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Metabolic plasticity AND LDH

Kenji Okano, Gentaro Uematsu, Shinji Hama, Tsutomu Tanaka, Hideo Noda, Akihiko Kondo, Kohsuke Honda
Fermentative production of optically pure lactic acid (LA) has attracted great interest because of the increased demand for plant-based plastics. For cost-effective LA production, an engineered Lactobacillus plantarum NCIMB 8826 strain, which enables the production of optically pure l-LA from raw starch, is constructed. The wild-type strain produces a racemic mixture of d- and l-LA from pyruvate by the action of the respective lactate dehydrogenases (LDHs). Therefore, the gene encoding D-LDH (ldhD) is deleted...
February 2, 2018: Biotechnology Journal
Sayeedul Hasan Arif, Neha Yadav, Suhailur Rehman, Ghazala Mehdi
The aim of RBC storage system in a blood bank is to counteract damage to the metabolic machinery and the membrane, to improve post-transfusion viability. In recent years, the need for strict control over the quality of blood has been emphasised. Such quality indicator includes extend of hemolysis and morphological changes of RBC during storage. This study was design to see extend of hemolysis and level of plasma lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and plasma potassium, during processing and storage at different intervals under blood bank condition...
December 2017: Indian Journal of Hematology & Blood Transfusion
Deepika Awasthi, Liang Wang, Mun S Rhee, Qingzhao Wang, Diane Chauliac, Lonnie O Ingram, Keelnatham T Shanmugam
Poly lactic acid (PLA) based plastics is renewable, bio-based, and biodegradable. Although present day PLA is composed of mainly L-LA, an L- and D- LA copolymer is expected to improve the quality of PLA and expand its use. To increase the number of thermotolerant microbial biocatalysts that produce D-LA, a derivative of Bacillus subtilis strain 168 that grows at 50°C was metabolically engineered. Since B. subtilis lacks a gene encoding D-lactate dehydrogenase (ldhA), five heterologous ldhA genes (B. coagulans ldhA and gldA101, and ldhA from three Lactobacillus delbrueckii) were evaluated...
February 2018: Biotechnology and Bioengineering
Mahesh Ramalingam, Mi Hyun Cheng, Sung-Jin Kim
Parkinson's disease (PD) is the second most common neurodegenerative disease in the elderly. In central nervous system, astrocytes regulates neuronal function via the modulation of synaptic transmission and plasticity, secretion of growth factors, uptake of neurotransmitters and regulation of extracellular ion concentrations and metabolic support of neurons. Therefore, C6 astroglial cells have been used to study the in vitro PD model induced by 1-methyl-4-phenyl pyridinium (MPP(+)). In this study, pre-treatment of insulin inhibited MPP(+)-induced cell membrane damages on LDH and NO releases, which also inhibited the iNOS and Cox-2 levels...
August 30, 2017: Journal of Receptor and Signal Transduction Research
R Wiessner, T Kleber, N Ekwelle, K Ludwig, D-U Richter
INTRODUCTION: The use of alloplastic implants for tissue strengthening when treating hernias is an established therapy worldwide. Despite the high incidence of hernias in Africa and Asia, the implantation of costly mesh netting is not financially feasible. Because of that various investigative groups have examined the use of sterilized mosquito netting. The animal experiments as well as the clinical trials have both shown equivalent short- and long-term results. The goal of this paper is the comparison of biocompatibility of human fibroblasts on the established commercially available nets and on sterilized polyester mosquito mesh over a period of 12 weeks...
June 2017: Hernia: the Journal of Hernias and Abdominal Wall Surgery
Brittney G Borowiec, Kyle D Crans, Fariborz Khajali, Nicole A Pranckevicius, Alexander Young, Graham R Scott
Hypoxia tolerance is a plastic trait, and can vary between species. We compared hypoxia tolerance (hypoxic loss of equilibrium, LOE, and critical O2 tension, Pcrit) and traits that dictate O2 transport and metabolism in pumpkinseed (Lepomis gibbosus), bluegill (L. macrochirus), and the naturally occurring hybrid in different acclimation environments (wild versus lab-acclimated fish) and at different temperatures. Wild fish generally had lower Pcrit and lower PO2 at LOE in progressive hypoxia than lab-acclimated fish, but time to LOE in sustained hypoxia (PO2 of 2kPa) did not vary between environments...
August 2016: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part A, Molecular & Integrative Physiology
Lucas Francisco R do Nascimento, Lilian Cristina da Silveira, Laura Gabriela Nisembaum, Alison Colquhoun, Agusto S Abe, Carlos Alberto Mandarim-de-Lacerda, Silvia Cristina R de Souza
Seasonal plasticity in the small intestine of neonatal tegu lizards was investigated using morphometry and analysis of enzymes involved in supplying energy to the intestinal tissue. In the autumn, the intestinal mass (Mi) was 1.0% of body mass and the scaling exponent b=0.92 indicated that Mi was larger in smaller neonates. During arousal from dormancy Mi was 23% smaller; later in spring, Mi increased 60% in relation to the autumn and the exponent b=0.14 indicated that the recovery was disproportionate in smaller tegus...
May 2016: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part A, Molecular & Integrative Physiology
Nadège Liaud, Marie-Noëlle Rosso, Nicolas Fabre, Sylvaine Crapart, Isabelle Herpoël-Gimbert, Jean-Claude Sigoillot, Sana Raouche, Anthony Levasseur
BACKGROUND: Lactic acid is the building block of poly-lactic acid (PLA), a biopolymer that could be set to replace petroleum-based plastics. To make lactic acid production cost-effective, the production process should be carried out at low pH, in low-nutrient media, and with a low-cost carbon source. Yeasts have been engineered to produce high levels of lactic acid at low pH from glucose but not from carbohydrate polymers (e.g. cellulose, hemicellulose, starch). Aspergilli are versatile microbial cell factories able to naturally produce large amounts of organic acids at low pH and to metabolize cheap abundant carbon sources such as plant biomass...
May 3, 2015: Microbial Cell Factories
Angela M Otto, Josef Hintermair, Cornelia Janzon
Characteristic of the tumor microenvironment are fluctuating gradients of reduced nutrient levels and released lactate. A fundamental issue is how tumor cells modulate their metabolic activity when both glucose and glutamine levels become limiting in the presence of high exogenous lactate. For functional analyses, the activities of pyruvate kinase, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and plasma membrane NADH oxidase (NOX) as well as cell growth were measured in breast cancer MCF-7 cells cultured in medium containing various concentrations of these metabolites...
May 2015: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
Tyrone A Washington, Julie M Healey, Raymond W Thompson, Larry L Lowe, James A Carson
Aging alters the skeletal muscle response to overload-induced growth. The onset of functional overload is characterized by increased myoblast proliferation and an altered muscle metabolic profile. The onset of functional overload is associated with increased energy demands that are met through the interconversion of lactate and pyruvate via the activity of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH). Testosterone targets many of the processes activated at the onset of functional overload. However, the effect of aging on this metabolic plasticity at the onset of functional overload and how anabolic steroid administration modulates this response is not well understood...
September 2014: Experimental Gerontology
Cindy D Crocker, Lauren J Chapman, Mery L Martínez
The African cichlid, Pseudocrenilabrus multicolor victoriae is a eurytopic fish that exhibits high levels of developmental plasticity in response to dissolved oxygen availability. In this study, F1 offspring from three sites in the Mpanga River drainage of Western Uganda characterized by different dissolved oxygen (D.O.) regimes were reared under normoxic or hypoxic conditions. After 1 year, enzymes were measured to determine the tissue metabolic capacity of four different tissues: muscle, heart, brain and liver...
October 2013: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part B, Biochemistry & Molecular Biology
Deshdeepak Sahni, Andrew Jea, Javier A Mata, Daniela C Marcano, Ahilan Sivaganesan, Jacob M Berlin, Claudio E Tatsui, Zhengzong Sun, Thomas G Luerssen, Shiyun Meng, Thomas A Kent, James M Tour
OBJECT: Graphene possesses unique electrical, physical, and chemical properties that may offer significant potential as a bioscaffold for neuronal regeneration after spinal cord injury. The purpose of this investigation was to establish the in vitro biocompatibility of pristine graphene for interface with primary rat cortical neurons. METHODS: Graphene films were prepared by chemical vapor deposition on a copper foil catalytic substrate and subsequent apposition on bare Permanox plastic polymer dishes...
May 2013: Journal of Neurosurgery. Pediatrics
Shigehito Ikushima, Toshio Fujii, Osamu Kobayashi, Satoshi Yoshida, Aruto Yoshida
Polylactic acid is receiving increasing attention as a renewable alternative for conventional petroleum-based plastics. In the present study, we constructed a metabolically-engineered Candida utilis strain that produces L-lactic acid with the highest efficiency yet reported in yeasts. Initially, the gene encoding pyruvate decarboxylase (CuPDC1) was identified, followed by four CuPDC1 disruption events in order to obtain a null mutant that produced little ethanol (a by-product of L-lactic acid). Two copies of the L-lactate dehydrogenase (L-LDH) gene derived from Bos taurus under the control of the CuPDC1 promoter were then integrated into the genome of the CuPdc1-null deletant...
August 2009: Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry
E V Markova, N V Zotova, A A Savchenko, N M Titova, E V Slepov, D V Cherdantsev, A N Konovalenko
In this study, we have investigated correlation between enzymatic activity of NAD(P)-dependent dehydrogenases of lymphocytes and polymorphic variants of glutathione S-transferase M1 (GSTM1) and T1 (GSTT1) genes in the group of unrelated patients with acute pancreatitis in comparison with healthy Russians from Krasnoyarsk. Thus, genotype GSTM1 0/0 is the marker of predisposition to the acute pancreatitis, wheras polymorphism of the GSTT1 gene is not involved in the development of the pancreatitis, at least in our group...
May 2006: Biomedit︠s︡inskai︠a︡ Khimii︠a︡
Contzen Pereira, Kranti Mapuskar, C Vaman Rao
Diethyl phthalate (DEP) is widely used in personal care products, plastics and medical devices at various concentrations, but its information is limited on its toxicity associated with exposure at high as well as low doses for a prolonged period. Therefore, a study was undertaken to understand the dose-response toxic effect of DEP in male Wistar rats. Control rats were fed on normal diet and water ad libitum. Rats were given DEP dissolved individually in corn oil mixed with the diet at 10, 25 and 50 mg/kg of the diet/day, which is equal to 0...
July 2006: Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology: RTP
Nobuhiro Ishida, Satoshi Saitoh, Toru Onishi, Kenro Tokuhiro, Eiji Nagamori, Katsuhiko Kitamoto, Haruo Takahashi
A plant- and crop-based renewable plastic, poly-lactic acid (PLA), is receiving attention as a new material for a sustainable society in place of petroleum-based plastics. We constructed a metabolically engineered Saccharomyces cerevisiae that has both pyruvate decarboxylase genes (PDC1 and PDC5) disrupted in the genetic background to express two copies of the bovine L-lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) gene. With this recombinant, the yield of lactate was 82.3 g/liter, up to 81.5% of the glucose being transformed into lactic acid on neutralizing cultivation, although pdc1 pdc5 double disruption led to ineffective decreases in cell growth and fermentation speed...
May 2006: Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry
K Kambia, T Dine, B Gressier, T Dupin-Spriet, M Luyckx, C Brunet
Plasticizers are added to polyvinyl chloride (PVC) to confer flexibility to the polymer. Di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) is the most commonly used of them. However, due to its non covalent bond to the PVC, DEHP tends to vaporize easily. A significant exposure has been recorded in dialyzed patients since medical tubings. Most animal species metabolize DEHP rapidly into monoethylhexyl phthalate (MEHP) and 2-ethylhexanol (2-EH). Because of the suspected toxicity of DEHP, an alternative plasticizer, trioctyltrimellitate (TOTM) has aroused increasing interest...
November 2004: International Journal of Artificial Organs
Margaret C Mudge, Melinda H Macdonald, Sean D Owens, Fern Tablin
OBJECTIVE: To compare viability of equine whole blood stored by 4 different methods, and to establish optimal storage protocols for an equine autologous blood donation program. STUDY DESIGN: In vitro study of stored equine whole blood. Animals- Six healthy adult horses. METHODS: Blood from each horse was collected into 4 different containers: glass bottles containing acid-citrate-dextrose solution (ACD), plastic bags containing ACD, citrate-phosphate-dextrose (CPD), and CPD with supplemental adenine (CPDA-1)...
September 2004: Veterinary Surgery: VS
I V Lushnikova, K Iu Voronin, P Iu Maliarevs'kyĭ, K H Smozhanyk, H H Skibo
We studied morphofunctional changes in organotypic hippocampal slice cultures (OHSC) subjected to oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD) for 10, 30, and 60 min followed by normoxic reoxygenation for 1, 4, and 24 h. Cell viability was estimated using trypan blue (TB) staining, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) assay, and MTT/formazan assay. Structural changes in CA1 area of OHSC were analyzed by light and electron microscopy. No significant signs of destruction were found in the cultures 1 h following 10 min OGD; moreover, clear increase in cell metabolic activity was determined by MTT/formazan assay...
2004: Fiziolohichnyĭ Zhurnal
T Sakurai, B Yang, T Takata, K Yokono
In Alzheimer's disease, brain glucose metabolic ratio decreases, whereas the brain lactate metabolic ratio increases. To investigate possible synaptic dysfunction in Alzheimer's disease, we examined the effects of exogenous glucose deprivation and replacement of glucose with lactate on the synaptic transmission, synaptic plasticity, and the morphological integrity of hippocampal neurons. Synaptic activity was estimated by the amplitude of the population spike (PS) recorded in the granular cell layer in the hippocampal slices from guinea pig and rat...
December 2000: Nihon Ronen Igakkai Zasshi. Japanese Journal of Geriatrics
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