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carbohydrates counting

Nasir H Bhanpuri, Sarah J Hallberg, Paul T Williams, Amy L McKenzie, Kevin D Ballard, Wayne W Campbell, James P McCarter, Stephen D Phinney, Jeff S Volek
BACKGROUND: Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a leading cause of death among adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D). We recently reported that glycemic control in patients with T2D can be significantly improved through a continuous care intervention (CCI) including nutritional ketosis. The purpose of this study was to examine CVD risk factors in this cohort. METHODS: We investigated CVD risk factors in patients with T2D who participated in a 1 year open label, non-randomized, controlled study...
May 1, 2018: Cardiovascular Diabetology
Yan-Jin Feng, Jin Wang, Zhu-Jie Cao, Dan Li, Hai-Yan Huo, Xu-Mei Zhang, Xiang-Ying Jiao
This study investigated the effect of angiotensin II (Ang II) on apoptosis and thioredoxin-interacting protein (TXNIP) expression in INS-1 islet cells and the underlying mechanism. INS-1 cells cultured in vitro were treated with different concentration of Ang II for different time, and the viability was measured using cell counting kit-8 (CCK-8). After treatment with 1 × 10-6 mol/L Ang II for 24 h, flow cytometry and Western blot were used to measure the cell apoptosis, and Western blot was used to analyze the protein expression of TXNIP, carbohydrate response element-binding protein (ChREBP) and angiotensin II type 1 receptor (AT1R)...
April 25, 2018: Sheng Li Xue Bao: [Acta Physiologica Sinica]
Piotr Ladyzynski, Janusz Krzymien, Piotr Foltynski, Monika Rachuta, Barbara Bonalska
The aim of this work was to assess the accuracy of automatic macronutrient and calorie counting based on voice descriptions of meals provided by people with unstable type 1 diabetes using the developed expert system (VoiceDiab) in comparison with reference counting made by a dietitian, and to evaluate the impact of insulin doses recommended by a physician on glycemic control in the study’s participants. We also compared insulin doses calculated using the algorithm implemented in the VoiceDiab system...
April 21, 2018: Nutrients
Florian Reiterer, Matthias Reiter, Luigi Del Re, Merete Bechmann Christensen, Kirsten Nørgaard
BACKGROUND: The ongoing improvement of continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) sensors and of insulin pumps are paving the way for a fast implementation of artificial pancreas (AP) for type 1 diabetes (T1D) patients. The case for type 2 diabetes (T2D) patients is less obvious since usually some residual beta cell function allows for simpler therapy approaches, and even multiple daily injections (MDI) therapy is not very widespread. However, the number of insulin dependent T2D patients is vastly increasing and therefore a need for understanding chances and challenges of an automated insulin therapy arises...
April 1, 2018: Journal of Diabetes Science and Technology
Athanasios Poulios, Ioannis G Fatouros, Magni Mohr, Dimitrios K Draganidis, Chariklia Deli, Konstantinos Papanikolaou, Apostolos Sovatzidis, Theofano Nakopoulou, Georgios Ermidis, Theofanis Tzatzakis, Vasiliki C Laschou, Kalliopi Georgakouli, Agisilaos Koulouris, Panagiotis Tsimeas, Athanasios Chatzinikolaou, Leonidas G Karagounis, Dimitrios Batsilas, Peter Krustrup, Athanasios Z Jamurtas
The effects of protein supplementation on performance recovery and inflammatory responses during a simulated one-week in-season microcycle with two games (G1, G2) performed three days apart were examined. Twenty football players participated in two trials, receiving either milk protein concentrate (1.15 and 0.26 g/kg on game and training days, respectively) (PRO) or an energy-matched placebo (1.37 and 0.31 g/kg of carbohydrate on game and training days, respectively) (PLA) according to a randomized, repeated-measures, crossover, double-blind design...
April 16, 2018: Nutrients
Hisham K Dabbous, Yosry Abd El-Rahman Mohamed, Runia F El-Folly, Mohamed D El-Talkawy, Hani E Seddik, Dina Johar, Mohammed A Sarhan
BACKGROUND: Invasive colonoscopy is the gold standard for patients at risk for colorectal cancer. However, the need for non-invasive and specific markers is required. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the sensitivity of the glycolytic pyruvate kinase isoenzyme type M2 dimer (M2PK) as a diagnostic biomarker for colorectal cancer (CRC) and adenomatous colorectal polyps (CRP) screening. DESIGN: Case-control. PATIENTS: Twenty patients with CRC, 20 patients with CRP (lack criteria for colonic cancer by biopsy), and 20 normal subjects...
April 7, 2018: Journal of Gastrointestinal Cancer
Lu Cai, Sheng-Wei Zheng, Yu-Jun Shen, Guo-Di Zheng, Hong-Tao Liu, Zhi-Ying Wu
To enable the development of microbial agents and identify suitable candidate used for biodrying, the existence and function of Bacillus thermoamylovorans during sewage sludge biodrying merits investigation. This study isolated a strain of B. thermoamylovorans during sludge biodrying, submitted it for complete genome sequencing and analyzed its potential microbial functions. After biodrying, the moisture content of the biodrying material decreased from 66.33% to 50.18%, and B. thermoamylovorans was the ecologically dominant Bacillus, with the primary annotations associated with amino acid transport and metabolism (9...
March 29, 2018: Bioresource Technology
Behrooz Alizadeh Behbahani, Abbas Ali Imani Fooladi
In this study, Lallemantia royleana seed mucilage (LRSM) was extracted from whole seeds using hot-water extraction. The structural information (monosaccharide compositions and molecular weight analysis), chemical composition (moisture, protein, ash, fat and carbohydrate), biological activity (antimicrobial, total phenol content and antioxidant activity) and effect LRSM edible coating on population of microbial pathogens (total viable count (TVC), psychrotrophic bacteria, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and fungi), chemical changes (thiobarbituric acid, peroxide value and pH) and sensory attributes (color, odor and total acceptability) of the beef slices at 4 °C for 18 days (0, 3, 6, 9, 12, 15 and 18) were determined...
April 3, 2018: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
Allison Clark, Guillaume Sallé, Valentine Ballan, Fabrice Reigner, Annabelle Meynadier, Jacques Cortet, Christine Koch, Mickaël Riou, Alexandra Blanchard, Núria Mach
Gastrointestinal strongyles are a major threat to horses' health and welfare. Given that strongyles inhabit the same niche as the gut microbiota, they may interact with each other. These beneficial or detrimental interactions are unknown in horses and could partly explain contrasted susceptibility to infection between individuals. To address these questions, an experimental pasture trial with 20 worm-free female Welsh ponies (10 susceptible (S) and 10 resistant (R) to parasite infection) was implemented for 5 months...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
Kumpei Tanisawa, Katsuhiko Suzuki, Sihui Ma, Saki Kondo, Susumu Okugawa, Mitsuru Higuchi
We aimed to examine the effects of ingestion of different amounts of carbohydrate (CHO) after endurance exercise on neutrophil count, circulating cytokine levels, and the markers of neutrophil activation and muscle damage. Nine participants completed three separate experimental trials consisting of 1 h of cycling exercise at 70% V · O₂ max, followed by ingestion of 1.2 g CHO·kg body mass-1 ·h-1 (HCHO trial), 0.2 g CHO·kg body mass-1 ·h-1 (LCHO trial), or placebo (PLA trial) during the 2 h recovery phase in random order...
April 2, 2018: Antioxidants (Basel, Switzerland)
David C Nieman, Nicholas D Gillitt, Wei Sha, Debora Esposito, Sivapriya Ramamoorthy
OBJECTIVES AND METHODS: Using a randomized, crossover, counterbalanced approach, cyclists (N = 20, overnight fasted state) engaged in the four 75-km time trials (2-week washout) while ingesting two types of bananas with similar carbohydrate (CHO) but different phenolic content (Cavendish, CAV; mini-yellow, MIY, 63% higher polyphenols), a 6% sugar beverage (SUG), and water only (WAT). CHO intake was set at 0.2 g/kg every 15 minutes. Blood samples were collected pre-exercise and 0 h-, 0...
2018: PloS One
Toluwase A Dada, Lucretia I Barber, Lubanza Ngoma, Mulunda Mwanza
The study developed an acceptable formula for the production of cassava strips (a deep fried product) using composite flour of cassava/cowpea at four different levels of cowpea substitutions (100:0, 90:10, 80:20, and 70:30). Sensory properties, proximate composition, and shelf life at ambient temperature were determined. Proximate composition, shelf life, and microbial analysis were further done on the most preferred sample (80:20) and the control (100:0). Results showed a significant difference between the tested sample and the control, except in their moisture (4...
March 2018: Food Science & Nutrition
Alexia J Murphy-Alford, Melinda White, Liane Lockwood, Andrew Hallahan, Peter S W Davies
AIM: To describe the body composition, dietary intake and physical activity and of paediatric, adolescent and young adult childhood cancer survivors (CCS) and examine the factors that impact body composition after treatment. METHODS: This prospective cross-sectional study involved 74 subjects who were at least three years post treatment. Measurements included anthropometry, whole body potassium counting, air displacement plethysmography, and three day physical activity and diet diaries...
March 7, 2018: Clinical Nutrition: Official Journal of the European Society of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
Carmen Losasso, Ester M Eckert, Eleonora Mastrorilli, Jorg Villiger, Marzia Mancin, Ilaria Patuzzi, Andrea Di Cesare, Veronica Cibin, Federica Barrucci, Jakob Pernthaler, Gianluca Corno, Antonia Ricci
Diet and lifestyle have a strong influence on gut microbiota, which in turn has important implications on a variety of health-related aspects. Despite great advances in the field, it remains unclear to which extent the composition of the gut microbiota is modulated by the intake of animal derived products, compared to a vegetable based diet. Here the specific impact of vegan, vegetarian, and omnivore feeding type on the composition of gut microbiota of 101 adults was investigated among groups homogeneous for variables known to have a role in modulating gut microbial composition such as age, anthropometric variables, ethnicity, and geographic area...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Lu Cai, Tong-Bin Chen, Sheng-Wei Zheng, Hong-Tao Liu, Guo-Di Zheng
Sewage sludge biodrying is a waste treatment method that uses bio-heat generated from organic degradation to remove moisture from sewage sludge. Lignocellulose and carbohydrate decomposition is important when assessing biodrying performance. This study investigated lignocellulose and carbohydrate decomposition, and the potential microbial functions during biodrying. We determined the lignocellulose and carbohydrate contents, assayed related enzyme activity, performed a complete metagenomic study on sewage sludge biodrying material during the thermophilic phase, annotated potential genetic function involved in the decomposition, and summarized the key metabolic pathways...
June 2018: Chemosphere
Runjun Dowarah, Ashok Kumar Verma, Neeta Agarwal, Putan Singh, Bhoj Raj Singh
The present study was aimed to develop an effective probiotic lactic acid bacteria (LAB) from piglet feces and in vitro characterization of probiotic properties. To confirm host-species specificity of probiotics, the efficacy of isolated LAB on growth, nutrient utilization, health and antioxidant status was observed in early weaned piglets. A total of 30 LAB were isolated from feces of five healthy piglets (28d old). All isolates were Gram positive, cocco-bacilli and catalase negative. Out of thirty LAB isolates, twenty were shortlisted on the basis of their tolerance to pH (3...
2018: PloS One
Lian A van Meijel, Sandra P van den Heuvel-Bens, Lisa J Zimmerman, Ellen Bazelmans, Cees J Tack, Bastiaan E de Galan
PURPOSE: Automated bolus calculation may benefit patients with poorly controlled type 1 diabetes who are relatively new to continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion (CSII). This study investigated the effect of automated bolus calculation on glucose variability, glucose control, and diabetes-related quality of life in patients with reasonably well-controlled type 1 diabetes, accustomed to treatment with CSII for several years. METHODS: This open-label, single-center study included 32 patients (mean age, 45...
March 1, 2018: Clinical Therapeutics
Gustavo Silveira, José Maurício Schneedorf
Kefir, a combined consortium of bacteria and yeast encapsulated by a polymeric matrix of exopolysaccharides, was used as anodic biocatalyst in a two-chamber microbial fuel cell (MFC). Fermentation was followed during 72 h and polarization curves were obtained from linear sweep voltammetry. The effect of methylene blue as charge-transfer mediator in the kefir metabolism was evaluated. UV/Vis spectrophotometry and cyclic voltammetry were applied to evaluate the redox state of the mediator and to characterize the electrochemical activity, whereas current interruption was used for internal resistance determination...
February 21, 2018: Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology
Seiichi Shinji, Yoshibumi Ueda, Takeshi Yamada, Michihiro Koizumi, Yasuyuki Yokoyama, Goro Takahashi, Masahiro Hotta, Takuma Iwai, Keisuke Hara, Kohki Takeda, Mikihiro Okusa, Hayato Kan, Eiji Uchida
Purpose: Diagnostic markers for recurrence of colorectal cancer have not been established. The aim of the present study was to identify new diagnostic markers for recurrence after curative surgery of stage II colon cancer. Materials and Methods: In this study, the prognostic values of the preoperative lymphocyte count and the post/preoperative lymphocyte count ratio (PPLR) were evaluated in 142 patients with localized colon cancer treated with surgery at a single medical center...
January 5, 2018: Oncotarget
Maristela S Nascimento, Joyce A Carminati, Karen N Morishita, Dionísio P Amorim Neto, Hildete P Pinheiro, Rafael P Maia
Due to recent large outbreaks, peanuts have been considered a product of potential risk for Salmonella. Usually, peanut products show a low water activity (aw) and high fat content, which contribute to increasing the thermal resistance and survival of Salmonella. This study evaluated the long-term kinetics of Salmonella survival on different peanut products under storage at 28°C for 420 days. Samples of raw in-shell peanuts (aw = 0.29), roasted peanuts (aw = 0.39), unblanched peanut kernel (aw = 0.54), peanut brittle (aw = 0...
2018: PloS One
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