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MingXia Yu, Tao Cao, Dan Yu, Fusheng Huang
Genetic susceptibility to high mercury body burden has been suggested as an autism risk factor in children. Metallothionein III (MT3) is the brain-specific form of the metallothionein family, which plays a key role in metal metabolism. We therefore looked for genetic variations in the MT3 gene that might increase the predisposition to autism. DNA was extracted from 132 autistic children and 132 age and gender-matched unrelated controls. All the samples were analyzed for nine single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) with minor allele frequency > 10% in the MT3 gene...
March 9, 2018: Neurotoxicity Research
Gordon W Irvine, Martin J Stillman
Metallothioneins (MTs) are a class of small cysteine-rich proteins essential for Zn and Cu homeostasis, heavy metal detoxification, and cellular redox chemistry. Herein, we describe the separation and characterization of MTs differentially modified with N-ethylmaleimide (NEM) by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS). The full-length recombinant MT isoform 1a as well as is isolated domain fragments were first alkylated, then separated on column with subsequent detection by MS. Different behavior was observed for the three peptides with the full-length protein and the isolated α-domain exhibiting similar separation characteristics...
March 5, 2018: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
Zengpeng Lv, Hao Fan, Beibei Zhang, Chao Ning, Kun Xing, Yuming Guo
Genistein (GEN) is a type of isoflavone mainly derived from soy products. In this experiment, we added 40 and 400 mg/kg GEN to the diet of laying broiler breeder hens to clarify the maternal effects of GEN on the development and metabolism of chick embryos. GEN treatment at 40 mg/kg increased embryonic length, weight, and liver index, as well as the width of the proliferative zone in the tibial growth plate of chick embryos. Gene ontology (GO) cluster analysis of the hepatic transcriptome showed that GEN treatment promoted embryonic development and cell proliferation...
March 8, 2018: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
Ming Gao, Minjun Chen, Changying Li, Ming Xu, Yun Liu, Min Cong, Nan Sang, Sijin Liu
Metallothioneins (MTs) are known to protect cells against oxidative stress, especially providing protection against cadmium (Cd) toxicity in hepatocytes. There are various gene variants and pseudogenes for MTs; however, there is little understanding on the functions of those non-coding MT members that are known to be expressed as long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) nowadays. Different from most protein-coding MT members, MT1DP was here found that remarkably induced to provoke cytotoxicity in hepatocytes in response to Cd treatment...
2018: Cell Discovery
Cristina Pirrone, Federica Rossi, Simone Cappello, Marina Borgese, Giuseppe Mancini, Giovanni Bernardini, Rosalba Gornati
The large volumes of oily wastewater discharged to marine environment cause heavy impacts on the coastal marine ecosystem. The selection of an appropriate technology to reduce these impacts should be based on the respect of the discharge limits and on the effective assessment and monitoring of its effects on biological organism preservation. To this aim, we set up a controlled microcosm-scale system to compare the effects of a treated and untreated oily wastewater discharge in which the restore process is performed through a Membrane Bio-Reactor...
February 24, 2018: Aquatic Toxicology
Chengyuan Wang, Fuxing Shu, Yijiang Hong, Junhua Wang, Kou Peng, Junqing Sheng, Di Wu, Beijuan Hu, Jianwu Shi, Shaoqing Jian
To investigate the regulation of metallothionein genes (HsMTs) of Hyriopsis schlegelii, 1,121-bp and 1,270-bp regions of the HsMT1 and HsMT2 promoters were cloned and analyzed, respectively. The two promoters shared partially conserved features and possessed distinct characteristics such as the number or position of metal response elements (MREs). Further analysis of the HsMT1 and HsMT2 promoters was performed by the reporter assay using the luciferase gene. Both promoters were activated by various metals, and presented different levels of metal ions inducibility in human hepatoblastoma cells...
March 2, 2018: Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry
Nadia Maria Berterame, Francesca Martani, Danilo Porro, Paola Branduardi
The yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is widely used as a cell factory for the biotechnological production of various industrial products. During these processes, yeasts meet different kinds of stressors that often cause oxidative stress and thus impair cell growth. Therefore, the development of robust strains is indispensable to improve production, yield and productivity of fermentative processes. Copper plays a key role in the response to oxidative stress, as cofactor of the cytosolic superoxide dismutase (Sod1) and being contained in metallochaperone and metallothioneines with antioxidant properties...
February 22, 2018: Metabolic Engineering
Jacqueline Y K Leung, William R Bennett, Anna E King, Roger S Chung
BACKGROUND: The extracellular environment plays an important role in supporting the regeneration of axons after injury. Metallothionein-II (MTII) is a metal-binding protein known for its neuroprotective effect by directly stimulating the growth of axons after injury. Previous studies have shown that MTII also modulates the response of astrocytes and microglia after injury. However, a detailed analysis describing how MTII modulates the interaction between microglia and neurons is lacking...
February 22, 2018: Journal of Neuroinflammation
Margaretha A Skowron, Margarita Melnikova, Joep G H van Roermund, Andrea Romano, Peter Albers, Juergen Thomale, Wolfgang A Schulz, Günter Niegisch, Michèle J Hoffmann
Therapeutic efficacy of cisplatin-based treatment of late stage urothelial carcinoma (UC) is limited by chemoresistance. To elucidate underlying mechanisms and to develop new approaches for overcoming resistance, we generated long-term cisplatin treated (LTT) UC cell lines, characterised their cisplatin response, and determined the expression of molecules involved in cisplatin transport and detoxification, DNA repair, and apoptosis. Inhibitors of metallothioneins and Survivin were applied to investigate their ability to sensitise towards cisplatin...
February 16, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
S Zhang, Z Huang, S Zhou, B Wang, Y Ding, J-Z Chu, X-L Wang
OBJECTIVE: Liver cancer is one of the most common digestive system malignant solid tumors. Its incidence and mortality rates keep high, causing serious mental and economic burden. So far, the exact mechanism of liver cancer onset has not been fully elucidated. Metallothionein (MT) widely exists in various types of organisms with highly conserved structure. It contains the short peptide of cysteine and sulfur protein with high affinity to heavy metals, including cadmium, zinc, and copper...
February 2018: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
Tom Plitz, Lee Boyling
1. WTX101 (bis-choline tetrathiomolybdate) is an investigational copper (Cu)-protein-binding agent developed for the treatment of Wilson Disease (WD), a rare genetic disorder caused by mutations in the ATP7B Cu-transporter and resulting in toxic Cu accumulation. 2. Mass balance of a single intravenous WTX101 dose, measured as molybdenum (Mo), was assessed over 168 h in control (Long Evans Agouti [LEA]) and Long-Evans Cinnamon (LEC) rats, a WD model. 3. In LEC rats, Mo was partially excreted (up to 45%); 29% by renal clearance, and faecal clearance, still ongoing at 168 h, accounted for 16%...
February 20, 2018: Xenobiotica; the Fate of Foreign Compounds in Biological Systems
Atsushi Takeda, Haruna Tamano, Wakana Hashimoto, Shuhei Kobuchi, Hiroki Suzuki, Taku Murakami, Munekazu Tempaku, Yuta Koike, Paul A Adlard, Ashley I Bush
The role of metallothioneins (MTs) in cognitive decline associated with intracellular Zn2+ dysregulation remains unclear. Here, we report that hippocampal MT induction defends cognitive decline, which was induced by amyloid β1-42 (Aβ1-42 )-mediated excess Zn2+ and functional Zn2+ deficiency. Excess increase in intracellular Zn2+ , which was induced by local injection of Aβ1-42 into the dentate granule cell layer, attenuated in vivo perforant pathway LTP, while the attenuation was rescued by preinjection of MT inducers into the same region...
February 19, 2018: Molecular Neurobiology
A M Buenfil-Rojas, T Alvarez-Legorreta, J R Cedeño-Vázquez
Even though studies of heavy metals and their relation with metallothioneins (MTs) in reptile tissues have been conducted, research on heavy metals and MTs in organs and blood fractions of crocodylians is limited. To date there are no studies on the distribution of MTs in organs and their relation with mercury (Hg), or the concentration of MTs in plasma and erythrocytes of crocodylians. In order to understand the role of MTs in crocodiles, our aim was to assess the detoxification mechanisms for exposure to metals in Morelet's crocodile (Crocodylus moreletii) by using two biomarkers (Hg and MTs) in blood fractions and tissues, and comparing them with concentrations between two populations of crocodiles, one previously wild and currently captive (Theme Park) and another raised in a Wildlife Management Unit (WMU)...
February 14, 2018: Chemosphere
Amina Rabei, Aziz Hichami, Hayet Beldi, Sandrine Bellenger, Naim Akhtar Khan, Noureddine Soltani
The gulf of Annaba, the most important touristic and economic coastal zone located in Northeast Algeria, is contaminated by several pollutants from urban, agricultural, harbor and industrial activities. Elevated levels of heavy metals were detected in a locally prevalent edible mollusk Donax trunculus (Bivalvia, Donacidae) widely used as a sentinel species for the assessment of marine pollution. The present work aims to measure the difference between two localities, one being full of different pollutants (Sidi Salem) and the other being relatively clean (El Battah) and to evaluate the ability of D...
February 15, 2018: Environmental Pollution
Abdur Rahman, Khalid M Khan, Muddanna S Rao
Lead (Pb) is a neurotoxic heavy metal, but the mechanism of its neurotoxicity is not clearly understood. Expression of metallothioneins (MTs) is induced in response to heavy metal exposure as a protective mechanism against heavy metal toxicity. There are several isoforms of MTs (MT-1 to 4), of which MT-3 is the neuron specific isoform, which also has neurite growth inhibitory effects. Whereas, the induction of MT-1 and 2 in response to Pb has been reported, the effect of Pb on the expression of MT-3 in the brain has not been documented...
February 13, 2018: Neurotoxicology
Susanna Sforzini, Caterina Oliveri, Andrea Orrù, Giannina Chessa, Beniamina Pacchioni, Caterina Millino, Awadhesh N Jha, Aldo Viarengo, Mohamed Banni
In the present study, we investigated the health status of marine mussels (Mytilus galloprovincialis) caged and deployed at three different sites on the Sardinian coastline characterized by different levels of contamination: Fornelli (F, the reference site), Cala Real (CR), and Porto Torres (PT). A new low density oligonucleotide microarray was used to investigate global gene expression in the digestive gland of mussels. Target genes were selected to cover most of the biological processes involved in the stress response in bivalve mollusks (e...
February 11, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Miguel Angel Merlos Rodrigo, Simona Dostalova, Hana Buchtelova, Vladislav Strmiska, Petr Michalek, Sona Krizkova, Ales Vicha, Pavla Jencova, Tomas Eckschlager, Marie Stiborova, Zbynek Heger, Vojtech Adam
Human metallothionein-3 (hMT-3), also known as growth inhibitory factor, is predominantly expressed in the central nervous system. hMT-3 is presumed to participate in the processes of heavy metal detoxification, regulation of metabolism and protection against oxidative damage of free radicals in the central nervous system; thus, it could play important neuromodulatory and neuroprotective roles. However, the primary functions of hMT-3 and the mechanism underlying its multiple functions in neuroblastoma have not been elucidated so far...
January 12, 2018: Oncotarget
Yumi Umeno, Sachiko Ogasawara, Jun Akiba, Satoshi Hattori, Hironori Kusano, Osamu Nakashima, Hironori Koga, Takuji Torimura, Ryoji Yamakawa, Hirohisa Yano
Portal vein invasion (PVI) is a major prognostic factor in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). The aim of the present study was to identify molecules that regulate PVI. Sections of cancerous tissue, paired noncancerous tissue and the PVI area were collected from 3 frozen HCC sections, using laser microdissection. The present study focused on 3 upregulated molecules, integrin β3 (ITGB3), secreted phosphoprotein 1 (SPP1) and regulator of G-protein signaling 5 (RGS5), and 2 molecules that were downregulated in PVI tissue compared with cancer tissue, metallothionein 1G (MT1G) and metallothionein 1H (MT1H), as determined by cDNA microarray analysis...
February 2018: Oncology Letters
Samuel Coelho Faria, Roberta Daniele Klein, Patrícia Gomes Costa, Marcelo Schüler Crivellaro, Sandro Santos, Sérgio Luiz de Siqueira Bueno, Adalto Bianchini
The antioxidant defense system (ADS) protects organisms against the potential oxidative stress induced by environmental features, underlying processes of habitat diversification. The anomurans Aegla constitute the most threatened freshwater decapods of South America, occupying pristine habitats with narrow distribution. Using phylogenetic comparative methods, we addressed: Is the variability of habitat physicochemical parameters and tissue ADS phylogenetically structured? How do environmental features correlate with ADS? How do they vary among species? Several physicochemical parameters of water, as well as metals in sediments, were measured in ten aeglid species' habitats...
February 12, 2018: Scientific Reports
Bruna Lunardelli, Millena T Cabral, Carlos E D Vieira, Luciana F Oliveira, Wagner E Risso, Paulo C Meletti, Claudia B R Martinez
In order to assess the effects of tannery effluents (TE) in organism health, juveniles of Prochilodus lineatus were submitted to in situ tests at four different river locations: site A - upstream of the tannery; site B - next to the tannery; and sites C and D - downstream of the tannery. After 96 h exposure in the river, samples of fish tissue, river water and sediment were collected in order to quantify chromium (Cr) concentrations. Tissue samples were used to assess the activity of ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) and glutathione S-transferase (GST), the content of glutathione (GSH) and metallothionein (MT) and the occurrence of lipid peroxidation (LPO) and DNA damage...
February 9, 2018: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
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