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liver diseases and pregnancy

Bangari Haldipur, Prudhvi Lal Bhukya, Vidya Arankalle, Kavita Lole
Molecular mechanisms of liver pathology and clinical disease in HEV infection remain unclear. MicroRNAs are known to modulate viral pathogenesis either by directly altering viral gene expression or by enhancing cellular antiviral responses. Given the importance of microRNA-122 (miR-122) in liver pathobiology, we investigated possible role of miR-122 in HEV infection. In silico predictions using genotype 1, 2, 3 and 4 HEV sequences showed that majority of genomes (203/222) harbor at least one miR-122/miR-122* target site...
March 14, 2018: Journal of Virology
Tiong Y Lim, Enoka Gonsalkorala, Mary D Cannon, Stella Gabeta, Leonie Penna, Nigel D Heaton, Michael A Heneghan
BACKGROUND: Liver transplantation (LT) is a successful treatment for both acute liver failure and end-stage liver disease. The number of women of reproductive age undergoing LT is increasing. Pregnancy outcomes are favourable but there is still a lack of prognostic markers. We aimed to identify factors predictive of adverse pregnancy outcomes in LT recipients. METHODS: An analysis of all pregnancies occurring in LT recipients from 1989-2016 at King's College Hospital was performed...
March 14, 2018: Liver Transplantation
Sae Bom Won, Young Hye Kwon
Offspring of female rats fed either a casein (CAS) diet or a low-isoflavone soy protein isolate (SPI) diet were compared in an animal model of chronic ethanol consumption to investigate whether maternal diet regulates the adaptive responses of offspring to postnatal ethanol exposure and potentially affects the development of liver disease in later life. Female rats were fed either a CAS or an SPI diet before mating, and during pregnancy and lactation. Male offspring from the same litter were pair-fed either a control or ethanol diet for six weeks (CAS/CON, CAS/EtOH, SPI/CON, and SPI/EtOH groups)...
March 10, 2018: Nutrients
Sobha Puppala, Cun Li, Jeremy P Glenn, Romil Saxena, Samer Gawrieh, Amy Quinn, Jennifer Palarczyk, Edward J Dick, Peter W Nathanielsz, Laura A Cox
Maternal obesity (MO) increases offspring cardiometabolic disease risk. Altered fetal liver development in response to the challenge of MO has metabolic consequences underlying adverse offspring life-course health outcomes. Little is known about molecular pathways and potential epigenetic changes regulating primate fetal liver responses to MO. We hypothesized that MO would induce fetal baboon liver epigenetic changes resulting in dysregulation of key metabolic pathways that impact lipid metabolism. MO was induced prior to pregnancy by a high fat, high sucrose diet...
March 7, 2018: Journal of Physiology
Rostyslav V Bubnov, Maria V Drahulian, Polina V Buchek, Tamara P Gulko
Background: Liver fibrosis (LF) is a chronic disease, associated with many collateral diseases including reproductive dysfunction. Although the normal liver has a large regenerative capacity the complications of LF could be severe and irreversible. Hormone and sex-related issues of LF development and interactions with male reproductive have not been finally studied. The aim was to study the reproductive function of male rats in experimental CCl4 -induced liver fibrosis rat model, and the capability for restoration of both the liver and male reproduction system...
March 2018: EPMA Journal
Alexandra Rehfuss, Joseph Mahon, Igor Sorokin, Cynthia Smith, Barry S Stein
OBJECTIVE: To identify difficult to see ureteral orifices (UOs), urologists need a method to stain the urine. Phenazopyridine, a urinary analgesic which discolors the urine orange, can be administered orally pre-operatively. We evaluated the usefulness of phenazopyridine in identifying the UOs and optimal timing of administration. METHODS: Adult patients undergoing endoscopic procedures at the Stratton VA were prospectively enrolled. Preoperative metabolic panels were reviewed...
March 1, 2018: Urology
Sarah A Taylor, Susan Kelly, Estella M Alonso, Peter F Whitington
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate pregnancy outcomes in pedigrees of neonatal hemochromatosis to determine the spectrum of gestational alloimmune liver disease (GALD) in a large cohort. STUDY DESIGN: We prospectively collected data from women with a prior offspring with proven neonatal hemochromatosis between 1997 and 2015 and analyzed pregnancy outcomes. RESULTS: The pedigrees from 150 women included 350 gestations with outcomes potentially related to GALD...
February 27, 2018: Journal of Pediatrics
L Ryom, C Boesecke, M Bracchi, J Ambrosioni, A Pozniak, J Arribas, G Behrens, Pgm Mallon, M Puoti, A Rauch, J M Miro, O Kirk, C Marzolini, J D Lundgren, M Battegay
BACKGROUND: The European AIDS Clinical Society (EACS) Guidelines have since 2005 provided multidisciplinary recommendations for the care of HIV-positive persons in geographically diverse areas. GUIDELINE HIGHLIGHTS: Major revisions have been made in all sections of the 2017 Guidelines: antiretroviral treatment (ART), comorbidities, coinfections and opportunistic diseases. Newly added are also a summary of the main changes made, and direct video links to the EACS online course on HIV Management...
March 1, 2018: HIV Medicine
James H O'Keefe, James J DiNicolantonio, Carl J Lavie
Coffee, a complex brew containing hundreds of biologically active compounds, exerts potent effects on long-term human health. Recently, a plethora of studies have been published focusing on health outcomes associated with coffee intake. An inverse association between coffee consumption and all-cause mortality has been seen consistently in large prospective studies. Habitual coffee consumption is also associated with lower risks for cardiovascular (CV) death and a variety of adverse CV outcomes, including coronary heart disease (CHD), congestive heart failure (HF), and stroke; coffee's effects on arrhythmias and hypertension are neutral...
February 20, 2018: Progress in Cardiovascular Diseases
Donghoon Lee, Hyun-Young Shin, Sang Min Park
Background: In Korea, hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection accounts for approximately 65-75% of HBV-related diseases, such as chronic hepatitis and liver cancer, and mother-to-child transmission is presumed to be a major source of the infection. To tackle this issue, the Korean government launched the national Perinatal Hepatitis B Prevention Program (PHBPP) in 2002. This study analyzed the cost-effectiveness of the PHBPP with antiviral prophylaxis compared with the current PHBPP and/or universal vaccination, as well as identified the optimal strategy to eliminate mother-to-child transmission of HBV in Korea...
2018: Cost Effectiveness and Resource Allocation: C/E
Ranit Hizkiyahu, Anat Rabinovich, Jecko Thachil, Eyal Sheiner, Gad Shaked, Gilbert Sebbag, Eli Maymon, Offer Erez
OBJECTIVES: Liver rupture and hematoma are rare life-threatening complications of pregnancy. The aims of the current study are to: (1) characterize in a population-based study all cases of liver hematoma and/or rupture; and (2) validate the utility of the International Society on Thrombosis and Haemostasis (ISTH) modified pregnancy specific disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) score in those cases. STUDY DESIGN: A retrospective cohort study including all patients with liver subcapsular hematoma or rupture between the years 1996 and 2012 was conducted...
February 21, 2018: Journal of Maternal-fetal & Neonatal Medicine
Norliza Mat Ariffin, Farida Islahudin, Mohd Makmor-Bakry, Endang Kumolosasi, Mohd Hafizi A Hamid
Introduction: Primaquine is vital for the management of liver-stage Plasmodium vivax and Plasmodium ovale malaria. However, primaquine effectiveness is dependent on various factors and differs between populations. Therefore, this study was conducted to identify factors that affect the length of stay and relapse during primaquine combination treatment in malaria-infected patients in the local setting. Materials and Methods: A retrospective study on the use of primaquine combination among P...
October 2017: Journal of Pharmacy & Bioallied Sciences
Monika Sarkar, Kate Bramham, Michael Moritz, Lisa Coscia
Fertility is commonly impaired in women with end-stage kidney and liver disease although most women will have restoration of fertility within one year of transplant. Family planning is therefore critical to discuss with reproductive-aged transplant recipients in the early post-transplant period, in order to ensure timely initiation of contraception, and optimal timing for conception. For women seeking pregnancy the risks to the mother, graft, and baby should be discussed, including evaluation of immunosuppression safety and potential for adjusting medications prior to conception...
February 15, 2018: American Journal of Transplantation
Leonard Knegendorf, Svenja A Drave, Viet Loan Dao Thi, Yannick Debing, Richard J P Brown, Florian W R Vondran, Kathrin Resner, Martina Friesland, Tanvi Khera, Michael Engelmann, Birgit Bremer, Heiner Wedemeyer, Patrick Behrendt, Johan Neyts, Thomas Pietschmann, Daniel Todt, Eike Steinmann
Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is a member of the genus Orthohepevirus in the family Hepeviridae and the causative agent of hepatitis E in humans. HEV is a major health problem in developing countries, causing mortality rates up to 25% in pregnant women. However, these cases are mainly reported for HEV genotype (gt)1, while gt3 infections are usually associated with subclinical courses of disease. The pathogenic mechanisms of adverse maternal and fetal outcome during pregnancy in HEV-infected pregnant women remain elusive...
February 2018: Hepatology Communications
Julie M Rosenthal, Mark W Johnson
Pregnancy leads to significant changes in the body, which potentially affect the retina. Pregnancy can induce disease, such as that seen in hypertensive retinopathy and choroidopathy. It can cause exudative retinal detachments in the HELLP syndrome (hemolysis, elevated liver enzymes and low platelets), disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC), and thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (TTP), and provoke arterial and venous retinal occlusive disease. Pregnancy may also exacerbate pre-existing retinal disease, such as idiopathic central serous chorioretinopathy (ICSC) and diabetic retinopathy...
January 2018: Journal of Ophthalmic & Vision Research
Alexander M Sy, Nora V Bergasa
A 34-year-old woman was referred to the hepatology clinic for evaluation of an increased serum alkaline phosphatase (ALP) level. She was gravida 5 and in her 38th week of gestation. Her obstetric history was significant for 2 uncomplicated spontaneous term vaginal deliveries resulting in live births and 2 spontaneous abortions. The patient reported generalized pruritus for 2 months prior to the visit. She had no comorbidities and denied any other symptoms. She reported no family history of liver disease or complications during pregnancy in relatives...
February 2018: Journal of Family Practice
F W Wang, S M Fu, Y C Jin, X H Gong, H D Cheng, K J Wu
Objective: To investigate the principles of diagnosis and treatment of breast cancer during pregnancy. Methods: Clinical data of patients with breast cancer during pregnancy admitted to Obstetrics and Gynecology Hospital of Fudan University between January 2012 to July 2017 were analyzed retrospectively. A total of 17 patients were diagnosed with breast cancer in pregnancy, the median age was 32 years (range from 25 to 45 years old), pathological staging revealed 2 patient with stage 0, 1 with stage Ⅱa, 7 with stage Ⅱb, 1 with stage Ⅲa, 2 with stage Ⅲc, 4 with stage Ⅳ...
February 1, 2018: Zhonghua Wai Ke za Zhi [Chinese Journal of Surgery]
Benjamin Anon, Béatrice Scotto, Yannick Bacq
Acute fatty liver of pregnancy (AFLP) is a rare liver disease unique to pregnancy that can lead to acute liver failure. Clinicians must have a high index of suspicion for AFLP because only early diagnosis and prompt delivery improve maternal and fetal prognosis.
January 2018: Clinical Case Reports
Valter Romão de Souza, Ana Beatriz Cavalcante de Oliveira, Ana Maria Vanderlei, Amanda Queiroz da Mota Silveira Aroucha, Bruna Pontes Duarte, Aureli Nunes Machado, Lívia Netto Chaer, Cláudia Wanderley de Barros Correia, Maria da Conceição de Barros Correia, Manuela Freire Hazin Costa
BACKGROUND: Thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura is a very rare hereditary blood deficiency disorder of ADAMTS13 (von Willebrand factor-cleaving protease) and a life-threatening thrombotic microangiopathy characterized by thrombocytopenia and microangiopathic hemolytic anemia. The deficiency in ADAMTS13 metalloprotease, which cleaves the von Willebrand factor, may be congenital or acquired. The congenital form is caused by inherited mutations in the ADAMTS13 gene. The diagnosis is challenging due to the nonspecific signs and symptoms, as well as the rarity of the disease...
January 22, 2018: Journal of Medical Case Reports
Catherine L Nevin, Evan Formosa, Yohei Maki, Brad Matushewski, Timothy R H Regnault, Bryan S Richardson
We determined the impact of moderate maternal nutrient restriction (MNR) in guinea pigs with fetal growth restriction (FGR) on offspring body and organ weights, hypothesizing that FGR-MNR animals will show catch-up growth, but with organ-specific differences. Guinea pig sows were fed ad libitum (Control) or 70% of the control diet from 4 week`s pre-conception, switching to 90% at mid-pregnancy (MNR). Control newborns >95g (appropriate for gestational age or AGA, N=37) and MNR newborns <85g (FGR, N=37) were monitored until neonatal (~25 days) or adult (~110 days) necropsy...
January 10, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
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