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Alessandro Nardi, Maura Benedetti, Daniele Fattorini, Francesco Regoli
Ocean acidification (OA) may affect sensitivity of marine organisms to metal pollution modulating chemical bioavailability, bioaccumulation and biological responsiveness of several cellular pathways. In this study, the smooth scallop Flexopecten glaber was exposed to various combinations of reduced pH (pH/pCO2 7.4/∼3000 μatm) and Cd (20 μg/L). The analyses on cadmium uptake were integrated with those of a wide battery of biomarkers including metallothioneins, single antioxidant defenses and total oxyradical scavenging capacity in digestive gland and gills, lysosomal membrane stability and onset of genotoxic damage in haemocytes...
January 8, 2018: Aquatic Toxicology
Zayneb Chaâbene, Agnieszka Rorat, Imen Rekik Hakim, Fabien Bernard, Grubb C Douglas, Amine Elleuch, Franck Vandenbulcke, Hafedh Mejdoub
Phytochelatin synthase and metallothionein gene expressions were monitored via qPCR in order to investigate the molecular mechanisms involved in Cd and Cr detoxification in date palm (Phoenix dactylifera). A specific reference gene validation procedure using BestKeeper, NormFinder and geNorm programs allowed selection of the three most stable reference genes in a context of Cd or Cr contamination among six reference gene candidates, namely elongation factor α1, actin, aldehyde dehydrogenase, SAND family, tubulin 6 and TaTa box binding protein...
December 28, 2017: Chemosphere
Leidiane Alencar de Oliveira Lima, Leonardo Oliveira Bittencourt, Bruna Puty, Rafael Monteiro Fernandes, Priscila Cunha Nascimento, Marcia Cristina Freitas Silva, Sérgio Melo Alves-Junior, João de Jesus Viana Pinheiro, Rafael Rodrigues Lima
Environmental and occupational mercury exposure is considered a major public health issue. Despite being well known that MeHg exposure causes adverse effects in several physiologic functions, MeHg effects on salivary glands still not completely elucidated. Here, we investigated the cellular MeHg-induced damage in the three major salivary glands (parotid, submandibular, and sublingual) of adult rats after chronic, systemic and low doses of MeHg exposure. Rats were exposed by 0.04 mg/kg/day over 60 days. After that, animals were euthanized and all three glands were collected...
January 14, 2018: Biological Trace Element Research
Sylvia Lui, Cyntia Duval, Farkhondeh Farrokhnia, Sylvie Girard, Lynda K Harris, Clare L Tower, Adam Stevens, Rebecca L Jones
Background: Preterm deliveries remain the leading cause of neonatal morbidity and mortality. Current therapies target only myometrial contractions and are largely ineffective. As labor involves multiple coordinated events across maternal and fetal tissues, identifying fundamental regulatory pathways of normal term labor is vital to understanding successful parturition and consequently labor pathologies. We aimed to identify transcriptomic signatures of human normal term labor of two tissues: in the fetal-facing choriodecidua and the maternal myometrium...
January 10, 2018: Biology of Reproduction
Lorna J Dallas, Andrew Turner, Tim P Bean, Brett P Lyons, Awadhesh N Jha
The mechanisms of sublethal toxicity of the antifouling biocide, zinc pyrithione (ZnPT), have not been well-studied. This investigation demonstrates that 14-d sublethal exposure to ZnPT (0.2 or 2 μM, alongside inorganic Zn and sea water controls) is genotoxic to mussel haemocytes but suggests that this is not caused by oxidative DNA damage as no significant induction of oxidised purines was detected by Fpg-modified comet assay. More ecologically relevant endpoints, including decreased clearance rate (CR), cessation of attachment and decreased tolerance of stress on stress (SoS), also showed significant response to ZnPT exposure...
December 27, 2017: Chemosphere
Xiangrui Wang, Jianyu Liu, Qiaoguo Tan, Jinqian Ren, Dingyuan Liang, Wenhong Fan
Despite the great progress made in metal-induced toxicity mechanisms, a critical knowledge gap still exists in predicting adverse effects of heavy metals on living organisms in the natural environment, particularly during exposure to multi-metals. In this study, a multi-metal interaction model of Daphnia manga was developed in an effort to provide reasonable explanations regarding the joint effects resulting from exposure to multi-metals. Metallothionein (MT), a widely used biomarker, was selected. In this model, MT was supposed to play the role of a crucial transfer protein rather than detoxifying protein...
January 3, 2018: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
Yi-Zhou Wu, Jie Sun, Haowen Yang, Xiaohui Zhao, Dacheng He, Maomao Pu, Gen Zhang, Nongyue He, Xin Zeng
The biosynthesis of nanoparticles in bioreactors using microbial, plant, or animal cells is at the forefront of nanotechnology. We demonstrated for the first time that luminescent, water-soluble ZnO nanocrystals (bio-ZnO NCs) can be spontaneously biosynthesized in the mammalian blood circulation, not in cells, when animals were fed with Zn(CH3COO)2 aqueous solution. Serum albumin, rather than metallothioneins or glutathione, proved to play the pivotal role in biosynthesis. The bio-ZnO NCs were gradually taken up in the liver and degraded and excreted in the urine...
December 27, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
M Novo, I Verdú, D Trigo, J L Martínez-Guitarte
Xenobiotics such as bisphenol A (BPA), are present in biosolids, which are applied as organic fertilizers in agricultural fields. Their effects on soil life have been poorly assessed, and this is particularly important in the case of earthworms, which represent the main animal biomass in this medium. In the present work we study the impacts of BPA on gene expression of Eisenia fetida, a widely used ecotoxicological model. Chronic soil tests and acute contact tests were performed, and gene expression was analyzed in total tissue and in masculine reproductive organs of the earthworms...
December 21, 2017: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
Amanda Marie Cano, Jonathan D Maul, Mohammad A Saed, Fahmida Irin, Smit A Shah, Micah J Green, Amanda D French, David M Klein, Jordan Crago, Jaclyn E Cañas-Carrell
The increase in use of nanomaterials such as multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) presents a need to study their interactions with the environment. Trophic transfer was measured between Daphnia magna and Pimephales promelas (fathead minnow, FHM) exposed to MWCNTs with different outer diameter (OD) sizes (MWCNT1 = 8-15 nm OD and MWCNT2 = 20-30 nm OD) in the presence and absence of copper. Pristine FHM were fed D. magna, previously exposed for 3 d to MWCNT1 or MWCNT2 (0.1 mg/L) and copper (0.01 mg/L), for 7 d...
December 20, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
W Frank Peacock, Timothy E Van Meter, Nazanin Mirshahi, Kyle Ferber, Robert Gerwien, Vani Rao, Haris Iqbal Sair, Ramon Diaz-Arrastia, Frederick K Korley
Background: Nearly 5 million emergency department (ED) visits for head injury occur each year in the United States, of which <10% of patients show abnormal computed tomography (CT) findings. CT negative patients frequently suffer protracted somatic, behavioral, and neurocognitive dysfunction. Our goal was to evaluate biomarkers to identify mild TBI (mTBI) in patients with suspected head injury. Methods: An observational ED study of head-injured and control patients was conducted at Johns Hopkins University (HeadSMART)...
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
Magdalena Mikowska, Barbara Dziublińska, Renata Świergosz-Kowalewska
The main idea of the study was to assess how environmental metal pollution activates defence responses at transcription levels in the tissues of bank voles (Clethrionomys glareolus). For this purpose, the metallothioneine (MT) genes expression (a well known biomarker of exposure and response to various metals) was measured. The real-time PCR method was used for relative quantification of metallothionein I and metallothionein II expressions in the livers, kidneys and testes of bank voles from six populations exposed to different contaminants, mainly zinc, cadmium and iron...
December 16, 2017: Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
Scott A Read, Grant Parnell, David Booth, Mark W Douglas, Jacob George, Golo Ahlenstiel
Metallothioneins (MTs) are small, cysteine rich proteins characterized by a high affinity for monovalent and divalent cations, such as copper and zinc. Of the four known metallothionein isoforms, only members of the metallothionein 1 and 2 subfamilies are widely expressed, acting as metal chaperones whose primary role is to mediate intracellular zinc homeostasis. Metallothioneins are potently induced by heavy metals and other sources of oxidative stress where they facilitate metal binding and detoxification as well as free radical scavenging...
December 14, 2017: Journal of Viral Hepatitis
Preeti Ranawat, Seema Rawat
Metal-tolerant thermophiles are inhabitants of a wide range of extreme habitats like solfatara fields, hot springs, mud holes, hydrothermal vents oozing out from metal-rich ores, hypersaline pools and soil crusts enriched with metals and other elements. The ability to withstand adverse environmental conditions, like high temperature, high metal concentration and sometimes high pH in their niche, makes them an interesting subject for understanding mechanisms behind their ability to deal with multiple duress simultaneously...
December 14, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
(no author information available yet)
Following on from the Expression of Concern (10.1002/glia.22466) previously published by GLIA, the following Original Article has been retracted by the journal Editors and Publisher: Metallothionein I+II expression and their role in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis By Milena Penkowa and Juan Hidalgo GLIA (2000), 32(3), 247-263 DOI: 10.1002/1098-1136(200012)32:3<247::AID-GLIA50>3.0.CO;2-T Discrepancies in the type and number of animals used in experiments performed by Milena Penkowa and reported in Table 1, identified during the course of investigations into Ms Penkowa's research, render the data and conclusions drawn from them unreliable...
February 2018: Glia
H L Fan, S F Liu, J H Sun, Y Y Wang
OBJECTIVES: To investigate the time-dependent expression of metallothionein (MT) 1A mRNA and MT2A mRNA in contused skeletal muscle of rats. METHODS: A total of 54 Sprague-Dawley rats were used in this study. The rats were divided into two parts: control group (n=6) and contusion groups (0.5, 1, 6, 12, 18, 24, 30, and 36 h after contusion, n=6). Total RNA was extracted from skeletal muscle. The expression levels of MT1A mRNA and MT2A mRNA were detected by SYBR Green I real-time PCR...
February 2017: Fa Yi Xue za Zhi
Augusto C S Cabral, Jovana Jakovleska, Aniruddha Deb, James E Penner-Hahn, Vincent L Pecoraro, Eva Freisinger
The superfamily of metallothioneins (MTs) combines a diverse group of metalloproteins, sharing the characteristics of rather low molecular weight and high cysteine content. The latter provides MTs with the capability to coordinate thiophilic metal ions, in particular those with a d 10 electron configuration. The sub-family of plant MT3 proteins is only poorly characterized and there is a complete lack of three-dimensional structure information. Building upon our previous results on the Musa acuminata MT3 (musMT3) protein, the focus of the present work is to understand the metal cluster formation process, the role of the single histidine residue present in musMT3, and the metal ion binding affinity...
December 7, 2017: Journal of Biological Inorganic Chemistry: JBIC
Hasan T Imam, Claudia A Blindauer
The dynamics of metal binding to and transfer from metalloproteins involved in metal homeostasis are important for understanding cellular distribution of metal ions. The dicotyledonous plant Arabidopsis thaliana has two type 4 seed-specific metallothionein homologues, MT4a and MT4b, with likely roles in zinc(II) homeostasis. These two metallothioneins are 84% identical, with full conservation of all metal-binding cysteine and histidine residues. Yet, differences in their spatial and temporal expression patterns suggested divergence in their biological roles...
December 7, 2017: Journal of Biological Inorganic Chemistry: JBIC
Xiaoyun Wang, Qiao Gao, Xinhui Liu, Xiao-Ping Wang, Chaoliang Lei, Waheed A A Sayed, Fen Zhu
Black soldier fly, Hermetia illucens (Linnaeus, 1758), is an important economic fly as its larvae can be used for recycling organic waste, such as food waste and manure. H. illucens larvae (BSFL) could uptake Cd from substrates and accumulate it inside bodies, which need to be monitored during waste treatment. Metallothionein (MT) usually serve as biomarker because of its role in metal homeostasis, detoxification, and dose response of heavy metals. Therefore, a MT gene was cloned from H. illucens (HIMT) that encoded 40 amino acids with typical cysteine rich features, which had a high sequence identity with other insect MTs...
December 5, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Patricia de Francisco, Ana Martín-González, Aaron P Turkewitz, Juan Carlos Gutiérrez
Metallothioneins (MT) constitute a superfamily of small cytosolic proteins that are able to bind metal cations through numerous cysteine (Cys) residues. Like other organisms the ciliate Tetrahymena thermophila presents several MT isoforms, which have been classified into two subfamilies (Cd- and Cu-metallothioneins). The main aim of this study was to examine the specific functions and transcriptional regulation of the five MT isoforms present in T. thermophila, by using several strains of this ciliate. After a laboratory evolution experiment over more than two years, three different T...
2017: PloS One
Mykola Kononenko, Ihor Vynnychenko, Yuliia Moskalenko, Oleksandr Vynnychenko
The proportion of liposarcoma in the structure of cancer incidence is from 10 to 35% of all mesenchymal tumors. This clinical observation describes an 12-year struggle with myxoid liposarcoma of the left upper arm, during which 17 surgeries were performed due to local recurrences, 17 radiation therapy courses and 5 chemotherapy courses were conducted. Clinical observation shows the whole complexity of myxoid liposarcoma treatment. The effectiveness of therapeutic management is determined by persistent surgery, and also by the lack of expression of Pgp, glutathione-S-transferase, metallothionein and mutant p53 in tumor structure...
2017: Wiadomości Lekarskie: Organ Polskiego Towarzystwa Lekarskiego
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