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underwater medicine

Hugo Posada-Quintero, Yeonsik Noh, Caitlin Eaton-Robb, John P Florian, Ki H Chon
Underwater surface electromyography (sEMG) signals are especially of interest for rehabilitation and sports medicine applications. Silver/silver chloride (Ag/AgCl) hydrogel electrodes, although the gold standard for sEMG data collection, require waterproofing for underwater applications. Having to apply waterproof tape over electrodes impedes the deployment of sEMG in immersed conditions. As a better alternative for underwater applications, we have developed carbon black/polydimethylsiloxane (CB/PDMS) electrodes for collecting sEMG signals under water...
May 7, 2018: Annals of Biomedical Engineering
Robert L Reid, Melissa Lorenzo
OBJECTIVE: Obstetrical care providers may occasionally encounter women with questions about the safety of Self-Contained Underwater Breathing Apparatus (SCUBA) diving in pregnancy. This article provides an overview of safety issues associated with basic SCUBA diving and offers guidance to practitioners about how to evaluate and counsel pregnant women about the associated maternal and fetal risks. Basic diving physiology is reviewed and the implications of SCUBA diving during pregnancy are discussed...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Canada: JOGC, Journal D'obstétrique et Gynécologie du Canada: JOGC
Gerardo Bosco, Alex Rizzato, Richard E Moon, Enrico M Camporesi
Man's experience and exploration of the underwater environment has been recorded from ancient times and today encompasses large sections of the population for sport enjoyment, recreational and commercial purpose, as well as military strategic goals. Knowledge, respect and maintenance of the underwater world is an essential development for our future and the knowledge acquired over the last few dozen years will change rapidly in the near future with plans to establish secure habitats with specific long-term goals of exploration, maintenance and survival...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
Jing Li, Yun Zhang, Sai Liu, Jianlin Liu
Many living creatures possess extremely strong capability of adhesion, which has aroused great attention of many scientists and engineers. Based on the self-developed equipment, we measured the normal and shear adhesion strength of the abalone underwater and out of water on different contact surfaces. It is found that the adhesion force of the abalone can amount to 200 or 300 times its body weight. The effects of wettability and roughness of the surface, and the frictional coefficient of mucus on the adhesion strength have been discussed...
September 22, 2017: Journal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials
Ali Erdal Gunes, Samil Aktas
Complete blood count (CBC) is a routine diagnostic procedure for patients and a part of routine health inspection for healthy individuals. The effect of hyperbaric oxygen (HBO₂) on CBC is not known. The objective of this study was to determine the effects of HBO₂ on blood parameters in CBC with long-term HBO₂ therapy. In this study, patients received HBO₂ at the department of Underwater and Hyperbaric Clinical Medicine. CBC results were obtained at specific time points during HBO₂ therapy. The study recruited a total of 140 patients who met the research inclusion criteria...
July 2017: Undersea & Hyperbaric Medicine: Journal of the Undersea and Hyperbaric Medical Society, Inc
Alejandro Garbino, Robert W Sanders, Charles H Mathers
Hypertension is one of the most common chronic diseases in the world: in the United States, it affects one-third of the adult population. Most cases are primary hypertension - with no identified cause - and significantly increase risk for cardiovascular disease and stroke. At NASA's Neutral Buoyancy Laboratory (NBL), there is a cadre of professional divers who provide underwater support during extravehicular activity training (EVAs, commonly referred to as "spacewalks") for astronauts. The NBL occupational health program requires regular "work-site" physical exams, including blood pressure checks, on at least a weekly basis...
March 2017: Undersea & Hyperbaric Medicine: Journal of the Undersea and Hyperbaric Medical Society, Inc
Thomas F Whayne
Undersea diving is a sport and commercial industry. Knowledge of potential problems began with Caisson disease or "the bends", first identified with compressed air in the construction of tunnels under rivers in the 19th century. Subsequently, there was the commercially used old-fashioned diving helmet attached to a suit, with compressed air pumped down from the surface. Breathhold diving, with no supplementary source of air or other breathing mixture, is also a sport as well as a commercial fishing tool in some parts of the world...
June 20, 2017: Current Vascular Pharmacology
Xingguo Liu, Jianwei Niu, Linghua Ran, Taijie Liu
BACKGROUND: This study aimed to develop estimation formulae for the total human body volume (BV) of adult males using anthropometric measurements based on a three-dimensional (3D) scanning technique. Noninvasive and reliable methods to predict the total BV from anthropometric measurements based on a 3D scan technique were addressed in detail. METHODS: A regression analysis of BV based on four key measurements was conducted for approximately 160 adult male subjects...
April 7, 2017: Aesthetic Plastic Surgery
Emin Kapi
BACKGROUND: Visual recording of surgical procedures is a method that is used quite frequently in practices of plastic surgery. While presentations containing photographs are quite common in education seminars and congresses, video-containing presentations find more favour. For this reason, the presentation of surgical procedures in the form of real-time video display has increased especially recently. Appropriate technical equipment for video recording is not available in most hospitals, so there is a need to set up external apparatus in the operating room...
June 2017: Aesthetic Plastic Surgery
Alex Nyarko, Hazel Barton, Ali Dhinojwala
The adhesion of two materials in the presence of water is greatly impeded by a boundary layer of water between the adhesive and the adherend, resulting in adhesive failure of most synthetic adhesives; however, life evolved first in water and there are many aquatic organisms that have to overcome this impediment to underwater adhesion. For example, multicellular aquatic organisms like the mussel, sandcastle worm and the caddisfly larva employ well-studied adhesive mechanisms for sticking in the presence of water...
November 16, 2016: Soft Matter
Jaspal Singh Sandhu, Vandana Esht, Shweta Shenoy
OBJECTIVES: To determine the association of per cent total body fat (TBF), intra-abdominal fat (IAF) mass and subcutaneous abdominal fat with cardiovascular risk factors in middle age obese Indians. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. SETTING: Hydrostatic Laboratory, Department of Sports Medicine and Physiotherapy, Guru Nanak Dev University, India. PARTICIPANTS: 51 subjects aged 30-55 years with a body mass index value 23 and above...
2012: Heart Asia
S K Deb, P A Swinton, E Dolan
Saturation diving is an occupation that involves prolonged exposure to a confined, hyperoxic, hyperbaric environment. The unique and extreme environment is thought to result in disruption to physiological and metabolic homeostasis, which may impact human health and performance. Appropriate nutritional intake has the potential to alleviate and/or support many of these physiological and metabolic concerns, whilst enhancing health and performance in saturation divers. Therefore, the purpose of this review is to identify the physiological and practical challenges of saturation diving and consequently provide evidence-based nutritional recommendations for saturation divers to promote health and performance within this challenging environment...
2016: Extreme Physiology & Medicine
Marco Laurino, Lorenzo Guerriero, Paolo Allegrini, Danilo Menicucci, Francesca Mastorci, Daniele Magrin, Benedetto Allotta, Remo Bedini, Angelo Gemignani
Sea-diving operations for monitoring or intervention are carried out by highly-specialized divers called Certified Commercial Divers (CCD). CCDs operate under highly demanding working conditions in extreme and hazardous environments. Every day consists of an 8 hours' shift. To avoid decompression problems the remaining 16 hours are spent in a hyperbaric environment located aboard the surface vessel or on the platform. These operating conditions require the design of a technologically-advanced device for tele-monitoring, to maximize CCDs' safety...
2015: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
Stephen R Hayden, Kevin C Buford, Edward M Castillo
BACKGROUND: Arterial gas embolism (AGE) is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in self-contained underwater breathing apparatus (SCUBA) diving and certain medical procedures. There are currently no well-defined criteria to diagnose AGE. Emergency physicians often find themselves facing a decision whether or not a patient with dive-related symptoms has an AGE and needs to be transferred to a hyperbaric facility. OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study was to test the accuracy of diagnostic criteria developed by the San Diego Hyperbaric Oxygen Group (SANDHOG) for the diagnosis of AGE...
November 2015: Journal of Emergency Medicine
David Smart, Simon Mitchell, Peter Wilmshurst, Mark Turner, Neil Banham
This consensus statement is the result of a workshop at the SPUMS Annual Scientific Meeting 2014 with representatives of the UK Sports Diving Medical Committee (UKSDMC) present, and subsequent discussions including the entire UKSDMC. Right-to-left shunt across a persistent or patent foramen ovale (PFO) is a risk factor for some types of decompression illness. It was agreed that routine screening for PFO is not currently justifiable, but certain high risk sub-groups can be identified. Divers with a history of cerebral, spinal, inner-ear or cutaneous decompression illness, migraine with aura, a family history of PFO or atrial septal defect and those with other forms of congenital heart disease are considered to be at higher risk...
June 2015: Diving and Hyperbaric Medicine: the Journal of the South Pacific Underwater Medicine Society
Peter Germonpré
Diving medicine is a peculiar specialty. There are physicians and scientists from a wide variety of disciplines with an interest in diving and who all practice 'diving medicine': the study of the complex whole-body physiological changes and interactions upon immersion and emersion. To understand these, the science of physics and molecular gas and fluid movements comes into play. The ultimate goal of practicing diving medicine is to preserve the diver's health, both during and after the dive. Good medicine starts with prevention...
June 2015: Diving and Hyperbaric Medicine: the Journal of the South Pacific Underwater Medicine Society
Tiago M Ribeiro de Oliveira, António J Carmelo Romão, Francisco M Gamito Guerreiro, Tomé M Matos Lopes
OBJECTIVES: To analyze the efficacy of hyperbaric oxygen for the treatment of radiation-induced hemorrhagic cystitis and to identify factors associated with successful treatment. METHODS: Clinical records from 176 patients with refractory radiation-induced hemorrhagic cystitis treated at the Portuguese Navy Center for Underwater and Hyperbaric Medicine, during a 15-year period, were retrospectively analyzed. Evolution of macroscopic hematuria was used to analyze treatment efficacy and correlated with other external variables...
October 2015: International Journal of Urology: Official Journal of the Japanese Urological Association
Mathieu Gunepin, Florence Derache, Leon Dychter, Jean-Eric Blatteau, Idan Nakdimon, Yehuda Zadik
OBJECTIVE: The aim of the POP (odontological problems among divers) study was to assess dental barotrauma among French military divers exposed to an underwater environment. METHODS: A questionnaire on dental barotrauma was completed by the divers who presented at the SMHEP (Centre for Hyperbaric Medicine and Diving Expertise) for their quadrennial medical exam from March 2011 to July 2014. RESULTS: There were 1317 questionnaires completed, representing 60...
July 2015: Aerospace Medicine and Human Performance
Allison P Anderson, Dava J Newman, Roy E Welsch
INTRODUCTION: Shoulder injuries due to working inside the space suit are some of the most serious and debilitating injuries astronauts encounter. Space suit injuries occur primarily in the Neutral Buoyancy Laboratory (NBL) underwater training facility due to accumulated musculoskeletal stress. We quantitatively explored the underlying causal mechanisms of injury. METHODS: Logistic regression was used to identify relevant space suit components, training environment variables, and anthropometric dimensions related to an increased propensity for space-suited injury...
July 2015: Aerospace Medicine and Human Performance
B Jüttner, C Wölfel, H Liedtke, K Meyne, H Werr, T Bräuer, M Kemmerer, G Schmeißer, T Piepho, O Müller, H Schöppenthau
In 2015 the German Society for Diving and Hyperbaric Medicine (GTÜM) and the Swiss Underwater and Hyperbaric Medical Society (SUHMS) published the updated guidelines on diving accidents 2014-2017. These multidisciplinary guidelines were developed within a structured consensus process by members of the German Interdisciplinary Association for Intensive Care and Emergency Medicine (DIVI), the Sports Divers Association (VDST), the Naval Medical Institute (SchiffMedInst), the Social Accident Insurance Institution for the Building Trade (BG BAU), the Association of Hyperbaric Treatment Centers (VDD) and the Society of Occupational and Environmental Medicine (DGAUM)...
June 2015: Der Anaesthesist
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