6 mg/kg q3weeks (dose level 0) and increasing by 0.3 mg/kg per dose level. BV was administered in 21-day cycles for up to 16 cycles of therapy...
May 11, 2018: Biology of Blood and Marrow Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29757346/effectiveness-of-a-multifaceted-intervention-to-reduce-night-time-sedative-use-in-a-rehabilitation-unit-a-pre-post-intervention-study
#20
Juliana Delos Reyes, Anthony T Sharkey, Laura Morrison, Maria Costello, Cate Crowe, Robert Murphy, Shaun T O'Keeffe, Eamon C Mulkerrin
Background: night-time sedation prescribed during a hospital stay can result in long-term use of such medications in older people. We examined the effectiveness of a multifaceted intervention to reduce night time sedation in an inpatient rehabilitation unit. Methods: an initial retrospective survey of night-time sedative use was followed by prospective re-evaluation after a number of changes were made including education of staff and of patients regarding the potential hazards of sedative medications, measures to promote sleep hygiene and facilitate a 'quiet time' after 10 pm and development of a withdrawal protocol for patients on long-term night sedation...
May 11, 2018: Age and Ageing
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