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Metabolic plasticity

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351662/the-versatile-tanycyte-a-hypothalamic-integrator-of-reproduction-and-energy-metabolism
#1
Vincent Prevot, Bénédicte Dehouck, Ariane Sharif, Philippe Ciofi, Paolo Giacobini, Jerome Clasadonte
The fertility and survival of an individual rely on the ability of the periphery to promptly, effectively and reproducibly communicate with brain neural networks that control reproduction, food intake and energy homeostasis. Tanycytes, a specialized glial cell type lining the wall of the third ventricle in the median eminence of the hypothalamus, appear to act as the linchpin of these processes by dynamically controlling the secretion of neuropeptides into the portal vasculature by hypothalamic neurons and regulating blood-brain and blood-cerebrospinal fluid exchanges, both processes that depend on the ability of these cells to adapt their morphology to the physiological state of the individual...
January 17, 2018: Endocrine Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351550/differential-actions-of-ppar-%C3%AE-and-ppar-%C3%AE-%C3%AE-on-beige-adipocyte-formation-a-study-in-the-subcutaneous-white-adipose-tissue-of-obese-male-mice
#2
Tamiris Lima Rachid, Flavia Maria Silva-Veiga, Francielle Graus-Nunes, Isabele Bringhenti, Carlos Alberto Mandarim-de-Lacerda, Vanessa Souza-Mello
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Obesity compromises adipocyte physiology. PPARs are essential to adipocyte plasticity, but its isolated role in the browning phenomenon is not clear. This study aimed to examine whether activation of PPAR-α or PPAR-β/δ could induce beige cell depots in the subcutaneous white adipose tissue of diet-induced obese mice. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Sixty animals were randomly assigned to receive a control diet (C, 10% lipids) or a high-fat diet (HF, 50% lipids) for ten weeks...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29348581/identifying-metabolic-pathways-for-production-of-extracellular-polymeric-substances-by-the-diatom-fragilariopsis-cylindrus-inhabiting-sea-ice
#3
Shazia N Aslam, Jan Strauss, David N Thomas, Thomas Mock, Graham J C Underwood
Diatoms are significant primary producers in sea ice, an ephemeral habitat with steep vertical gradients of temperature and salinity characterizing the ice matrix environment. To cope with the variable and challenging conditions, sea ice diatoms produce polysaccharide-rich extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) that play important roles in adhesion, cell protection, ligand binding and as organic carbon sources. Significant differences in EPS concentrations and chemical composition corresponding to temperature and salinity gradients were present in sea ice from the Weddell Sea and Eastern Antarctic regions of the Southern Ocean...
January 18, 2018: ISME Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29335816/organ-reserve-excess-metabolic-capacity-and-aging
#4
Hani Atamna, Alfred Tenore, Forshing Lui, Joseph M Dhahbi
"Organ reserve" refers to the ability of an organ to successfully return to its original physiological state following repeated episodes of stress. Clinical evidence shows that organ reserve correlates with the ability of older adults to cope with an added workload or stress, suggesting a role in the process of aging. Although organ reserve is well documented clinically, it is not clearly defined at the molecular level. Interestingly, several metabolic pathways exhibit excess metabolic capacities (e.g., bioenergetics pathway, antioxidants system, plasticity)...
January 15, 2018: Biogerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29335381/the-fetal-programming-of-telomere-biology-hypothesis-an-update
#5
REVIEW
Sonja Entringer, Karin de Punder, Claudia Buss, Pathik D Wadhwa
Research on mechanisms underlying fetal programming of health and disease risk has focused primarily on processes that are specific to cell types, organs or phenotypes of interest. However, the observation that developmental conditions concomitantly influence a diverse set of phenotypes, the majority of which are implicated in age-related disorders, raises the possibility that such developmental conditions may additionally exert effects via a common underlying mechanism that involves cellular/molecular ageing-related processes...
March 5, 2018: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330187/acquisition-of-a-novel-sulfur-oxidizing-symbiont-in-the-gutless-marine-worm-inanidrilus-exumae
#6
C Bergin, C Wentrup, N Brewig, A Blazejak, C Erséus, O Giere, M Schmid, P De Wit, N Dubilier
Gutless phallodrilines are marine annelid worms without a mouth or gut, which live in an obligate association with multiple bacterial endosymbionts that supply them with nutrition. In this study, we discovered an unusual symbiont community in the gutless phallodriline Inanidrilus exumae that differs markedly from the microbiome of all other 22 examined host species. Comparative 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis and fluorescence in situ hybridization revealed that I. exumae harboured co-occurring gamma-, alpha- and deltaproteobacterial symbionts, while all other known host species harbour gamma- and either alpha- or deltaproteobacterial symbionts...
January 12, 2018: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29327410/genomic-insights-into-the-acidobacteria-reveal-strategies-for-their-success-in-terrestrial-environments
#7
Stephanie A Eichorst, Daniela Trojan, Simon Roux, Craig Herbold, Thomas Rattei, Dagmar Woebken
Members of the phylum Acidobacteria are abundant and ubiquitous across soils. We performed the largest (to date) comparative genome analysis spanning subdivisions 1, 3, 4, 6, 8, and 23 (n=24) with the goal to identify features to help explain their prevalence in soils and understand their ecophysiology. In contrast to earlier studies, our analysis revealed that bacteriophage integration events along with transposable and mobile elements influenced the structure and plasticity of these genomes. Low- and high-affinity respiratory oxygen reductases were detected in multiple genomes, suggesting the capacity for growing across different oxygen gradients...
January 12, 2018: Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29327219/pharmacological-insights-into-the-use-of-apomorphine-in-parkinson-s-disease-clinical-relevance
#8
REVIEW
Manon Auffret, Sophie Drapier, Marc Vérin
The present paper consists of a comprehensive review of the literature on apomorphine pharmacological properties and its usefulness in Parkinson's disease (PD). The chemistry, structure-activity relationship, pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of apomorphine are described with regard to its effects on PD symptoms, drug interactions, interindividual variability and adverse events. Apomorphine chemical structure accounts for most of its beneficial and deleterious properties, both dopaminergic and non-dopaminergic...
January 11, 2018: Clinical Drug Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324300/hippocampal-insulin-resistance-links-maternal-obesity-with-impaired-neuronal-plasticity-in-adult-offspring
#9
Lisa Schmitz, Rebecca Kuglin, Inga Bae-Gartz, Ruth Janoschek, Sarah Appel, Andrea Mesaros, Igor Jakovcevski, Christina Vohlen, Marion Handwerk, Regina Ensenauer, Jörg Dötsch, Eva Hucklenbruch-Rother
OBJECTIVE: Maternal obesity and a disturbed metabolic environment during pregnancy and lactation have been shown to result in many long-term health consequences for the offspring. Among them, impairments in neurocognitive development and performance belong to the most dreaded ones. So far, very few mechanistic approaches have aimed to determine the responsible molecular events. METHODS: In a mouse model of maternal diet-induced obesity and perinatal hyperinsulinemia, we assessed adult offspring's hippocampal insulin signaling as well as concurrent effects on markers of hippocampal neurogenesis, synaptic plasticity and function using western blotting and immunohistochemistry...
December 28, 2017: Psychoneuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29323721/brain-derived-neurotrophic-factor-modulates-cholesterol-homeostasis-and-apolipoprotein-e-synthesis-in-human-cell-models-of-astrocytes-and-neurons
#10
Maria Stefania Spagnuolo, Aldo Donizetti, Lucia Iannotta, Vincenza Aliperti, Chiara Cupidi, Amalia Cecilia Bruni, Luisa Cigliano
In the central nervous system, cholesterol is critical to maintain membrane plasticity, cellular function, and synaptic integrity. In recent years, much attention was focused on the role of cholesterol in brain since a breakdown of cholesterol metabolism has been associated with different diseases. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) was previously reported to elicit cholesterol biosynthesis and promote the accumulation of presynaptic proteins in cholesterol-rich lipid rafts, but no data are available on its ability to modulate physiological mechanisms involved in cholesterol homeostasis...
January 11, 2018: Journal of Cellular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29320582/thyroid-transcriptome-analysis-reveals-different-adaptive-responses-to-cold-environmental-conditions-between-two-chicken-breeds
#11
Shanshan Xie, Xukai Yang, Dehe Wang, Feng Zhu, Ning Yang, Zhuocheng Hou, Zhonghua Ning
Selection for cold tolerance in chickens is important for improving production performance and animal welfare. The identification of chicken breeds with higher cold tolerance and production performance will help to target candidates for the selection. The thyroid gland plays important roles in thermal adaptation, and its function is influenced by breed differences and transcriptional plasticity, both of which remain largely unknown in the chicken thyroid transcriptome. In this study, we subjected Bashang Long-tail (BS) and Rhode Island Red (RIR) chickens to either cold or warm environments for 21 weeks and investigated egg production performance, body weight changes, serum thyroid hormone concentrations, and thyroid gland transcriptome profiles...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29319160/macrophage-plasticity-polarization-and-function-in-health-and-disease
#12
REVIEW
Abbas Shapouri Moghaddam, Saeed Mohammadian, Hossein Vazini, Mahdi Taghadosi, Seyed-Alireza Esmaeili, Fatemeh Mardani, Bita Seifi, Asadollah Mohammadi, Jalil Tavakol Afshari, Amirhossein Sahebkar
Macrophages are heterogeneous and their phenotype and functions are regulated by the surrounding micro-environment. Macrophages commonly exist in two distinct subsets: 1) Classically activated or M1 macrophages, which are pro-inflammatory and polarized by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) either alone or in association with Th1 cytokines such as IFN-γ, GM-CSF and produce pro-inflammatory cytokines such as interleukin-1β (IL-1β), IL-6, IL-12, IL-23 and TNF-α, and 2) Alternatively activated or M2 macrophages, which are anti-inflammatory and immunoregulatory and polarized by Th2 cytokines such as IL-4 and IL-13 and produce anti-inflammatory cytokines such as IL-10 and TGF-β...
January 10, 2018: Journal of Cellular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29316965/decreased-microglial-activation-through-gut-brain-axis-by-prebiotics-probiotics-or-synbiotics-effectively-restored-cognitive-function-in-obese-insulin-resistant-rats
#13
Titikorn Chunchai, Wannipa Thunapong, Sakawdaurn Yasom, Keerati Wanchai, Sathima Eaimworawuthikul, Gabrielle Metzler, Anusorn Lungkaphin, Anchalee Pongchaidecha, Sasithorn Sirilun, Chaiyavat Chaiyasut, Wasana Pratchayasakul, Parameth Thiennimitr, Nipon Chattipakorn, Siriporn C Chattipakorn
BACKGROUND: Chronic high-fat diet (HFD) consumption caused not only obese-insulin resistance, but also cognitive decline and microglial hyperactivity. Modified gut microbiota by prebiotics and probiotics improved obese-insulin resistance. However, the effects of prebiotics, probiotics, and synbiotics on cognition and microglial activity in an obese-insulin resistant condition have not yet been investigated. We aimed to evaluate the effect of prebiotic (Xyloolidosaccharide), probiotic (Lactobacillus paracasei HII01), or synbiotics in male obese-insulin resistant rats induced by a HFD...
January 9, 2018: Journal of Neuroinflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29316351/gestational-triphenyl-phosphate-exposure-in-c57bl-6-mice-perturbs-expression-of-insulin-like-growth-factor-signaling-genes-in-maternal-and-fetal-liver
#14
Nicola A Philbrook, Victoria E Restivo, Christine L Belanger, Louise M Winn
Triphenyl phosphate (TPhP) is an organophosphorus flame retardant and plasticizer that has been added to numerous consumer products in recent years. TPhP is not overtly toxic, however recent studies have suggested that it may have metabolic disrupting effects following developmental exposure. The present study aimed to investigate the developmental and potential metabolic effects of TPhP in a murine model. C57Bl/6 dams were exposed on gestational days (GD) 8, 10, 12, and 14 to 0, 5, 25, or 50 mg/kg TPhP via intraperitoneal injection...
January 8, 2018: Birth Defects Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29311667/ecological-plasticity-in-the-gastrointestinal-microbiomes-of-ethiopian-chlorocebus-monkeys
#15
Pål Trosvik, Eli K Rueness, Eric J de Muinck, Amera Moges, Addisu Mekonnen
Human activities can cause habitat degradation that may alter the types and quality of available food resources and thus influence the microbiomes of wild animal populations. Furthermore, seasonal shifts in food availability may cause adaptive responses in the gut microbiome to meet the need for different metabolic capabilities. Here, we demonstrate local-scale population structure in the gastrointestinal microbiotas of Chlorocebus monkeys, in southern Ethiopia, in response to varying degrees of human encroachment...
January 8, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29311546/one-step-fermentative-production-of-aromatic-polyesters-from-glucose-by-metabolically-engineered-escherichia-coli-strains
#16
Jung Eun Yang, Si Jae Park, Won Jun Kim, Hyeong Jun Kim, Bumjoon J Kim, Hyuk Lee, Jihoon Shin, Sang Yup Lee
Aromatic polyesters are widely used plastics currently produced from petroleum. Here we engineer Escherichia coli strains for the production of aromatic polyesters from glucose by one-step fermentation. When the Clostridium difficile isocaprenoyl-CoA:2-hydroxyisocaproate CoA-transferase (HadA) and evolved polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) synthase genes are overexpressed in a D-phenyllactate-producing strain, poly(52.3 mol% 3-hydroxybutyrate (3HB)-co-47.7 mol% D-phenyllactate) can be produced from glucose and sodium 3HB...
January 8, 2018: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29307007/neurophysiology-and-neurochemistry-of-corticobasal-syndrome
#17
REVIEW
Aditya A Murgai, Mandar S Jog
Corticobasal syndrome is a rare neurodegenerative disorder, which presents with a progressive, asymmetrical, akinetic rigid syndrome and early cortical signs. However, clinical, pathological, and electrophysiological heterogeneity makes the understanding of this syndrome challenging. Corticobasal syndrome can have various pathological substrates including corticobasal degeneration, Alzheimer's disease, Fronto-temporal degeneration with TDP inclusions, Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease, and progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP)...
January 6, 2018: Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29306548/disrupting-the-warburg-effect-re-routes-cancer-cells-to-oxphos-offering-a-vulnerability-point-via-ferroptosis-induced-cell-death
#18
REVIEW
Maša Ždralević, Milica Vučetić, Boutaina Daher, Ibtissam Marchiq, Scott K Parks, Jacques Pouysségur
The evolution of life from extreme hypoxic environments to an oxygen-rich atmosphere has progressively selected for successful metabolic, enzymatic and bioenergetic networks through which a myriad of organisms survive the most extreme environmental conditions. From the two lethal environments anoxia/high O2, cells have developed survival strategies through expression of the transcriptional factors ATF4, HIF1 and NRF2. Cancer cells largely exploit these factors to thrive and resist therapies. In this review, we report and discuss the potential therapeutic benefit of disrupting the major Myc/Hypoxia-induced metabolic pathway, also known as fermentative glycolysis or "Warburg effect", in aggressive cancer cell lines...
December 28, 2017: Advances in Biological Regulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29304310/effects-of-parental-aging-during-embryo-development-and-adult-life-the-case-of-nothobranchius-furzeri
#19
Martina Api, Piera Biondi, Ike Olivotto, Eva Terzibasi, Alessandro Cellerino, Oliana Carnevali
Studies on parental aging are a very attractive field, although it is poorly understood how parental age affects embryonic development and adult traits of the offspring. In this study, we used the turquoise killifish Nothobranchius furzeri, as is the vertebrate with shortest captive lifespan and an interesting model. The embryos of N. furzeri can follow two distinct developmental pathways either entering diapause or proceeding through direct development. Thus, this embryonic plasticity allows this model to be used to study different factors that could affect their embryonic development, including parental age...
January 5, 2018: Zebrafish
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29302276/haemoglobin-mediated-response-to-hyper-thermal-stress-in-the-keystone-species-daphnia-magna
#20
Maria Cuenca Cambronero, Bettina Zeis, Luisa Orsini
Anthropogenic global warming has become a major geological and environmental force driving drastic changes in natural ecosystems. Due to the high thermal conductivity of water and the effects of temperature on metabolic processes, freshwater ecosystems are among the most impacted by these changes. The ability to tolerate changes in temperature may determine species long-term survival and fitness. Therefore, it is critical to identify coping mechanisms to thermal and hyper-thermal stress in aquatic organisms...
January 2018: Evolutionary Applications
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