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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212850/human-astrocytes-in-the-diseased-brain
#1
Elena Dossi, Flora Vasile, Nathalie Rouach
Astrocytes are key active elements of the brain that contribute to information processing. They not only provide neurons with metabolic and structural support, but also regulate neurogenesis and brain wiring. Furthermore, astrocytes modulate synaptic activity and plasticity in part by controlling the extracellular space volume, as well as ion and neurotransmitter homeostasis. These findings, together with the discovery that human astrocytes display contrasting characteristics with their rodent counterparts, point to a role for astrocytes in higher cognitive functions...
February 13, 2017: Brain Research Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28210255/high-prevalence-of-gammaproteobacteria-in-the-sediments-of-admiralty-bay-and-north-bransfield-basin-northwestern-antarctic-peninsula
#2
Diego C Franco, Camila N Signori, Rubens T D Duarte, Cristina R Nakayama, Lúcia S Campos, Vivian H Pellizari
Microorganisms dominate most Antarctic marine ecosystems, in terms of biomass and taxonomic diversity, and play crucial role in ecosystem functioning due to their high metabolic plasticity. Admiralty Bay is the largest bay on King George Island (South Shetland Islands, Antarctic Peninsula) and a combination of hydro-oceanographic characteristics (bathymetry, sea ice and glacier melting, seasonal entrance of water masses, turbidity, vertical fluxes) create conditions favoring organic carbon deposition on the seafloor and microbial activities...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28205155/endocrine-disruptors-and-obesity
#3
REVIEW
Philippa D Darbre
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The purpose of this review was to summarise current evidence that some environmental chemicals may be able to interfere in the endocrine regulation of energy metabolism and adipose tissue structure. RECENT FINDINGS: Recent findings demonstrate that such endocrine-disrupting chemicals, termed "obesogens", can promote adipogenesis and cause weight gain. This includes compounds to which the human population is exposed in daily life through their use in pesticides/herbicides, industrial and household products, plastics, detergents, flame retardants and as ingredients in personal care products...
February 15, 2017: Current Obesity Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28203242/sunlight-modulates-fruit-metabolic-profile-and-shapes-the-spatial-pattern-of-compound-accumulation-within-the-grape-cluster
#4
Noam Reshef, Natasha Walbaum, Nurit Agam, Aaron Fait
Vineyards are characterized by their large spatial variability of solar irradiance (SI) and temperature, known to effectively modulate grape metabolism. To explore the role of sunlight in shaping fruit composition and cluster uniformity, we studied the spatial pattern of incoming irradiance, fruit temperature and metabolic profile within individual grape clusters under three levels of sunlight exposure. The experiment was conducted in a vineyard of Cabernet Sauvignon cv. located in the Negev Highlands, Israel, where excess SI and midday temperatures are known to degrade grape quality...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202516/modeling-the-genetic-regulation-of-cancer-metabolism-interplay-between-glycolysis-and-oxidative-phosphorylation
#5
Linglin Yu, Mingyang Lu, Dongya Jia, Jianpeng Ma, Eshel Ben-Jacob, Herbert Levine, Benny A Kaipparettu, Jose' N Onuchic
Abnormal metabolism is a hallmark of cancer, yet its regulation remains poorly understood. Cancer cells were considered to utilize primarily glycolysis for ATP production, referred to as the Warburg effect. However, recent evidence suggests that oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) plays a crucial role during cancer progression. Here we utilized a systems biology approach to decipher the regulatory principle of glycolysis and OXPHOS. Integrating information from literature, we constructed a regulatory network of genes and metabolites from which we extracted a core circuit containing HIF-1, AMPK, and ROS...
February 15, 2017: Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28201962/preparation-and-optimization-of-fast-dissolving-film-of-naratriptan-hydrochloride
#6
Krishna D Koradia, Pradip T Sidhdhapara, Navin R Sheth
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Naratriptan is second-generation triptan class of antimigraine drug which selectively bind with 5-HT(1B/1D) receptor. It is widely used to treat the migraine attack due to its better tolerability and lower recurrence rate as compared to other triptans. Despite of the applicability, Naratriptan also have several drawback like slow onset of action and fist pass metabolism which reduce its efficacy. In order to increase the efficacy of naratriptan fast dissolving film is prepared...
February 12, 2017: Recent Patents on Drug Delivery & Formulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28199351/physiological-plasticity-related-to-zonation-affects-hsp70-expression-in-the-reef-building-coral-pocillopora-verrucosa
#7
Davide Poli, Elena Fabbri, Stefano Goffredo, Valentina Airi, Silvia Franzellitti
This study investigates for the first time the transcriptional regulation of a stress-inducible 70-kDa heat shock protein (hsp70) in the scleractinian coral Pocillopora verrucosa sampled at three locations and two depths (3 m and 12 m) in Bangka Island waters (North Sulawesi, Indonesia). Percentage of coral cover indicated reduced habitat suitability with depth and at the Tanjung Husi (TA) site, which also displayed relatively higher seawater temperatures. Expression of the P. verrucosa hsp70 transcript evaluated under field conditions followed a depth-related profile, with relatively higher expression levels in 3-m collected nubbins compared to the 12-m ones...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28198181/mineralogical-plasticity-acts-as-a-compensatory-mechanism-to-the-impacts-of-ocean-acidification
#8
Jonathan Y S Leung, Bayden D Russell, Sean D Connell
Calcifying organisms are considered particularly susceptible to the future impacts of ocean acidification (OA), but recent evidence suggests that they may be able to maintain calcification and overall fitness. The underlying mechanism remains unclear but may be attributed to mineralogical plasticity, which modifies the energetic cost of calcification. To test the hypothesis that mineralogical plasticity enables the maintenance of shell growth and functionality under OA conditions, we assessed the biological performance of a gastropod (respiration rate, feeding rate, somatic growth, and shell growth of Austrocochlea constricta) and analyzed its shell mechanical and geochemical properties (shell hardness, elastic modulus, amorphous calcium carbonate, calcite to aragonite ratio, and magnesium to calcium ratio)...
February 15, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28197949/the-impact-of-next-generation-sequencing-on-the-diagnosis-and-treatment-of-epilepsy-in-paediatric-patients
#9
REVIEW
Davide Mei, Elena Parrini, Carla Marini, Renzo Guerrini
Next-generation sequencing (NGS) has contributed to the identification of many monogenic epilepsy syndromes and is favouring earlier and more accurate diagnosis in a subset of paediatric patients with epilepsy. The cumulative information emerging from NGS studies is rapidly changing our comprehension of the relations between early-onset severe epilepsy and the associated neurological impairment, progressively delineating specific entities previously gathered under the umbrella definition of epileptic encephalopathies, thereby influencing treatment choices and limiting the most aggressive drug regimens only to those conditions that are likely to actually benefit from them...
February 14, 2017: Molecular Diagnosis & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28196717/perinatal-programming-by-inflammation
#10
Sarah J Spencer, Urs Meyer
Since Levine and then Barker's seminal work mid to late last century demonstrating the importance of early life environment, intensive research has revealed the plasticity, vulnerability and resilience of the developing brain to environmental challenges. In particular, early exposure to infectious pathogens and inflammatory stimuli has a lasting impact on brain and behavior. These data establish clear effects on vulnerability to later disease and neuroinflammatory injury, cognitive function and emotionality, and even responses to pain and susceptibility to metabolic disorders...
February 11, 2017: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28196513/metabotropic-glutamate-receptor-5-may-be-involved-in-macrophage-plasticity
#11
Lali Shanshiashvili, Elene Tsitsilashvili, Nino Dabrundashvili, Irine Kalandadze, David Mikeladze
BACKGROUND: Macrophages are a functionally heterogeneous cell population and depending on microenvironments they polarize in two main groups: M1 and M2. Glutamic acid and glutamate receptors may participate in the regulation of macrophage plasticity. To investigate the role of glutamatergic systems in macrophages physiology, we performed the transfection of mGluR5 cDNAs into RAW-264.7 cells. RESULTS: Comparative analysis of modified (RAW-mGluR5 macrophages) and non-modified macrophages (RAW-macrophages) has shown that the RAW-mGluR5 macrophages absorbed more glutamate than control cells and the amount of intracellular glutamate correlated with the expression of excitatory amino acid transporters -2 (EAAT-2)...
February 14, 2017: Biological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28195739/substrate-and-lewis-acid-coordination-promote-o-o-bond-cleavage-of-an-unreactive-l2cu-ii-2-o2-2-species-to-form-l2cu-iii-2-o-2-cores-with-enhanced-oxidative-reactivity
#12
Isaac Garcia-Bosch, Ryan E Cowley, Daniel E Díaz, Ryan L Peterson, Edward I Solomon, Kenneth D Karlin
Copper-dependent metalloenzymes are widespread throughout metabolic pathways, coupling the reduction of O2 with the oxidation of organic substrates. Small-molecule synthetic analogs are useful platforms to generate L/Cu/O2 species that reproduce the structural, spectroscopic, and reactive properties of some copper-/O2-dependent enzymes. Landmark studies have shown that the conversion between dicopper(II)-peroxo species (L2Cu(II)2(O2(2-)) either side-on peroxo, (S)P, or end-on trans-peroxo, (T)P) and dicopper(III)-bis(μ-oxo) (L2Cu(III)2(O(2-))2: O) can be controlled through ligand design, reaction conditions (temperature, solvent, and counteranion), or substrate coordination...
February 14, 2017: Journal of the American Chemical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28191524/renin-angiotensin-aldosterone-system-in-insulin-resistance-and-metabolic-syndrome
#13
Undurti N Das
Obesity and its consequent complications such as hypertension and metabolic syndrome are increasing in incidence in almost all countries. Insulin resistance is common in obesity. Renin- angiotensin system (RAS) is an important target in the treatment of hypertension and drugs that act on RAS improve insulin resistance and decrease the incidence of type 2 diabetes mellitus, explaining the close association between hypertension and type 2 diabetes mellitus. RAS influences food intake by modulating the hypothalamic expression of neuropeptide Y and orexins via AMPK dephosphorylation...
June 1, 2016: Journal of Translational Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28187427/genomic-islands-an-overview-of-current-software-and-future-improvements
#14
Siomar de Castro Soares, Letícia de Castro Oliveira, Arun Kumar Jaiswal, Vasco Azevedo
Microbes are highly diverse and widely distributed organisms. They account for ~60% of Earth’s biomass and new predictions point for the existence of 1011 to 1012 species, which are constantly sharing genes through several different mechanisms. Genomic Islands (GI) are critical in this context, as they are large regions acquired through horizontal gene transfer. Also, they present common features like genomic signature deviation, transposase genes, flanking tRNAs and insertion sequences. GIs carry large numbers of genes related to specific lifestyle and are commonly classified in Pathogenicity, Resistance, Metabolic or Symbiotic Islands...
December 22, 2016: Journal of Integrative Bioinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28184304/the-%C3%AE-ketoglutarate-dehydrogenase-complex-in-cancer-metabolic-plasticity
#15
REVIEW
Renaud Vatrinet, Giulia Leone, Monica De Luise, Giulia Girolimetti, Michele Vidone, Giuseppe Gasparre, Anna Maria Porcelli
Deregulated metabolism is a well-established hallmark of cancer. At the hub of various metabolic pathways deeply integrated within mitochondrial functions, the α-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase complex represents a major modulator of electron transport chain activity and tricarboxylic acid cycle (TCA) flux, and is a pivotal enzyme in the metabolic reprogramming following a cancer cell's change in bioenergetic requirements. By contributing to the control of α-ketoglutarate levels, dynamics, and oxidation state, the α-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase is also essential in modulating the epigenetic landscape of cancer cells...
2017: Cancer & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28182769/a-feast-for-candida-metabolic-plasticity-confers-an-edge-for-virulence
#16
Pedro Miramón, Michael C Lorenz
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28178523/the-mitochondrial-rhomboid-protease-parl-is-regulated-by-pdk2-to-integrate-mitochondrial-quality-control-and-metabolism
#17
Guang Shi, G Angus McQuibban
Mitochondrial quality control (MQC) systems are essential for mitochondrial health and normal cellular function. Dysfunction of MQC is emerging as a central mechanism for the pathogenesis of various diseases, including Parkinson's disease. The mammalian mitochondrial rhomboid protease, PARL, has been proposed as a regulator of PINK1/PARKIN-mediated mitophagy, which is an essential component of MQC. PARL undergoes an N-terminal autocatalytic cleavage (β cleavage), which is required for efficient mitophagy...
February 7, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28178232/synthetic-vulnerabilities-of-mesenchymal-subpopulations-in-pancreatic-cancer
#18
Giannicola Genovese, Alessandro Carugo, James Tepper, Frederick Scott Robinson, Liren Li, Maria Svelto, Luigi Nezi, Denise Corti, Rosalba Minelli, Piergiorgio Pettazzoni, Tony Gutschner, Chia-Chin Wu, Sahil Seth, Kadir Caner Akdemir, Elisabetta Leo, Samirkumar Amin, Marco Dal Molin, Haoqiang Ying, Lawrence N Kwong, Simona Colla, Koichi Takahashi, Papia Ghosh, Virginia Giuliani, Florian Muller, Prasenjit Dey, Shan Jiang, Jill Garvey, Chang-Gong Liu, Jianhua Zhang, Timothy P Heffernan, Carlo Toniatti, Jason B Fleming, Michael G Goggins, Laura D Wood, Alessandro Sgambato, Abbas Agaimy, Anirban Maitra, Charles W M Roberts, Huamin Wang, Andrea Viale, Ronald A DePinho, Giulio F Draetta, Lynda Chin
Malignant neoplasms evolve in response to changes in oncogenic signalling. Cancer cell plasticity in response to evolutionary pressures is fundamental to tumour progression and the development of therapeutic resistance. Here we determine the molecular and cellular mechanisms of cancer cell plasticity in a conditional oncogenic Kras mouse model of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC), a malignancy that displays considerable phenotypic diversity and morphological heterogeneity. In this model, stochastic extinction of oncogenic Kras signalling and emergence of Kras-independent escaper populations (cells that acquire oncogenic properties) are associated with de-differentiation and aggressive biological behaviour...
February 16, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28177894/one-carbon-metabolism-and-nucleotide-biosynthesis-as-attractive-targets-for-anticancer-therapy
#19
Oleg Shuvalov, Alexey Petukhov, Alexandra Daks, Olga Fedorova, Elena Vasileva, Nickolai A Barlev
Cancer-related metabolism has recently emerged as one of the "hallmarks of cancer". It has several important features, including altered metabolism of glucose and glutamine. Importantly, altered cancer metabolism connects different biochemical pathways into the one fine-tuned metabolic network, which stimulates high proliferation rates and plasticity to malignant cells. Among the keystones of cancer metabolism are one-carbon metabolism and nucleotide biosynthesis, which provide building blocks to anabolic reactions...
February 3, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28177127/emerging-roles-of-er-stress-and-unfolded-protein-response-pathways-in-skeletal-muscle-health-and-disease
#20
REVIEW
Kyle R Bohnert, Joseph D McMillan, Ashok Kumar
Skeletal muscle is the most abundant tissue in the human body and can adapt its mass as a consequence of physical activity, metabolism, growth factors, and disease conditions. Skeletal muscle contains an extensive network of endoplasmic reticulum (ER), called sarcoplasmic reticulum, which plays an important role in the regulation of proteostasis and calcium homeostasis. In many cell types, environmental and genetic factors that disrupt ER function cause an accumulation of misfolded and unfolded proteins in the ER lumen that ultimately leads to ER stress...
February 8, 2017: Journal of Cellular Physiology
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