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Abortion ethics

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29681079/abortion-law-reform-why-ethical-intractability-and-maternal-morbidity-are-grounds-for-decriminalisation
#1
Andrew McGee, Melanie Jansen, Sally Sheldon
In this paper, we present two grounds for arguing that abortion should be decriminalised. First, we consider the implications of the fact that the long-standing ethical debate concerning the morality of abortion has to date proven intractable. We maintain that because the philosophical literature has failed to demonstrate conclusively that views either for or against abortion's moral acceptability are false, the matter remains at a stalemate in terms of rational debate, contributing to the ongoing absence of political and popular consensus about the issue in our society...
April 22, 2018: Australian & New Zealand Journal of Obstetrics & Gynaecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29650189/islamic-moral-judgement-on-abortion-and-its-nursing-applications-expository-analysis
#2
Mohamad Firdaus Mohamad Ismail, Abdurezak Abdullahi Hashi, Mohd Said Bin Nurumal, Muhammad Lokman Bin Md Isa
Health workers, like nurses are tasked to save the lives of their patients, however, there are instances in which health workers have to deal with difficult cases in taking a life, such as abortion. Scholars in the field of healthcare assert that abortion is morally justified if it is sought for health reasons. Nevertheless, there are a number of cases in which abortion is sought on other grounds other than health, such as the individual choice to do so. Can a nurse refuse to provide their professional service towards these people? This paper uses analytical and comparative methods to address ethical issues in abortion from the Islamic and conventional perspectives...
February 2018: Enfermería Clínica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29587567/exploring-moral-problems-and-moral-competences-in-midwifery-a-qualitative-study
#3
Stephan Oelhafen, Settimio Monteverde, Eva Cignacco
BACKGROUND: Most undergraduate midwifery curricula comprise ethics courses to strengthen the moral competences of future midwives. By contrast, surprisingly little is known about the specific moral competences considered to be relevant for midwifery practice. Describing these competences not only depends on generic assumptions about the moral nature of midwifery practice but also reflects which issues practitioners themselves classify as moral. OBJECTIVE: The goal of this study was to gain insight into the ethical issues midwives encounter in their daily work, the key competences and resources they consider indispensable to understand and deal with them, and to assess phenomena linked to moral distress...
January 1, 2018: Nursing Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29558997/the-impact-of-thyroid-stimulating-hormone-levels-in-euthyroid-women-on-intrauterine-insemination-outcome
#4
Gorkem Tuncay, Abdullah Karaer, Ebru İnci Coşkun, Demet Baloğlu, Ayşe Nihan Tecellioğlu
BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to examine the effect of thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) levels on intrauterine insemination (IUI) outcomes among euthyroid women. METHODS: A retrospective cohort study was conducted. A total of 302 women who started their first IUI cycle in our fertility center were included in this study. The patients were categorized into two groups based on their preconception TSH values: 0.38-2.49 mIU/Land 2.50-4.99 mIU/L. The clinical pregnancy rate was the main outcome parameter...
March 20, 2018: BMC Women's Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29542437/why-crisis-pregnancy-centers-are-legal-but-unethical
#5
Amy G Bryant, Jonas J Swartz
Crisis pregnancy centers are organizations that seek to intercept women with unintended pregnancies who might be considering abortion. Their mission is to prevent abortions by persuading women that adoption or parenting is a better option. They strive to give the impression that they are clinical centers, offering legitimate medical services and advice, yet they are exempt from regulatory, licensure, and credentialing oversight that apply to health care facilities. Because the religious ideology of these centers' owners and employees takes priority over the health and well-being of the women seeking care at these centers, women do not receive comprehensive, accurate, evidence-based clinical information about all available options...
March 1, 2018: AMA Journal of Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29528924/harm-reduction-for-abortion-in-the-united-states
#6
Julia Tasset, Lisa H Harris
Access to abortion in the United States has eroded significantly. Accordingly, there is a growing movement to empower women to self-induce abortion. To date, physicians' roles and responsibilities in this changing environment have not been defined. Here, we consider a harm reduction approach to first-trimester abortion as a way for physicians to honor clinical and moral obligations to care for women, negotiate ever-increasing abortion restrictions, and support women who consider abortion self-induction. Harm reduction approaches to abortion have been successfully implemented in a range of countries around the world and typically take the form of teaching women how to use misoprostol...
April 2018: Obstetrics and Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29463693/content-analysis-of-requests-for-religious-exemptions-from-a-mandatory-influenza-vaccination-program-for-healthcare-personnel
#7
Armand H Antommaria, Cynthia A Prows
OBJECTIVE: Having failed to achieve adequate influenza vaccination rates among employees through voluntary programmes, healthcare organisations have adopted mandatory ones. Some programmes permit religious exemptions, but little is known about who requests religious objections or why. METHODS: Content analysis of applications for religious exemptions from influenza vaccination at a free-standing children's hospital in Cincinnati, Ohio, USA during the 2014-2015 influenza season...
February 20, 2018: Journal of Medical Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29377114/the-philippines-new-postabortion-care-policy
#8
Melissa Upreti, Jihan Jacob
In 2000, a Philippine policy clarifying the legality of medical treatment for women with postabortion complications was introduced to address unsafe abortion as a leading cause of maternal death, and reports of discrimination and abuse by healthcare providers against women who had abortions illegally. Despite its initial success as a pilot program, the policy's implementation and expansion were not prioritized. The incidence of unsafe abortion has increased over the years and, in 2009, the right to postabortion care was codified in national law, yet the mistreatment and abuse of women has continued in violation of medical ethics and the law...
May 2018: International Journal of Gynaecology and Obstetrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29343181/experiencing-abortion-rights-in-india-through-issues-of-autonomy-and-legality-a-few-controversies
#9
Tulsi Patel
Abortion laws in India, like other laws, are premised on the 1861 British Penal Code. The Medical Termination of Pregnancy Act was passed in 1971 to circumvent the criminality clause around abortion. Yet the law continues to render invisible women's right to choose. Legal procedures have often hindered in permitting abortion, resulting in the death of a mother or the foetus. Despite the latest techno-medical advances, the laws have remained stagnant or rather restrictive, complicated further by selective female foetus abortions...
January 17, 2018: Global Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29306873/a-critical-review-of-conscientious-objection-and-decriminalisation-of-abortion-in-chile
#10
Adela Montero, Raúl Villarroel
From 1989 through September 2017, Chile's highly restrictive abortion laws exposed women to victimisation and needlessly threatened their health, freedom and even lives. However, after decades of unsuccessful attempts to decriminalise abortion, legislation regulating pregnancy termination on three grounds was recently enacted. In the aftermath, an aggressive conservative drive designed to turn conscientious objection into a pivotal new obstacle, mounted during the congressional debate, has led to extensive, complex arguments about the validity and legitimacy of conscientious objection...
April 2018: Journal of Medical Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29287852/low-set-ears-and-associated-anomalies-in-human-foetuses
#11
Alfredo Nuñez-Castruita, Norberto López-Serna
OBJECTIVES: To determine the prevalence of low-set ears (LSE) in a group of human foetuses, to analyse the associated anomalies, and to review the development mechanisms possibly involved. METHODS: A total of 1759 human foetuses from spontaneous abortion were evaluated. Foetuses were obtained from the Foetuses and Embryos Collection of the Embryology Department of the Faculty of Medicine of the Autonomous University of Nuevo León. The Ethics Committee gave its approval for this study (EH-230-16)...
January 2018: International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29280164/the-epistemic-costs-of-compromise-in-bioethics
#12
Katrien Devolder, Thomas Douglas
Bioethicists sometimes defend compromise positions, particularly when they enter debates on applied topics that have traditionally been highly polarised, such as those regarding abortion, euthanasia and embryonic stem cell research. However, defending compromise positions is often regarded with a degree of disdain. Many are intuitively attracted to the view that it is almost always problematic to defend compromise positions, in the sense that we have a significant moral reason not to do so. In this paper, we consider whether this common sense view can be given a principled basis...
February 2018: Bioethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29197399/abortion-debates-in-finland-and-the-republic-of-ireland-textual-analysis-of-experiential-thinking-and-argumentation-in-parliamentary-and-layperson-discussions
#13
Anne-Mari Mustonen, Tommi Paakkonen, Esko Ryökäs, Petteri Nieminen
BACKGROUND: The ethical discussion about abortion has been polarized in Finland and the Republic of Ireland, two European countries with very different abortion legislation (liberal vs. highly restrictive). The aim of the present study was to analyze experiential thinking patterns and argumentative strategies in political and layperson debates regarding induced abortion. METHODS: The content of Finnish and Irish texts (n = 493), consisting of transcripts of parliamentary debates and online texts, such as blogs, was analyzed systematically...
December 2, 2017: Reproductive Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29171674/a-dubious-defense-of-after-birth-abortion-a-reply-to-r%C3%A3-s%C3%A3-nen
#14
COMMENT
Christopher Kaczor
Scholars have offered various critiques of Alberto Giubilini and Francesca Minerva's controversial article, 'After-birth abortion: Why should the baby live?' My book The Ethics of Abortion: Women's Rights, Human Life, and the Question of Justice presents four such critiques. First, Giubilini and Minerva argue from the deeply controversial to the even more controversial. Second, they presuppose a false view of personal identity called body-self dualism. Third, their view cannot secure human equality. And fourth, their account of harm cannot account for harm found in some cases of murder...
February 2018: Bioethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29129123/opinions-of-nurses-regarding-conscientious-objection
#15
Rafael Toro-Flores, Pilar Bravo-Agüi, María Victoria Catalán-Gómez, Marisa González-Hernando, María Jesús Guijarro-Cenisergue, Margarita Moreno-Vázquez, Isabel Roch-Hamelin, Tamara Raquel Velasco-Sanz
BACKGROUND: In the last decades, there have been important developments in the scientific and technological areas of healthcare. On certain occasions this provokes conflict between the patients' rights and the values of healthcare professionals which brings about, within this clinical relationship, the problem of conscientious objection. AIMS: To learn the opinions that the Nurses of the Madrid Autonomous Community have regarding conscientious objection. RESEARCH DESIGN: Cross-cutting descriptive study...
January 1, 2017: Nursing Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29108141/teaching-ob-gyn-residents-bioethics-within-a-catholic-healthcare-context
#16
Andrew Steele
Residents entering training in the specialty of Obstetrics and Gynecology (OB/GYN) often have misconceptions as to what medical interventions Roman Catholic healthcare institutions prohibit, and why certain restrictions are placed on the provision of reproductive health options that are otherwise legally available to women. The Ethical and Religious Directives for Catholic Healthcare Services, produced by the United States Conference of Catholic Bishops seeks to provide a stable framework upon which reproductive health decisions can be based...
2017: Issues in Law & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28969103/histogenesis-of-muscularis-mucosa-and-muscularis-externa-of-stomach-a-human-foetal-study
#17
Babita Pangtey, Jagat Mohini Kaul, Sabita Mishra
INTRODUCTION: The histological and developmental knowledge of musculature of stomach wall is vital for the assessment and management of various associated congenital abnormalities like hypertrophy of pyloric musculature and pathologies of nerve terminals and ganglia. AIM: To study the development of muscularis mucosa and muscularis externa in human foetal stomach. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study was conducted on 22 aborted human foetuses of varying gestational ages ranging from 10-26 weeks...
August 2017: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28959787/comparative-preimplantation-genetic-diagnosis-policy-in-europe-and-the-usa-and-its-implications-for-reproductive-tourism
#18
Michelle J Bayefsky
Unlike many European nations, the USA has no regulations concerning the use of preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD), a technique employed during some fertility treatments to select embryos based on their genes. As such, PGD can and is used for a variety of controversial purposes, including sex selection, selection for children with disabilities such as deafness, and selection for 'saviour siblings' who can serve as tissue donors for sick relatives. The lack of regulation, which is due to particular features of the US political and economic landscape, has ethical and practical implications for patients seeking PGD around the world...
December 2016: Reproductive Biomedicine & Society Online
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912618/moral-theological-analysis-of-direct-versus-indirect-abortion
#19
John M Haas
Cases of a vital conflict, where the lives of both the mother and child are at risk during pregnancy, have been the subject of recent vigorous debate. The basic principles put forth in the Ethical and Religious Directives are reviewed, as is the principle of double effect. An illustrative case of severe cardiomyopathy in a pregnant woman is described and it is noted that the principle of double effect would not apply. Counter arguments are noted, focusing on Martin Rhonheimer who posits that in the case of vital conflicts, such as performing a craniotomy on a baby stuck in the birth canal, taking the baby's life does not constitute a direct abortion because moral norms do not apply in the extreme conflict situation where both mother and child will die...
August 2017: Linacre Quarterly
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912615/why-the-moratorium-on-human-animal-chimera-research-should-not-be-lifted
#20
Alan Moy
The National Institutes of Health (NIH) announced its plans to lift its moratorium on funding research that involves injecting human embryonic stem cells into animal embryos, which would allow for the creation of part-human and part-animal organisms known as chimeras. The NIH allowed only one month to receive public comments in the midst of a presidential election campaign. Lifting the moratorium means that, for the first time, the federal government will begin spending taxpayer dollars on the creation and manipulation of new organisms that would blur the line between humans and animals...
August 2017: Linacre Quarterly
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