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Metabolic plasticity

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915506/maternal-diethylhexyl-phthalate-exposure-affects-adiposity-and-insulin-tolerance-in-offspring-in-a-pcna-dependent-manner
#1
Brian G Hunt, Yuan-Liang Wang, Min-Shan Chen, Shao-Chun Wang, Susan E Waltz
The ubiquitous plasticizer, diethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP), is a known endocrine disruptor. However, DEHP exposure effects are not well understood. Changes in industrial and agricultural practices have resulted in increased prevalence of DEHP exposure and has coincided with the heightened occurrence of metabolic syndrome and obesity. DEHP and its metabolites are detected in the umbilical cord blood of newborns; however, the prenatal and perinatal effects of DEHP exposure have not been intensively studied. Previously, we discovered that phosphorylation (p) of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) at tyrosine 114 (Y114) is required for adipogenesis and diet-induced obesity in mice...
September 12, 2017: Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915396/a-novel-biodegradation-pathway-of-the-endocrine-disruptor-di-2-ethyl-hexyl-phthalate-by-pleurotus-ostreatus-based-on-quantum-chemical-investigation
#2
Miriam Ahuactzin-Pérez, Saúl Tlecuitl-Beristain, Jorge García-Dávila, Ericka Santacruz-Juárez, Manuel González-Pérez, María Concepción Gutiérrez-Ruíz, Carmen Sánchez
Di(2-ethyl hexyl) phthalate (DEHP) is a plasticizer that interfere with endocrine systems in mammals. Growth parameters for Pleurotus ostreatus grown on media containing glucose and different concentrations of DEHP (0, 500 and 1000mg/L) were evaluated. The highest biomass production was observed in medium supplemented with 1000mg of DEHP/L. Half-life of DEHP biodegradation, biodegradation constant of DEHP, and percentage of removal efficiency (%E) were also determined. P. ostreatus degraded 100% of DEHP after 504h...
September 12, 2017: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912541/coprophagous-features-in-carnivorous-nepenthes-plants-a-task-for-ureases
#3
Ayufu Yilamujiang, Anting Zhu, Rodrigo Ligabue-Braun, Stefan Bartram, Claus-Peter Witte, Rainer Hedrich, Mitsuyasu Hasabe, Caroline R Schöner, Michael G Schöner, Gerald Kerth, Célia R Carlini, Axel Mithöfer
Most terrestrial carnivorous plants are specialized on insect prey digestion to obtain additional nutrients. Few species of the genus Nepenthes developed mutualistic relationships with mammals for nitrogen supplementation. Whether dietary changes require certain enzymatic composition to utilize new sources of nutrients has rarely been tested. Here, we investigated the role of urease for Nepenthes hemsleyana that gains nitrogen from the bat Kerivoula hardwickii while it roosts inside the pitchers. We hypothesized that N...
September 14, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28905001/genome-enabled-insights-into-the-ecophysiology-of-the-comammox-bacterium-candidatus-nitrospira-nitrosa
#4
Pamela Y Camejo, Jorge Santo Domingo, Katherine D McMahon, Daniel R Noguera
The recently discovered comammox bacteria have the potential to completely oxidize ammonia to nitrate. These microorganisms are part of the Nitrospira genus and are present in a variety of environments, including biological nutrient removal (BNR) systems. However, the physiological traits within and between comammox and nitrite-oxidizing bacterium (NOB)-like Nitrospira species have not been analyzed in these ecosystems. In this study, we identified Nitrospira strains dominating the nitrifying community of a sequencing batch reactor (SBR) performing BNR under microaerobic conditions...
September 2017: MSystems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28904994/n-acetylglucosamine-metabolism-promotes-survival-of-candida-albicans-in-the-phagosome
#5
Elisa M Vesely, Robert B Williams, James B Konopka, Michael C Lorenz
Phagocytosis by innate immune cells is one of the most effective barriers against the multiplication and dissemination of microbes within the mammalian host. Candida albicans, a pathogenic yeast, has robust mechanisms that allow survival upon macrophage phagocytosis. C. albicans survives in part because it can utilize the alternative carbon sources available in the phagosome, including carboxylic acids and amino acids. Furthermore, metabolism of these compounds raises the pH of the extracellular environment, which combats the acidification and maturation of the phagolysosome...
September 2017: MSphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28904346/brain-damage-and-behavioural-disorders-in-fish-induced-by-plastic-nanoparticles-delivered-through-the-food-chain
#6
Karin Mattsson, Elyse V Johnson, Anders Malmendal, Sara Linse, Lars-Anders Hansson, Tommy Cedervall
The tremendous increases in production of plastic materials has led to an accumulation of plastic pollution worldwide. Many studies have addressed the physical effects of large-sized plastics on organisms, whereas few have focused on plastic nanoparticles, despite their distinct chemical, physical and mechanical properties. Hence our understanding of their effects on ecosystem function, behaviour and metabolism of organisms remains elusive. Here we demonstrate that plastic nanoparticles reduce survival of aquatic zooplankton and penetrate the blood-to-brain barrier in fish and cause behavioural disorders...
September 13, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28904337/toxoplasma-modulates-signature-pathways-of-human-epilepsy-neurodegeneration-cancer
#7
Huân M Ngô, Ying Zhou, Hernan Lorenzi, Kai Wang, Taek-Kyun Kim, Yong Zhou, Kamal El Bissati, Ernest Mui, Laura Fraczek, Seesandra V Rajagopala, Craig W Roberts, Fiona L Henriquez, Alexandre Montpetit, Jenefer M Blackwell, Sarra E Jamieson, Kelsey Wheeler, Ian J Begeman, Carlos Naranjo-Galvis, Ney Alliey-Rodriguez, Roderick G Davis, Liliana Soroceanu, Charles Cobbs, Dennis A Steindler, Kenneth Boyer, A Gwendolyn Noble, Charles N Swisher, Peter T Heydemann, Peter Rabiah, Shawn Withers, Patricia Soteropoulos, Leroy Hood, Rima McLeod
One third of humans are infected lifelong with the brain-dwelling, protozoan parasite, Toxoplasma gondii. Approximately fifteen million of these have congenital toxoplasmosis. Although neurobehavioral disease is associated with seropositivity, causality is unproven. To better understand what this parasite does to human brains, we performed a comprehensive systems analysis of the infected brain: We identified susceptibility genes for congenital toxoplasmosis in our cohort of infected humans and found these genes are expressed in human brain...
September 13, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28903026/differential-expression-of-genes-in-fetal-brain-as-a-consequence-of-maternal-protein-deficiency-and-nematode-infection
#8
Manjurul Haque, Lisa M Starr, Kristine G Koski, Marilyn E Scott
Maternal dietary protein deficiency and gastrointestinal (GI) nematode infection during early pregnancy have negative impacts on both maternal placental gene expression and fetal growth in the mouse. Here we used next-generation RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq) to test our hypothesis that maternal protein deficiency and/or nematode infection also alter the expression of genes in the developing fetal brain. Outbred pregnant CD1 mice were used in a 2x2 design with two levels of dietary protein (24% versus 6%) and two levels of infection (repeated sham versus Heligmosomoides bakeri beginning at gestation day 5)...
September 10, 2017: International Journal for Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28902459/exome-sequences-of-multiplex-multigenerational-families-reveal-schizophrenia-risk-loci-with-potential-implications-for-neurocognitive-performance
#9
Mark Z Kos, Melanie A Carless, Juan Peralta, Joanne E Curran, Ellen E Quillen, Marcio Almeida, August Blackburn, Lucy Blondell, David R Roalf, Michael F Pogue-Geile, Ruben C Gur, Harald H H Göring, Vishwajit L Nimgaonkar, Raquel E Gur, Laura Almasy
Schizophrenia is a serious mental illness, involving disruptions in thought and behavior, with a worldwide prevalence of about one percent. Although highly heritable, much of the genetic liability of schizophrenia is yet to be explained. We searched for susceptibility loci in multiplex, multigenerational families affected by schizophrenia, targeting protein-altering variation with in silico predicted functional effects. Exome sequencing was performed on 136 samples from eight European-American families, including 23 individuals diagnosed with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder...
September 13, 2017: American Journal of Medical Genetics. Part B, Neuropsychiatric Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28894178/effect-of-prenatal-dinch-plasticizer-exposure-on-rat-offspring-testicular-function-and-metabolism
#10
Enrico Campioli, Sunghoon Lee, Matthew Lau, Lucas Marques, Vassilios Papadopoulos
In 2002, the plasticizer 1,2-cyclohexane dicarboxylic acid diisononyl ester (DINCH) was introduced in the European market as a substitute for endocrine-disrupting phthalates. We found that in utero exposure of rats to DINCH from gestational day 14 until parturition affected reproductive organ physiology and reduced circulating testosterone levels at post-natal day 60, indicating a long-term effect on Leydig cells of the testis. Metabolically, animals exhibited randomly increased serum glucose concentrations not associated with impaired glucose utilization...
September 11, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28891639/three-principles-of-diversity-generating-biosynthesis
#11
Wenjia Gu, Eric W Schmidt
Natural products are significant therapeutic agents and valuable drug leads. This is likely owing to their three-dimensional structural complexity, which enables them to form complex interactions with biological targets. Enzymes from natural product biosynthetic pathways show great potential to generate natural product-like compounds and libraries. Many challenges still remain in biosynthesis, such as how to rationally synthesize small molecules with novel structures and how to generate maximum chemical diversity...
September 11, 2017: Accounts of Chemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28886877/functional-sustainability-of-periphytic-biofilms-in-organic-matter-and-cu-2-removal-during-prolonged-exposure-to-tio2-nanoparticles
#12
Junzhuo Liu, Jun Tang, Juanjuan Wan, Chenxi Wu, Bruce Graham, Philip G Kerr, Yonghong Wu
Responses of microbial communities to nanotoxicity in aquatic ecosystems are largely unknown, particularly with respect to relationship between community dynamics and functions. Here, periphytic biofilms were selected as a model of species-rich microbial communities to elucidate their responses when exposed to titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO2-NPs). Especially, the relationships between the functions (e.g. organic matter and Cu(2+) removal) and community dynamics after long-term exposure to TiO2-NPs were assessed systematically...
August 30, 2017: Journal of Hazardous Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28886593/influence-of-tetrabromobisphenol-a-with-or-without-concurrent-triclosan-upon-bisphenol-a-and-estradiol-concentrations-in-mice
#13
Tyler Pollock, Leanna Mantella, Vanessa Reali, Denys deCatanzaro
BACKGROUND: Humans are commonly exposed to multiple environmental chemicals, including tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA; a flame retardant), triclosan (an antimicrobial agent), and bisphenol A (BPA; polycarbonate plastics). These chemicals are readily absorbed and may interact with each other. OBJECTIVES: We sought to determine whether TBBPA, given alone or in combination with triclosan, can modulate the concentrations of BPA and 17β-estradiol (E2). METHODS: Female and male CF-1 mice were each given a subcutaneous injection of 0-27mg TBBPA, with or without concurrent 0...
August 21, 2017: Environmental Health Perspectives
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28884042/aberrant-control-of-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-in-cancer-permits-transcriptional-and-phenotypic-plasticity-to-curtail-dependence-on-host-tissue-molecular-mode
#14
Spiros A Vlahopoulos
The role of the transcription factor NF-κB in shaping the cancer microenvironment is becoming increasingly clear. Inflammation alters the activity of enzymes that modulate NF-κB function, and causes extensive changes in genomic chromatin that ultimately drastically alter cell-specific gene expression. NF-κB regulates the expression of cytokines and adhesion factors that control interactions among adjacent cells. As such, NF-κB fine tunes tissue cellular composition, as well as tissues' interactions with the immune system...
August 2017: Cancer Biology & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28883638/mild-traumatic-brain-injury-induces-memory-deficits-with-alteration-of-gene-expression-profile
#15
Yawen Luo, Haiyan Zou, Yili Wu, Fang Cai, Si Zhang, Weihong Song
Repeated mild traumatic brain injury (rmTBI), the most common type of traumatic brain injuries, can result in neurological dysfunction and cognitive deficits. However, the molecular mechanisms and the long-term consequence of rmTBI remain elusive. In this study, we developed a modified rmTBI mouse model and found that rmTBI-induced transient neurological deficits and persistent impairments of spatial memory function. Furthermore, rmTBI mice had long-lasting detrimental effect on cognitive function, exhibiting memory deficits even 12 weeks after rmTBI...
September 7, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28882990/extended-synaptotagmin-localizes-to-presynaptic-er-and-promotes-neurotransmission-and-synaptic-growth-in-drosophila
#16
Koto Kikuma, Xiling Li, Daniel Kim, David Sutter, Dion K Dickman
The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is an extensive organelle in neurons with important roles at synapses including the regulation of cytosolic Ca(2+), neurotransmission, lipid metabolism, and membrane trafficking. Despite intriguing evidence for these crucial functions, how presynaptic ER influences synaptic physiology remains enigmatic. To gain insight into this question, we have generated and characterized mutations in the single Extended Synaptotagmin (Esyt) ortholog in Drosophila melanogaster Esyts are evolutionarily conserved ER proteins with Ca(2+)-sensing domains that have recently been shown to orchestrate membrane tethering and lipid exchange between the ER and plasma membrane...
September 7, 2017: Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28870707/interventions-to-improve-%C3%AE-cell-mass-and-function
#17
Prosenjit Mondal, Amit Prasad, Khyati Girdhar
Diabetes mellitus (T2DM) has become an epidemiologically important disease worldwide and is also becoming a great matter of concern due to the effects associated with it like: high morbidity, elevated health care cost and shortened life span. T2DM is a chronic metabolic disease characterized by insulin resistance as well as β-cell dysfunction. It is widely accepted that in the face of insulin resistance, euglycemia can be maintained by increase in pancreatic β-cell mass and insulin secretion. This compensation is largely due to enhanced secretion of insulin by the β-cell mass, which is present initially, and thereby subsequent increases in β-cell mass provide additional insulin secretion...
September 1, 2017: Annales D'endocrinologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28865749/differential-deregulation-of-ngf-and-bdnf-neurotrophins-in-a-transgenic-rat-model-of-alzheimer-s-disease
#18
M Florencia Iulita, M Beatriz Bistué Millón, Rowan Pentz, Lisi Flores Aguilar, Sonia Do Carmo, Simon Allard, Bernadeta Michalski, Edward N Wilson, Adriana Ducatenzeiler, Martin A Bruno, Margaret Fahnestock, A Claudio Cuello
Evidence from human neuropathological studies indicates that the levels of the neurotrophins nerve growth factor (NGF) and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) are compromised in Alzheimer's disease. However, the causes and temporal (pathology-dependent) evolution of these alterations are not completely understood. To elucidate these issues, we investigated the McGill-R-Thy1-APP transgenic rat, which exhibits progressive intracellular and extracellular amyloid-beta (Aβ) pathology and ensuing cognitive deficits...
August 30, 2017: Neurobiology of Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28864987/the-long-term-effect-of-the-periconception-period-on-the-embryo-s-epigenetic-profile-and-phenotype-the-role-of-maternal-disease-such-as-diabetes-and-how-the-effect-is-mediated-example-from-a-rabbit-model
#19
Bernd Fischer, Maria Schindler, S Mareike Pendzialek, Jacqueline Gürke, Elisa Haucke, Katarzyna Joanna Grybel, René Thieme, Anne Navarrete Santos
Maternal metabolic diseases such as diabetes mellitus with diabetogenic hypoinsulinemia and hyperglycemia change periconceptional developmental conditions in utero. In preimplantation rabbit embryos, all major metabolic pathways are affected. Alterations in protein, lipid and glucose metabolism, adipokines, advanced glycation end products (AGEs) and reactive oxygen species (ROS) are described in this review. The embryonic metabolism is characterized by a high plasticity which enables survival of most preimplantation embryos under the non-physiological developmental conditions in diabetic mothers...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28864081/hypoxic-acclimation-leads-to-metabolic-compensation-after-reoxygenation-in-atlantic-salmon-yolk-sac-alevins
#20
Elias T Polymeropoulos, Nicholas G Elliott, Peter B Frappell
Hypoxia is common in aquatic environments and has substantial effects on development, metabolism and survival of aquatic organisms. To understand the physiological effects of hypoxia and its dependence on temperature, metabolic rate (Ṁo2) and cardiorespiratory function were studied in response to acute hypoxia (21 ➔ 5kPa) at different measurement temperatures (Ta; 4, 8 and 12°C) in Salmo salar alevins that were incubated under normoxic conditions (PO2=21kPa) or following hypoxic acclimation (PO2=10kPa) as well as two different temperatures (4°C or 8°C)...
August 29, 2017: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part A, Molecular & Integrative Physiology
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