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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721493/modelling-of-lesions-associated-with-functional-mitral-regurgitation-in-an-ex-vivo-platform
#1
Michal Jaworek, Federico Lucherini, Claudia Romagnoni, Guido Gelpi, Monica Contino, Paolo Romitelli, Carlo Antona, Gianfranco B Fiore, Riccardo Vismara
Functional mitral regurgitation (FMR) is a complex pathology involving valvular and subvalvular structures reconfiguration, and its treatment is considered challenging. There is a lack of experimental models allowing for reliable preclinical FMR treatments' evaluation in a realistic setting. A novel approach to simulate FMR was developed and incorporated into an ex vivo passive beating heart platform. FMR was obtained by dilating the mitral annulus (MA) mainly in the antero-posterior direction and displacing the papillary muscles (PMs) apically and laterally by ad hoc designed and 3D printed dilation and displacing devices...
July 18, 2017: Annals of Biomedical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721223/atrial-fibrillation-in-a-preterm-newborn-with-structurally-normal-heart
#2
Pier Paolo Bassareo, Andrea Raffaele Marras, Mariangela Marras, Silvia Marras, Giuseppe Mercuro
Atrial fibrillation (AF) is a really uncommon arrhythmia in newborns. Here, we report the case of a 1-day-old infant who was recovered in Neonatal Intensive Care Unit for a twin-to-twin transfusion. The appearance of an unexpected AF was registered at his continuous electrocardiographic monitoring. Both chest X-ray and echocardiographic examination revealed the anomalous insertion of the tip of a central venous catheter (CVC) into the heart ('umbilical artery → inferior vena cava → right atrium → patent foramen ovale → left atrium')...
March 2017: Oxford Medical Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720299/cats-with-diabetes-mellitus-have-diastolic-dysfunction-in-the-absence-of-structural-heart-disease
#3
N J Pereira, J Novo Matos, M Baron Toaldo, U Bartoszuk, N Summerfield, A Riederer, C Reusch, T M Glaus
Diabetes mellitus (DM) can result in cardiovascular dysfunction and heart failure characterized by diastolic dysfunction with or without the presence of systolic dysfunction in people and laboratory animals. The objective of this prospective study was to determine if cats with newly diagnosed DM had myocardial dysfunction and, if present, whether it would progress if appropriate antidiabetic therapy was commenced. Thirty-two diabetic cats were enrolled and received baseline echocardiographic examination; of these, 15 cats were re-examined after 6 months...
July 2017: Veterinary Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28709919/morbidity-after-cardiac-surgery-in-patients-with-adult-congenital-heart-disease-in-comparison-with-acquired-disease
#4
Dimos Karangelis, Amine Mazine, Sreekanth Narsupalli, Shamarli Mendis, Gruschen Veldtman, Nicolas Nikolaidis
BACKGROUND: Due to the advancements in congenital cardiac surgery and interventional cardiology in the last five decades, more than 85% of congenital heart patients now survive to adulthood. METHODS: This retrospective study included 135 Adult Congenital Heart Disease (ACHD) patients, who had cardiac surgery at Southampton General Hospital over three consecutive years. We also included 42 patients with a structurally normal heart who had cardiac surgery for acquired cardiac conditions as a control group...
June 28, 2017: Heart, Lung & Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28708714/sleep-medications-containing-melatonin-can-potentially-induce-ventricular-arrhythmias-in-structurally-normal-hearts-a-two-patient-report
#5
L J de Vries, T Géczy, T Szili-Torok
Idiopathic ventricular arrhythmias (IVAs) are relatively common in the general population and usually have a good prognosis. However, frequent PVCs can lower quality of life (in symptomatic cases) and can cause cardiomyopathy and sudden cardiac death. In this report, we demonstrate a novel trigger for IVAs. Melatonin use for treating sleep-disorders has increased significantly in recent years. We provide here the first human evidence of its pro-arrhythmic effect by presenting two patients (with normal myocardium) with symptomatic PVCs, while on melatonin...
July 13, 2017: Journal of Cardiovascular Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28706583/cardiac-damage-in-athlete-s-heart-when-the-supernormal-heart-fails
#6
REVIEW
Andreina Carbone, Antonello D'Andrea, Lucia Riegler, Raffaella Scarafile, Enrica Pezzullo, Francesca Martone, Raffaella America, Biagio Liccardo, Maurizio Galderisi, Eduardo Bossone, Raffaele Calabrò
Intense exercise may cause heart remodeling to compensate increases in blood pressure or volume by increasing muscle mass. Cardiac changes do not involve only the left ventricle, but all heart chambers. Physiological cardiac modeling in athletes is associated with normal or enhanced cardiac function, but recent studies have documented decrements in left ventricular function during intense exercise and the release of cardiac markers of necrosis in athlete's blood of uncertain significance. Furthermore, cardiac remodeling may predispose athletes to heart disease and result in electrical remodeling, responsible for arrhythmias...
June 26, 2017: World Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28706255/mitsugumin-29-regulates-t-tubule-architecture-in-the-failing-heart
#7
Robert N Correll, Jeffrey M Lynch, Tobias G Schips, Vikram Prasad, Allen J York, Michelle A Sargent, Didier X P Brochet, Jianjie Ma, Jeffery D Molkentin
Transverse tubules (t-tubules) are uniquely-adapted membrane invaginations in cardiac myocytes that facilitate the synchronous release of Ca(2+) from internal stores and subsequent myofilament contraction, although these structures become disorganized and rarefied in heart failure. We previously observed that mitsugumin 29 (Mg29), an important t-tubule organizing protein in skeletal muscle, was induced in the mouse heart for the first time during dilated cardiomyopathy with heart failure. Here we generated cardiac-specific transgenic mice expressing Mg29 to model this observed induction in the failing heart...
July 13, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28702857/protein-kinase-c-and-cardiac-dysfunction-a-review
#8
REVIEW
Raphael M Singh, Emanuel Cummings, Constantinos Pantos, Jaipaul Singh
Heart failure (HF) is a physiological state in which cardiac output is insufficient to meet the needs of the body. It is a clinical syndrome characterized by impaired ability of the left ventricle to either fill or eject blood efficiently. HF is a disease of multiple aetiologies leading to progressive cardiac dysfunction and it is the leading cause of deaths in both developed and developing countries. HF is responsible for about 73,000 deaths in the UK each year. In the USA, HF affects 5.8 million people and 550,000 new cases are diagnosed annually...
July 12, 2017: Heart Failure Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28692680/recurrent-myocardial-infarction-mechanisms-of-free-floating-adaptation-and-autonomic-derangement-in-networked-cardiac-neural-control
#9
Guy Kember, Jeffrey L Ardell, Kalyanam Shivkumar, J Andrew Armour
The cardiac nervous system continuously controls cardiac function whether or not pathology is present. While myocardial infarction typically has a major and catastrophic impact, population studies have shown that longer-term risk for recurrent myocardial infarction and the related potential for sudden cardiac death depends mainly upon standard atherosclerotic variables and autonomic nervous system maladaptations. Investigative neurocardiology has demonstrated that autonomic control of cardiac function includes local circuit neurons for networked control within the peripheral nervous system...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28692525/effect-of-adjuvant-chemotherapy-on-left-ventricular-remodeling-in-women-with-newly-diagnosed-primary-breast-cancer-a-pilot-prospective-longitudinal-cardiac-magnetic-resonance-imaging-study
#10
Erick Avelar, Quynh A Truong, David Inyangetor, Ravi Marfatia, Clifford Yang, Electra Kaloudis, Susan Tannenbaum, Guido Rosito, Sheldon Litwin
PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to assess the left ventricular (LV) remodeling response to chemotherapy in low-cardiac-risk women with newly diagnosed nonmetastatic breast cancer. Cardiotoxic effects of chemotherapy are an increasing concern. To effectively interpret cardiac imaging studies performed for screening purposes in patients undergoing cancer therapy it is necessary to understand the normal changes in structure and function that may occur. METHODS: Twenty women without preexisting cardiovascular disease, of a mean age of 50 years, newly diagnosed with nonmetastatic breast cancer and treated with anthracycline or trastuzumab were prospectively enrolled and evaluated at four time points (at baseline, during chemotherapy, 2 weeks after chemotherapy, and 6 months after chemotherapy) using cardiac magnetic resonance imaging, blood samples, and a clinical questionnaire...
July 7, 2017: Journal of Thoracic Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28685242/an-investigation-of-protective-effects-of-litium-borate-on-blood-and-histopathological-parameters-in-acute-cadmium-induced-rats
#11
Serkan Yildirim, Fatih Caglar Celikezen, Gökhan Oto, Emin Sengul, Mehmet Bulduk, M Tasdemir, D Ali Cinar
This study was carried out to determine the protective effects of lithium borate (LTB) on blood parameters and histopathological findings in experimentally induced acute cadmium (Cd) toxicity in rats. Twenty-eight male Wistar albino rats were used, weighing 200-220 g, and they were randomly divided into four groups, including one control and the following three experimental groups: a Cd group (0.025 mmol/kg), a LTB group (15 mg/kg/day orally for 5 days), and a LTB + Cd group (15 mg/kg/day orally for 5 days and Cd 0...
July 7, 2017: Biological Trace Element Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28684623/calcium-and-excitation-contraction-coupling-in-the-heart
#12
REVIEW
David A Eisner, Jessica L Caldwell, Kornél Kistamás, Andrew W Trafford
Cardiac contractility is regulated by changes in intracellular Ca concentration ([Ca(2+)]i). Normal function requires that [Ca(2+)]i be sufficiently high in systole and low in diastole. Much of the Ca needed for contraction comes from the sarcoplasmic reticulum and is released by the process of calcium-induced calcium release. The factors that regulate and fine-tune the initiation and termination of release are reviewed. The precise control of intracellular Ca cycling depends on the relationships between the various channels and pumps that are involved...
July 7, 2017: Circulation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28680863/adherence-to-insulin-self-administration-and-associated-factors-among-diabetes-mellitus-patients-at-tikur-anbessa-specialized-hospital
#13
Yusuf Gerada, Zuriyash Mengistu, Asrat Demessie, Atsede Fantahun, Kahsu Gebrekirstos
BACKGROUND: The goals of diabetes treatment are to keep blood glucose levels as near normal as possible while avoiding complications. Despite the benefits of insulin therapy, many people with diabetes don't adhere to treatment. Some avoid insulin therapy or refuse to start it. Several studies investigating adherence to chronic disease treatment have evidenced that patients often discontinue their medications or even do not take them at all because they consider them ineffective or experience untoward side effects...
2017: Journal of Diabetes and Metabolic Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28680466/atrial-fibrillation-with-a-structurally-normal-heart-in-pregnancy-an-international-survey-on-current-practice
#14
Annabelle Cumyn, Nadine Sauvé, Évelyne Rey
BACKGROUND: Little evidence exists for the optimal management of atrial fibrillation with a structurally normal heart in pregnancy. METHODS: A survey was sent to members of two associations to obtain input on optimal management of atrial fibrillation in pregnancy. The survey presented four cases with respect to (1) baseline investigations; (2) rate versus rhythm control; (3) chemical versus electrical cardioversion; and (4) anticoagulation. RESULTS: Sixty-one responders from 11 countries participated...
June 2017: Obstetric Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28678925/gestational-protein-restriction-increases-cardiac-connexin-43-mrna-levels-in-male-adult-rat-offspring
#15
Kamila Fernanda Rossini, Camila Andrea de Oliveira, Hércules Jonas Rebelato, Marcelo Augusto Marreto Esquisatto, Rosana Catisti
Background: The dietary limitation during pregnancy influences the growth and development of the fetus and offspring and their health into adult life. The mechanisms underlying the adverse effects of gestational protein restriction (GPR) in the development of the offspring hearts are not well understood. Objectives: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of GPR on cardiac structure in male rat offspring at day 60 after birth (d60). Methods: Pregnant Wistar rats were fed a normal-protein (NP, 17% casein) or low-protein (LP, 6% casein) diet...
June 29, 2017: Arquivos Brasileiros de Cardiologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28676244/diagnostic-yield-of-cardiovascular-magnetic-resonance-in-young-middle-aged-patients-with-high-grade-atrio-ventricular-block
#16
A Baritussio, A Ghosh Dastidar, A Frontera, N Ahmed, E De Garate, I Harries, I Diab, E Duncan, G Thomas, A Nisbet, C Bucciarelli-Ducci
BACKGROUND: Atrio-ventricular block (AVB) is a rare finding in young or middle-aged adults, often leading to pacemaker implantation (PM) without further investigation. We sought to assess the diagnostic role of cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) in young and middle-aged adults with high-grade AVB. METHODS: We consecutively enrolled young-middle aged (18-65years) patients with high grade AVB referred to CMR after standard clinical assessment (history, electrocardiogram and cardiac rhythm monitoring) prior to PM implantation...
June 21, 2017: International Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28676019/statins-an-under-appreciated-asset-for-the-prevention-and-the-treatment-of-nafld-or-nash-and-the-related-cardiovascular-risk
#17
Vasilios G Athyros, Chrysa Boutari, Konstantinos Stavropoulos, Panagiotis Anagnostis, Konstantinos P Imprialos, Michael Doumas, Asterios Karagiannis
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common liver disease (30% of the general population) and up to 40% of cases advance to the more severe form of the disease: non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), which is causally related to cirrhosis and cardiovascular disease (CVD). There is no generally accepted effective treatment for NAFLD/NASH. The joint guidelines of the European Association for the Study of the Liver (EASL), the European Association for the Study of Diabetes (EASD) and the European Association for the Study of Obesity (EASO) suggest the "off label" use of pioglitazone in patients without type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and pioglitazone in subjects with T2DM or vitamin E or their combination for the treatment of NASH; however pioglitazone has considerable limitations: weight gain, bone fractures in women, and heart failure...
June 20, 2017: Current Vascular Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28674041/transient-notch-activation-induces-long-term-gene-expression-changes-leading-to-sick-sinus-syndrome-in-mice
#18
Yun Qiao, Catherine Lipovsky, Stephanie Hicks, Somya Bhatnagar, Gang Li, Aditi Khandekar, Robert Guzy, Kel Vin Woo, Colin G Nichols, Igor R Efimov, Stacey Rentschler
Rationale: Notch signaling programs cardiac conduction during development, and in the adult ventricle, injury-induced Notch reactivation initiates global transcriptional and epigenetic changes. Objective: To determine whether Notch reactivation may stably alter atrial ion channel gene expression and arrhythmia inducibility. Methods and Results: To model an injury response and determine the effects of Notch signaling on atrial electrophysiology, we transiently activate Notch signaling within adult myocardium using a doxycycline-inducible genetic system (iNICD)...
July 3, 2017: Circulation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28670801/australian-and-new-zealand-committee-on-resuscitation-neonatal-resuscitation-guidelines-2016
#19
Helen G Liley, Lindsay Mildenhall, Peter Morley
New Australian and New Zealand Neonatal Resuscitation guidelines reflect recent advances in neonatal resuscitation science, as critically appraised by the International Liaison Committee on Resuscitation. Substantial changes since the 2010 guidelines include: (i) updates to the Newborn Resuscitation Flowchart to include a greater emphasis on maintaining normal body temperature, and to emphasise the importance of beginning assisted ventilation by 1 min in infants who have absent or ineffective spontaneous breathing; (ii) updates to the physiology of the normal perinatal transition that resuscitation is trying to restore; (iii) recommendations for more frequent reinforcement of training, and for structured feedback for resuscitation training instructors; (iv) new guidance in relation to the timing of cord clamping for preterm newborn infants; (v) recommendation to monitor body temperature on admission to newborn units as a resuscitation quality indicator; (vi) suggestion to consider electrocardiographic (ECG) monitoring (as an adjunct to oximetry) to obtain more rapid and accurate estimation of heart rate during resuscitation; (vii) removal of previous suggestions to intubate meconium-exposed, non-vigorous term infants to suction the trachea; and (viii) suggestion to establish vascular access to enable administration of intravenous adrenaline (epinephrine) as soon as chest compressions are deemed to be needed...
July 2017: Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28670631/cardiac-directed-expression-of-adenylyl-cyclase-catalytic-domain-reverses-cardiac-dysfunction-caused-by-sustained-beta-adrenergic-receptor-stimulation
#20
Mei Hua Gao, N Chin Lai, Dimosthenis Giamouridis, Young Chul Kim, Zhen Tan, Tracy Guo, Wolfgang H Dillmann, Jorge Suarez, H Kirk Hammond
OBJECTIVE: To test the hypothesis that cardiac-directed expression of the cytoplasmic domains of adenylyl cyclase-6 (AC6) would have beneficial effects on the heart. BACKGROUND: Eliminating the two transmembrane domains of AC6 yields a protein with an intact catalytic domain that is disengaged from membrane-associated β-adrenergic receptor stimulation, but with enhanced propensity for intracellular interactions. METHODS: We constructed a peptide of the C1 and C2 segments of AC6 (C1C2), expressed C1C2 in an adenovirus vector and generated transgenic lines with cardiac-directed C1C2 expression, which underwent sustained isoproterenol (Iso) infusion...
December 2016: JACC. Basic to Translational Science
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