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Th2- type allergic diseases

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29768688/ppar-%C3%AE-in-innate-and-adaptive-lung-immunity
#1
REVIEW
Samuel Philip Nobs, Manfred Kopf
The transcription factor PPAR-γ (peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ) is a key regulator of lung immunity exhibiting multiple cell type specific roles in controlling development and function of the lung immune system. It is strictly required for the generation of alveolar macrophages by controlling differentiation of fetal lung monocyte precursors. Furthermore, it plays an important role in lung allergic inflammation by licensing lung dendritic cell t helper 2 (Th2) priming capacity as well as acting as a master transcription factor for pathogenic Th2 cells...
May 16, 2018: Journal of Leukocyte Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29768555/the-relationship-between-atopy-and-neurological-manifestations-in-htlv-1-infection
#2
Raquel Crisóstomo Lima Verde, José Abraão Carneiro Neto, Silvane Maria Braga Santos, Edgar Marcelino Carvalho, Marcus Miranda Lessa
INTRODUCTION: Human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1)induces exaggerated Th1 responses, whereas atopy is associated with exacerbated Th2 responses. METHODS: Here, a cross-sectional study compared the prevalence of atopy in HTLV-1 carriers and HAM/TSP patients. It also compared the spontaneous cytokine production in HTLV-1-infected individuals. A retrospective cohort study evaluated the development of neurological manifestations in atopic and non-atopic carriers...
March 2018: Revista da Sociedade Brasileira de Medicina Tropical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29764019/-the-role-of-type-2-innate-lymphoid-cells-in-the-pathogenesis-of-eosinophilic-chronic-rhinosinusitis-with-nasal-polyps
#3
C L Geng, Z M Xing, L S Yu, M Wang, X P Yuan, Y Liu, G Zhang, Z J Wang
Objective: To investigate the type 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2s) in eosinophilic nasal polyps, non-eosinophilic nasal polyps and controls, and to compare the characteristics of ILC2s indifferent types of nasal polyp. Methods: Flow cytometric analysis was used to quantify the ILC2s and Th2 cells in tissues from 19 patients with chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyp (CRSwNP) and 6 controls. The patients were classified into two groups as eosinophilic chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps (ECRSwNP) and non-eosinophilic chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps (non-ECRSwNP) based on eosinophil counts under hematoxylin-eosin staining...
May 7, 2018: Zhonghua Er Bi Yan Hou Tou Jing Wai Ke za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Otorhinolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29762870/t-cells-and-ilc2s-are-major-effector-cells-in-influenza-induced-exacerbation-of-allergic-airway-inflammation-in-mice
#4
Bobby W S Li, Marjolein J W de Bruijn, Melanie Lukkes, Menno van Nimwegen, Ingrid M Bergen, Alex KleinJan, Corine H GeurtsvanKessel, Arno Andeweg, Guus F Rimmelzwaan, Rudi W Hendriks
Influenza virus infection is an important cause of severe asthma exacerbations, but it remains unclear how a Th1-mediated antiviral response triggers a prototypical Th2 disease. We investigated CD4+ T cells and group 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2s) in influenza virus-infected mice. We found that ILC2s accumulated in the lung rapidly after influenza virus infection, but the induction of IL-5 and IL-13 secretion was delayed and concomitant with T cell activation. In an influenza-induced exacerbation of allergic airway inflammation model we noticed an initial reduction of ILC2 numbers and cytokine production in broncho-alveolar lavage compared to chronic house dust mite (HDM)-mediated airway inflammation alone...
May 15, 2018: European Journal of Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29751492/aluminum-adjuvant-containing-vaccines-in-the-context-of-the-hygiene-hypothesis-a-risk-factor-for-eosinophilia-and-allergy-in-a-genetically-susceptible-subpopulation
#5
REVIEW
Todd D Terhune, Richard C Deth
There are similarities between the immune response following immunization with aluminum adjuvants and the immune response elicited by some helminthic parasites, including stimulation of immunoglobulin E (IgE) and eosinophilia. Immunization with aluminum adjuvants, as with helminth infection, induces a Th2 type cell mediated immune response, including eosinophilia, but does not induce an environment conducive to the induction of regulatory mechanisms. Helminths play a role in what is known as the hygiene hypothesis, which proposes that decreased exposure to microbes during a critical time in early life has resulted in the increased prevalence and morbidity of asthma and atopic disorders over the past few decades, especially in Western countries...
May 3, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29739687/the-role-of-regulatory-t-cells-in-the-acquisition-of-tolerance-to-food-allergens-in-children
#6
REVIEW
E Bernaldo de Quiros, E Seoane-Reula, E Alonso-Lebrero, M Pion, R Correa-Rocha
Food allergy is a pathological immune reaction that identifies certain harmless food proteins, usually tolerated by the majority of the people, as a threat. The prevalence of these food allergies is increasing worldwide and currently affects 8% of children. Exacerbated reactions to milk, egg and peanut are the most frequent in the pediatric population. It is well known that allergic diseases are a type 2 T-helper (Th2) immune response, characterized by the elevated production of IgE antibodies. However, little is known about the immune mechanisms responsible for the development of clinical tolerance toward food allergens...
May 5, 2018: Allergologia et Immunopathologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29704811/involvement-of-ion-channels-in-allergy
#7
REVIEW
Lucette Pelletier, Magali Savignac
Allergic asthma is a complex disease, often characterized by an inappropriate Th2 response to normally harmless allergens. Epithelial cells damaged or activated by the allergen produce IL-33, TSLP and IL-25, activating ILC2 and dendritic cells. The latter migrate into lymph nodes where they induce Th2-cell commitment. Th2 and other type 2 innate inflammatory cells trigger inflammation and airway hyper-reactivity. The toolbox consisting of the ion channels varies from one cellular type to another and depends on its activation state, offering the possibility to design novel drugs in the field of allergy...
April 25, 2018: Current Opinion in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29670037/expression-and-regulation-of-thymic-stromal-lymphopoietin-and-thymic-stromal-lymphopoietin-receptor-heterocomplex-in-the-innate-adaptive-immunity-of-pediatric-asthma
#8
REVIEW
Sheng-Chieh Lin, Fang-Yi Cheng, Jun-Jen Liu, Yi-Ling Ye
Asthma is a chronic inflammatory disease affecting the airway, and it is characterized by a wheezing breathing sound, variable airflow obstruction and the presence of inflammatory cells in the submucosa of the bronchi. Viral infection, pollutants and sensitivity to aeroallergens damage the epithelium from childhood, which causes asthma. The pathogenesis of asthma includes pathways of innate stimulation by environmental microbes and irritant pathogens. Damaged epithelial cells produce thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP) and stimulate myeloid dendritic cell maturation through the thymic stromal lymphopoietin receptor (TSLPR) heterocomplex...
April 18, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29656291/activin-a-is-a-pro-inflammatory-regulator-in-type-2-driven-upper-airway-disease
#9
Adam M Chaker, Ulrich Matthias Zissler, Nikolaos Poulos, Martin Wagenmann, Murat Bas, Ferdinand Gürth, Georgina Xanthou, Carsten Schmidt-Weber
BACKGROUND: Allergic upper airway disease involves pro-inflammatory type-2 cytokines such as IL-5 and regulatory tissue repair mediators, in particular transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1. The TGF-β-superfamily member activin-A displays multiple biological functions and shares certain signalling pathways with TGF-β1. We aimed to examine the coregulation of mucosal activin-A and TGF-β1 in acute allergic and chronic Th2-driven upper airway disease. METHODS: We investigated mucosal cytokine expression profiles and kinetics using RT-PCR after nasal allergen challenges in patients with seasonal allergic rhinitis...
April 13, 2018: International Archives of Allergy and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29518416/allergen-induced-activation-of-natural-killer-cells-represents-an-early-life-immune-response-in-the-development-of-allergic-asthma
#10
Matthew C Altman, Elizabeth Whalen, Alkis Togias, George T O'Connor, Leonard B Bacharier, Gordon R Bloomberg, Meyer Kattan, Robert A Wood, Scott Presnell, Petra LeBeau, Katy Jaffee, Cynthia M Visness, William W Busse, James E Gern
BACKGROUND: Childhood asthma in inner-city populations is a major public health burden, and understanding early-life immune mechanisms that promote asthma onset is key to disease prevention. Children with asthma demonstrate a high prevalence of aeroallergen sensitization and TH 2-type inflammation; however, the early-life immune events that lead to TH 2 skewing and disease development are unknown. OBJECTIVE: We sought to use RNA sequencing of PBMCs collected at age 2 years to determine networks of immune responses that occur in children with allergy and asthma...
March 5, 2018: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29483769/asthma-and-poly-adp-ribose-polymerase-inhibition-a-new-therapeutic-approach
#11
REVIEW
Raffaela Zaffini, Giovanni Gotte, Marta Menegazzi
Asthma is a chronic lung disease affecting people of all ages worldwide, and it frequently begins in childhood. Because of its chronic nature, it is characterized by pathological manifestations, including airway inflammation, remodeling, and goblet cell hyperplasia. Current therapies for asthma, including corticosteroids and beta-2 adrenergic agonists, are directed toward relieving the symptoms of the asthmatic response, with poor effectiveness against the underlying causes of the disease. Asthma initiation and progression depends on the T helper (Th) 2 type immune response carried out by a complex interplay of cytokines, such as interleukin (IL) 4, IL5, and IL13, and the signal transducer and activator of transcription 6...
2018: Drug Design, Development and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29407576/the-genes-involved-in-asthma-with-the-treatment-of-human-embryonic-stem-cell-derived-mesenchymal-stem-cells
#12
Yong-Dong Lin, Xing-Liang Fan, Hong Zhang, Shu-Bin Fang, Cheng-Lin Li, Meng-Xia Deng, Zi-Li Qin, Ya-Qi Peng, Hong-Yu Zhang, Qing-Ling Fu
BACKGROUND: Asthma is affecting more than 300 million people worldwide, which represents the most common chronic disease among children. We previously found that mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) derived from induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) modulated the immune response on Th2-mediated asthma in vivo and in vitro. This study further evaluated the immunomodulatory effects of MSCs from human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) on asthma. METHODS: Multipotent hESC-MSCs were obtained using a feeder-free method...
March 2018: Molecular Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29399438/type-2-cytokine-responses-regulating-immunity-to-helminth-parasites-and-allergic-inflammation
#13
Everett K Henry, Juan M Inclan-Rico, Mark C Siracusa
Purpose of Review: It is well established that T helper type 2 (TH 2) immune responses are necessary to provide protection against helminth parasites but also to promote the detrimental inflammation associated with allergies and asthma. Given the importance of type 2 immunity and inflammation, many studies have focused on better understanding the factors that regulate TH 2 cell development and activation. As a result, significant progress has been made in understanding the signaling pathways and molecular events necessary to promote TH 2 cell polarization...
December 2017: Current Pharmacology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29394345/roles-of-il-22-in-allergic-airway-inflammation-in-mice-and-humans
#14
Koichi Hirose, Takashi Ito, Hiroshi Nakajima
Asthma is a chronic inflammatory disease of the airways that is characterized by eosinophilic inflammation, mucus hypersecretion and airway remodeling that leads to airway obstruction. Although these pathognomonic features of asthma are primarily mediated by allergen-specific T helper type 2 cells (Th2 cells) and their cytokines, recent studies have revealed critical roles of lung epithelial cells in the pathogenesis of asthma. Lung epithelial cells not only form physical barriers by covering the surfaces of the airways but also sense inhaled allergens and initiate communication between the environment and the immune system...
January 31, 2018: International Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29377154/a-novel-glycocluster-molecule-prevents-timothy-induced-allergic-airway-inflammation-in-mice
#15
M Lehto, H Wolff, R Leino, H Alenius, J Savolainen
BACKGROUND: Allergen-specific immunotherapy (SIT) effectively alleviates type I allergic diseases characterized by T helper (Th)2-type immunity. Our recent studies have shown that a synthetic trivalent glycocluster, triacedimannose (TADM), suppresses the Th2-type allergic inflammation. The aim of this study was to compare TADM with two well-known adjuvants, unmethylated cytosine-phosphate-guanine oligodeoxynucleotide (CpG) and monophosphoryl lipid A (MPLA) in a grass allergen-induced chronic allergic inflammation model in mice...
January 26, 2018: Allergy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29361236/%C3%AE-arrestin-2-dependent-signaling-promotes-ccr4-mediated-chemotaxis-of-murine-t-helper-type-2-cells
#16
Rui Lin, Yeon Ho Choi, David A Zidar, Julia K L Walker
Allergic asthma is a complex inflammatory disease that leads to significant healthcare costs and reduction in quality of life. Although many cell types are implicated in the pathogenesis of asthma, CD4+ T helper type 2 cells (Th2) are centrally involved. We previously reported that the asthma phenotype is virtually absent in ovalbumin-sensitized and -challenged mice that lack global expression of βarrestin-2 and that CD4+ T cells from these mice displayed significantly reduced C-C motif chemokine 22 (CCL22)-mediated chemotaxis...
January 23, 2018: American Journal of Respiratory Cell and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29355679/efficacy-and-safety-of-dupilumab-in-perennial-allergic-rhinitis-and-comorbid-asthma
#17
Steven F Weinstein, Rohit Katial, Shyamalie Jayawardena, Gianluca Pirozzi, Heribert Staudinger, Laurent Eckert, Vijay N Joish, Nikhil Amin, Jaman Maroni, Paul Rowe, Neil M H Graham, Ariel Teper
BACKGROUND: Dupilumab, an anti-IL-4 receptor α mAb, inhibits IL-4/IL-13 signaling, key drivers of type 2/TH 2 immune diseases (eg, atopic/allergic disease). In a pivotal, phase 2b study (NCT01854047), dupilumab reduced severe exacerbations, improved lung function and quality of life, and was generally well tolerated in patients with uncontrolled persistent asthma despite using medium-to-high-dose inhaled corticosteroids plus long-acting β2-agonists. OBJECTIVE: To examine dupilumab's effect on the 22-item Sino-Nasal Outcome Test (SNOT-22) total score and its allergic rhinitis (AR)-associated items in asthma patients with comorbid perennial allergic rhinitis (PAR)...
January 31, 2018: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29343807/house-dust-mite-induced-allergic-airway-disease-is-attenuated-in-cd11ccreil-4r%C3%AE-l%C3%A2-x-mice
#18
Natalie Eva Nieuwenhuizen, Frank Kirstein, Jennifer Claire Hoving, Frank Brombacher
The precise mechanisms leading to development of T helper type (Th)2-driven allergic responses are unknown. We aimed to determine how IL-4 receptor alpha (IL-4Rα) signaling on CD11c+ cells influences allergen-induced Th2 responses in mice. CD11ccreIL-4Rα-/l°x mice, deficient in IL-4Rα on dendritic cells and alveolar macrophages, were compared to IL-4Rα-/l°x littermate controls in models of allergic airway disease induced by OVA/alum, OVA alone or house dust mite. Cytokine responses, eosinophil and neutrophil infiltration into the lungs, airway hyperreactivity and mucus hypersecretion were evaluated after allergen challenge...
January 17, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331049/prenatal-maternal-psychosocial-stress-and-offspring-s-asthma-and-allergic-disease-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#19
C Flanigan, A Sheikh, A DunnGalvin, B K Brew, C Almqvist, B I Nwaru
BACKGROUND: Prenatal maternal stress may influence offspring's atopic risk through sustained cortisol secretion resulting from activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary axis (HPA), leading to Th2-biased cell differentiation in the foetus. We undertook a systematic review and meta-analysis investigating the relationship between prenatal maternal psychosocial stress and risk of asthma and allergy in the offspring. METHODS: We searched 11 electronic databases from 1960 to 2016, searched the grey literature and contacted experts in the field...
April 2018: Clinical and Experimental Allergy: Journal of the British Society for Allergy and Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29328030/modern-approaches-to-fractional-exhaled-nitric-oxide-as-a-useful-biomarker-for-allergic-asthma-phenotyping-and-management
#20
N Mgaloblishvili, M Gotua
Asthma is a pathologically heterogeneous disease, consisting of several phenotypes. Different types of airway inflammation are the cornerstone feature of this condition. Fraction of nitric oxide in exhaled air (FENO) has been proposed as a noninvasive, specific biomarker for eosinophilic airway inflammation and has been shown to be elevated in patients with allergic asthma phenotype. More recent studies indicate that FeNO identifies T-helper cell type 2 (Th2)-mediated airway inflammation with a high predictive value for identifying inhaled corticosteroid (ICS) responsive airway inflammation...
December 2017: Georgian Medical News
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