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Abortion ethics

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29896687/biological-concerns-on-the-selection-of-animal-models-for-teratogenic-testing
#1
Sofia Alves-Pimenta, Bruno Colaço, Paula A Oliveira, Carlos Venâncio
During pregnancy fetus can be exposed to a variety of chemicals which may induce abortion and malformations. Due to the amounts of new substances coming into the market every year, a high demand for a rapid, reliable, and cost-effective method to detect potential toxicity is necessary. Different species have been used as animal models for teratogen screening, most of them sharing similar development processes with humans. However, the application of embryology knowledge to teratology is hampered by the complexity of the reproduction processes...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29859073/abortion-education-in-canadian-family-medicine-residency-programs
#2
Daniel T Myran, Jillian Bardsley, Tania El Hindi, Kristine Whitehead
BACKGROUND: Abortion has been decriminalized in Canada since 1988 and is considered an essential medical service. There is concern that decreasing numbers of abortion providers may impair access to abortion. This study examined the quantity of exposure and education that Canadian family medicine residents receive on abortion during training and their preparation to provide abortions. In addition, the study assessed residents' attitudes, intention and expressed competency to provide abortion in future practice and the association between medical training and changes in these factors...
June 1, 2018: BMC Medical Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29805151/-i-sleep-but-my-heart-is-awake-i-negotiating-marginal-states-in-life-and-death-i
#3
Margaret C Hayden, Stephen D Brown
This article compares a six-week fetus to a brain-dead boy to illustrate multiple inconsistencies and flaws in various prominent frameworks for determination of death by neurological criteria ("brain death"). The authors critically examine the biological and normative assumptions that distinguish these ethically ambiguous "marginal states" at the beginning and end of life and find no consistent biological or ethical criteria that coherently define the fetus as alive and the boy as dead. The authors note important contradictions in how medicine, bioethics, and society treat these marginal states, despite their striking biological and philosophical similarities, and conclude that these contradictions are ultimately untenable...
2018: Perspectives in Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786117/the-relevance-of-the-hippocratic-oath-to-the-ethical-and-moral-values-of-contemporary-medicine-part-ii-interpretation-of-the-hippocratic-oath-today-s-perspective
#4
REVIEW
Helen Askitopoulou, Antonis N Vgontzas
This is the second part of a paper on the relevance and significance of the Hippocratic Oath to modern medical ethical and moral values with the aim at answering questions on controversial issues related to the Oath. Part I argued that the general attributes and ethical values of the Oath are relevant to the modern world. Part II attempts to elucidate the interpretation of the specific injunctions of the Oath from today's perspective in relation to ethical values concerning the duties of physicians to patients and society...
May 21, 2018: European Spine Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29776978/ethical-arguments-for-access-to-abortion-services-in-the-republic-of-ireland-recent-developments-in-the-public-discourse
#5
Joan McCarthy, Katherine O'Donnell, Louise Campbell, Dolores Dooley
The Republic of Ireland has some of the most restrictive abortion legislation in the world which grants to the 'unborn' an equal right to life to that of the pregnant woman. This article outlines recent developments in the public discourse on abortion in Ireland and explains the particular cultural and religious context that informs the ethical case for access to abortion services. Our perspective rests on respect for two very familiar moral principles - autonomy and justice - which are at the centre of social and democratic societies around the world...
May 18, 2018: Journal of Medical Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29729066/exploring-the-limits-of-conscience
#6
R M McMillen
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 4, 2018: BJOG: An International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29724696/invisible-women-in-reproductive-technologies-critical-reflections
#7
Piyali Mitra
The recent spectacular progress in assisted reproductive technologies (ARTs) has resulted in new ethical dilemmas. Though women occupy a central role in the reproductive process, within the ART paradigm, the importance accorded to the embryo commonly surpasses that given to the mother. This commentary questions the increasing tendency to position the embryonic subject in an antagonistic relation with the mother. I examine how the mother's reproductive autonomy is compromised in relation to that of her embryo and argue in favour of doing away with the subject-object dyad between them, particularly in the contexts of surrogacy and abortion...
April 2018: Indian Journal of Medical Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29720276/ethics-challenges-and-guidance-related-to-research-involving-adolescent-post-abortion-care-a-scoping-review
#8
REVIEW
Joseph M Zulu, Joseph Ali, Kristina Hallez, Nancy Kass, Charles Michelo, Adnan A Hyder
INTRODUCTION: An increase in post abortion care (PAC) research with adolescents, particularly in low- and middle-income countries, has brought to attention several associated research ethics challenges. In order to better understand the ethics context of PAC research with adolescents, we conducted a scoping review of published literature. METHODS: Following a systematic search of PubMed, HINARI, and Google Scholar, we analysed articles meeting inclusion criteria to determine common themes across both the ethical challenges related to PAC research with adolescents and any available guidance on the identified challenges...
May 2, 2018: Reproductive Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29703258/conscientious-objection-to-participation-in-abortion-by-midwives-and-nurses-a-systematic-review-of-reasons
#9
Valerie Fleming, Lucy Frith, Ans Luyben, Beate Ramsayer
BACKGROUND: Freedom of conscience is a core element of human rights respected by most European countries. It allows abortion through the inclusion of a conscience clause, which permits opting out of providing such services. However, the grounds for invoking conscientious objection lack clarity. Our aim in this paper is to take a step in this direction by carrying out a systematic review of reasons by midwives and nurses for declining, on conscience grounds, to participate in abortion...
April 27, 2018: BMC Medical Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29681079/abortion-law-reform-why-ethical-intractability-and-maternal-morbidity-are-grounds-for-decriminalisation
#10
Andrew McGee, Melanie Jansen, Sally Sheldon
In this paper, we present two grounds for arguing that abortion should be decriminalised. First, we consider the implications of the fact that the long-standing ethical debate concerning the morality of abortion has to date proven intractable. We maintain that because the philosophical literature has failed to demonstrate conclusively that views either for or against abortion's moral acceptability are false, the matter remains at a stalemate in terms of rational debate, contributing to the ongoing absence of political and popular consensus about the issue in our society...
April 22, 2018: Australian & New Zealand Journal of Obstetrics & Gynaecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29650189/islamic-moral-judgement-on-abortion-and-its-nursing-applications-expository-analysis
#11
Mohamad Firdaus Mohamad Ismail, Abdurezak Abdullahi Hashi, Mohd Said Bin Nurumal, Muhammad Lokman Bin Md Isa
Health workers, like nurses are tasked to save the lives of their patients, however, there are instances in which health workers have to deal with difficult cases in taking a life, such as abortion. Scholars in the field of healthcare assert that abortion is morally justified if it is sought for health reasons. Nevertheless, there are a number of cases in which abortion is sought on other grounds other than health, such as the individual choice to do so. Can a nurse refuse to provide their professional service towards these people? This paper uses analytical and comparative methods to address ethical issues in abortion from the Islamic and conventional perspectives...
February 2018: Enfermería Clínica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29587567/exploring-moral-problems-and-moral-competences-in-midwifery-a-qualitative-study
#12
Stephan Oelhafen, Settimio Monteverde, Eva Cignacco
BACKGROUND: Most undergraduate midwifery curricula comprise ethics courses to strengthen the moral competences of future midwives. By contrast, surprisingly little is known about the specific moral competences considered to be relevant for midwifery practice. Describing these competences not only depends on generic assumptions about the moral nature of midwifery practice but also reflects which issues practitioners themselves classify as moral. OBJECTIVE: The goal of this study was to gain insight into the ethical issues midwives encounter in their daily work, the key competences and resources they consider indispensable to understand and deal with them, and to assess phenomena linked to moral distress...
January 1, 2018: Nursing Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29558997/the-impact-of-thyroid-stimulating-hormone-levels-in-euthyroid-women-on-intrauterine-insemination-outcome
#13
Gorkem Tuncay, Abdullah Karaer, Ebru İnci Coşkun, Demet Baloğlu, Ayşe Nihan Tecellioğlu
BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to examine the effect of thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) levels on intrauterine insemination (IUI) outcomes among euthyroid women. METHODS: A retrospective cohort study was conducted. A total of 302 women who started their first IUI cycle in our fertility center were included in this study. The patients were categorized into two groups based on their preconception TSH values: 0.38-2.49 mIU/Land 2.50-4.99 mIU/L. The clinical pregnancy rate was the main outcome parameter...
March 20, 2018: BMC Women's Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29542437/why-crisis-pregnancy-centers-are-legal-but-unethical
#14
Amy G Bryant, Jonas J Swartz
Crisis pregnancy centers are organizations that seek to intercept women with unintended pregnancies who might be considering abortion. Their mission is to prevent abortions by persuading women that adoption or parenting is a better option. They strive to give the impression that they are clinical centers, offering legitimate medical services and advice, yet they are exempt from regulatory, licensure, and credentialing oversight that apply to health care facilities. Because the religious ideology of these centers' owners and employees takes priority over the health and well-being of the women seeking care at these centers, women do not receive comprehensive, accurate, evidence-based clinical information about all available options...
March 1, 2018: AMA Journal of Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29528924/harm-reduction-for-abortion-in-the-united-states
#15
Julia Tasset, Lisa H Harris
Access to abortion in the United States has eroded significantly. Accordingly, there is a growing movement to empower women to self-induce abortion. To date, physicians' roles and responsibilities in this changing environment have not been defined. Here, we consider a harm reduction approach to first-trimester abortion as a way for physicians to honor clinical and moral obligations to care for women, negotiate ever-increasing abortion restrictions, and support women who consider abortion self-induction. Harm reduction approaches to abortion have been successfully implemented in a range of countries around the world and typically take the form of teaching women how to use misoprostol...
April 2018: Obstetrics and Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29463693/content-analysis-of-requests-for-religious-exemptions-from-a-mandatory-influenza-vaccination-program-for-healthcare-personnel
#16
Armand H Antommaria, Cynthia A Prows
OBJECTIVE: Having failed to achieve adequate influenza vaccination rates among employees through voluntary programmes, healthcare organisations have adopted mandatory ones. Some programmes permit religious exemptions, but little is known about who requests religious objections or why. METHODS: Content analysis of applications for religious exemptions from influenza vaccination at a free-standing children's hospital in Cincinnati, Ohio, USA during the 2014-2015 influenza season...
February 20, 2018: Journal of Medical Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29377114/the-philippines-new-postabortion-care-policy
#17
Melissa Upreti, Jihan Jacob
In 2000, a Philippine policy clarifying the legality of medical treatment for women with postabortion complications was introduced to address unsafe abortion as a leading cause of maternal death, and reports of discrimination and abuse by healthcare providers against women who had abortions illegally. Despite its initial success as a pilot program, the policy's implementation and expansion were not prioritized. The incidence of unsafe abortion has increased over the years and, in 2009, the right to postabortion care was codified in national law, yet the mistreatment and abuse of women has continued in violation of medical ethics and the law...
May 2018: International Journal of Gynaecology and Obstetrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29343181/experiencing-abortion-rights-in-india-through-issues-of-autonomy-and-legality-a-few-controversies
#18
Tulsi Patel
Abortion laws in India, like other laws, are premised on the 1861 British Penal Code. The Medical Termination of Pregnancy Act was passed in 1971 to circumvent the criminality clause around abortion. Yet the law continues to render invisible women's right to choose. Legal procedures have often hindered in permitting abortion, resulting in the death of a mother or the foetus. Despite the latest techno-medical advances, the laws have remained stagnant or rather restrictive, complicated further by selective female foetus abortions...
January 17, 2018: Global Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29306873/a-critical-review-of-conscientious-objection-and-decriminalisation-of-abortion-in-chile
#19
Adela Montero, Raúl Villarroel
From 1989 through September 2017, Chile's highly restrictive abortion laws exposed women to victimisation and needlessly threatened their health, freedom and even lives. However, after decades of unsuccessful attempts to decriminalise abortion, legislation regulating pregnancy termination on three grounds was recently enacted. In the aftermath, an aggressive conservative drive designed to turn conscientious objection into a pivotal new obstacle, mounted during the congressional debate, has led to extensive, complex arguments about the validity and legitimacy of conscientious objection...
April 2018: Journal of Medical Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29287852/low-set-ears-and-associated-anomalies-in-human-foetuses
#20
Alfredo Nuñez-Castruita, Norberto López-Serna
OBJECTIVES: To determine the prevalence of low-set ears (LSE) in a group of human foetuses, to analyse the associated anomalies, and to review the development mechanisms possibly involved. METHODS: A total of 1759 human foetuses from spontaneous abortion were evaluated. Foetuses were obtained from the Foetuses and Embryos Collection of the Embryology Department of the Faculty of Medicine of the Autonomous University of Nuevo León. The Ethics Committee gave its approval for this study (EH-230-16)...
January 2018: International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology
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