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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28086790/rna-sequencing-for-global-gene-expression-associated-with-muscle-growth-in-a-single-male-modern-broiler-line-compared-to-a-foundational-barred-plymouth-rock-chicken-line
#1
Byung-Whi Kong, Nicholas Hudson, Dongwon Seo, Seok Lee, Bhuwan Khatri, Kentu Lassiter, Devin Cook, Alissa Piekarski, Sami Dridi, Nicholas Anthony, Walter Bottje
BACKGROUND: Modern broiler chickens exhibit very rapid growth and high feed efficiency compared to unselected chicken breeds. The improved production efficiency in modern broiler chickens was achieved by the intensive genetic selection for meat production. This study was designed to investigate the genetic alterations accumulated in modern broiler breeder lines during selective breeding conducted over several decades. METHODS: To identify genes important in determining muscle growth and feed efficiency in broilers, RNA sequencing (RNAseq) was conducted with breast muscle in modern pedigree male (PeM) broilers (n = 6 per group), and with an unselected foundation broiler line (Barred Plymouth Rock; BPR)...
January 13, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28075383/soluble-fibre-meal-challenge-reduces-airway-inflammation-and-expression-of-gpr43-and-gpr41-in-asthma
#2
Isabel Halnes, Katherine J Baines, Bronwyn S Berthon, Lesley K MacDonald-Wicks, Peter G Gibson, Lisa G Wood
Short chain fatty acids (SCFAs) are produced following the fermentation of soluble fibre by gut bacteria. In animal models, both dietary fibre and SCFAs have demonstrated anti-inflammatory effects via the activation of free fatty acid receptors, such as G protein-coupled receptor 41 and 43 (GPR41 and GPR43). This pilot study examined the acute effect of a single dose of soluble fibre on airway inflammation-including changes in gene expression of free fatty acid receptors-in asthma. Adults with stable asthma consumed a soluble fibre meal (n = 17) containing 3...
January 10, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28070321/nutritional-composition-quality-and-shelf-stability-of-processed-ruspolia-nitidula-edible-grasshoppers
#3
Geoffrey Ssepuuya, Ivan Muzira Mukisa, Dorothy Nakimbugwe
The nutritional and commercial potential of the edible grasshopper (Ruspolia nitidula, nsenene in Luganda), a delicacy in Uganda and many East African tribes, is limited by a short shelf life and unverified nutritional value. This research established that R. nitidula is nutritious with 36-40% protein, 41-43% fat, 2.5-3.2% carbohydrate, 2.6-3.9% ash, 11.0-14.5% dietary fiber, and 900-2300 μg/100 g total carotenoids on a dry matter basis. Sautéing was the most preferred processing method resulting in grasshoppers with a notably better aroma and flavor...
January 2017: Food Science & Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28061743/shotgun-proteomics-of-the-barley-seed-proteome
#4
Ramamurthy Mahalingam
BACKGROUND: Barley seed proteins are of prime importance to the brewing industry, human and animal nutrition and in plant breeding for cultivar identification. To obtain comprehensive proteomic data from seeds, total protein from a two-rowed (Conrad) and a six-rowed (Lacey) barley cultivar were precipitated in acetone, digested in-solution, and the resulting peptides were analyzed by nano-liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry. RESULTS: The raw mass spectra data searched against Uniprot's Barley database using in-house Mascot search engine identified 1168 unique proteins...
January 6, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28040172/reassessment-of-the-succession-of-lactic-acid-bacteria-in-commercial-cucumber-fermentations-and-physiological-and-genomic-features-associated-with-their-dominance
#5
I M Pérez-Díaz, J Hayes, E Medina, K Anekella, K Daughtry, S Dieck, M Levi, R Price, N Butz, Z Lu, M A Azcarate-Peril
A compositional re-assessment of the microbiota present in commercial cucumber fermentation using culture independent and dependent methods was conducted, with emphasis on lactic acid bacteria (LAB). Two commercial cucumber fermentation tanks were monitored by measuring pH, dissolved oxygen and temperature, and used as sources of samples for microbial plating, genomic DNA extraction and measurement of organic acids and carbohydrates by HPLC. Six additional commercial tanks were included to identify the dominant microorganisms using molecular methods...
May 2017: Food Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28007348/home-use-of-a-bihormonal-bionic-pancreas-versus-insulin-pump-therapy-in-adults-with-type-1-diabetes-a-multicentre-randomised-crossover-trial
#6
Firas H El-Khatib, Courtney Balliro, Mallory A Hillard, Kendra L Magyar, Laya Ekhlaspour, Manasi Sinha, Debbie Mondesir, Aryan Esmaeili, Celia Hartigan, Michael J Thompson, Samir Malkani, J Paul Lock, David M Harlan, Paula Clinton, Eliana Frank, Darrell M Wilson, Daniel DeSalvo, Lisa Norlander, Trang Ly, Bruce A Buckingham, Jamie Diner, Milana Dezube, Laura A Young, April Goley, M Sue Kirkman, John B Buse, Hui Zheng, Rajendranath R Selagamsetty, Edward R Damiano, Steven J Russell
BACKGROUND: The safety and effectiveness of a continuous, day-and-night automated glycaemic control system using insulin and glucagon has not been shown in a free-living, home-use setting. We aimed to assess whether bihormonal bionic pancreas initialised only with body mass can safely reduce mean glycaemia and hypoglycaemia in adults with type 1 diabetes who were living at home and participating in their normal daily routines without restrictions on diet or physical activity. METHODS: We did a random-order crossover study in volunteers at least 18 years old who had type 1 diabetes and lived within a 30 min drive of four sites in the USA...
December 20, 2016: Lancet
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27984485/platelet-%C3%A3-crp-multiplier-value-as-an-indicator-of-poor-prognosis-in-patients-with-resectable-pancreatic-cancer
#7
Ryoichi Miyamoto, Tatsuya Oda, Shinji Hashimoto, Tomohiro Kurokawa, Keisuke Kohno, Yoshimasa Akashi, Yusuke Ohara, Keiichi Yamada, Tsuyoshi Enomoto, Nobuhiro Ohkohchi
OBJECTIVE: Thrombocytosis in patients with various cancers has been considered a parameter for poor prognosis; however, its contribution to pancreatic cancer remains controversial. METHODS: Potential preoperative prognostic parameters (platelets, neutrophils, lymphocytes, the platelet-lymphocyte ratio, the neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio, the serum C-reactive protein [CRP], and carbohydrate antigen 19-9) were retrospectively analyzed in 95 patients with pancreatic cancer...
January 2017: Pancreas
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27966037/microbiology-meets-archaeology-soil-microbial-communities-reveal-different-human-activities-at-archaic-monte-iato-sixth-century-bc
#8
Rosa Margesin, José A Siles, Tomas Cajthaml, Birgit Öhlinger, Erich Kistler
Microbial ecology has been recognized as useful in archaeological studies. At Archaic Monte Iato in Western Sicily, a native (indigenous) building was discovered. The objective of this study was the first examination of soil microbial communities related to this building. Soil samples were collected from archaeological layers at a ritual deposit (food waste disposal) in the main room and above the fireplace in the annex. Microbial soil characterization included abundance (cellular phospholipid fatty acids (PLFA), viable bacterial counts), activity (physiological profiles, enzyme activities of viable bacteria), diversity, and community structure (bacterial and fungal Illumina amplicon sequencing, identification of viable bacteria)...
December 13, 2016: Microbial Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27951578/carbohydrate-counting-a-simple-method-of-dietary-management-for-glycemic-control-in-japanese-diabetic-hemodialysis-patients
#9
Yukie Kitajima, Noriko Mikami, Toru Hyodo, Miho Hida, Junko Kawakami
BACKGROUND: Carbohydrate counting used in dietary therapy for diabetes is based on the concept that the postprandial rise in blood glucose levels is primarily affected by ingested carbohydrates. This method has been widely accepted and used since 1993, when its usefulness was demonstrated in the United States, largely due to the ease with which patients can understand the method. However, in Japan, there is a common misunderstanding that energy intake determines postprandial blood glucose levels...
2017: Contributions to Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27935853/food-exchange-estimation-by-children-with-type-1-diabetes-at-summer-camp
#10
Wojciech Szypowski, Karolina Kunecka, Beata Zduńczyk, Katarzyna Piechowiak, Maria Dyczek, Karolina Dąbrowa, Anna Wojtyra, Zuzanna Kaczmarska, Agnieszka Szypowska
BACKGROUND: As exchange counting poses difficulty for children with type 1 diabetes (T1D) attending diabetes camps, they often guesstimate food amount without performing an exchange calculation. The aim of the study was to compare the accuracy of estimation with exchange counting using the mobile food exchange calculator (MFEC). METHODS: During a summer camp, 25 children with T1D on pumps estimated the number of carbohydrate (CE) and fat/protein exchanges (FPE) appropriate for main meals...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Endocrinology & Metabolism: JPEM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27930854/the-water-kefir-grain-inoculum-determines-the-characteristics-of-the-resulting-water-kefir-fermentation-process
#11
David Laureys, Luc De Vuyst
AIMS: To investigate the influence of the water kefir grain inoculum on the characteristics of the water kefir fermentation process. METHODS AND RESULTS: Three water kefir fermentation processes were started with different water kefir grain inocula and followed as a function of time regarding microbial species diversity, community dynamics, substrate consumption profile, and metabolite production course. The inoculum determined the water kefir grain growth, the viable counts on the grains, the time until total carbohydrate exhaustion, the final metabolite concentrations, and the microbial species diversity...
December 8, 2016: Journal of Applied Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909225/recovery-of-the-immune-system-after-exercise
#12
Jonathan M Peake, Oliver Neubauer, Neil P Walsh, Richard J Simpson
The notion that prolonged, intense exercise causes an 'open window' of immunodepression during recovery after exercise is well accepted. Repeated exercise bouts or intensified training without sufficient recovery may increase the risk of illness. However, except for salivary IgA, clear and consistent markers of this immunodepression remain elusive. Exercise increases circulating neutrophil and monocyte counts, and reduces circulating lymphocyte count during recovery. This lymphopenia results from preferential egress of lymphocyte subtypes with potent effector functions (e...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27896954/effect-of-carbohydrate-counting-using-bolus-calculators-on-glycemic-control-in-type-1-diabetes-patients-during-continuous-subcutaneous-insulin-infusion
#13
Eijiro Yamada, Shuichi Okada, Yasuyo Nakajima, Claire C Bastie, Yuko Tagaya, Aya Osaki, Yoko Shimoda, Ryo Shibusawa, Tsugumichi Saito, Atsushi Ozawa, Masanobu Yamada
This study examined the long-term efficacy of insulin pump therapy for type 1 diabetes patients when performed using carbohydrate counting with bolus calculators for one year. Twenty-two type 1 diabetes patients who had just started continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion were examined and divided into 2 groups: one that was educated about carbohydrate counting using bolus calculators (n=14) and another that did not use bolus calculators (n=8). After one year, the hemoglobin A1c levels of the patient group that used bolus calculators decreased persistently and significantly (P=0...
November 29, 2016: Journal of Diabetes Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27872168/accurate-carbohydrate-counting-is-an-important-determinant-of-postprandial-glycemia-in-children-and-adolescents-with-type-1-diabetes-on-insulin-pump-therapy
#14
Asma Deeb, Ahlam Al Hajeri, Iman Alhmoudi, Nico Nagelkerke
BACKGROUND: Carbohydrate (CHO) counting is a key nutritional intervention utilized in the management of diabetes to optimize postprandial glycemia. The aim of the study was to examine the impact of accuracy of CHO counting on the postprandial glucose in children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes on insulin pump therapy. METHODS: Children/adolescents with type 1 diabetes who were on insulin pump therapy for a minimum of 6 months are enrolled in the study. Patients were instructed to record details of meals consumed, estimated CHO count per meal, and 2-hour postprandial glucose readings over 3-5 days...
November 20, 2016: Journal of Diabetes Science and Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27866040/in-vitro-fermentation-of-different-fructo-oligosaccharides-by-bifidobacterium-strains-for-the-selection-of-synbiotic-combinations
#15
Lorena Valdés-Varela, Patricia Ruas-Madiedo, Miguel Gueimonde
The use of selected probiotics, prebiotics and/or synbiotics, constitute an interesting dietary strategy for intestinal microbiota modulation in case of dysbiosis. Species of the genus Bifidobacterium are among the most currently used probiotics for human consumption since they have shown beneficial effects in the prevention and treatment of some disorders. Bifidobacteria are saccharolytic microorganisms, but their ability to use different carbohydrates varies among strains. In this study, we investigate the utilization of three prebiotic substrates (two different short-chain fructo-oligosaccharides [scFOS] and inulin) by strains of Bifidobacterium, in order to determine the synbiotic potential of the different probiotic/prebiotic combinations...
February 2, 2017: International Journal of Food Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27858027/%C3%AE-galactosides-present-in-lupin-flour-affect-several-metabolic-parameters-in-wistar-rats
#16
María I Palacio, Adriana R Weisstaub, Ángela Zuleta, Analía I Etcheverría, Guillermo D Manrique
The aim of this study is to evaluate the influence of α-galactosides present in a lupin diet on metabolic parameters in growing Wistar rats. Lupin (Lupinus albus) is a rich source of non-digestible carbohydrates called α-galactosides whose beneficial health effects have been widely reported. For our investigation, twenty male Wistar rats were fed with two different diets: control (C) and lupin flour (L) for a 60-day period. The fermentation of these α-galactosides was monitored by measuring the following indicators: changes in the dynamic lactobacilli and enterobacteriaceae population, cecal content pH, generation of short chain fatty acids (SCFA), Ca and P absorption, and serum lipid (triglycerides and cholesterol) contents...
December 7, 2016: Food & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27825820/the-upregulation-of-immune-responses-in-tyrosine-hydroxylase-th-silenced-litopenaeus-vannamei
#17
Ratchaneegorn Mapanao, Chin-Chyuan Chang, Winton Cheng
Catecholamines (CAs) play a crucial role in maintaining physiological and immune homeostasis in invertebrates and vertebrates under stressful conditions. Tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) is the first and rate-limiting enzyme in CA synthesis. To develop an effective CA-related immunological defense system against stress and pathogen infection, various criteria, were evaluated in TH double-stranded (ds) RNA-injected white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei. Specifically, the relative transcript quantification of TH, dopamine β-hydroxylase (DBH), crustacean hyperglycemic hormone (CHH), and other immune-related genes; TH activity in the haemolymph; and the estimation of l-dihydroxyphenylalanine (l-DOPA), glucose, and lactate levels in the haemolymph were examined...
February 2017: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27788032/the-use-of-mobile-applications-among-adolescents-with-type-1-diabetes-results-from-diabetes-miles-youth-australia
#18
Steven Trawley, Jessica L Browne, Virginia L Hagger, Christel Hendrieckx, Elizabeth Holmes-Truscott, Frans Pouwer, Timothy C Skinner, Jane Speight
BACKGROUND: The use of mobile applications ("apps") for diabetes management is a rapidly developing area and has relevance to adolescents who tend to be early technology adopters. Apps may be useful for supporting self-management or connecting young people with type 1 diabetes (T1D) with their peers. However, outside controlled trials testing the effectiveness of apps, little is known about app usage in this population. Our aim was to explore app usage among adolescents with T1D. METHODS: Diabetes MILES Youth-Australia is a national, online cross-sectional survey focused on behavioral and psychosocial aspects relevant to adolescents with T1D...
December 2016: Diabetes Technology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27761942/effects-of-advanced-carbohydrate-counting-guided-by-an-automated-bolus-calculator-in-type-1-diabetes-mellitus-stenoabc-a-12-month-randomized-clinical-trial
#19
E Hommel, S Schmidt, D Vistisen, K Neergaard, M Gribhild, T Almdal, K Nørgaard
AIMS: To test whether concomitant use of an automated bolus calculator for people with Type 1 diabetes carrying out advanced carbohydrate counting would induce further improvements in metabolic control. METHODS: We conducted a 12-month, randomized, parallel-group, open-label, single-centre, investigator-initiated clinical study. We enrolled advanced carbohydrate counting-naïve adults with Type 1 diabetes and HbA1c levels 64-100 mmol/mol (8.0-11.3%), who were receiving multiple daily insulin injection therapy...
October 20, 2016: Diabetic Medicine: a Journal of the British Diabetic Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27747801/comparison-of-serum-total-valproic-acid-levels-and-cdt-values-in-chronic-alcohol-addictive-patients-in-an-italian-clinic-a-retrospective-study
#20
Vincenzo De Iuliis, Raimondo Gelormini, Mariarosaria Flacco, Giuseppe Moriello, Marika Caruso, Eugenia Barone, Maria Golato, Elena Toniato, Pio Conti, Stefano Martinotti
BACKGROUND: Valproate is a broad-spectrum anticonvulsant that is effective in the treatment of tonic-clonic, myoclonic and absence seizures as well as in partial seizures as a second-line drug. It has been widely demonstrated in the literature that the effect of valproate on type-A γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA-A) receptors may reduce relapse to ethanol abuse. This retrospective study evaluated a 3-year period in which 42 patients from the Department of Alcoholism and Substance Abuse (DASA) were treated with valproate...
March 2016: Drugs—Real World Outcomes
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