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Alessia Giannetto, Maria Maisano, Tiziana Cappello, Sabrina Oliva, Vincenzo Parrino, Antonino Natalotto, Giuseppe De Marco, Salvatore Fasulo
In aquatic environments, hypoxia and oxygen-deficient areas are increasing worldwide. Transitions in oxygen levels can influence the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), eventually leading to oxidative stress. The transcriptional response of oxidative stress biomarkers was evaluated by qPCR in gill tissue from Mytilus galloprovincialis experimentally subjected to 48-h air exposure followed by 48-h re-oxygenation, as compared to normoxic control mussels. Superoxide dismutases (CuZnsod and Mnsod), catalase (cat), and glutathione S-transferase (gst) were over-expressed early after 8-h air exposure and returned to normoxic levels during re-oxygenation...
November 18, 2017: Marine Biotechnology
Craig Anderson, Luis Cunha, Pierfrancesco Sechi, Peter Kille, David Spurgeon
BACKGROUND: Populations of the earthworm, Lumbricus rubellus, are commonly found across highly contaminated former mine sites and are considered to have under-gone selection for mitigating metal toxicity. Comparison of adapted populations with those found on less contaminated soils can provide insights into ecological processes that demonstrate the long-term effects of soil contamination. Contemporary sequencing methods allow for portrayal of demographic inferences and highlight genetic variation indicative of selection at specific genes...
November 17, 2017: BMC Genetics
Jaroslav Slamecka, Steven McClellan, Anna Wilk, Javier Laurini, Elizabeth Manci, Simon P Hoerstrup, Benedikt Weber, Laurie Owen
Fetal stem cells are a unique type of adult stem cells that have been suggested to be broadly multipotent with some features of pluripotency. Their clinical potential has been documented but their upgrade to full pluripotency could open up a wide range of cell-based therapies particularly suited for pediatric tissue engineering, longitudinal studies or disease modeling. Here we describe episomal reprogramming of mesenchymal stem cells from the human amnion to pluripotency (AM-iPSC) in chemically defined conditions...
November 16, 2017: Cell Cycle
Sara Rodríguez-Menéndez, Beatriz Fernández, Montserrat García, Lydia Álvarez, Maria Luisa Fernández, Alfredo Sanz-Medel, Miguel Coca-Prados, Rosario Pereiro, Héctor González-Iglesias
The retina contains the highest concentration of zinc in the human eye and it is primarily associated with the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE). Metallothioneins (MTs) are the main cytosolic zinc-ion-binding proteins, exerting a tight control in the number of atoms of Zn-bound to the MTs related with their antioxidant and neuroprotective functions. In order to study the Zn-MT system in retina and RPE, we have implemented mass spectrometry (MS)-based technologies: two complementary element detection methodologies (HPLC- and laser ablation (LA)-ICP-MS) have been successfully employed to study metal content in the human eye as well as to perform speciation studies of Zn-MTs...
February 1, 2018: Talanta
Kavita Rana, Yeshvandra Verma, Varsha Rani, Suresh Vir Singh Rana
During present investigations, renal toxicity of CdSNPs (cadmium sulphide nanoparticles) (ranged 5-9 nm) was estimated in rat employing specific parameters. Treatment on each alternate day for 45 days with CdSNPs (10 mg/kg b.w.) yielded significant increase in Cd-MT (cadmium metallothionein), lipid peroxidation and H2O2 generation in the kidney of rat in comparison to bulk cadmium. Concentration of creatinine also increased in urine of CdSNPs treated rats. Histopathological observations revealed extensive damage in proximal tubules...
November 4, 2017: Chemosphere
Pablo Reguera, Lucía Couceiro, Nuria Fernández
The need to carry out monitoring programs for environmental pollution of coastal ecosystems makes it necessary to increase the number of indicator species in order to have a wide range of suitable organisms for most of the possible toxic substances and ways of exposure. With the purpose of analyzing the suitability of limpets (Patella spp.) for their use in biomonitoring programs, a literature review was performed on 88 cases found in the Web of Science online platform. The capacity of limpets to accumulate metals and hydrocarbons has been examined in several field studies...
November 8, 2017: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
M Kemp, V Wepener, K N de Kock, C T Wolmarans
The Marico River is relatively unaffected by anthropogenic activities. However, metal concentrations-mainly from natural sources-occasionally exceed environmental quality guidelines. Macroinvertebrates are capable to react to these metals through processes such as the induction of metallothioneins (MTs). The aims of this study were to determine whether the induction of MTs can be used as indicator of natural metal exposure in not anthropogenically impacted systems and whether there are relationships between metal concentrations in water, sediment and macroinvertebrates and concomitant MT levels...
November 9, 2017: Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
Masahiro Akiyama, Yasuhiro Shinkai, Takamitsu Unoki, Ilseob Shim, Isao Ishii, Yoshito Kumagai
Cadmium (Cd) is an environmental electrophile modifying protein nucleophiles, thereby modulating cellular signaling and toxicity. While reactive persulfides/polysulfides exhibit relatively high nucleophilic properties, their roles in the altered gene expression and toxicity caused by Cd remain unclear. Exposing primary mouse hepatocytes to Cd caused heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) and metallothionein (MT)-I/II to be upregulated and cytotoxicity to occur. These effects were blocked in the presence of polysulfide sodium tetrasulfide (Na2S4)...
November 8, 2017: Chemical Research in Toxicology
Elena Atrián-Blasco, Alice Santoro, Dean L Pountney, Gabriele Meloni, Christelle Hureau, Peter Faller
Cu and Zn ions are essential in most living beings. Their metabolism is critical for health and mis-metabolism can be lethal. In the last two decades, a large body of evidence has reported the role of copper, zinc and iron, and oxidative stress in several neurodegenerative diseases like Alzheimer's, Parkinson's, prion diseases, etc. To what extent this mis-metabolism is causative or a consequence of these diseases is still a matter of research. In this context metallothioneins (MTs) appear to play a central gate-keeper role in controlling aberrant metal-protein interactions...
November 8, 2017: Chemical Society Reviews
Marita Pietrucha-Dutczak, Adrian Smedowski, Xiaonan Liu, Iwona Matuszek, Markku Varjosalo, Joanna Lewin-Kowalik
Glaucoma is thought to be the main cause of severe visual impairment or permanent loss of vision. Current therapeutic strategies are not sufficient to protect against glaucoma. Thus, new therapies and potential novel therapeutic targets must be developed to achieve progress in the treatment of this insidious disease. This study was undertaken to verify whether the time of administration of an extract from predegenerated rat sciatic nerves as well as exposure time of this extract onto retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) influences the survival of RGCs in a rat glaucoma model...
November 6, 2017: Scientific Reports
Aline Monique Blank do Amaral, Jeane de Lima Costa Gomes, Gustavo Henrique Weimer, Aline Teixeira Marins, Vania Lucia Loro, Renato Zanella
Cropping systems based on intensive land use and continuous application of agricultural chemicals inflict a threat to aquatic organisms since these substances will inevitably be carried in to water bodies where they can accumulate, particularly in lentic sites. Pesticides exposure in aquatic animals can cause changes that can be quantified through biomarkers. Thus, this study aimed to investigate the effects of season on oxidative stress and neurotoxicity biomarkers in Loricariichthys anus from a subtropical reservoir surrounded by agricultural areas in southern Brazil...
October 21, 2017: Chemosphere
Bice Avallone, Raimondo Cerciello, Patrizia Cretì, Carmela Pizzoleo, Rosaria Scudiero, Monica Tizzano, Raffaele Panzuto, Palma Simoniello, Maria Rosa Montinari, Chiara M Motta
The effects of an exposure to cadmium chloride 0.47μM for 150days were studied in kidneys of juveniles Sparus aurata by a multidisciplinary approach so to correlate uptake and detoxification potential to changes in brush border and glycocalyx sugar composition. Results demonstrated that cadmium concentration in kidney significantly increased from day 30 reaching a plateau on day 120 while metallothioneins reached a peak on day 90 and by day 120 were already decreasing to control values. Cytological damage was extensive on day 90, clearly detectable at both structural and ultrastructural levels, in tubular cells and brush-border...
October 28, 2017: Aquatic Toxicology
Megumi Shimoji, Hirokazu Hara, Tetsuro Kamiya, Kensuke Okuda, Tetsuo Adachi
Previous reports have demonstrated that excess zinc (Zn(2+)) released from nerve terminals following cerebral ischemia causes brain injury. Therefore, disturbance of Zn(2+) homeostasis in the brain is thought to be closely linked to neurotoxicity. Recently, hydrogen sulfide (H2S), a gaseous mediator, has been reported to ameliorate ischemic brain injury. However, its mechanism is not fully understood. In this study, we examined whether sodium hydrogen sulfide (NaHS), an H2S donor, protects against Zn(2+) cytotoxicity using human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells...
November 1, 2017: Free Radical Research
Huanxin Zhou, Jing Xu, Wei Wang
Metallothioneins (MTs) constitute a superfamily of cysteine-rich proteins that bind heavy-metal ions by metal-thiolate clusters. Five MT genes from Tetrahymena thermophila was subdivided into 7a (MTT1, MTT3, and MTT5) and 7b (MTT2 and MTT4) subfamilies. In the study, MTT5 was knocked out in Tetrahymena. The mutant cells were sensitive to Cd(2+) and Pb(2+) but poorly sensitive to Cu(+) . In the MTT5 knockout cells, the expression levels of MTT1 and MTT3 were significantly up-regulated under Cd(2+) and Pb(2+) stresses, whereas the expression levels of MTT2 and MTT4 were significantly up-regulated under Cu(+) stress relative to those in the wild-type cells...
November 1, 2017: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
Sarela Garcia-Santamarina, Marta A Uzarska, Richard A Festa, Roland Lill, Dennis J Thiele
Copper (Cu) ions serve as catalytic cofactors to drive key biochemical processes, and yet Cu levels that exceed cellular homeostatic control capacity are toxic. The underlying mechanisms for Cu toxicity are poorly understood. During pulmonary infection by the fungal pathogen Cryptococcus neoformans, host alveolar macrophages compartmentalize Cu to the phagosome, and the ability to detoxify Cu is critical for its survival and virulence. Here, we report that iron-sulfur (Fe-S) clusters are critical targets of Cu toxicity in both Saccharomyces cerevisiae and C...
October 31, 2017: MBio
Junlian Gu, Xiaoqing Yan, Xiaozhen Dai, Yuehui Wang, Qian Lin, Jian Xiao, Shanshan Zhou, Jian Zhang, Kai Wang, Jun Zeng, Ying Xin, Michelle T Barati, Chi Zhang, Yang Bai, Yan Li, Paul N Epstein, Kupper A Wintergerst, Xiaokun Li, Yi Tan, Lu Cai
Cardiac insulin resistance is a key pathogenic factor for diabetic cardiomyopathy (DCM), but the mechanism remains largely unclear. We found that diabetic hearts exhibited decreased phosphorylation of total Akt and isoform Akt2 but not Akt1 in wild type (WT) male FVB mice, which was accompanied by attenuation of Akt downstream glucose metabolic signal; All these signal changes were not observed in metallothionein cardiac-specific transgenic (MT-TG) hearts. Furthermore, insulin-induced glucose metabolic signals were attenuated only in WT diabetic hearts...
October 27, 2017: Diabetes
Romain M Présent, Elise Rotureau, Patrick Billard, Christophe Pagnout, Bénédicte Sohm, Justine Flayac, Renaud Gley, José P Pinheiro, Jérôme F L Duval
Genetically engineered microorganisms are alternatives to physicochemical methods for remediation of metal-contaminated aquifers due to their remarkable bioaccumulation capacities. The design of such biosystems would benefit from the elaboration of a sound quantitative connection between performance in terms of metal removal from aqueous solution and dynamics of the multiscale processes leading to metal biouptake. In this work, this elaboration is reported for Escherichia coli cells modified to overexpress intracellular metallothionein (MTc), a strong proteinaceous metal chelator...
November 8, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
Adriana A Cortés-Gómez, Patricia Morcillo, Francisco A Guardiola, Cristobal Espinosa, María A Esteban, Alberto Cuesta, Marc Girondot, Diego Romero
Due to their longevity and extensive migration areas, marine turtles are able to accumulate diverse contaminants over many years and as a consequence they represent an interesting bioindicator species for marine ecosystem pollution. Metals provoke toxicological effects in many aquatic animal species, but marine turtles have been under-investigated in this area. Thus, we have determined the presence of certain inorganic elements (As, Cd, Cu, Ni, Pb, Se and Zn) in olive ridley turtles (Lepidochelys olivacea) and related them to metallothionein (MT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione reductase (GR) transcription and/or enzymatic activities...
October 23, 2017: Environmental Pollution
Yongsoo Park, Jian Zhang, Lu Cai
Reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (ROS/RNS) are by-products of cellular physiological processes made from the metabolisms of intermediary nutrients. Although physiological defense mechanisms readily convert these species into water or urea, improper balance between their production and removal leads cells to experience oxidative stress (OS), which is harmful to cellular components. This may result in uncontrolled growth or ultimately to cell death. ROS/RNS are also closely related to the development of diabetes and its complications...
October 26, 2017: Journal of Diabetes
Kavitha Subramanian Vignesh, George S Deepe
Metallothioneins (MTs) are a family of metal-binding proteins virtually expressed in all organisms including prokaryotes, lower eukaryotes, invertebrates and mammals. These proteins regulate homeostasis of zinc (Zn) and copper (Cu), mitigate heavy metal poisoning, and alleviate superoxide stress. In recent years, MTs have emerged as an important, yet largely underappreciated, component of the immune system. Innate and adaptive immune cells regulate MTs in response to stress stimuli, cytokine signals and microbial challenge...
October 23, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
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