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underwater medicine

Alex Nyarko, Hazel Barton, Ali Dhinojwala
The adhesion of two materials in the presence of water is greatly impeded by a boundary layer of water between the adhesive and the adherend, resulting in adhesive failure of most synthetic adhesives; however, life evolved first in water and there are many aquatic organisms that have to overcome this impediment to underwater adhesion. For example, multicellular aquatic organisms like the mussel, sandcastle worm and the caddisfly larva employ well-studied adhesive mechanisms for sticking in the presence of water...
November 16, 2016: Soft Matter
Jaspal Singh Sandhu, Vandana Esht, Shweta Shenoy
OBJECTIVES: To determine the association of per cent total body fat (TBF), intra-abdominal fat (IAF) mass and subcutaneous abdominal fat with cardiovascular risk factors in middle age obese Indians. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. SETTING: Hydrostatic Laboratory, Department of Sports Medicine and Physiotherapy, Guru Nanak Dev University, India. PARTICIPANTS: 51 subjects aged 30-55 years with a body mass index value 23 and above...
2012: Heart Asia
S K Deb, P A Swinton, E Dolan
Saturation diving is an occupation that involves prolonged exposure to a confined, hyperoxic, hyperbaric environment. The unique and extreme environment is thought to result in disruption to physiological and metabolic homeostasis, which may impact human health and performance. Appropriate nutritional intake has the potential to alleviate and/or support many of these physiological and metabolic concerns, whilst enhancing health and performance in saturation divers. Therefore, the purpose of this review is to identify the physiological and practical challenges of saturation diving and consequently provide evidence-based nutritional recommendations for saturation divers to promote health and performance within this challenging environment...
2016: Extreme Physiology & Medicine
Marco Laurino, Lorenzo Guerriero, Paolo Allegrini, Danilo Menicucci, Francesca Mastorci, Daniele Magrin, Benedetto Allotta, Remo Bedini, Angelo Gemignani
Sea-diving operations for monitoring or intervention are carried out by highly-specialized divers called Certified Commercial Divers (CCD). CCDs operate under highly demanding working conditions in extreme and hazardous environments. Every day consists of an 8 hours' shift. To avoid decompression problems the remaining 16 hours are spent in a hyperbaric environment located aboard the surface vessel or on the platform. These operating conditions require the design of a technologically-advanced device for tele-monitoring, to maximize CCDs' safety...
2015: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
Stephen R Hayden, Kevin C Buford, Edward M Castillo
BACKGROUND: Arterial gas embolism (AGE) is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in self-contained underwater breathing apparatus (SCUBA) diving and certain medical procedures. There are currently no well-defined criteria to diagnose AGE. Emergency physicians often find themselves facing a decision whether or not a patient with dive-related symptoms has an AGE and needs to be transferred to a hyperbaric facility. OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study was to test the accuracy of diagnostic criteria developed by the San Diego Hyperbaric Oxygen Group (SANDHOG) for the diagnosis of AGE...
November 2015: Journal of Emergency Medicine
David Smart, Simon Mitchell, Peter Wilmshurst, Mark Turner, Neil Banham
This consensus statement is the result of a workshop at the SPUMS Annual Scientific Meeting 2014 with representatives of the UK Sports Diving Medical Committee (UKSDMC) present, and subsequent discussions including the entire UKSDMC. Right-to-left shunt across a persistent or patent foramen ovale (PFO) is a risk factor for some types of decompression illness. It was agreed that routine screening for PFO is not currently justifiable, but certain high risk sub-groups can be identified. Divers with a history of cerebral, spinal, inner-ear or cutaneous decompression illness, migraine with aura, a family history of PFO or atrial septal defect and those with other forms of congenital heart disease are considered to be at higher risk...
June 2015: Diving and Hyperbaric Medicine: the Journal of the South Pacific Underwater Medicine Society
Peter Germonpré
Diving medicine is a peculiar specialty. There are physicians and scientists from a wide variety of disciplines with an interest in diving and who all practice 'diving medicine': the study of the complex whole-body physiological changes and interactions upon immersion and emersion. To understand these, the science of physics and molecular gas and fluid movements comes into play. The ultimate goal of practicing diving medicine is to preserve the diver's health, both during and after the dive. Good medicine starts with prevention...
June 2015: Diving and Hyperbaric Medicine: the Journal of the South Pacific Underwater Medicine Society
Tiago M Ribeiro de Oliveira, António J Carmelo Romão, Francisco M Gamito Guerreiro, Tomé M Matos Lopes
OBJECTIVES: To analyze the efficacy of hyperbaric oxygen for the treatment of radiation-induced hemorrhagic cystitis and to identify factors associated with successful treatment. METHODS: Clinical records from 176 patients with refractory radiation-induced hemorrhagic cystitis treated at the Portuguese Navy Center for Underwater and Hyperbaric Medicine, during a 15-year period, were retrospectively analyzed. Evolution of macroscopic hematuria was used to analyze treatment efficacy and correlated with other external variables...
October 2015: International Journal of Urology: Official Journal of the Japanese Urological Association
Mathieu Gunepin, Florence Derache, Leon Dychter, Jean-Eric Blatteau, Idan Nakdimon, Yehuda Zadik
OBJECTIVE: The aim of the POP (odontological problems among divers) study was to assess dental barotrauma among French military divers exposed to an underwater environment. METHODS: A questionnaire on dental barotrauma was completed by the divers who presented at the SMHEP (Centre for Hyperbaric Medicine and Diving Expertise) for their quadrennial medical exam from March 2011 to July 2014. RESULTS: There were 1317 questionnaires completed, representing 60...
July 2015: Aerospace Medicine and Human Performance
Allison P Anderson, Dava J Newman, Roy E Welsch
INTRODUCTION: Shoulder injuries due to working inside the space suit are some of the most serious and debilitating injuries astronauts encounter. Space suit injuries occur primarily in the Neutral Buoyancy Laboratory (NBL) underwater training facility due to accumulated musculoskeletal stress. We quantitatively explored the underlying causal mechanisms of injury. METHODS: Logistic regression was used to identify relevant space suit components, training environment variables, and anthropometric dimensions related to an increased propensity for space-suited injury...
July 2015: Aerospace Medicine and Human Performance
B Jüttner, C Wölfel, H Liedtke, K Meyne, H Werr, T Bräuer, M Kemmerer, G Schmeißer, T Piepho, O Müller, H Schöppenthau
In 2015 the German Society for Diving and Hyperbaric Medicine (GTÜM) and the Swiss Underwater and Hyperbaric Medical Society (SUHMS) published the updated guidelines on diving accidents 2014-2017. These multidisciplinary guidelines were developed within a structured consensus process by members of the German Interdisciplinary Association for Intensive Care and Emergency Medicine (DIVI), the Sports Divers Association (VDST), the Naval Medical Institute (SchiffMedInst), the Social Accident Insurance Institution for the Building Trade (BG BAU), the Association of Hyperbaric Treatment Centers (VDD) and the Society of Occupational and Environmental Medicine (DGAUM)...
June 2015: Der Anaesthesist
Michael J Taber, Scott N MacKinnon, Jonathan Power, Robert Walker
INTRODUCTION: Given the effects of cold water immersion on breath-hold (BH) capabilities, a practical training exercise was developed for military/paramilitary personnel completing a helicopter underwater egress training (HUET) program. The exercise was designed to provide firsth and experience of the effects of cold water exposure on BH time. METHODS: After completing the required HUET, 47 subjects completed two BH testing sessions as well as a short questionnaire...
February 2015: Aerospace Medicine and Human Performance
G Perilli, B Di Battista, A Montana, J Pavia, S Cauchi, N M Zerafa, C Pomara
Water skiing, boat racing, skin and scuba diving, as well as pleasure boat cruising are becoming increasingly popular hobbies. As a result, the incidence of injuries secondary to motor propellers is becoming more frequent. Injuries by propellers, amputation, death by drowning, and bleeding are rare reported events in forensic literature. The most common circumstances surrounding boat-propeller-related injuries are concerned with getting into or out of the boat, personal watercraft use or water skiing, and falling or being thrown from the boat...
May 2015: Journal of Forensic and Legal Medicine
Denny Levett, Michael H Bennett, Ian Millar
BACKGROUND: Hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBOT) involves the therapeutic administration of 100% oxygen in a pressure chamber at pressures above one atmosphere absolute. This therapy has been used as an adjunct to surgery and antibiotics in the treatment of patients with necrotizing fasciitis with the aim of reducing morbidity and mortality. OBJECTIVES: To review the evidence concerning the use of HBOT as an adjunctive treatment for patients with necrotizing fasciitis (NF)...
2015: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
I Nakdimon, E Zehavi, L Chapnik, Y Zadik
Several oro-facial physiologic and pathologic phenomena affect individuals during flight or self-contained underwater breathing apparatus (SCUBA) diving. Physicians and dentists who treat aircrews and divers are occasionally challenged by those manifestations, though their uncommon appearance. This article reviews the two main barometric-related phenomena in the oral cavity: dental barotrauma and barodontalgia. Dental barotrauma includes all barometric-related dental mechanical phenomena. Tooth fracture or failure of dental restoration usually appears in a tooth with a leaking restoration or secondary caries lesion...
July 2014: Journal of the Israel Dental Association
Alfred A Bove
Exposure to the undersea environment has unique effects on normal physiology and can result in unique disorders that require an understanding of the effects of pressure and inert gas supersaturation on organ function and knowledge of the appropriate therapies, which can include recompression in a hyperbaric chamber. The effects of Boyle's law result in changes in volume of gas-containing spaces when exposed to the increased pressure underwater. These effects can cause middle ear and sinus injury and lung barotrauma due to lung overexpansion during ascent from depth...
June 15, 2014: American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
1963: Journal of the Royal Naval Medical Service
Young Il Lee, Byeong Jin Ye
Exposure to the underwater environment for occupational or recreational purposes is increasing. As estimated, there are around 7 million divers active worldwide and 300,000 more divers in Korea. The underwater and hyperbaric environment presents a number of risks to the diver. Injuries from these hazards include barotrauma, decompression sickness, toxic effects of hyperbaric gases, drowning, hypothermia, and dangerous marine animals. For these reasons, primary care physicians should understand diving related injuries and assessment of fitness to dive...
2013: Annals of Occupational and Environmental Medicine
Cédric Meckler, Jean-Eric Blatteau, Thierry Hasbroucq, Bruno Schmid, Jean-Jacques Risso, Franck Vidal
Certain underwater circumstances carry risk of inert gas narcosis. Impairment of sensorimotor information processing due to narcosis, induced by normobaric nitrous oxide or high partial nitrogen pressure, has been broadly evidenced, by a lengthening of the reaction time (RT). However, the locus of this effect remains a matter of debate. We examined whether inert gas narcosis affects the response-selection stage of sensorimotor information processing. We compared an air normobaric condition with a hyperbaric condition in which 10 subjects were subjected to 6 absolute atmospheres of 8...
2014: Ergonomics
Casey A Grover, David H Grover
As early as 1826, divers diving to great depths noted that descent often resulted in a phenomenon of intoxication and euphoria. In 1935, Albert Behnke discovered nitrogen as the cause of this clinical syndrome, a condition now known as nitrogen narcosis. Nitrogen narcosis consists of the development of euphoria, a false sense of security, and impaired judgment upon underwater descent using compressed air below 3-4 atmospheres (99 to 132 feet). At greater depths, symptoms can progress to loss of consciousness...
February 2014: Journal of Emergency Medicine
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