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carbohydrates counting

E Hommel, S Schmidt, D Vistisen, K Neergaard, M Gribhild, T Almdal, K Nørgaard
AIMS: To test whether concomitant use of an automated bolus calculator for people with Type 1 diabetes carrying out advanced carbohydrate counting would induce further improvements in metabolic control. METHODS: We conducted a 12-month, randomized, parallel-group, open-label, single-centre, investigator-initiated clinical study. We enrolled advanced carbohydrate counting-naïve adults with Type 1 diabetes and HbA1c levels 64-100 mmol/mol (8.0-11.3%), who were receiving multiple daily insulin injection therapy...
October 20, 2016: Diabetic Medicine: a Journal of the British Diabetic Association
Vincenzo De Iuliis, Raimondo Gelormini, Mariarosaria Flacco, Giuseppe Moriello, Marika Caruso, Eugenia Barone, Maria Golato, Elena Toniato, Pio Conti, Stefano Martinotti
BACKGROUND: Valproate is a broad-spectrum anticonvulsant that is effective in the treatment of tonic-clonic, myoclonic and absence seizures as well as in partial seizures as a second-line drug. It has been widely demonstrated in the literature that the effect of valproate on type-A γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA-A) receptors may reduce relapse to ethanol abuse. This retrospective study evaluated a 3-year period in which 42 patients from the Department of Alcoholism and Substance Abuse (DASA) were treated with valproate...
March 2016: Drugs—Real World Outcomes
Waroon Khota, Suradej Pholsen, David Higgs, Yimin Cai
Natural lactic acid bacteria (LAB) populations in tropical grasses and their fermentation characteristics on silage prepared with cellulase enzyme and LAB inoculants were studied. A commercial inoculant Lactobacillus plantarum Chikuso 1 (CH), a local selected strain Lactobacillus casei TH14 (TH14), and 2 cellulases, Acremonium cellulase (AC) and Maicelase (MC; Meiji Seika Pharma Co. Ltd., Tokyo, Japan), were used as additives to silage preparation with fresh and wilted (6 h) Guinea grass and Napier grass. Silage was prepared using a laboratory-scale fermentation system...
October 13, 2016: Journal of Dairy Science
Abirami Arasu, Venkatesh Kumaresan, Rajesh Palanisamy, Mariadhas Valan Arasu, Naif Abdullah Al-Dhabi, Munuswamy-Ramanujam Ganesh, Jesu Arockiaraj
Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are innate molecules that are found in a wide variety of species ranging from bacteria to humans. In recent years, excessive usage of antibiotics resulted in development of multi-drug resistant pathogens which made researchers to focus on AMPs as potential substitute for antibiotics. Lily type mannose-binding lectin is an extended super-family of structurally and evolutionarily related sugar binding proteins. These lectins are well-known AMPs which play important roles in fish defense mechanism...
October 8, 2016: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
Ryuma Tokunaga, Yasuo Sakamoto, Shigeki Nakagawa, Mayuko Ohuchi, Daisuke Izumi, Keisuke Kosumi, Katsunobu Taki, Takaaki Higashi, Yuji Miyamoto, Naoya Yoshida, Eiji Oki, Masayuki Watanabe, Hideo Baba
BACKGROUND: Controlling nutritional status (CONUT) score, calculated from serum albumin and total cholesterol concentrations and total lymphocyte count, is reportedly valuable for nutritional assessment. This study investigated whether CONUT score was predictive of outcomes in colorectal cancer (CRC) patients undergoing surgical resection. METHODS: Preoperative CONUT scores were retrospectively evaluated in 417 CRC patients who underwent potentially curative resection at Kumamoto University Hospital from March 2005 to August 2014...
October 10, 2016: International Journal of Colorectal Disease
Samir Moura Kadri, Rodrigo Zaluski, Ricardo de Oliveira Orsi
In this study, wild honey samples extracted by two different methods (centrifugation and pressed processing) were characterized and compared based on their physicochemical, and nutritional properties, macro- and micro-mineral contents, and pollen counts. Twelve colonies of Africanized Apis mellifera were used; six honey samples were obtained by centrifugation and six by honeycomb press. All physicochemical parameters of honey samples (moisture, pH, total acidity, ash, dry matter, and qualitative absence of hydroxymethylfurfural) were within the limits established by EU legislation, and all parameters in pressed honey were superior (p<0...
March 1, 2017: Food Chemistry
Ewa Żurawska-Płaksej, Maria Knapik-Kordecka, Anna Rorbach-Dolata, Agnieszka Piwowar
INTRODUCTION: Chitotriosidase (CHIT1) is a chitinolytic enzyme involved mainly in the immune and inflammatory response. It shows increased activity in many pathologies, including in newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes (T2D). This study aimed to investigate this enzyme's activity in plasma of patients with ongoing T2D and indicate factors related to the increased activity of this enzyme. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Ninety-one patients and 46 control subjects without abnormalities in carbohydrate metabolism and inflammatory states were enrolled in the study...
October 1, 2016: Archives of Medical Science: AMS
Hongyan Yang, Hao Wu, Lijuan Gao, Hongbai Jia, Yuan Zhang, Zongjun Cui, Yuhua Li
To investigate the effects of Lactobacillus curvatus and Leuconostoc mesenteroides on suan cai fermentation, Lactobacillus curvatus and/or Leuconostoc mesenteroides were inoculated into suan cai. Physicochemical indexes were measured, and the microbial dynamics during the fermentation were analyzed by Illumina MiSeq sequencing and quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). The results showed that inoculation with lactic acid bacteria (LAB) lowered the pH of the fermentation system more rapidly. The decrease in water-soluble carbohydrates in the inoculated treatments occurred more rapidly than in the control...
September 23, 2016: Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
M D S D Mendes, M E de Melo, A E Fernandes, C T H Fujiwara, M B Pioltine, A Teixeira, K Coelho, M Galasso, C Cercato, M C Mancini
The aim of this study is to compare the weight loss of obese adolescents on two different low-calorie diets: fixed diet plan and calorie-counting diet. This is a randomized clinical study with 66 obese adolescents (body mass index Z score (ZBMI)>+3, 13.7±0.7 years, 60.6% male) with anthropometric, food intake, physical activity, laboratory, body composition and stage of pubertal development data evaluated. There was a reduction in the ZBMI in both groups (P<0.0001), without significant difference between them (P=0...
September 21, 2016: European Journal of Clinical Nutrition
Christy Foster, Jayne Bellando, Yu-Chi Annie Wang
Type 1 diabetes is a chronic disease that can lead to severe complications if poorly controlled. Adolescents are particularly vulnerable to worsening diabetes control due to changes in physiology, family dynamics, and social interactions. Good diabetes control requires following a regimen of frequent blood glucose checks, accurate carbohydrate counts, and compliance with insulin administration. Patients who are challenged in controlling their diabetes do tend to respond to behavioral interventions; however, the effect of the intervention wanes over time...
September 1, 2016: Pediatric Annals
Lisa T Meade, Wanda E Rushton
In Brief This study investigates carbohydrate counting accuracy in patients using insulin through a multiple daily injection regimen or continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion. The average accuracy test score for all patients was 59%. The carbohydrate test in this study can be used to emphasize the importance of carbohydrate counting to patients and to provide ongoing education.
July 2016: Clinical Diabetes: a Publication of the American Diabetes Association
Martin de Bock, Julie Dart, Anirban Roy, Raymond Davey, Wayne Soon, Carolyn Berthold, Adam Retterath, Benyamin Grosman, Natalie Kurtz, Elizabeth Davis, Timothy Jones
BACKGROUND: Hypoglycemia remains a risk for closed loop insulin delivery particularly following exercise or if the glucose sensor is inaccurate. The aim of this study was to test whether an algorithm that includes a limit to insulin delivery is effective at protecting against hypoglycemia under those circumstances. METHODS: An observational study on 8 participants with type 1 diabetes was conducted, where a hybrid closed loop system (HCL) (Medtronic™ 670G) was challenged with hypoglycemic stimuli: exercise and an overreading glucose sensor...
September 12, 2016: Journal of Diabetes Science and Technology
Balázs Bernáth, Victor Anstett, Patrick M Guerin
The ability to learn plays a key role in tuning and adapting the behaviours of animals for their unpredictable biotopes. This also applies to insect vectors of disease. Anautogenous mosquitoes need to find both sugar and blood for survival and reproduction. Learning processes are expected to contribute to a mosquito's ability to undertake repeated feeding behaviours more efficiently with time, serving to decrease energy demands and avoid hazards. Here we report how visual learning by the Afrotropical malaria mosquito Anopheles gambiae allows it to readily associate visual cues with the quality of a sugar source...
September 3, 2016: Journal of Insect Physiology
Yang Yu, Feng Sun, Congcong Zhang, Zhendong Wang, Jinfeng Liu, Haining Tan
Soluble O-(2-hydroxyl)propyl-3-trimethyl ammonium chitooligosaccharide chloride (HTCOSC) was covalently conjugated to the 11-amino-acid peptide derived from amino terminus of endostatin (endostatin2, ES2, IVRRADRAAVP) to overcome its poor stability, low cell affinity and instable activity. Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and mass spectrometry was used to study the structure and molecular weight information. The anti-angiogenic activities were evaluated using cell counting Kit-8 assay, flow cytometry assay, wounding migration assay, transwell migration assay, chicken chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) assay and zebra fish angiogenesis assay...
December 10, 2016: Carbohydrate Polymers
P Scocco, C Forte, M P Franciosini, F Mercati, P Casagrande-Proietti, C Dall'Aglio, G Acuti, F M Tardella, M Trabalza-Marinucci
One hundred and seventy one-day-old female broiler chicks were randomly divided into three groups fed with different dietary treatments: basal control diet (C); C supplemented (2 g/kg) with an oregano aqueous extract (O); C supplemented (150 mg/kg) with vitamin E (E). Growth performance was evaluated at 21 (T1) and 42 days (T2). On the same days, morphological, histochemical and microbiological analyses were performed. The O group showed the highest (p < 0.01) body weight at T1, while no differences were observed at T2...
August 23, 2016: Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition
Yoshiharu Yamaguchi, Kazunori Adachi, Tomoya Sugiyama, Akihiro Shimozato, Masahide Ebi, Naotaka Ogasawara, Yasushi Funaki, Chiho Goto, Makoto Sasaki, Kunio Kasugai
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Evidence suggests that intestinal microbiota, along with factors such as diet and host genetics, contributes to obesity, metabolic dysfunction and diabetes. Therefore, we examined the relationship between gut microbiota, blood metabolic markers, dietary habits and fecal short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). METHODS: Dietary habits, blood and fecal samples from 59 T2DM patients were recruited, and the association of intestinal microbiota with metabolic markers and dietary habits was analyzed...
August 10, 2016: Digestion
Ragnar Hanas, Peter Adolfsson
BACKGROUND: The "500 rule" has been used extensively to find the insulin to carbohydrate ratio (ICR) for carbohydrate counting (CC). Duration of insulin action (DIA) is often recommended to be set to 4 hours. Data are lacking on validating these routines in young children. METHODS: ICR was calculated by dividing carbohydrate grams by insulin units. Insulin sensitivity factor (ISF) was defined by the 100 rule (100 divided by total daily insulin dose [TDD]). DIA was set to 3 hours...
July 28, 2016: Journal of Diabetes Science and Technology
Dong Yang, Xiaomin Yu, Yaoping Wu, Xingxing Chen, Hua Wei, Nagendra P Shah, Feng Xu
In this study, we investigated the effect of administration of 5 strains of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) isolated from traditional Chinese sourdough on the flora balance of gastrointestinal tract of mice. We specifically measured Enterococcus, Enterobacter, Bacteroides, and Lactobacillus by plate count and real-time PCR methods, and α-glucosidase, lactate dehydrogenase, esterase, and aminopeptidase activities as indicative of metabolism of sugar, fat, and protein from LAB isolated from feces of mice in vitro...
October 2016: Journal of Dairy Science
David Rios-Covian, Isabel Cuesta, Jorge R Alvarez-Buylla, Patricia Ruas-Madiedo, Miguel Gueimonde, Clara G de Los Reyes-Gavilán
BACKGROUND: Bacteroides fragilis is the most frequent species at the human intestinal mucosal surface, it contributes to the maturation of the immune system although is also considered as an opportunistic pathogen. Some Bifidobacterium strains produce exopolysaccharides (EPS), complex carbohydrate polymers that promote changes in the metabolism of B. fragilis when this microorganism grows in their presence. To demonstrate that B. fragilis can use EPS from bifidobacteria as fermentable substrates, purified EPS fractions from two strains, Bifidobacterium longum E44 and Bifidobacterium animalis subsp...
2016: BMC Microbiology
Pedram Fatehi, Weijiue Gao, Yonghui Sun, Mehdi Dashtban
Acidification has been commercialized for producing kraft lignin from black liquor of kraft pulping process. This work intended to evaluate the effectiveness of acidification in extracting lignocelluloses from the spent liquor of neutral sulfite semichemical pulping (NSSC) process and from prehydrolysis liquor (PHL) of kraft-based dissolving pulp production process. The results showed that the NSSC and PHL spent liquors had some lignin-carbohydrate complexes (LCC), and that the square weighted counts of particles with a chord length of 50-150μm in the spent liquors were significantly increased as pH dropped to 1...
October 2016: Bioresource Technology
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