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Pediatric respiratory failure

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28482374/novel-rrm2b-mutation-and-severe-mitochondrial-dna-depletion-report-of-2-cases-and-review-of-the-literature
#1
Nesia Kropach, Vered Shkalim-Zemer, Naama Orenstein, Oded Scheuerman, Rachel Straussberg
Purpose To describe the clinical presentation and implications of mitochondrial DNA depletion disorder of two siblings with early fatal encephalomyopathy and a novel mutation in the RRM2B gene. The relevant literature is reviewed. Methods We describe two brothers aged 2.5 months and 1 month, respectively, who were hospitalized in a tertiary pediatric medical center for evaluation of focal seizures, hypotonia, poor feeding, failure to thrive, lactic acidosis, and developmental delay. The older brother also had seizures, and the younger had severe bilateral neurosensory deafness...
May 8, 2017: Neuropediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28468263/an-evaluation-of-a-continuing-education-program-for-family-caregivers-of-ventilator-dependent-children-with-spinal-muscular-atrophy-sma
#2
Deborah S Boroughs
Until 25 years ago, there were limited options for long-term mechanical ventilation of children, and the majority of children were cared for in hospitals. However, with improving technology, the pediatric intensive care unit has moved from the hospital to a home setting, as children with increasingly complex healthcare needs are now often cared for by family members. One of the most complex care conditions involves ventilator and tracheostomy support. Advanced respiratory technologies that augment natural respiratory function prolong the lives of children with respiratory compromise; however, this care often comes with serious risks, including respiratory muscle impairment, respiratory failure, and chronic pulmonary disease...
April 29, 2017: Children
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28461212/risk-factors-and-outcomes-related-to-pediatric-intensive-care-unit-admission-after-hematopoietic-stem-cell-transplantation-a-single-centre-experience
#3
Marta Pillon, Angela Amigoni, Annaelena Contin, Manuela Cattelan, Elisa Carraro, Emiliana Campagnano, Manuela Tumino, Elisabetta Calore, Antonio Marzollo, Chiara Mainardi, Maria Paola Boaro, Marta Nizzero, Andrea Pettenazzo, Giuseppe Basso, Chiara Messina
To describe incidence, causes and outcomes related to pediatric intensive care unit (PICU) admission for patients undergoing hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). To investigate risk factors predisposing to PICU admission and prognostic factors in terms of patient survival. From October 1998 to April 2015, 496 children and young adults (0-23 years) underwent transplantation in the HSCT Unit. Among them, 70 (14.1%) were admitted to PICU. The 3-year cumulative incidence of PICU admission was 14.3%. The main causes of PICU admission were: respiratory failure (36%), multiple organ failure (16%) and septic shock (13%)...
April 28, 2017: Biology of Blood and Marrow Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28460591/mortality-in-pediatric-acute-respiratory-distress-syndrome-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#4
Judith Ju-Ming Wong, Mark Jit, Rehena Sultana, Yee Hui Mok, Joo Guan Yeo, Jia Wen Janine Cynthia Koh, Tsee Foong Loh, Jan Hau Lee
OBJECTIVE: Sparse and conflicting evidence exists regarding mortality risk from pediatric acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). We aimed to determine the pooled mortality in pediatric ARDS and to describe its trend over time. DATA SOURCES AND STUDY SELECTION: MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Web of Science were searched from 1960 to August 2015. Keywords or medical subject headings (MESH) terms used included "respiratory distress syndrome, adult," "acute lung injury," "acute respiratory insufficiency," "acute hypoxemic respiratory failure," "pediatrics," and "child...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Intensive Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28460120/post-neonatal-tetanus-in-a-picu-of-a-developing-economy-intensive-care-needs-outcome-and-predictors-of-mortality
#5
Suresh Kumar Angurana, Muralidharan Jayashree, Arun Bansal, Sunit Singhi, Karthi Nallasamy
Objectives: To evaluate pediatric intensive care unit (PICU) needs, outcome and predictors of mortality in post-neonatal tetanus. Materials and methods: Review of 30 consecutive post-neonatal tetanus cases aged 1 months to 12 years admitted to a PICU in north India over a period of 10 years (January 2006 to December 2015). Results: Chronic suppurative otitis media was the commonest portal of entry. All received tetanus toxoid, human tetanus immunoglobulin (HTIG) and appropriate antibiotics; 7 (23...
April 27, 2017: Journal of Tropical Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28456396/long-term-outcomes-of-children-with-trisomy-13-and-18-after-congenital-heart-disease-interventions
#6
Jennifer K Peterson, Lazaros K Kochilas, Kirsti G Catton, James H Moller, Shaun P Setty
BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study is to report short- and long-term outcomes after congenital heart defect (CHD) interventions in patients with trisomy 13 or 18. METHODS: A retrospective review of the Pediatric Cardiac Care Consortium (PCCC) identified children with trisomy 13 or 18 with interventions for CHD between 1982 and 2008. Long-term survival and cause of death were obtained through linkage with the National Death Index. RESULTS: A total of 50 patients with trisomy 13 and 121 patients with trisomy 18 were enrolled in PCCC between 1982 and 2008; among them 29 patients with trisomy 13 and 69 patients with trisomy 18 underwent intervention for CHD...
June 2017: Annals of Thoracic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439949/weight-gain-and-supplemental-o2-risk-factors-during-the-hematopoietic-cell-transplant-admission-in-pediatric-patients
#7
Courtney M Rowan, Mara E Nitu, Elizabeth A S Moser, Nancy L Swigonski, Jamie L Renbarger
BACKGROUND: Respiratory failure in the pediatric hematopoietic cell transplant (HCT) recipient is the leading cause for admission to the intensive care unit and carries a high mortality rate. The objective of this study is to investigate the association of clinical risk factors with the development of respiratory failure in the pediatric allogeneic HCT recipient. PROCEDURES: This is a single-center, retrospective review of allogeneic pediatric HCT from 2008 to 2014...
April 25, 2017: Pediatric Blood & Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437378/risk-factors-for-pediatric-extubation-failure-the-importance-of-respiratory-muscle-strength
#8
Robinder G Khemani, Tro Sekayan, Justin Hotz, Rutger C Flink, Gerrard F Rafferty, Narayan Iyer, Christopher J L Newth
OBJECTIVE: Respiratory muscle weakness frequently develops during mechanical ventilation, although in children there are limited data about its prevalence and whether it is associated with extubation outcomes. We sought to identify risk factors for pediatric extubation failure, with specific attention to respiratory muscle strength. DESIGN: Secondary analysis of prospectively collected data. SETTING: Tertiary care PICU. PATIENTS: Four hundred nine mechanically ventilated children...
April 21, 2017: Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425226/a-review-of-pediatric-pulmonary-hypertension-with-new-guidelines
#9
Serdar Kula, Ayhan Pektaş
This study aims to review pediatric pulmonary hypertension (PH) by comparing the guidelines of the European Society of Cardiology (ESC)/European Respiratory Society (ERS), the American Heart Association (AHA)/American Thoracic Society (ATS), and the European Pediatric Pulmonary Vascular Disease Network (EPPVDN). All three sets of guidelines define PH as having a mean pulmonary artery pressure of ≥25 mmHg and accept the validity of the World Health Organization (WHO) classification system. Every child with a high index of suspicion for PH should undergo an initial work-up of chest X-rays, electrocardiography, and echocardiography...
April 18, 2017: Turkish Journal of Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419061/functional-status-of-neonatal-and-pediatric-patients-after-extracorporeal-membrane-oxygenation
#10
Katherine Cashen, Ron Reeder, Heidi J Dalton, Robert A Berg, Thomas P Shanley, Christopher J L Newth, Murray M Pollack, David Wessel, Joseph Carcillo, Rick Harrison, J Michael Dean, Tammara Jenkins, Kathleen L Meert
OBJECTIVES: To describe functional status at hospital discharge for neonatal and pediatric patients treated with extracorporeal membrane oxygenation, and identify factors associated with functional status and mortality. DESIGN: Secondary analysis of observational data collected by the Collaborative Pediatric Critical Care Research Network between December 2012 and September 2014. SETTING: Eight hospitals affiliated with the Collaborative Pediatric Critical Care Research Network...
April 17, 2017: Pediatric Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28416430/-extracorporeal-membrane-oxygenation-in-critically-ill-neonates-and-children
#11
J Rambaud, J Guilbert, I Guellec, S Jean, A Durandy, M Demoulin, A Amblard, R Carbajal, P-L Leger
Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation is used as a last resort during neonatal and pediatric resuscitation in case of refractory circulatory or respiratory failure under maximum conventional therapies. Different types of ECMO can be used depending on the initial failure. The main indications for ECMO are refractory respiratory failure (acute respiratory distress syndrome, status asthmaticus, severe pneumonia, meconium aspiration syndrome, pulmonary hypertension) and refractory circulatory failure (cardiogenic shock, septic shock, refractory cardiac arrest)...
April 14, 2017: Archives de Pédiatrie: Organe Officiel de la Sociéte Française de Pédiatrie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28410274/three-hypothetical-inflammation-pathobiology-phenotypes-and-pediatric-sepsis-induced-multiple-organ-failure-outcome
#12
Joseph A Carcillo, E Scott Halstead, Mark W Hall, Trung C Nguyen, Ron Reeder, Rajesh Aneja, Bita Shakoory, Dennis Simon
OBJECTIVES: We hypothesize that three inflammation pathobiology phenotypes are associated with increased inflammation, proclivity to develop features of macrophage activation syndrome, and multiple organ failure-related death in pediatric severe sepsis. DESIGN: Prospective cohort study comparing children with severe sepsis and any of three phenotypes: 1) immunoparalysis-associated multiple organ failure (whole blood ex vivo tumor necrosis factor response to endotoxin < 200 pg/mL), 2) thrombocytopenia-associated multiple organ failure (new onset thrombocytopenia with acute kidney injury and a disintegrin and metalloproteinase with a thrombospondin type 1 motif, member 13 activity < 57%), and/or 3) sequential multiple organ failure with hepatobiliary dysfunction (respiratory distress followed by liver dysfunction with soluble Fas ligand > 200 pg/mL), to those without any of these phenotypes...
April 13, 2017: Pediatric Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28410087/racial-and-ethnic-disparities-in-parental-refusal-of-consent-in-a-large-multisite-pediatric-critical-care-clinical-trial
#13
Joanne E Natale, Ruth Lebet, Jill G Joseph, Christine Ulysse, Judith Ascenzi, David Wypij, Martha A Q Curley
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate whether race or ethnicity was independently associated with parental refusal of consent for their child's participation in a multisite pediatric critical care clinical trial. STUDY DESIGN: We performed a secondary analyses of data from Randomized Evaluation of Sedation Titration for Respiratory Failure (RESTORE), a 31-center cluster randomized trial of sedation management in critically ill children with acute respiratory failure supported on mechanical ventilation...
May 2017: Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28409732/the-surgical-treatment-of-tumors-of-the-fourth-ventricle-a-single-institution-experience
#14
Sherise D Ferguson, Nicholas B Levine, Dima Suki, Andrew J Tsung, Fredrick F Lang, Raymond Sawaya, Jeffrey S Weinberg, Ian E McCutcheon
OBJECTIVE Fourth ventricle tumors are rare, and surgical series are typically small, comprising a single pathology, or focused exclusively on pediatric populations. This study investigated surgical outcome and complications following fourth ventricle tumor resection in a diverse patient population. This is the largest cohort of fourth ventricle tumors described in the literature to date. METHODS This is an 18-year (1993-2010) retrospective review of 55 cases involving patients undergoing surgery for tumors of the fourth ventricle...
April 14, 2017: Journal of Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28400408/incidence-and-risk-factors-for-cardiovascular-collapse-after-unplanned-extubations-in-the-pediatric-icu
#15
Paulo Sérgio Lucas da Silva, Marcelo Cunio Machado Fonseca
BACKGROUND: Cardiovascular collapse is a life-threatening event after unplanned extubations (UEs) in the pediatric ICU (PICU). However, there is a paucity of pediatric studies assessing this complication. We sought to assess the incidence, risk factors, and outcome of cardiovascular collapse after UEs in PICU patients. METHODS: All children who had been mechanically ventilated for ≥12 h were prospectively tracked for UEs over an 8-y period. Subjects were included in the study if they were between ages 1 month and 16 y and had experienced UE...
April 11, 2017: Respiratory Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28385101/outcome-of-surgery-for-pediatric-gastroesophageal-reflux-clinical-and-endoscopic-follow-up-after-300-fundoplications-in-279-consecutive-patients
#16
A I Koivusalo, M P Pakarinen
PURPOSE: Clinical and endoscopic assessment of the outcome after fundoplication for pediatric gastroesophageal reflux. BASIC PROCEDURES: Hospital records of 279 consecutive patients who underwent fundoplication for gastroesophageal reflux from 1991 to 2014 were reviewed. Underlying disorders, clinical and endoscopic findings, imaging studies, pH monitoring, and surgical technique were assessed. Main outcome measures were patency of fundoplication, control of symptoms and esophagitis, complications, redo operations, and predictive factors of failures...
April 1, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Surgery: SJS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28381402/transcutaneous-immunization-with-a-bandaid-prevents-experimental-otitis-media-in-a-polymicrobial-model
#17
Laura A Novotny, John D Clements, Steven D Goodman, Lauren O Bakaletz
Otitis media (OM) is a common pediatric disease and nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHI) is the predominant pathogen in chronic OM, recurrent OM and OM associated with treatment failure. OM is also a polymicrobial disease, wherein an upper respiratory tract viral infection predisposes to ascension of NTHI from the nasopharynx, the site of colonization, to the normally sterile middle ear, resulting in disease. Using a clinically relevant viral-bacterial co-infection model of NTHI-induced OM, we performed transcutaneous immunization (TCI) via a bandaid delivery system to administer each of three promising NTHI vaccine candidates derived from bacterial adhesive proteins and biofilm mediators: rsPilA, chimV4 and integration host factor...
April 5, 2017: Clinical and Vaccine Immunology: CVI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28377880/paradoxical-bronchospasm-from-benzalkonium-chloride-bac-preservative-in-albuterol-nebulizer-solution-in-a-patient-with-acute-severe-asthma-a-case-report-and-literature-review-of-airway-effects-of-bac
#18
Mathew George, Saumya Vinod Joshi, Emily Concepcion, Haesoon Lee
Nebulized bronchodilator solutions are available in the United States as both nonsterile and sterile-filled products. Sulfites, benzalkonium chloride (BAC), or chlorobutanol are added to nonsterile products to prevent bacterial growth. Bronchoconstriction from inhaled BAC is cumulative, prolonged, and correlates directly with basal airway responsiveness. The multi-dose dropper bottle of albuterol sulfate solution contains 50 μg BAC per/2.5 mg of albuterol, which may be below or at the lower limit of the threshold dose for bronchoconstriction...
2017: Respiratory Medicine Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28362356/severe-pneumonia-caused-by-influenza-a-h1n1-virus-successfully-managed-with-extracorporeal-life-support-in-a-comorbid-former-preterm-infant
#19
Genny Raffaeli, Giacomo Cavallaro, Lorenza Pugni, Ernesto Leva, Andrea Artoni, Simona Neri, Chiara Baracetti, Mauro Cotza, Valerio Gentilino, Leonardo Terranova, Susanna Esposito, Fabio Mosca
Influenza A (H1N1) virus infection is a global health burden, leading to significant pediatric morbidity and mortality. Prematurity, young age and comorbidities are important risk factors for unfavorable outcomes. Preventive strategies, such as healthcare workers and household contacts vaccination as well as the implementation of infection control practices during the epidemic season, are crucial to protect the most vulnerable populations. Early diagnosis, timely administration of antiviral drugs and supportive therapy are crucial to lead to a complete recovery...
March 31, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28353578/rocuronium-induced-neuromuscular-block-and-sugammadex-in-pediatric-patient-with-duchenne-muscular-dystrophy-a-case-report
#20
Ji Eun Kim, Hea Rim Chun
INTRODUCTION: Anesthetic management of patients with Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is complicated because these patients are more sensitive to nondepolarizing neuromuscular blocking agents (NMBAs) and are vulnerable to postoperative complications, such as postoperative residual curarization and respiratory failure. Sugammadex is a new reversal agent for aminosteroidal NMBAs, but its safety in children is controversial. CLINICAL FEATURES: An 11-year-old boy with DMD underwent general anesthesia for a percutaneous nephrolithotomy...
March 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
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