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Opioid withdrawal

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820778/src-kinase-inhibition-attenuates-morphine-tolerance-without-affecting-reinforcement-or-psychomotor-stimulation
#1
Fiona A Bull, Daniel T Baptista-Hon, Claire Sneddon, Lisa Wright, Wendy Walwyn, Tim G Hales
BACKGROUND: Prolonged opioid administration leads to tolerance characterized by reduced analgesic potency. Pain management is additionally compromised by the hedonic effects of opioids, the cause of their misuse. The multifunctional protein β-arrestin2 regulates the hedonic effects of morphine and participates in tolerance. These actions might reflect µ opioid receptor up-regulation through reduced endocytosis. β-Arrestin2 also recruits kinases to µ receptors. We explored the role of Src kinase in morphine analgesic tolerance, locomotor stimulation, and reinforcement in C57BL/6 mice...
August 18, 2017: Anesthesiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818835/src-dependent-phosphorylation-of-%C3%AE-opioid-receptor-at-tyr-336-modulates-opiate-withdrawal
#2
Lei Zhang, Cherkaouia Kibaly, Yu-Jun Wang, Chi Xu, Kyu Young Song, Patrick W McGarrah, Horace H Loh, Jing-Gen Liu, Ping-Yee Law
Opiate withdrawal/negative reinforcement has been implicated as one of the mechanisms for the progression from impulsive to compulsive drug use. Increase in the intracellular cAMP level and protein kinase A (PKA) activities within the neurocircuitry of addiction has been a leading hypothesis for opiate addiction. This increase requires the phosphorylation of μ-opioid receptor (MOR) at Tyr(336) by Src after prolonged opiate treatment in vitro Here, we report that the Src-mediated MOR phosphorylation at Tyr(336) is a prerequisite for opiate withdrawal in mice...
August 17, 2017: EMBO Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815604/chronic-morphine-reduces-the-readily-releasable-pool-of-gaba-a-presynaptic-mechanism-of-opioid-tolerance
#3
Adrianne R Wilson-Poe, Hyo-Jin Jeong, Christopher W Vaughan
The midbrain periaqueductal grey (PAG) plays a critical role in tolerance to the analgesic actions of opioids such as morphine. While numerous studies have identified the postsynaptic adaptations induced by chronic morphine treatment in this and other brain regions, the presence of presynaptic adaptations remains uncertain. We examined GABAergic synaptic transmission within rat PAG brain slices from animals which underwent a low dose morphine treatment protocol which produces tolerance, but not withdrawal. Evoked GABAergic IPSCs (inhibitory postsynaptic currents) were less in morphine compared to control saline treated animals...
August 16, 2017: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814260/neonatal-abstinence-syndrome-management-a-review-of-recent-evidence
#4
Matthew Grossman, Carl Seashore, Alison Volpe Holmes
BACKGROUND: The evaluation and management of infants with neonatal abstinence syndrome (NAS), the constellation of opioid withdrawal specific to newborns, has received renewed attention over the past decade during a new epidemic of opioid use, misuse, abuse, and dependence. Infants with NAS often endure long and costly hospital stays. OBJECTIVE: We aim to review recent literature on the management and outcomes of infants with, and at risk for, opioid withdrawal...
August 16, 2017: Reviews on Recent Clinical Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812595/compulsive-like-sufentanil-vapor-self-administration-in-the-rat
#5
Janaina Cm Vendruscolo, Brendan J Tunstall, Stephanie A Carmack, Brooke E Schmeichel, Emily G Lowery-Gionta, Maury Cole, Olivier George, Sophia Vandewater, Michael Taffe, George F Koob, Leandro F Vendruscolo
Opioid misuse is at historically high levels in the United States, with inhalation (ie, smoking, and vaping) being one of the most common routes of consumption. We developed and validated a novel preclinical model of opioid self-administration by inhalation that does not require surgery and reliably produces somatic and motivational signs of dependence. Rats were trained to perform an operant response (nosepoke) to receive 10 s of vaporized sufentanil, a potent opioid, in 2 h daily sessions. Rats readily and concentration-dependently self-administered vaporized sufentanil...
August 16, 2017: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811180/development-of-an-opioid-self-administration-assay-to-study-drug-seeking-in-zebrafish
#6
Gabriel D Bossé, Randall T Peterson
The zebrafish (Danio rerio) has become an excellent tool to study mental health disorders, due to its physiological and genetic similarity to humans, ease of genetic manipulation, and feasibility of small molecule screening. Zebrafish have been shown to exhibit characteristics of addiction to drugs of abuse in non-contingent assays, including conditioned place preference, but contingent assays have been limited to a single assay for alcohol consumption. Using inexpensive electronic, mechanical, and optical components, we developed an automated opioid self-administration assay for zebrafish, enabling us to measure drug seeking and gain insight into the underlying biological pathways...
August 12, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807904/no-clinically-relevant-drug-drug-interactions-between-methadone-or-buprenorphine-naloxone-and-anti-viral-combination-glecaprevir-and-pibrentasvir
#7
Matthew Kosloski, Weihan Zhao, Armen Asatryan, Jens Kort, Pierre Geoffroy, Wei Liu
The combination of glecaprevir (formerly ABT-493), a nonstructural (NS) protein 3/4A protease inhibitor, and pibrentasvir (formerly ABT-530), a NS5A protein inhibitor, is being developed as treatment for HCV genotype 1-6 infection. The pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, safety, and tolerability of methadone or buprenorphine/naloxone when coadministered with the glecaprevir and pibrentasvir combination in HCV-negative subjects on stable opioid maintenance therapy were investigated in a Phase 1, single-center, two-arm, multiple-dose, open-label sequential study...
August 14, 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807162/chinese-herbal-medicine-for-the-treatment-of-drug-addiction
#8
Weili Zhu, Yinan Zhang, Yingjie Huang, Lin Lu
This chapter summarizes recent developments in preclinical and clinical research on Chinese herbal medicines and their neurochemical mechanism of action for the treatment of drug addiction. We searched Chinese and English scientific literature and selected several kinds of Chinese herbal medicines that have beneficial effects on drug addiction. Ginseng (Renshen) may be clinically useful for the prevention of opioid abuse and dependence. Rhizoma Corydalis (Yanhusuo) may be used to prevent relapse to chronic drug dependence...
2017: International Review of Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806222/transient-receptor-potential-vanilloid-1-antagonists-prevent-anesthesia-induced-hypothermia-and-decrease-postincisional-opioid-dose-requirements-in-rodents
#9
Andras Garami, Mohab Ibrahim, Kerry Gilbraith, Rajesh Khanna, Eszter Pakai, Alexandra Miko, Erika Pinter, Andrej A Romanovsky, Frank Porreca, Amol M Patwardhan
BACKGROUND: Intraoperative hypothermia and postoperative pain control are two important clinical challenges in anesthesiology. Transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 has been implicated both in thermoregulation and pain. Transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 antagonists were not advanced as analgesics in humans in part due to a side effect of hyperthermia. This study tested the hypothesis that a single, preincision injection of a transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 antagonist could prevent anesthesia-induced hypothermia and decrease the opioid requirement for postsurgical hypersensitivity...
August 14, 2017: Anesthesiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28795846/a-novel-non-opioid-protocol-for-medically-supervised-opioid-withdrawal-and-transition-to-antagonist-treatment
#10
Gregory Rudolf, Jim Walsh, Abigail Plawman, Paul Gianutsos, William Alto, Lloyd Mancl, Vania Rudolf
BACKGROUND: The clinical feasibility of a novel non-opioid and benzodiazepine-free protocol was assessed for the treatment of medically supervised opioid withdrawal and transition to subsequent relapse prevention strategies. METHODS: A retrospective chart review of DSM-IV diagnosed opioid-dependent patients admitted for inpatient medically supervised withdrawal examined 84 subjects (52 males, 32 females) treated with a 4-day protocol of scheduled tizanidine, hydroxyzine, and gabapentin...
August 10, 2017: American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28793780/iatrogenic-opioid-withdrawal-in-critically-ill-patients-a-review-of-assessment-tools-and-management
#11
Ada W Chiu, Sofia Contreras, Sangeeta Mehta, Jennifer Korman, Marc M Perreault, David R Williamson, Lisa D Burry
OBJECTIVE: To (1) provide an overview of the epidemiology, clinical presentation, and risk factors of iatrogenic opioid withdrawal in critically ill patients and (2) conduct a literature review of assessment and management of iatrogenic opioid withdrawal in critically ill patients. DATA SOURCES: We searched MEDLINE (1946-June 2017), EMBASE (1974-June 2017), and CINAHL (1982-June 2017) with the terms opioid withdrawal, opioid, opiate, critical care, critically ill, assessment tool, scale, taper, weaning, and management...
August 1, 2017: Annals of Pharmacotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28776309/morphine-withdrawal-increases-brain-derived-neurotrophic-factor-precursor
#12
Alessia Bachis, Lee A Campbell, Kierra Jenkins, Erin Wenzel, Italo Mocchetti
Morphine has been shown to increase the expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in the brain. However, little is known about the effect of morphine withdrawal on BDNF and its precursor protein, or proBDNF, which induces neuronal apoptosis. In this work, we examined whether BDNF and proBDNF levels change in rats chronically injected with escalating doses of morphine and those who undergo spontaneous withdrawal for 60 h. We observed, in the frontal cortex and striatum, that the ratio of BDNF to proBDNF changed depending upon the experimental paradigm...
August 3, 2017: Neurotoxicity Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28770976/non-steroidal-anti-inflammatory-drugs-nsaids-for-chronic-non-cancer-pain-in-children-and-adolescents
#13
REVIEW
Christopher Eccleston, Tess E Cooper, Emma Fisher, Brian Anderson, Nick Mr Wilkinson
BACKGROUND: Pain is a common feature of childhood and adolescence around the world, and for many young people, that pain is chronic. The World Health Organization guidelines for pharmacological treatments for children's persisting pain acknowledge that pain in children is a major public health concern of high significance in most parts of the world. While in the past pain was largely dismissed and was frequently left untreated, views on children's pain have changed over time, and relief of pain is now seen as important...
August 2, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28768628/risk-of-neonatal-drug-withdrawal-after-intrauterine-co-exposure-to-opioids-and-psychotropic-medications-cohort-study
#14
Krista F Huybrechts, Brian T Bateman, Rishi J Desai, Sonia Hernandez-Diaz, Kathryn Rough, Helen Mogun, Leslie S Kerzner, Jonathan M Davis, Megan Stover, Devan Bartels, Jennifer Cottral, Elisabetta Patorno
Objectives To assess the impact of in utero co-exposure to psychotropic medications and opioids on the incidence and severity of neonatal drug withdrawal.Design Observational cohort study.Setting Nationwide sample of pregnancies in publicly insured women in the US, nested in the Medicaid Analytic eXtract (2000-10).Participants 201 275 pregnant women with public insurance who were exposed to opioids around the time of delivery and their liveborn infants.Interventions In utero exposure to psychotropic medications, in particular antidepressants, atypical antipsychotics, benzodiazepines, gabapentin, and non-benzodiazepine hypnotics (Z drugs), with prescriptions filled within the same time window as prescriptions for opioids...
August 2, 2017: BMJ: British Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28766237/the-toxicology-investigators-consortium-case-registry-the-2016-experience
#15
Lynn A Farrugia, Sean H Rhyee, Diane P Calello, Sharan L Campleman, Anne M Riederer, Hannah R Malashock, Anthony Pizon, Timothy Wiegand, Paul M Wax, Jeffrey Brent
The Toxicology Investigators Consortium (ToxIC) Case Registry was established by the American College of Medical Toxicology in 2010. The Registry contains data from participating sites with the agreement that all bedside medical toxicology consultations will be entered. Currently, 83% of accredited medical toxicology fellowship programs in the USA participate. The Registry continues to grow each year, and as of 31 December 2016, a new milestone was reached, with more than 50,000 cases reported since its inception...
August 1, 2017: Journal of Medical Toxicology: Official Journal of the American College of Medical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28763302/intramuscularly-injected-neurotropin-reduced-muscular-mechanical-hyperalgesia-induced-by-repeated-cold-stress-in-rats
#16
Teruaki Nasu, Shiori Murase, Yoshiko Takeda-Uchimura, Kazue Mizumura
An extract of rabbit skin inflamed by inoculation with the vaccinia virus, neurotropin [by intravenous, oral, and intramuscular (i.m.) administration], has been used in China and Japan for the treatment of chronic pain. In this study, we investigated the analgesic mechanism of i.m. neurotropin. Rats were exposed to repeated cold stress, and muscular mechanical hyperalgesia was evaluated by measuring the withdrawal threshold of the gastrocnemius muscle using Randall-Selitto apparatus. I.m. but not subcutaneous, neurotropin dose dependently reduced the repeated cold stress-induced muscular mechanical hyperalgesia for 3 h, but it had no effect in normal rats...
July 31, 2017: Behavioural Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28762073/alterations-in-brain-activation-in-response-to-prolonged-morphine-withdrawal-induced-behavioral-inflexibility-in-rats
#17
Chengji Piao, Tiane Liu, Lian Ma, Xuekun Ding, Xingyue Wang, Xing Chen, Ying Duan, Nan Sui, Jing Liang
RATIONALE: The inability to stop a repetitive maladaptive behavior is a main problem in addictive disorders. Neuroadaptations that are associated with behavioral inflexibility may be involved in compulsive drug use. OBJECTIVES: The aim of the present study was to investigate the pattern of behavioral inflexibility during morphine withdrawal and map brain activation that is linked to alterations in flexibility. METHODS: We first analyzed the effects of chronic morphine exposure on reversal learning after 2-week (short-term) and 6-week (prolonged) morphine withdrawal...
July 31, 2017: Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28755832/-serious-adverse-drug-reactions-with-tramadol-reported-to-the-french-pharmacovigilance-database-between-2011%C3%A2-and-2015
#18
Florence Moulis, Vanessa Rousseau, Delphine Abadie, Kamel Masmoudi, Joëlle Micallef, Caroline Vigier, Sabrina Pierre, Anne Dautriche, François Montastruc, Jean-Louis Montastruc
BACKGROUND: Tramadol is an opioid and a serotonin reuptake inhibitor drug. It is approved for moderate to severe pain in adults. The aim of this study was to assess tramadol safety through a national pharmacovigilance study in France since dextropropoxyphen withdrawal in 2011. METHODS: We described all serious adverse drug reactions (SADRs) reported with tramadol in adults in the French National PharmacoVigilance Database from August 1st, 2011 to December 31st, 2015...
June 29, 2017: Thérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28753684/erratum-unexpected-serious-cardiac-arrhythmias-in-the-setting-of-loperamide-abuse
#19
Somwail Rasla, Parag Parikh, Peter Hoffmeister, Amy St Amand, Marina K Garas, Amr El Meligy, Taro Minami, Nishant R Shah
Loperamide (Imodium) is a non-prescription opioid receptor agonist available over-the-counter for the treatment of diarrhea. When ingested in excessive doses, loperamide can penetrate the blood-brain barrier and is reported to produce euphoria, central nervous system and respiratory depression, and cardiotoxicity. There is an emerging trend in its use among drug abusers for its euphoric effects or for self-treatment of opioid withdrawal. We report a case of ventricular dysrhythmias associated with loperamide abuse in a 28-year-old man who substituted loperamide for the opioids that he used to abuse...
August 1, 2017: Rhode Island Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28753044/severe-bark-scorpion-envenomation-in-adults
#20
Ayrn D O'Connor, Angela Padilla-Jones, Anne-Michelle Ruha
INTRODUCTION: The preponderance of medical literature regarding severe bark scorpion envenomation describes pediatric patients; however, the majority (>66%) of annual poison center calls pertain to adults. This retrospective review sought to evaluate the clinical manifestations of adults with severe Centruroides sculpturatus envenomation and determine if significant morbidity occurred. METHODS: This is a retrospective review of adults presenting to a single tertiary referral center with Grade-III or Grade-IV scorpion envenomation from 1 January 2007 to 3 March 2013...
July 28, 2017: Clinical Toxicology
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