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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805985/willingness-to-pay-for-antiretroviral-drugs-among-hiv-and-aids-clients-in-south-east-nigeria
#1
Chinyere Mbachu, Chijioke Okoli, Obinna Onwujekwe, Fabian Enabulele
BACKGROUND: The current trend of withdrawal of donor support for HIV/AIDS treatment in Nigeria may require that the cost of antiretroviral drugs be borne in part by infected people and their families. OBJECTIVE: This study was conducted to determine the economic value for free antiretroviral drugs (ARVs) expressed by clients receiving treatment for HIV/AIDS in a tertiary hospital. STUDY METHOD: The contingent valuation method was used to elicit the values attached to free ARVs from people living with HIV/AIDS that were receiving care in a public tertiary hospital in south-east Nigeria...
August 14, 2017: Health Expectations: An International Journal of Public Participation in Health Care and Health Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28800916/-particulate-contamination-associated-with-the-manipulation-of-drugs-in-glass-ampules-a-literature-review
#2
REVIEW
L Painchart, P Odou, J-F Bussières
OBJECTIVES: The manipulation of drugs from glass ampules can generate particles when the ampule is broken. Several authors recommend the use of filter needle to withdraw the drug content. The aim of this study is to make an assessment of the presence of particles during the manipulation of glass ampules and to discuss the current practices. METHODS: Literature review based on a search strategy (Pubmed, Google Scholar) and a summary table of available data. Analysis to evaluate the efficacy of the filtration when data are available...
August 8, 2017: Annales Pharmaceutiques Françaises
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28799513/ketogenic-diets-in-the-treatment-of-epilepsy
#3
Maurizio Elia, Joerg Klepper, Baerbel Leiendecker, Hans Hartmann
BACKGROUND: Although a larger number of antiepileptic drugs became available in the last decades, epilepsy remains drug-resistant in approximately a third of patients. Ketogenic diet (KD), first proposed at the beginning of the last century, is complex and has anticonvulsant effects, yet not completely understood. Over the last decades, different types of ketogenic diets (KDs) have been developed, namely classical KD and modified Atkins diet (MAD). They offer an effective alternative for children and adults with drug-resistant epilepsies...
August 9, 2017: Current Pharmaceutical Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28799510/safety-profile-of-the-newest-antiepileptic-drugs-a-curated-literature-review
#4
Caterina Palleria, Giuseppe Cozza, Rajeshree Khengar, Vincenzo Libri, Giovambattista De Sarro
BACKGROUND: Despite the introduction of new antiepileptic drugs (AEDs), the quality of life and therapeutic response for patients with epilepsy remain unsatisfactory. In addition, whilst several antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) have been approved and consequently marketed in recent years, little is known about their long-term safety and tolerability. Availability of the newest AEDs, characterized by improved pharmacokinetic profiles, has positively impacted the treatment approach for patients with partial seizures in clinical practice...
August 9, 2017: Current Pharmaceutical Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28797990/marked-improvement-in-gastric-involvement-in-beh%C3%A3-et-s-disease-with-adalimumab-treatment
#5
Akira Sonoda, Ryo Ogawa, Kazuhiro Mizukami, Kensuke Fukuda, Mitsutaka Shuto, Kazuhisa Okamoto, Osamu Matsunari, Tadayoshi Okimoto, Kazunari Murakami
Gastric involvement is the least frequent manifestation of Behçet's disease, and effective treatment for it unknown. Here the case of a patient with gastric involvement in Behçet's disease that was markedly improved with adalimumab therapy is presented. A 68-year-old man developed an oral ulcer, erythema, folliculitis, and arthralgia. Behçet's disease was suspected; then, prednisolone and colchicine were administered. Esophagogastroduodenoscopy showed a punched-out ulcer in the posterior wall of the gastric antrum...
August 9, 2017: Turkish Journal of Gastroenterology: the Official Journal of Turkish Society of Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28797539/risk-factors-for-poor-prognosis-in-children-with-refractory-purulent-meningitis-and-the-discharge-criteria
#6
Hai-Lun Peng, Yue Hu, Hong-Jia Chen, Pan-Pan Song, Li Jiang
This study was undertaken to investigate the relationship between cerebrospinal fluid abnormalities and prognosis in pediatric refractory purulent meningitis. Ninety cases of pediatric refractory purulent meningitis were stratified into "good" (n=33) or "poor" (n=57) prognosis groups according to the Glasgow clinical outcome scores. The symptoms, laboratory results, and prognosis were compared by using univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses. Univariate analysis showed that poor prognosis was associated with: unequal pupil size in both eyes; positive Babinski sign; CSF-WBC >500×10(6)/L, CSF protein concentration >1...
August 7, 2017: Journal of Infection and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28795057/side-effects-of-indomethacin-in-refractory-post-traumatic-intracranial-hypertension-a-comprehensive-case-study-and-review
#7
REVIEW
Daniel Agustín Godoy, Pablo David Guerrero Suarez, Luis Rafael Moscote-Salazar, Mario Di Napoli
Intracranial hypertension (IH) is one of the final pathways of acute brain injury. In severe traumatic brain injury (sTBI), it independently predicts poor outcomes. Its control represents a key aspect of the management. Lack of response to conventional therapies signals a state of ''refractory IH'', with an associated mortality rate of 80-100%. In such cases, hypothermia, barbiturates at high doses (BBT), decompressive craniectomy (DC), and extreme hyperventilation are utilized. However, none of them has proven efficacy...
July 2017: Bulletin of Emergency and Trauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28791703/the-medial-habenula-and-interpeduncular-nucleus-circuitry-is-critical-in-addiction-anxiety-and-mood-regulation
#8
REVIEW
Ian McLaughlin, John A Dani, Mariella De Biasi
Abstinence from chronic use of addictive drugs triggers an aversive withdrawal syndrome that compels relapse and deters abstinence. Many features of this syndrome are common across multiple drugs, involving both affective and physical symptoms. Some of the network signaling underlying withdrawal symptoms overlaps with activity that is associated with aversive mood states, including anxiety and depression. Given these shared features, it is not surprising that a particular circuit, the dorsal diencephalic conduction system, and the medial habenula (MHb) and interpeduncular nucleus (IPN), in particular, have been identified as critical to the emergence of aversive states that arise both as a result and, independently, of drug addiction...
August 2017: Journal of Neurochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28791308/recovery-following-thyroxine-treatment-withdrawal-but-not-propylthiouracil-averts-in-vivo-and-ex-vivo-thyroxine-provoked-cardiac-complications-in-adult-fvb-n-mice
#9
Nancy S Saad, Steven J Repas, Kyle Floyd, Paul M L Janssen, Mohammad T Elnakish
Persistent cardiovascular pathology has been described in hyperthyroid patients even with effective antithyroid treatment. Here, we studied the effect of a well-known antithyroid drug, propylthiouracil (PTU; 20 mg/kg/day), on thyroxine (T4; 500 µg/kg/day)-induced increase in blood pressure (BP), cardiac hypertrophy, and altered responses of the contractile myocardium both in vivo and ex vivo after 2 weeks of treatment. Furthermore, the potential recovery through 2 weeks of T4 treatment discontinuation was also investigated...
2017: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28790263/-three-poor-performance-status-ps-cases-of-metastatic-breast-cancer-controlled-with-adjustment-of-dosing-interval-and-dosage-of-bevacizumab-and-paclitaxel
#10
Mitsuo Terada, Hiroshi Sugiura, Nobuyasu Yoshimoto, Sayaka Nishikawa, Yukashi Ito, Yoko Kawaguchi, Yoshiaki Ando, Yukari Hato
A standard symptomatic therapy regimen of bevacizumab(BV)plus paclitaxel(PTX)was planned for use in 3 cases of metastatic breast cancer. Due to poor patient performance status(PS)because of malignant pleural effusion and ascites, the initial standard regimen was determined to be unsuitable. However, adjustment and fine-tuning of the BV plus PTX interval and dosage were found to be effective in improving symptoms, and consequently obtained good efficacy. Adverse effects were managed with drug withdrawal and symptomatic therapy...
July 2017: Gan to Kagaku Ryoho. Cancer & Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28789893/lead-selection-of-antiparasitic-compounds-from-a-focused-library-of-benzenesulfonyl-derivatives-of-heterocycles
#11
Romina J Pagliero, Marcel Kaiser, Reto Brun, Marcelo J Nieto, María R Mazzieri
A library of 89 synthetic benzenesulfonyl derivatives of heterocycles with drug-like properties was assayed for in vitro antiparasitic activity and the results were added to our previously reported derivatives for a comprehensive SAR evaluation. Four compounds showed an IC50 between 0.25 and 3μM against Leishmania donovani and low cytotoxicity. Compound G{16} (1-(2,3,5,6-tetramethylphenylsulfonyl)-2-methylindoline), was particularly interesting with an IC50 similar to the reference drug miltefosine. Seven compounds showed an IC50 below 6µM against Trypanosoma cruzi, and three of them (E{3}, E{9} and G{3}) were identified as lead scaffolds for further optimization based on their activity-toxicity profile...
July 31, 2017: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28780109/comparison-of-2-protocols-to-increase-circulating-progesterone-concentration-before-timed-artificial-insemination-in-lactating-dairy-cows-with-or-without-elevated-body-temperature
#12
M H C Pereira, M C Wiltbank, T G Guida, F R Lopes, J L M Vasconcelos
Two treatments designed to increase circulating progesterone concentration (P4) during preovulatory follicle development were compared. One treatment used 2 intravaginal P4 implants (controlled internal drug-releasing inserts; CIDR) and the other used a GnRH treatment at beginning of the protocol. Lactating Holstein cows that had been diagnosed as nonpregnant were randomly assigned to receive timed artificial insemination (TAI) following 1 of 2 treatments (n = 1,638 breedings): (1) GnRH: CIDR+ 2 mg of estradiol (E2) benzoate + 100 µg of GnRH on d -11, PGF2α on d -4, CIDR withdrawal + 1...
August 2, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28777443/use-of-human-pluripotent-stem-cell-derived-cardiomyocytes-to-study-drug-induced-cardiotoxicity
#13
Agnes Maillet, Kim Peng Tan, Liam R Brunham
Drug-induced cardiotoxicity is the one of the most common causes of drug withdrawal from market. A major barrier in managing the risk of drug-induced cardiotoxicity has been the lack of relevant models to study cardiac safety. Human pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes (hPSC-CMs) have great potential in drug discovery and cardiotoxcity screens as they display many characteristics of the human myocardium and offer unlimited supply. This unit describes how to use pluripotent stem cells derived cardiomyocytes to study drug-induced cardiotoxicty using doxorubicin as an example...
August 4, 2017: Current Protocols in Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28777203/a-review-of-alprazolam-use-misuse-and-withdrawal
#14
Nassima Ait-Daoud, Allan Scott Hamby, Sana Sharma, Derek Blevins
: Alprazolam is one of the most widely prescribed benzodiazepines for the treatment of generalized anxiety disorder and panic disorder. Its clinical use has been a point of contention as most addiction specialists consider it to be highly addictive, given its unique psychodynamic properties which limit its clinical usefulness, whereas many primary care physicians continue to prescribe it for longer periods than recommended. Clinical research data has not fully shed light on its "abuse liability," yet it is one of the most frequently prescribed benzodiazepines...
August 2, 2017: Journal of Addiction Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28775313/disposition-and-residue-depletion-of-metronidazole-in-pigs-and-broilers
#15
Yuanhu Pan, Jiliang Yi, Bo Zhou, Shuyu Xie, Dongmei Chen, Yanfei Tao, Wei Qu, Zhenli Liu, Lingli Huang, Zonghui Yuan
Metronidazole (MNZ) is used in veterinary medicine for the treatment of anaerobic infections and a variety of protozoal and parasitic diseases. Current study has been conducted to examine the disposition and residue depletion studies of MNZ and its main metabolites in pigs and broilers. After a single oral administration of MNZ, the concentrations of MNZ and its main metabolites in the excreta of pigs and broilers were determined by LC-MS/MS. More than 75% of the drug was recovered within 14 days, of which MNZ accounted for about 40%, MNZ-OH 20-25% and MAA less than 10%...
August 3, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28771932/acute-liver-failure-induced-by-idiosyncratic-reaction-to-drugs-challenges-in-diagnosis-and-therapy
#16
Shannan R Tujios, William M Lee
Acute liver failure (ALF) requires urgent attention to identify etiology and determine prognosis, in order to assess likelihood of survival or need for transplantation. Identifying idiosyncratic drug-induced liver injury (iDILI) may be particularly difficult, but the illness generally follows a subacute course, allowing time to assess outcome and find a liver graft if needed. Not all drugs that cause iDILI lead to ALF; the most common are antibiotics including anti-tuberculous medications, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agents and herbal and dietary supplements (HDS)...
August 3, 2017: Liver International: Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of the Liver
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28770976/non-steroidal-anti-inflammatory-drugs-nsaids-for-chronic-non-cancer-pain-in-children-and-adolescents
#17
REVIEW
Christopher Eccleston, Tess E Cooper, Emma Fisher, Brian Anderson, Nick Mr Wilkinson
BACKGROUND: Pain is a common feature of childhood and adolescence around the world, and for many young people, that pain is chronic. The World Health Organization guidelines for pharmacological treatments for children's persisting pain acknowledge that pain in children is a major public health concern of high significance in most parts of the world. While in the past pain was largely dismissed and was frequently left untreated, views on children's pain have changed over time, and relief of pain is now seen as important...
August 2, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28769860/efficacy-and-tolerability-of-gabapentin-in-adults-with-sleep-disturbance-in-medical-illness-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#18
Guang Jian Liu, Md Rezaul Karim, Li Li Xu, Song Lin Wang, Chao Yang, Li Ding, Yun-Fu Wang
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to systematically review the efficacy and tolerability of gabapentin in the treatment of sleep disturbance in patients with medical illness. METHODS: PubMed was searched for randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled trials that reported sleep changes during gabapentin treatment up to November 2015. FINDINGS: This review included 26 studies involving 4,684 participants. Except for Composite Endpoint 3 [standardized mean difference (SMD) = 0...
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28769859/adverse-effects-of-antidepressants-for-chronic-pain-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#19
Carina Riediger, Tibor Schuster, Kristian Barlinn, Sarah Maier, Jürgen Weitz, Timo Siepmann
BACKGROUND: Antidepressants are widely used in the treatment of chronic pain. Applied doses are lower than those needed to unfold an antidepressive effect. While efficacy of antidepressants for chronic pain has been reported in large randomized-controlled trials (RCT), there is inconsistent data on adverse effects and tolerability. We aimed at synthesizing data from RCT to explore adverse effect profiles and tolerability of antidepressants for treatment of chronic pain. METHODS: Systematic literature research and meta-analyses were performed regarding side effects and safety of different antidepressants in the treatment of chronic pain according to Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines...
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28768628/risk-of-neonatal-drug-withdrawal-after-intrauterine-co-exposure-to-opioids-and-psychotropic-medications-cohort-study
#20
Krista F Huybrechts, Brian T Bateman, Rishi J Desai, Sonia Hernandez-Diaz, Kathryn Rough, Helen Mogun, Leslie S Kerzner, Jonathan M Davis, Megan Stover, Devan Bartels, Jennifer Cottral, Elisabetta Patorno
Objectives To assess the impact of in utero co-exposure to psychotropic medications and opioids on the incidence and severity of neonatal drug withdrawal.Design Observational cohort study.Setting Nationwide sample of pregnancies in publicly insured women in the US, nested in the Medicaid Analytic eXtract (2000-10).Participants 201 275 pregnant women with public insurance who were exposed to opioids around the time of delivery and their liveborn infants.Interventions In utero exposure to psychotropic medications, in particular antidepressants, atypical antipsychotics, benzodiazepines, gabapentin, and non-benzodiazepine hypnotics (Z drugs), with prescriptions filled within the same time window as prescriptions for opioids...
August 2, 2017: BMJ: British Medical Journal
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