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Abortion ethics

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330982/response-to-why-medical-professionals-have-no-moral-claim-to-conscientious-objection-accommodation-in-liberal-democracies-by-schuklenk-and-smalling
#1
Richard John Lyus
Bioethicists commenting on conscientious objection and abortion should consider the empirical data on abortion providers. Abortion providers do not fall neatly into groups of providers and objectors, and ambivalence is a key theme in their experience. Practical details of abortion services further upset the dichotomy. These empirical facts are important because they demonstrate that the way the issue is described in analytical bioethics does not reflect reality. Addressing conscientious objection as a barrier to patient access requires engaging with those who provide the service and those who are able to but do not...
April 2017: Journal of Medical Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28297129/towards-a-non-ethics-based-consensual-public-policy-on-abortion
#2
David Alvargonzález
The absence of agreement on the ethical legitimacy of abortion does not entail the impossibility of finding a consensus on the best policy on abortion. This consensus is affordable because nobody doubts that, regarding the methods of birth control, contraception is better than abortion, abortion is better than infanticide and abortion is worse the later and the less safe it is performed. Because the complete elimination of abortion is not possible, the most relevant realistic political objectives that can be proposed are reducing the abortion rate, reducing the gestational age of abortions and making the remaining abortions safer...
January 2017: International Journal of Health Planning and Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28219270/the-ethics-of-pregnancy-abortion-and-childbirth-exploring-moral-choices-in-childbearing
#3
Trevor Stammers
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2016: New Bioethics: a Multidisciplinary Journal of Biotechnology and the Body
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28219264/we-are-not-gametes-distinguishing-between-abortion-and-contraception
#4
Toni Saad
It is sometimes argued that interruptions of the life's continuum which have the same end result are morally equivalent. In other words, abortion and contraception are ethically identical because both prevent birth and the development of persons. We will examine two major arguments in favour of this thesis: (1) all things that are potential persons have equal moral status. Hence preventing fertilisation of gametes is morally identical to destroying an embryo; (2) all interruptions of the continuous process which leads to the creation of a person are morally equivalent; abortion and contraception are morally indistinguishable...
November 2016: New Bioethics: a Multidisciplinary Journal of Biotechnology and the Body
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28209376/-ethics-surrounding-the-provision-of-abortion-care
#5
REVIEW
Anibal Faúndes, Laura Miranda
The provision of abortion care represents a great ethical challenge to physicians, particularly in countries where the law states that abortion is a crime. The concept that it is a crime carries a stigma that is worse than that associated with other acts qualified by law as crimes. This stigma leads to at least two different kinds of unethical behavior. One is the refusal to provide safe abortion services to women who comply with the legal requirements, alleging conscientious objection, and the other is to discriminate against women with complications of induced abortion...
January 20, 2017: Best Practice & Research. Clinical Obstetrics & Gynaecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27968917/current-smoking-in-pregnant-women-in-five-geographical-areas-of-china-a-cross-sectional-survey
#6
Xianglong Xu, Yunshuang Rao, Sha Deng, Sheng Liu, Jeff J Guo, Manoj Sharma, Yong Zhao
BACKGROUND: Smoking during pregnancy is related to many adverse outcomes on infants. Smoking during pregnancy can cause abortion, premature birth, stillbirth, increased sudden infant death risk, and low birthweight. The aim of this study was to probe the differences in smoking among pregnant women with diverse characteristics. METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, 2345 pregnant women aged 18 years and older were surveyed in person by investigators from June 1, to Aug 31, 2015, from 16 hospitals in five provinces of Mainland China (Chongqing, Chengdu, Zunyi, Liaocheng, and Tianjin)...
October 2016: Lancet
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27934566/the-legal-ethical-backbone-of-conscientious-refusal
#7
Christian Munthe, Morten Ebbe Juul Nielsen
This article analyzes the idea of a legal right to conscientious refusal for healthcare professionals from a basic legal ethical standpoint, using refusal to perform tasks related to legal abortion (in cases of voluntary employment) as a case in point. The idea of a legal right to conscientious refusal is distinguished from ideas regarding moral rights or reasons related to conscientious refusal, and none of the latter are found to support the notion of a legal right. Reasons for allowing some sort of room for conscientious refusal for healthcare professionals based on the importance of cultural identity and the fostering of a critical atmosphere might provide some support, if no countervailing factors apply...
January 2017: Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics: CQ: the International Journal of Healthcare Ethics Committees
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27855100/increasing-the-uptake-of-long-acting-reversible-contraception-in-general-practice-the-australian-contraceptive-choice-project-accord-cluster-randomised-controlled-trial-protocol
#8
Danielle Mazza, Kirsten Black, Angela Taft, Jayne Lucke, Kevin McGeechan, Marion Haas, Heather McKay, Jeffery F Peipert
INTRODUCTION: The increased use of long-acting reversible contraceptives (LARCs), such as intrauterine devices and hormonal implants, has the potential to reduce unintended pregnancy and abortion rates. However, use of LARCs in Australia is very low, despite clinical practice guidance and statements by national and international peak bodies advocating their increased use. This protocol paper describes the Australian Contraceptive ChOice pRojet (ACCORd), a cluster randomised control trial that aims to test whether an educational intervention targeting general practitioners (GPs) and establishing a rapid referral service are a cost-effective means of increasing LARC uptake...
October 7, 2016: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27717058/pro-life-arguments-against-infanticide-and-why-they-are-not-convincing
#9
Joona Räsänen
Alberto Giubilini and Francesca Minerva's controversial article 'After-Birth Abortion: Why Should the Baby Live?' has received a lot of criticism since its publishing. Part of the recent criticism has been made by pro-life philosopher Christopher Kaczor, who argues against infanticide in his updated book 'Ethics of Abortion'. Kaczor makes four arguments to show where Giubilini and Minerva's argument for permitting infanticide goes wrong. In this article I argue that Kaczor's arguments, and some similar arguments presented by other philosophers, are mistaken and cannot show Giubilini and Minerva's view to be flawed...
November 2016: Bioethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27697790/further-clarity-on-cooperation-and-morality
#10
David S Oderberg
I explore the increasingly important issue of cooperation in immoral actions, particularly in connection with healthcare. Conscientious objection, especially as pertains to religious freedom in healthcare, has become a pressing issue in the light of the US Supreme Court judgement in Hobby Lobby Section 'Moral evaluation using the basic principles of cooperation' outlines a theory of cooperation inspired by Catholic moral theologians such as those cited by the court. The theory has independent plausibility and is at least worthy of serious consideration-in part because it is an instance of double-effect reasoning, which is also independently plausible despite its association with moral theology...
April 2017: Journal of Medical Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27631408/qualifying-choice-ethical-reflection-on-the-scope-of-prenatal-screening
#11
Greg Stapleton
In the near future developments in non-invasive prenatal testing (NIPT) may soon provide couples with the opportunity to test for and diagnose a much broader range of heritable and congenital conditions than has previously been possible. Inevitably, this has prompted much ethical debate on the possible implications of NIPT for providing couples with opportunities for reproductive choice by way of routine prenatal screening. In view of the possibility to test for a significantly broader range of genetic conditions with NIPT, the European Society of Human Genetics (ESHG) and American Society of Human Genetics (ASHG) recommend that, pending further debate, prenatal screening for reproductive choice should only be offered where concerning serious congenital conditions and childhood disorders...
September 8, 2016: Medicine, Health Care, and Philosophy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27613571/documenting-moral-agency-a-qualitative-analysis-of-abortion-decision-making-for-fetal-indications
#12
Lori M Gawron, Katie Watson
OBJECTIVES: We explored whether the decision-making process of women aborting a pregnancy for a fetal indication fit common medical ethical frameworks. STUDY DESIGN: We applied three ethical frameworks (principlism, care ethics, and narrative ethics) in a secondary analysis of 30 qualitative interviews from women choosing 2nd trimester abortion for fetal indications. RESULTS: All 30 women offered reasoning consistent with one or more ethical frameworks...
September 6, 2016: Contraception
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27612453/stigmatized-by-association-challenges-for-abortion-service-providers-in-ghana
#13
Patience Aniteye, Beverley O'Brien, Susannah H Mayhew
BACKGROUND: Unsafe abortion is an issue of public health concern and contributes significantly to maternal morbidity and mortality globally. Abortion evokes religious, moral, ethical, socio-cultural and medical concerns which mean it is highly stigmatized and this poses a threat to both providers and researchers. This study sought to explore challenges to providing safe abortion services from the perspective of health providers in Ghana. METHODS: A descriptive qualitative study using in-depth interviews was conducted...
2016: BMC Health Services Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27595258/-ethical-dilemmas-in-medicine-the-interruption-of-pregnancy-in-woman
#14
Carlos Gual-Castro
Pregnancy interruption or abortion may be spontaneous or induced for medical, legal, demographic, and personal reasons. Different events that are present during the woman´s gravid period were described, paying attention to the differences in between fertilization and conception. These issues are very important because people or institutions mix these concepts and posit that pregnancy or conception starts at fertilization in opposition to the actual medical and scientific knowledge. In Mexico there are several millions of spontaneous and induced abortions without medical care, responsible for the high maternal-infant mortality rates...
July 2016: Gaceta Médica de México
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27587443/vulnerable-subjects-why-does-informed-consent-matter
#15
Michele Goodwin
This special issue of the Journal Law, Medicine & Ethics takes up the concern of informed consent, particularly in times of controversy. The dominant moral dilemmas that frame traditional bioethical concerns address medical experimentation on vulnerable subjects; physicians assisting their patients in suicide or euthanasia; scarce resource allocation and medical futility; human trials to develop drugs; organ and tissue donation; cloning; xenotransplantation; abortion; human enhancement; mandatory vaccination; and much more...
September 2016: Journal of Law, Medicine & Ethics: a Journal of the American Society of Law, Medicine & Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27577026/implementation-of-the-risk-and-harm-reduction-strategy-against-unsafe-abortion-in-uruguay-from-a-university-hospital-to-the-entire-country
#16
Ana Labandera, Monica Gorgoroso, Leonel Briozzo
The history of the creation of the risk and harm reduction model applied to unsafe abortion is reviewed, from its initial implementation by a small group of gynecologists at the Pereira Rossell Hospital Center in Uruguay to its spread to the rest of the country. Its ethical rationale, its successful application in the hospital, the decision to disseminate it with the cooperation of the International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO), and the intervention procedures are explained. It was evaluated from the epidemiological and anthropological viewpoints, from the changes in professionals' and users' perception of the care offered and its impact on complications and maternal deaths...
August 2016: International Journal of Gynaecology and Obstetrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27570793/-prefacing-the-script-as-an-ethical-response-to-state-mandated-abortion-counseling
#17
Mara Buchbinder, Dragana Lassiter, Rebecca Mercier, Amy Bryant, Anne Drapkin Lyerly
BACKGROUND: Laws governing abortion provision are proliferating throughout the United States, yet little is known about how these laws affect providers. We investigated the experiences of abortion providers in North Carolina practicing under the 2011 Women's Right to Know Act, which mandates that women receive counseling with specific, state-prescribed information at least 24 hours prior to an abortion. We focus here on a subset of the data to examine one strategy by which providers worked to minimize moral conflicts generated by the counseling procedure...
2016: AJOB Empirical Bioethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27544140/individualised-claims-of-conscience-clinical-judgement-and-best-interests
#18
Stephen W Smith
Conscience and conscientious objections are important issues in medical law and ethics. However, discussions tend to focus on a particular type of conscience-based claim. These types of claims are based upon predictable, generalizable rules in which an individual practitioner objects to what is otherwise standard medical treatment (for example, the objections recognised in the Abortion Act). However, not all conscience based claims are of this type. There are other claims which are based not on an objection to a treatment in general but in individual cases...
August 20, 2016: Health Care Analysis: HCA: Journal of Health Philosophy and Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27531923/response-to-why-medical-professionals-have-no-moral-claim-to-conscientious-objection-accommodation-in-liberal-democracies-by-schuklenk-and-smalling
#19
Richard John Lyus
Bioethicists commenting on conscientious objection and abortion should consider the empirical data on abortion providers. Abortion providers do not fall neatly into groups of providers and objectors, and ambivalence is a key theme in their experience. Practical details of abortion services further upset the dichotomy. These empirical facts are important because they demonstrate that the way the issue is described in analytical bioethics does not reflect reality. Addressing conscientious objection as a barrier to patient access requires engaging with those who provide the service and those who are able to but do not...
August 16, 2016: Journal of Medical Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27512572/transperineal-implantation-of-gold-fiducial-markers-gold%C3%A2-seeds-for-prostate-image-guided-radiation-therapy-a%C3%A2-feasible-technique-associated-with-a-low-risk-of-complications
#20
Akram Saad, Jeffrey Goldstein, Yaacov Richard Lawrence, Ilana Weiss, Rasha Saad, Benjamin Spieler, Zvi Symon
INTRODUCTION: The purpose is to describe the method, safety and efficacy of transperineal gold seed placement for image-guided radiation therapy. METHODS: An ethics committee approved database was used to review records of consecutive patients from October 2008 through December 2013, who underwent transperineal implantation of three gold markers into the prostate using staged local anaesthesia and transrectal ultrasound. Seeds were counted on radiographs from CT simulation, first treatment and last treatment...
December 2015: Journal of Medical Radiation Sciences
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