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Abortion ethics

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29197399/abortion-debates-in-finland-and-the-republic-of-ireland-textual-analysis-of-experiential-thinking-and-argumentation-in-parliamentary-and-layperson-discussions
#1
Anne-Mari Mustonen, Tommi Paakkonen, Esko Ryökäs, Petteri Nieminen
BACKGROUND: The ethical discussion about abortion has been polarized in Finland and the Republic of Ireland, two European countries with very different abortion legislation (liberal vs. highly restrictive). The aim of the present study was to analyze experiential thinking patterns and argumentative strategies in political and layperson debates regarding induced abortion. METHODS: The content of Finnish and Irish texts (n = 493), consisting of transcripts of parliamentary debates and online texts, such as blogs, was analyzed systematically...
December 2, 2017: Reproductive Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29171674/a-dubious-defense-of-after-birth-abortion-a-reply-to-r%C3%A3-s%C3%A3-nen
#2
Christopher Kaczor
Scholars have offered various critiques of Alberto Giubilini and Francesca Minerva's controversial article, 'After-birth abortion: Why should the baby live?' My book The Ethics of Abortion: Women's Rights, Human Life, and the Question of Justice presents four such critiques. First, Giubilini and Minerva argue from the deeply controversial to the even more controversial. Second, they presuppose a false view of personal identity called body-self dualism. Third, their view cannot secure human equality. And fourth, their account of harm cannot account for harm found in some cases of murder...
November 24, 2017: Bioethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29129123/opinions-of-nurses-regarding-conscientious-objection
#3
Rafael Toro-Flores, Pilar Bravo-Agüi, María Victoria Catalán-Gómez, Marisa González-Hernando, María Jesús Guijarro-Cenisergue, Margarita Moreno-Vázquez, Isabel Roch-Hamelin, Tamara Raquel Velasco-Sanz
BACKGROUND: In the last decades, there have been important developments in the scientific and technological areas of healthcare. On certain occasions this provokes conflict between the patients' rights and the values of healthcare professionals which brings about, within this clinical relationship, the problem of conscientious objection. AIMS: To learn the opinions that the Nurses of the Madrid Autonomous Community have regarding conscientious objection. RESEARCH DESIGN: Cross-cutting descriptive study...
January 1, 2017: Nursing Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29108141/teaching-ob-gyn-residents-bioethics-within-a-catholic-healthcare-context
#4
Andrew Steele
Residents entering training in the specialty of Obstetrics and Gynecology (OB/GYN) often have misconceptions as to what medical interventions Roman Catholic healthcare institutions prohibit, and why certain restrictions are placed on the provision of reproductive health options that are otherwise legally available to women. The Ethical and Religious Directives for Catholic Healthcare Services, produced by the United States Conference of Catholic Bishops seeks to provide a stable framework upon which reproductive health decisions can be based...
2017: Issues in Law & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28969103/histogenesis-of-muscularis-mucosa-and-muscularis-externa-of-stomach-a-human-foetal-study
#5
Babita Pangtey, Jagat Mohini Kaul, Sabita Mishra
INTRODUCTION: The histological and developmental knowledge of musculature of stomach wall is vital for the assessment and management of various associated congenital abnormalities like hypertrophy of pyloric musculature and pathologies of nerve terminals and ganglia. AIM: To study the development of muscularis mucosa and muscularis externa in human foetal stomach. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study was conducted on 22 aborted human foetuses of varying gestational ages ranging from 10-26 weeks...
August 2017: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28959787/comparative-preimplantation-genetic-diagnosis-policy-in-europe-and-the-usa-and-its-implications-for-reproductive-tourism
#6
Michelle J Bayefsky
Unlike many European nations, the USA has no regulations concerning the use of preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD), a technique employed during some fertility treatments to select embryos based on their genes. As such, PGD can and is used for a variety of controversial purposes, including sex selection, selection for children with disabilities such as deafness, and selection for 'saviour siblings' who can serve as tissue donors for sick relatives. The lack of regulation, which is due to particular features of the US political and economic landscape, has ethical and practical implications for patients seeking PGD around the world...
December 2016: Reproductive Biomedicine & Society Online
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912618/moral-theological-analysis-of-direct-versus-indirect-abortion
#7
John M Haas
Cases of a vital conflict, where the lives of both the mother and child are at risk during pregnancy, have been the subject of recent vigorous debate. The basic principles put forth in the Ethical and Religious Directives are reviewed, as is the principle of double effect. An illustrative case of severe cardiomyopathy in a pregnant woman is described and it is noted that the principle of double effect would not apply. Counter arguments are noted, focusing on Martin Rhonheimer who posits that in the case of vital conflicts, such as performing a craniotomy on a baby stuck in the birth canal, taking the baby's life does not constitute a direct abortion because moral norms do not apply in the extreme conflict situation where both mother and child will die...
August 2017: Linacre Quarterly
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912615/why-the-moratorium-on-human-animal-chimera-research-should-not-be-lifted
#8
Alan Moy
The National Institutes of Health (NIH) announced its plans to lift its moratorium on funding research that involves injecting human embryonic stem cells into animal embryos, which would allow for the creation of part-human and part-animal organisms known as chimeras. The NIH allowed only one month to receive public comments in the midst of a presidential election campaign. Lifting the moratorium means that, for the first time, the federal government will begin spending taxpayer dollars on the creation and manipulation of new organisms that would blur the line between humans and animals...
August 2017: Linacre Quarterly
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28884846/the-responsibility-of-gynecologists-and-obstetricians-in-providing-safe-abortion-services-within-the-limits-of-the-law
#9
Anibal Faúndes
Approximately 47 000 women die each year worldwide as a result of the complications of unsafe abortion, almost exclusively in low- and middle-income countries with restrictive abortion laws. In these countries, very few women who comply with the conditions imposed by the law can access safe abortion services in the public health system. The main obstacle is the unwillingness of gynecologists and obstetricians to provide abortion services by claiming conscientious objection, which is often used to hide their fear of the stigma associated with abortion...
October 2017: International Journal of Gynaecology and Obstetrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28878830/caesarean-birth-in-romania-safe-motherhood-between-ethical-medical-and-statistical-arguments
#10
Anca A Simionescu, Erika Marin
The number of caesarean sections increased significantly in Romania. In 2012, caesarean sections accounted for 41.2% of total births, according to a study of the Romanian National School for Public Health. This estimation is in agreement with the statistical data on caesarean sections recorded in one of the most important hospitals in Bucharest, Romania, Filantropia Hospital. Many factors have influenced the large number and sharply increasing trend of caesarean sections, from the historical ones, with roots in the communist regime, when abortions were outlawed, to current day doctors' medical practices and mothers' beliefs and fears related to the process of labor and the newborn's health...
January 2017: Mædica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28870159/obstetric-professionals-perceptions-of-non-invasive-prenatal-testing-for-down-syndrome-clinical-usefulness-compared-with-existing-tests-and-ethical-implications
#11
Olivia Miu Yung Ngan, Huso Yi, Samuel Yeung Shan Wong, Daljit Sahota, Shenaz Ahmed
BACKGROUND: While non-invasive prenatal testing (NIPT) for fetal aneuploidy is commercially available in many countries, little is known about how obstetric professionals in non-Western populations perceive the clinical usefulness of NIPT in comparison with existing first-trimester combined screening (FTS) for Down syndrome (DS) or invasive prenatal diagnosis (IPD), or perceptions of their ethical concerns arising from the use of NIPT. METHODS: A cross-sectional survey among 327 obstetric professionals (237 midwives, 90 obstetricians) in Hong Kong...
September 5, 2017: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28857525/discourse-ethics-public-health-abortion-and-conscientious-objection-in-croatia
#12
Ana Borovečki, Sanja Babić-Bosanac
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 31, 2017: Croatian Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28757115/there-is-no-defence-for-conscientious-objection-in-reproductive-health-care
#13
REVIEW
Christian Fiala, Joyce H Arthur
A widespread assumption has taken hold in the field of medicine that we must allow health care professionals the right to refuse treatment under the guise of 'conscientious objection' (CO), in particular for women seeking abortions. At the same time, it is widely recognized that the refusal to treat creates harm and barriers for patients receiving reproductive health care. In response, many recommendations have been put forward as solutions to limit those harms. Further, some researchers make a distinction between true CO and 'obstructionist CO', based on the motivations or actions of various objectors...
September 2017: European Journal of Obstetrics, Gynecology, and Reproductive Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28749060/artificial-wombs-and-abortion-rights
#14
I Glenn Cohen
In a study published in late April in Nature Communications, the authors were able to sustain 105- to 115-day-old premature lamb fetuses-whose level of development was comparable to that of a twenty-three-week-old human fetus-for four weeks in an artificial womb, enabling the lambs to develop in a way that paralleled age-matched controls. The oldest lamb of the set, more than a year old at the time the paper came out, appeared completely normal. This kind of research brings us one step closer to providing excellent quality of life for premature newborns, but it also portends major legal and ethical questions, especially for abortion rights in America...
July 2017: Hastings Center Report
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28748588/implementation-of-the-risk-and-harm-reduction-strategy-against-unsafe-abortion-in-uruguay-from-a-university-hospital-to-the-entire-country
#15
Ana Labandera, Monica Gorgoroso, Leonel Briozzo
The history of the creation of the risk and harm reduction model applied to unsafe abortion is reviewed, from its initial implementation by a small group of gynecologists at the Pereira Rossell Hospital Center in Uruguay to its spread to the rest of the country. Its ethical rationale, its successful application in the hospital, the decision to disseminate it with the cooperation of the International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO), and the intervention procedures are explained. It was evaluated from the epidemiological and anthropological viewpoints, from the changes in professionals' and users' perception of the care offered and its impact on complications and maternal deaths...
August 2016: International Journal of Gynaecology and Obstetrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729096/can-the-presence-of-a-surrounding-endometrium-differentiate-eccentrically-located-intrauterine-pregnancy-from-interstitial-ectopic-pregnancy
#16
Allison Grant, Ally Murji, Mostafa Atri
OBJECTIVES: Differentiation of an eccentric intrauterine pregnancy (IUP) from an interstitial ectopic pregnancy (EP) is challenging. No sign for differentiation is reported. The purpose of this study was to determine whether the presence of surrounding endometrium (SE) can distinguish eccentric IUP from interstitial EP. METHODS: This study was approved by the institutional ethics board; consent acquisition was waived. Cases were identified using ultrasound (US) reports that included the words "interstitial," "cornual," and "angular...
August 2017: Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Canada: JOGC, Journal D'obstétrique et Gynécologie du Canada: JOGC
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724027/-the-beginning-of-human-life-ethical-and-legal-perspectives-in-the-context-of-biotechnological-progress
#17
Vicente de Paulo Barretto, Elis Cristina Uhry Lauxen
Questions concerning the beginning of human life have pervaded society since antiquity. In the post-modern world, scientific and technological advances have fueled discussions on the issue, such that debates previously concentrated on abortion now also focus on biotechnological interventions. The article addresses the latter, reflecting on the extent to which human dignity can be considered a (hermeneutic) reference in establishing ethical and legal parameters for biotechnological advances in the definition of the beginning of human life...
July 13, 2017: Cadernos de Saúde Pública
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720025/perspectives-on-induced-abortion-among-palestinian-women-religion-culture-and-access-in-the-occupied-palestinian-territories
#18
Sarrah Shahawy, Megan B Diamond
Induced abortion is an important public health issue in the occupied Palestinian territories (OPT), where it is illegal in most cases. This study was designed to elicit the views of Palestinian women on induced abortion given the unique religious, ethical and social challenges in the OPT. Sixty Palestinian women were interviewed on their perceptions of the religious implications, social consequences and accessibility of induced abortions in the OPT at Al-Makassed Islamic Charitable Hospital in East Jerusalem...
July 19, 2017: Culture, Health & Sexuality
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28698706/personhood-status-of-the-human-zygote-embryo-fetus
#19
John Janez Miklavcic, Paul Flaman
The fields of biology, medicine, and embryology have described the developmental milestones of humans throughout gestation in great detail. It is less clear as to when humans are recognized as people, persons, or beings with rights that are protected by legislation. The practice of law is irrevocably intertwined with that of ethical conduct; and the time at which a human life is considered a person has implications that extend to health care, legislation on abortion, and autonomy of individuals. This article reviews the economical position that fertilization is the moment that personhood of the conceptus begins...
May 2017: Linacre Quarterly
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28670427/kisspeptin-a-potential-factor-for-unexplained-infertility-and-impaired-embryo-implantation
#20
Aaida Mumtaz, Aqsa Khalid, Zehra Jamil, Syeda Sadia Fatima, Sara Arif, Rehana Rehman
BACKGROUND: Kisspeptin (KP) is a neuropeptide that causes the release of the gonadotropin releasing hormone, which controls hypothalamo pituitary ovarian axis and exerts a number of peripheral effects on reproductive organs. The primary objective of this study was to compare baseline KP levels in females with different types of infertility and identify possible correlations with risk of failure to conceive, preclinical abortion and pregnancy after intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI)...
July 2017: International Journal of Fertility & Sterility
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