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Sricharani Rao Balmuri, Uthra Selvaraj, Vadivel Vinod Kumar, Savarimuthu Philip Anthony, Aristides Michael Tsatsakis, Kirill Sergeevich Golokhvast, Thiagarajan Raman
Cadmium (Cd), classified as human carcinogen, is an extremely toxic heavy metal pollutant, and there is an increasing environmental concern for cadmium exposure through anthropogenic sources including cigarette smoke. Though Cd based nanoparticles such as cadmium oxide (CdO) are being widely used in a variety of clinical and industrial applications, the toxicity of CdO nanoparticles has not been well characterized. Herein we report the toxicity of CdO nanoparticles employing zebrafish as a model. Two different CdO nanoparticles were prepared, calcination of Cd(OH)2 without any organic molecule (CdO-1) and calcination of Cd-citrate coordination polymer (CdO-2), to evaluate and compare the toxicity of these two different CdO nanoparticles...
October 20, 2016: Environmental Research
Hassan Mirmonsef, Hanne D Hornum, John Jensen, Martin Holmstrup
Contaminated soil is a problem throughout the industrialized world, and a significant proportion of these sites are polluted with heavy metals such as copper. Ecological risk assessment of contaminated sites requires ecotoxicological studies with spiked soils as well as in-situ ecological observations. Here, we report laboratory and field assessment of copper toxicity for earthworms at a Danish site (Hygum) exclusively contaminated with an increasing gradient in copper from background to highly toxic levels (>1000mgkg(-1) dry soil)...
October 14, 2016: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
Laorrat Phuapittayalert, Phisid Saenganantakarn, Wisa Supanpaiboon, Supaporn Cheunchoojit, Wiphawi Hipkaeo, Natthiya Sakulsak
Cadmium (Cd) has known to produce many adverse effects on organs including placenta. Many essential transporters are involved in Cd transport pathways such as DMT-1, ZIP as well as L-VDCC. Fourteen pregnant women participated and were divided into two groups: high and low Cd-exposed (H-Cd, L-Cd) groups on the basis of their residential areas, Cd concentrations in the blood (B-Cd), urine (U-Cd), and placenta (P-Cd). The results showed that the B-Cd and U-Cd were significantly increased in H-Cd group (p < 0...
October 15, 2016: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
T G Fonseca, M B Morais, T Rocha, D M S Abessa, M Aureliano, M J Bebianno
Anticancer drugs are designed to inhibit tumor cell proliferation by interacting with DNA and altering cellular growth factors. When released into the waterbodies of municipal and hospital effluents these pharmaceutical compounds may pose a risk to non-target aquatic organisms, due to their mode of action (cytotoxic, genotoxic, mutagenic and teratogenic). The present study aimed to assess the ecotoxicological potential of the alkylating agent cisplatin (CisPt) to the polychaete Nereis diversicolor, at a range of relevant environmental concentrations (i...
October 12, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
Michelle Giltrap, Jenny Ronan, Colby Tanner, Francis X O'Beirn, Brett P Lyons, Rónán Mag Aoidh, Heather Rochford, Brendan McHugh, Evin McGovern, James Wilson
A weight of evidence (WOE) approach, integrating biological effects, mussel histopathology and tissue contaminant levels is proposed to evaluate mussel health and pollution status. Contaminant levels, histopathology and several biological effects (BEs) including Lysosomal membrane stability (LMS), acetylcholinesterase (AChe), metallothionein proteins (MT) and alkali labile phosphate (ALP), in Mytilus edulis are presented, improving the current knowledge base for these data. Potential links between histopathology, BEs and contaminants and ranking of sites are investigated with an integrated response (IR) indexing technique...
September 21, 2016: Marine Environmental Research
Hiroki Yoshioka, Miki Tanaka, Hirohisa Fujii, Tsunemasa Nonogaki
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate the therapeutic effects of a Sasa veitchii leaf extract (SE) on carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced hepato- and nephrotoxicity. METHODS: Seven-week-old male ddy mice were orally administered SE or saline for seven days. Twenty-four hours after the last SE or saline administration, the mice were intraperitoneally injected with 3 g/kg CCl4 or olive oil. The mice from each group were euthanized and bled for plasma analysis 24 h after the CCl4/olive oil injection...
October 13, 2016: Environmental Health and Preventive Medicine
Mohammad Farhadur Rahman, Anubrata Ghosal, Mohammad Firoz Alam, Ahmad Humayan Kabir
Cadmium (Cd) is an important phytotoxic element causing health hazards. This work investigates whether and how silicon (Si) influences the alleviation of Cd toxicity in field peas at biochemical and molecular level. The addition of Si in Cd-stressed plants noticeably increased growth and development as well as total protein and membrane stability of Cd-stressed plants, suggesting that Si does have critical roles in Cd detoxification in peas. Furthermore, Si supplementation in Cd-stressed plants showed simultaneous significant increase and decrease of Cd and Fe in roots and shoots, respectively, compared with Cd-stressed plants...
October 10, 2016: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
Chao Wang, Jianjun Lu, Le Zhou, Jun Li, Jiaman Xu, Weijian Li, Lili Zhang, Xiang Zhong, Tian Wang
Zinc oxide nanoparticles (nano-ZnOs) are widely used and possess great potentials in agriculture and biomedicine. It is inevitable for human exposure to these nanoparticles. However, no study had been conducted to investigate the long term effects of nano-ZnOs. This study aimed at investigating effects of nano-ZnOs on development, zinc metabolism and biodistribution of minerals (Zn, Fe, Cu, and Mn) in mice from week 3 to 35. After the characteristics of nano-ZnOs were determined, they were added into the basal diet at 0, 50, 500 and 5000 mg/kg...
2016: PloS One
Jennifer Dorts, Elodie Falisse, Emilie Schoofs, Enora Flamion, Patrick Kestemont, Frédéric Silvestre
DNA methylation, a well-studied epigenetic mark, is important for gene regulation in adulthood and for development. Using genetic and epigenetic approaches, the present study aimed at evaluating the effects of heat stress and copper exposure during zebrafish early embryogenesis when patterns of DNA methylation are being established, a process called reprogramming. Embryos were exposed to 325 μg Cu/L from fertilization (<1 h post fertilization - hpf) to 4 hpf at either 26.5 °C or 34 °C, followed by incubation in clean water at 26...
October 12, 2016: Scientific Reports
Junli Huang, Zhaobing Liu, Shiyu Li, Bo Xu, Yahui Gong, Yan Yang, Hanxiao Sun
Although many bacteria are tolerant to heavy metals and play important roles in the immobilization of heavy metals, they cannot always be dependably reproduced under field conditions. In this work, a cadmium (Cd)-resistant bacterium was isolated from a Cd-contaminated oil field and identified as Pseudomonas aeruginosa (Pse-w). We then determined various plant growth promoting features such as the solubilization of phosphate, and the production of indole-3-acetic acid and siderophores. Lastly, we engineered the strain Pse-w-MT by targeting metallothioneins to the cell surface of Pse-w to immobilize Cd(2+) and promote plant growth...
October 3, 2016: Journal of General and Applied Microbiology
Rachel Waller, M Nicola Woodroofe, Stephen B Wharton, Paul G Ince, Simona Francese, Paul R Heath, Alex Cudzich-Madry, Ruth H Thomas, Natalie Rounding, Basil Sharrack, Julie E Simpson
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic, inflammatory, demyelinating disease of the central nervous system (CNS). White matter lesions in MS are surrounded by areas of non-demyelinated normal appearing white matter (NAWM) with complex pathology, including blood brain barrier dysfunction, axonal damage and glial activation. Astrocytes, the most abundant cell type within the CNS, may respond and/or contribute to lesion pathogenesis. We aimed to characterise the transcriptomic profile of astrocytes in NAWM to determine whether specific glial changes exist in the NAWM which contribute to lesion development or prevent disease progression...
October 15, 2016: Journal of Neuroimmunology
G Veronesi, A Deniaud, T Gallon, P-H Jouneau, J Villanova, P Delangle, M Carrière, I Kieffer, P Charbonnier, E Mintz, I Michaud-Soret
Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) can enter eukaryotic cells and exert toxic effects, most probably as a consequence of the release of Ag(+) ions. Due to the elusive nature of Ag(+) ionic species, quantitative information concerning AgNP intracellular dissolution is missing. By using a synchrotron nanoprobe, silver is visualized and quantified in hepatocytes (HepG2) exposed to AgNPs; the synergistic use of electron microscopy allows for the discrimination between nanoparticular and ionic forms of silver within a single cell...
September 29, 2016: Nanoscale
Hiroki Yoshioka, Shiori Fukaya, Satomi Onosaka, Tsunemasa Nonogaki, Akito Nagatsu
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate whether pretreatment with the Japanese herbal medicine "Hochu-ekki-to" (TJ-41) has an ameliorative effect on carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced hepatotoxicity through anorexia prevention. METHODS: Twenty-four hours before CCl4 injection, TJ-41 or saline solution was intraperitoneally administered. Furthermore, 24 h after TJ-41 injection, mice were intraperitoneally administered 1.6 g/kg CCl4 or olive oil. Moreover, 24 h after CCl4/olive oil injection, mice from each group were euthanized and bled for plasma analysis...
October 5, 2016: Environmental Health and Preventive Medicine
Neelam Soda, Ashutosh Sharan, Brijesh K Gupta, Sneh L Singla-Pareek, Ashwani Pareek
Soil salinity is being perceived as a major threat to agriculture. Plant breeders and molecular biologist are putting their best efforts to raise salt-tolerant crops. The discovery of the Saltol QTL, a major QTL localized on chromosome I, responsible for salt tolerance at seedling stage in rice has given new hopes for raising salinity tolerant rice genotypes. In the present study, we have functionally characterized a Saltol QTL localized cytoskeletal protein, intermediate filament like protein (OsIFL), of rice...
October 6, 2016: Scientific Reports
J F P Oaten, M D Hudson, A C Jensen, I D Williams
The Manila clam (Ruditapes philippinarum), an invasive species in Northern Europe, can be used as a bioindicator of metal pollution. Seasonal effects on metallothionein (MT) production have not been considered in this species at the northernmost extent of its European distribution. This study assesses the annual seasonal effects on MT and metal concentrations in R. philippinarum from Poole Harbour, UK. R. philippinarum were collected in winter, spring, summer, and autumn throughout 2015, and MT and metal concentrations, as well as biotic and abiotic variables, were quantified...
October 2, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
Jonathan D Martin, Tash-Lynn L Colson, Valerie S Langlois, Chris D Metcalfe
There is a risk of exposure of aquatic organisms to nanosilver (AgNP) from discharges of municipal and industrial wastewater. In the present study, yellow perch (Perca flavescens) were exposed in static-renewal experiments conducted over 96 h and 10 d to environmentally relevant concentrations (i.e. 1 and 100 µg/L) of AgNP and Ag(+) . The greatest accumulation of total silver (tAg) occurred in the liver of P. flavescens and there was >10-fold more accumulation in the treatments with Ag(+) relative to the AgNP treatments...
October 4, 2016: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry
Jun Liu, Bingyao Chen, Thomas Allen Jefferson, Hui Wang, Guang Yang
The concentration of trace elements (TEs) and their risk to narrow-ridged finless porpoises (Neophocaena asiaeorientalis) are still unclear. The present study determined the concentration of typical TEs in liver, kidney, and muscle tissues from porpoises in the East China Sea, assessed potential health risk of TEs to porpoises, and explored the relationship between TE concentration and metallothionein genes (MTs) polymorphism. It was found that Zn, Cu, Mn, Cd and Hg were highly accumulated in liver, and Cd was highly accumulated in kidney...
September 30, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
Sang Yoon Lee, Yoon Kwon Nam
A novel metallothionein (MT) gene from the Pacific abalone H. discus hannai was characterized and its mRNA expression patterns (tissue distribution, developmental expression and differential expression in responsive to various in vivo stimulatory treatments) were examined. Abalone MT shares conserved structural features with previously known gastropod orthologs at both genomic (i.e., tripartite organization) and amino acid (conserved Cys motifs) levels. The 5'-flanking regulatory region of abalone MT gene displayed various transcription factor binding motifs particularly including ones related with metal regulation and stress/immune responses...
September 28, 2016: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
Janina Stauffer, Bineet Panda, Tapio Eeva, Miia Rainio, Petteri Ilmonen
Telomere length may reflect the expected life span and possibly individual quality. Environmental stressors are known to increase oxidative stress and accelerate telomere attrition: however the interactions between redox status and telomere dynamics are not fully understood. We investigated whether exposure to heavy metal pollution is associated with oxidative stress and telomere damage in two insectivorous passerines, the Great tit (Parus major) and the Pied flycatcher (Ficedula hypoleuca). We were also interested to know whether within-brood competition could influence the nestling redox status or telomere length...
September 29, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
Jun-Hwan Kim, Ju-Chan Kang
Juvenile rockfish, Sebastes schlegelii (mean length 16.4±1.9cm, and mean weight 71.6±6.4g) were exposed for 20days with the different levels of waterborne arsenic concentration (0, 50, 100, 200 and 400μg/L). The plasma cortisol of S. schlegelii was significantly increased by the waterborne arsenit exposure. In the immune responses, the immunoglobulin M (Ig M) and lysozyme activity of S. schlegelii were significantly increased by the waterborne arsenic exposure. The acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity of S...
September 26, 2016: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology
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