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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340236/diet-density-during-the-first-week-of-life-effects-on-energy-and-nitrogen-balance-characteristics-of-broiler-chickens
#1
D M Lamot, D Sapkota, P J A Wijtten, I van den Anker, M J W Heetkamp, B Kemp, H van den Brand
This study aimed to determine effects of diet density on growth performance, energy balance, and nitrogen balance characteristics of broiler chickens during the first wk of life. Effects of diet density were studied using a dose-response design consisting of 5 dietary fat levels (3.5, 7.0, 10.5, 14.0, and 17.5%). The relative difference in dietary energy level was used to increase amino acid levels, mineral levels, and the premix inclusion level at the same ratio. Chickens were housed in open-circuit climate respiration chambers from d 0 to 7 after hatch...
March 11, 2017: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340146/effect-of-broiler-breeders-fed-with-corn-or-sorghum-diet-and-canthaxanthin-supplementation-on-production-and-reproductive-performance
#2
C E V Bonilla, A P Rosa, A Londero, C B S Giacomini, C Orso, M O Fernandes, S J Paixão, D V Bonamigo
This study was designed to evaluate the effect of corn or sorghum diet and canthaxanthin (CX) supplementation on performance in broiler breeders. A total of 440 females with similar body weight (BW) (3.71 ± 0.14 kg) and 60 roosters were placed in an open-sided house with 20 pens, randomly distributed in a factorial arrangement (2 × 2). There were 4 diets of 2 ingredients; corn (CO) or sorghum (SO) and 2 levels of CX; 6 mg/kg (CX) and 0 mg/kg (NCX) totaling 5 replicate pens of 22 females and 3 males each, from 42 to 65 wk, divided in 2 periods (from wk 42 to 53 and wk 54 to 65)...
March 4, 2017: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339766/higher-bioavailability-of-doxycycline-in-broiler-chickens-with-a-novel-in-feed-pharmaceutical-formulation
#3
Lilia Gutiérrez, Juan Zermeño, Yazmín Alcalá, Héctor Sumano
Bioavailability of a new, long-acting (LA) pharmaceutical preparation for administering doxycycline as in-feed medication to broiler chickens was compared to the standard in-feed administration of doxycycline. A commercial poultry house harboring Ross-308 broiler chickens, weighing 450 g, was divided into 7 sections as follows: doxy-FOLA group (n = 6,000 chickens divided into 3 replicates) medicated with 10% doxycyline, long-acting pellets at a dose of 400 g of doxycycline HCl/ton of food, resulting in a calculated dose of 48 mg/kg for 5 d; doxy-ref group (n = 6,000, divided into 3 replicates) medicated as for doxy-FOLA, but using a 20% commercial preparation of doxycycline...
February 23, 2017: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334962/exposure-to-fictional-medical-television-and-health-a-systematic-review
#4
Beth L Hoffman, Ariel Shensa, Charles Wessel, Robert Hoffman, Brian A Primack
Fictional medical television programs have long been a staple of television programming, and they remain popular today. We aimed to examine published literature assessing the influence of medical television programs on health outcomes. We conducted systematic literature searches in PubMed, PsychINFO and CINAHL. Selected studies had to be scholarly research, to involve exposure to fictionalized medical television programming, and to assess associations between exposures and outcomes. Of 3541 unique studies identified, nineteen met selection criteria...
March 14, 2017: Health Education Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333069/environmental-enrichment-in-kennelled-pit-bull-terriers-canis-lupus-familiaris
#5
Jenna Kiddie, Anna Bodymore, Alex Dittrich
Although social enrichment can be considered beneficial in helping dogs cope with the kennel environment, when taking individual needs into account, it places a large demand on the carers and may not be appropriate in under-resourced kennels. Some kennels are also designed in such a way that there is too much social interaction, in that individuals cannot choose to distance themselves from conspecifics. This study therefore aimed to assess the effects of easily accessible enrichment on the behaviour of kennelled Pit Bull Terrier type dogs rescued from a dog-fighting ring in the Philippines...
March 23, 2017: Animals: An Open Access Journal From MDPI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28332567/dairy-cows-value-access-to-pasture-as-highly-as-fresh-feed
#6
Marina A G von Keyserlingk, Andressa Amorim Cestari, Becca Franks, Jose A Fregonesi, Daniel M Weary
Many dairy cows in the developed world are now housed exclusively indoors with fewer than 5% of the 10 million lactating cows in the United States having access to pasture during the grazing season. Indoor housing systems are designed to meet biological needs for food, water, hygiene, and shelter, but surveys of public and farmer opinion suggest that people think that pasture access is also important for the well-being of dairy cows. To determine if pasture access is important to the cows themselves, we investigated to what extent cows will work to access pasture (by pushing on a weighted gate), and compared it to the motivation to access fresh feed...
March 23, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28332004/social-setting-social-rank-and-hpa-axis-response-in-cynomolgus-monkeys
#7
Vanessa A Jimenez, Daicia C Allen, Megan N McClintick, Kathleen A Grant
RATIONALE: Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activity under different social settings in non-human primates is understudied. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study is to evaluate the response of pituitary-adrenal hormones (adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and cortisol) to pharmacological challenges of the HPA axis in male cynomolgus macaques under different social settings. METHODS: Male cynomolgus macaques (Macaca fascicularis, n = 11) were individually (A) and socially housed (B) in alternation, over consecutive months, in an ABA design...
March 22, 2017: Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28327274/physician-extenders-on-surgical-services-a%C3%A2-systematic-review
#8
Jagdeep Johal, Andrew Dodd
BACKGROUND: With the introduction of resident duty hour restrictions and the resulting in-house trainee shortages, a long-term solution to ensure safe and efficient patient care is needed. One solution is the integration of nurse practitioners (NPs) and physician assistants (PAs) in a variety of health care settings. We sought to examine the use of NPs and PAs on surgical/trauma services and their effect on patient outcomes and resident workload. METHODS: We performed a systematic review of EMBASE, Medline, CINAHL, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials...
April 1, 2017: Canadian Journal of Surgery. Journal Canadien de Chirurgie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317713/a-validated-fast-difference-spectrophotometric-method-for-5-hydroxymethyl-2-furfural-hmf-determination-in-corn-syrups
#9
Jucimara Kulek de Andrade, Camila Kulek de Andrade, Emy Komatsu, Hélène Perreault, Yohandra Reyes Torres, Marcos Roberto da Rosa, Maria Lurdes Felsner
Corn syrups, important ingredients used in food and beverage industries, often contain high levels of 5-hydroxymethyl-2-furfural (HMF), a toxic contaminant. In this work, an in house validation of a difference spectrophotometric method for HMF analysis in corn syrups was developed using sophisticated statistical tools by the first time. The methodology showed excellent analytical performance with good selectivity, linearity (R(2)=99.9%, r>0.99), accuracy and low limits (LOD=0.10mgL(-1) and LOQ=0.34mgL(-1))...
August 1, 2017: Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317222/standardized-total-tract-digestibility-of-phosphorus-in-various-inorganic-phosphates-fed-to-growing-pigs
#10
Woong Bi Kwon, Beob Gyun Kim
An experiment was conducted to determine the standardized total tract digestibility (STTD) of phosphorus (P) in five sources of inorganic phosphate fed to growing pigs, including dicalcium phosphate (DCP), monodicalcium phosphate (MDCP), monocalcium phosphate (MCP), tricalcium phosphate (TCP) and monosodium phosphate (MSP, reagent grade). Six barrows (42.4 ± 1.1 kg) individually housed in metabolism crates were allotted to a 6 × 6 Latin square design with six dietary treatments and six periods. Each experimental period consisted of a 4 day adaptation period and a 5 day collection period...
March 20, 2017: Animal Science Journal, Nihon Chikusan Gakkaihō
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28316364/the-short-term-impacts-of-development-induced-displacement-on-wealth-and-subjective-well-being-in-the-brazilian-amazon
#11
Heather Randell
Displacement due to development projects such as dams, mines, and urban infrastructure often leads to livelihood decline among affected communities. The challenge, therefore, lies in implementing projects that achieve national or regional development goals while also generating positive social and economic outcomes for displaced populations. This paper uses a longitudinal, mixed-methods design to understand the short-term changes in wealth and subjective well-being of households displaced due to construction of the Belo Monte Dam in the Brazilian Amazon...
November 2016: World Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28306717/barriers-to-dog-rabies-vaccination-during-an-urban-rabies-outbreak-qualitative-findings-from-arequipa-peru
#12
Ricardo Castillo-Neyra, Joanna Brown, Katty Borrini, Claudia Arevalo, Michael Z Levy, Alison Buttenheim, Gabrielle C Hunter, Victor Becerra, Jere Behrman, Valerie A Paz-Soldan
BACKGROUND: Canine rabies was reintroduced to the city of Arequipa, Peru in March 2015. The Ministry of Health has conducted a series of mass dog vaccination campaigns to contain the outbreak, but canine rabies virus transmission continues in Arequipa's complex urban environment, putting the city's 1 million inhabitants at risk of infection. The proximate driver of canine rabies in Arequipa is low dog vaccination coverage. Our objectives were to qualitatively assess barriers to and facilitators of rabies vaccination during mass campaigns, and to explore strategies to increase participation in future efforts...
March 17, 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28304162/rational-design-synthesis-and-biological-evaluation-of-heterocyclic-quinolones-targeting-the-respiratory-chain-of-mycobacterium-tuberculosis
#13
Weiqian David Hong, Peter D Gibbons, Suet C Leung, Richard Amewu, Paul A Stocks, Andrew Valentine Stachulski, Pedro C Horta, Maria Lurdes Santos Cristiano, Alison E Shone, Darren Moss, Alison Ardrey, Raman Sharma, Ashley J Warman, Paul T P Bedingfield, Nicholas E Fisher, Ghaith Aljayyoussi, Sally Mead, Maxine Caws, Neil G Berry, Stephen A Ward, Giancarlo A Biagini, Paul M O'Neill, Gemma Louise Nixon
A High-throughput screen (HTS) was undertaken against the respiratory chain dehydrogenase component, NADH:menaquinone oxidoreductase (Ndh) of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb). 11,000 compounds were selected for the HTS based on the known phenothiazine Ndh inhibitors, trifluoperazine and thioridazine. Combined HTS (11,000 compounds) and in-house screening of a limited number of quinolones (50 compounds) identified ~100 hits and four distinct chemotypes, the most promising of which contained the quinolone core...
March 17, 2017: Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28302027/in-silico-design-and-admet-studies-of-natural-compounds-as-inhibitors-of-xanthine-oxidase-xo-enzyme
#14
Neelam Malik, Priyanka Dhiman, Anurag Khatkar
BACKGROUND: Xanthine oxidase a ubiquitous enzyme has been found to be involved in various pathological disorders including gout, hyperuricemia, inflammation, oxidative stress and cardiovascular diseases. Inhibitors of xanthine oxidase thus find a crucial role in the therapeutic treatment of these deadly diseases. OBJECTIVE: Considering the side effects of today's treatment regimen here we choose nature based compounds to act as xanthine oxidase inhibitors. In the present work, we performed in-silico docking of natural compounds to reveal the underlying mechanism of inhibition of xanthine oxidase...
March 15, 2017: Current Drug Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28299969/challenges-and-opportunities-for-gender-affirming-healthcare-for-transgender-women-in-prison
#15
Jae Sevelius, Valerie Jenness
Purpose The purpose of this paper is to briefly address three interrelated areas of concerns - victimization, housing placement and healthcare provision - related to the health and welfare of transgender women in jails, prisons and other types of detention facilities. Design/methodology/approach Drawing on a growing body of research on health risks for transgender women who are detained in facilities in California and elsewhere, the authors provide recommendations for policy and practice that constitutes gender-affirming healthcare for transgender women behind bars...
March 13, 2017: International Journal of Prisoner Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28299893/co-circulation-of-multiple-genotypes-of-african-swine-fever-viruses-among-domestic-pigs-in-zambia-2013-2015
#16
E Simulundu, H M Chambaro, Y Sinkala, M Kajihara, H Ogawa, A Mori, J Ndebe, G Dautu, L Mataa, C H Lubaba, C Simuntala, P Fandamu, M Simuunza, G S Pandey, K L Samui, G Misinzo, A Takada, A S Mweene
During 2013-2015, several and severe outbreaks of African swine fever (ASF) affected domestic pigs in six provinces of Zambia. Genetic characterization of ASF viruses (ASFVs) using standardized genotyping procedures revealed that genotypes I, II and XIV were associated with these outbreaks. Molecular and epidemiological data suggest that genotype II ASFV (Georgia 2007/1-like) detected in Northern Province of Zambia may have been introduced from neighbouring Tanzania. Also, a genotype II virus detected in Eastern Province of Zambia showed a p54 phylogenetic relationship that was inconsistent with that of p72, underscoring the genetic variability of ASFVs...
March 15, 2017: Transboundary and Emerging Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28298665/application-of-micropore-filter-technology-exploring-the-blood-flow-path-in-arterial-line-filters-and-its-effect-on-bubble-trapping-functions
#17
Daniel P Herbst
Conventional arterial-line filters commonly use a large volume circular shaped housing, a wetted micropore screen, and a purge port to trap, separate, and remove gas bubbles from extracorporeal blood flow. Focusing on the bubble trapping function, this work attempts to explore how the filter housing shape and its resulting blood flow path affect the clinical application of arterial-line filters in terms of gross air handling. A video camera was used in a wet-lab setting to record observations made during gross air-bolus injections in three different radially designed filters using a 30-70% glycerol-saline mixture flowing at 4...
March 2017: Journal of Extra-corporeal Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28297459/on-the-use-of-a-convolution-superposition-algorithm-for-plan-checking-in-lung-stereotactic-body-radiation-therapy
#18
Nicholas Hardcastle, Bradley M Oborn, Annette Haworth
Stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) aims to deliver a highly conformal ablative dose to a small target. Dosimetric verification of SBRT for lung tumors presents a challenge due to heterogeneities, moving targets, and small fields. Recent software (M3D) designed for dosimetric verification of lung SBRT treatment plans using an advanced convolution-superposition algorithm was evaluated. Ten lung SBRT patients covering a range of tumor volumes were selected. 3D CRT plans were created using the XiO treatment planning system (TPS) with the superposition algorithm...
September 2016: Journal of Applied Clinical Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28297438/technical-note-a-respiratory-monitoring-and-processing-system-based-on-computer-vision-prototype-and-proof-of-principle
#19
Nicolas Leduc, Vincent Atallah, Patrick Escarmant, Vincent Vinh-Hung
Monitoring and controlling respiratory motion is a challenge for the accuracy and safety of therapeutic irradiation of thoracic tumors. Various commercial systems based on the monitoring of internal or external surrogates have been developed but remain costly. In this article we describe and validate Madibreast, an in-house-made respiratory monitoring and processing device based on optical tracking of external markers. We designed an optical apparatus to ensure real-time submillimetric image resolution at 4 m...
September 2016: Journal of Applied Clinical Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28297296/development-of-a-universal-medical-x-ray-imaging-phantom-prototype
#20
Annemari Groenewald, Willem A Groenewald
Diagnostic X-ray imaging depends on the maintenance of image quality that allows for proper diagnosis of medical conditions. Maintenance of image quality requires quality assurance programs on the various X-ray modalities, which consist of projection radiography (including mobile X-ray units), fluoroscopy, mammography, and computed tomography (CT) scanning. Currently a variety of modality-specific phantoms are used to perform quality assurance (QA) tests. These phantoms are not only expensive, but suitably trained personnel are needed to successfully use them and interpret the results...
November 2016: Journal of Applied Clinical Medical Physics
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