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carbohydrates counting

Lu Cai, Tong-Bin Chen, Sheng-Wei Zheng, Hong-Tao Liu, Guo-Di Zheng
Sewage sludge biodrying is a waste treatment method that uses bio-heat generated from organic degradation to remove moisture from sewage sludge. Lignocellulose and carbohydrate decomposition is important when assessing biodrying performance. This study investigated lignocellulose and carbohydrate decomposition, and the potential microbial functions during biodrying. We determined the lignocellulose and carbohydrate contents, assayed related enzyme activity, performed a complete metagenomic study on sewage sludge biodrying material during the thermophilic phase, annotated potential genetic function involved in the decomposition, and summarized the key metabolic pathways...
February 28, 2018: Chemosphere
Runjun Dowarah, Ashok Kumar Verma, Neeta Agarwal, Putan Singh, Bhoj Raj Singh
The present study was aimed to develop an effective probiotic lactic acid bacteria (LAB) from piglet feces and in vitro characterization of probiotic properties. To confirm host-species specificity of probiotics, the efficacy of isolated LAB on growth, nutrient utilization, health and antioxidant status was observed in early weaned piglets. A total of 30 LAB were isolated from feces of five healthy piglets (28d old). All isolates were Gram positive, cocco-bacilli and catalase negative. Out of thirty LAB isolates, twenty were shortlisted on the basis of their tolerance to pH (3...
2018: PloS One
Lian A van Meijel, Sandra P van den Heuvel-Bens, Lisa J Zimmerman, Ellen Bazelmans, Cees J Tack, Bastiaan E de Galan
PURPOSE: Automated bolus calculation may benefit patients with poorly controlled type 1 diabetes who are relatively new to continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion (CSII). This study investigated the effect of automated bolus calculation on glucose variability, glucose control, and diabetes-related quality of life in patients with reasonably well-controlled type 1 diabetes, accustomed to treatment with CSII for several years. METHODS: This open-label, single-center study included 32 patients (mean age, 45...
March 1, 2018: Clinical Therapeutics
Gustavo Silveira, José Maurício Schneedorf
Kefir, a combined consortium of bacteria and yeast encapsulated by a polymeric matrix of exopolysaccharides, was used as anodic biocatalyst in a two-chamber microbial fuel cell (MFC). Fermentation was followed during 72 h and polarization curves were obtained from linear sweep voltammetry. The effect of methylene blue as charge-transfer mediator in the kefir metabolism was evaluated. UV/Vis spectrophotometry and cyclic voltammetry were applied to evaluate the redox state of the mediator and to characterize the electrochemical activity, whereas current interruption was used for internal resistance determination...
February 21, 2018: Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology
Seiichi Shinji, Yoshibumi Ueda, Takeshi Yamada, Michihiro Koizumi, Yasuyuki Yokoyama, Goro Takahashi, Masahiro Hotta, Takuma Iwai, Keisuke Hara, Kohki Takeda, Mikihiro Okusa, Hayato Kan, Eiji Uchida
Purpose: Diagnostic markers for recurrence of colorectal cancer have not been established. The aim of the present study was to identify new diagnostic markers for recurrence after curative surgery of stage II colon cancer. Materials and Methods: In this study, the prognostic values of the preoperative lymphocyte count and the post/preoperative lymphocyte count ratio (PPLR) were evaluated in 142 patients with localized colon cancer treated with surgery at a single medical center...
January 5, 2018: Oncotarget
Maristela S Nascimento, Joyce A Carminati, Karen N Morishita, Dionísio P Amorim Neto, Hildete P Pinheiro, Rafael P Maia
Due to recent large outbreaks, peanuts have been considered a product of potential risk for Salmonella. Usually, peanut products show a low water activity (aw) and high fat content, which contribute to increasing the thermal resistance and survival of Salmonella. This study evaluated the long-term kinetics of Salmonella survival on different peanut products under storage at 28°C for 420 days. Samples of raw in-shell peanuts (aw = 0.29), roasted peanuts (aw = 0.39), unblanched peanut kernel (aw = 0.54), peanut brittle (aw = 0...
2018: PloS One
Giorgia Tascini, Maria Giulia Berioli, Laura Cerquiglini, Elisa Santi, Giulia Mancini, Francesco Rogari, Giada Toni, Susanna Esposito
Carbohydrate counting (CC) is a meal-planning tool for patients with type 1 diabetes (T1D) treated with a basal bolus insulin regimen by means of multiple daily injections or continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion. It is based on an awareness of foods that contain carbohydrates and their effect on blood glucose. The bolus insulin dose needed is obtained from the total amount of carbohydrates consumed at each meal and the insulin-to-carbohydrate ratio. Evidence suggests that CC may have positive effects on metabolic control and on reducing glycosylated haemoglobin concentration (HbA1c)...
January 22, 2018: Nutrients
Michele Schiavon, Chiara Dalla Man, Claudio Cobelli
BACKGROUND AND AIM: The insulin to carbohydrate ratio (CR) is a parameter used by patients with type 1 diabetes (T1D) to calculate the premeal insulin bolus. Usually, it is estimated by the physician based on patient diary, but modern diabetes technologies, such as subcutaneous glucose sensing (continuous glucose monitoring, CGM) and insulin delivery (continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion, CSII) systems, can provide important information for its optimization. In this study, a method for CR optimization based on CGM and CSII data is presented and its efficacy and robustness tested in several in silico scenarios, with the primary aim of increasing protection against hypoglycemia...
February 2018: Diabetes Technology & Therapeutics
Manali Gangwar, Archit Sood, Ankush Bansal, Rajinder Singh Chauhan
The low seed yield of Jatropha curcas has been a stumbling block in realizing its full potential as an ideal bioenergy crop. Low female to male flower ratio is considered as a major limiting factor responsible for low seed yield in Jatropha. An exogenous cytokinin application was performed on floral meristems to increase the seed yield. This resulted in an increase of total flowers count with a higher female to male flower ratio. However, the seed biomass did not increase in the same proportion. The possible reason for this was hypothesized to be the lack of increased photosynthesis efficiency at source tissues which could fulfil the increased demand of photosynthates and primary metabolites in maturing seeds...
January 2018: 3 Biotech
Shumao Cui, Feng Hang, Xiaoming Liu, Zhiyuan Xu, Zhenmin Liu, Jianxin Zhao, Hao Zhang, Wei Chen
For the industrial production of probiotics powder, various sugars have been used as cryoprotectants to preserve probiotics during freeze-drying. Some of these sugars can be metabolized by Lactobacillus with the production of acids during the mix. In this study, we investigated the effect of acids on ATPase, β-galactosidase, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), integrity and fluidity of cell membrane and the survival rate of Lactobacillus during freeze-drying. In the presence of Lactobacillus, acids were produced from cryoprotectants containing fermentable sugars before freezing, resulting in a decrease in the pH of the bacterial suspension to below 5...
January 11, 2018: Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering
Karina Garzón, Clara Ortega, Gabriela N Tenea
Tropical, wild-type fruits are considered biodiverse "hotspots" of microorganisms with possible functional characteristics to be investigated. In this study, several native lactic acid bacteria (LAB) of Ecuadorian Amazon showing highly inhibitory potential were identified and characterized. Based on carbohydrate fermentation profile and 16S rRNA gene sequencing, seven strains were assigned as Lactobacillus plantarum and one strain as Weissella confusa. Using agar-well diffusion method the active synthetized components released in the neutralized and hydroxide peroxide eliminated cell-free supernatant were inhibited by proteolytic enzymes, while the activity was maintained stable after the treatment with catalase, lysozyme, α-amylase and lipase suggesting their proteinaceous nature...
December 4, 2017: Polish Journal of Microbiology
Gehad E Elshopakey, Engy F Risha, Osama A Abdalla, Yo Okamura, Vu Duc Hanh, Masahisa Ibuki, Raja Sudhakaran, Toshiaki Itami
Supplementation of prebiotic carbohydrates can act as a potent immunomodulator and have the efficacy to induce immune-related genes which are involved in host defense. Pure β-1,4-mannobiose (MNB) showed activation of prophenoloxidase of shrimp hemocytes in vitro. The resistance of kuruma shrimp Marsupenaeus japonicus against Vibrio parahaemolyticus was examined after the shrimp were fed with 0 (control), 0.02, 0.2, and 2% MNB supplemented diets. The results showed significantly higher survival rates in MNB supplemented shrimp than those of the control one from 2 - 12 days post challenge...
December 26, 2017: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
Susan W Nicolson, Susana Da Silva Das Neves, Hannelie Human, Christian W W Pirk
Pollen, the main protein source for honey bees, is mixed with regurgitated nectar or honey during collection and then stored as 'bee bread' before its consumption, mainly by young nurse workers. It has been suggested that storage of pollen improves its nutritional value and digestibility, but there is little evidence for such changes. We fed two fresh pollen types of different protein content (aloe and sunflower), and two stored pollen types (sunflower and a mixed pollen), to young caged worker bees. We measured daily consumption of pollen and sucrose solution, and survival after 14 days...
December 26, 2017: Journal of Insect Physiology
Masayuki Ishihara, Kaoru Murakami, Koichi Fukuda, Shingo Nakamura, Masahiro Kuwabara, Hidemi Hattori, Masanori Fujita, Tomoharu Kiyosawa, Hidetaka Yokoe
 Hypochlorous acid (HOCl) solution (200 ppm, pH 6) was prepared and evaluated for their stabilities and microbicidal activities. We demonstrated that HOCl is unstable against ultraviolet (UV) light, sunshine, contact with air, and elevated temperature (≧25℃). Furthermore, in the HOCl solution, the presence of excess NH2- or CHO-containing organic compounds such as proteins and carbohydrates, or of inorganic ions such as NO2-, SO3-, PO3-, Fe2+, Cu2+, and CuS, resulted in the rapid consumption of HOCl by oxidation reactions, and significantly decreased the microbicidal activity of the HOCl solution against coliform bacteria and total viable cell count...
2017: Biocontrol Science
Tomoharu Miyashita, Hidehiro Tajima, Isamu Makino, Mitsuyoshi Okazaki, Takahisa Yamaguchi, Yoshinao Ohbatake, Sinichi Nakanuma, Hironori Hayashi, Hiroyuki Takamura, Itasu Ninomiya, Sachio Fushida, Koji Kishimoto, John W Harmon, Tetsuo Ohta
BACKGROUND: In this study, the effects of neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) on cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) in pancreatic cancer stroma were investigated. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Density of α-smooth muscle actin (αSMA)-positive fibroblasts in resected surgical specimens from untreated patients, patients receiving conventional gemcitabine plus S-1 (GS), and patients receiving gemcitabine plus nab-paclitaxel (GnP) was determined by hybrid cell counting. 18F-Fluorodeoxyglucose positron-emission tomography (FDG-PET) scans and carbohydrate antigen 19-9 (CA19-9) concentrations were used to assess tumor activity before and after chemotherapy in the GnP group...
January 2018: Anticancer Research
Patrícia Glombowsky, Aleksandro S da Silva, Natan M Soldá, Gabriela M Galli, Angelisa H Biazus, Gabriela Campigotto, Nathieli B Bottari, Rejane S Sousa, Maiara C Brisola, Lenita M Stefani, Matheus D Baldissera, Marta L R Leal, Vera M Morsch, Maria Rosa C Schetinger, Gustavo Machado
The first phase of life of dairy calves has elevated mortality indices linked with low immunity and sanitary challenges, mainly bacterial infections are involved in the pathogenesis of diarrhea, the leading cause of death. Also, other important problem is the nutritional deficiencies, such as the mineral deficiency. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate whether an intramuscular mineral supplementation based on selenium, copper, potassium, magnesium and phosphorus possess beneficial effects on health of dairy calves...
January 2018: Microbial Pathogenesis
Liyuan Wang, Xianling Tang, Xiaolin Lv, Encheng Sun, Donglai Wu, Changlin Wang, Ping Liu
Macular corneal dystrophy (MCD) is an autosomal recessive disorder mainly caused by gene mutations of carbohydrate sulfotransferase ( CHST6 ) leading to bilateral visual impairment. Because the mechanism underlying this degeneration remains poorly understood, we investigated molecular alterations and pathways that may be involved in MCD in this issue. Different mutation sites were screened by direct sequencing of the coding region of CHST6 . In addition, we described morphological changes in MCD keratocytes by light microscopy and electron microscopy and determined the relationship between the development of this disease and the occurrence of apoptosis through flow cytometry, cell counting kit-8, colony formation assay and other experiments...
November 10, 2017: Oncotarget
Meryem Bakour, Noori S Al-Waili, Nawal El Menyiy, Hamada Imtara, Anna Cristina Figuira, Thia Al-Waili, Badiaa Lyoussi
Aluminum toxicity might be related to oxidative stress, and the antioxidant activity and protective effect of bee bread, which contains pollen, honey and bees' enzymes, on aluminum induced blood and hepato-renal toxicity was investigated in rats. Chemical analysis and antioxidant capacity of bee bread were conducted. The animal experiment in rats included; group 1: received distilled water (10 ml/kg b.wt), group 2: received aluminum chloride (662.2 mg/kg b.wt), group 3: received aluminum chloride (662.2 mg/kg b...
December 2017: Journal of Food Science and Technology
W A M Hijnen, R Schurer, J A Bahlman, H A M Ketelaars, R Italiaander, A van der Wal, P W J J van der Wielen
It is possible to distribute drinking water without a disinfectant residual when the treated water is biologically stable. The objective of this study was to determine the impact of easily and slowly biodegradable compounds on the biostability of the drinking water at three full-scale production plants which use the same surface water, and on the regrowth conditions in the related distribution systems. Easily biodegradable compounds in the drinking water were determined with AOC-P17/Nox during 2012-2015. Slowly biodegradable organic compounds measured as particulate and/or high-molecular organic carbon (PHMOC), were monitored at the inlet and after the different treatment stages of the three treatments during the same period...
February 1, 2018: Water Research
Y Zhao, M Kumar, M P M Caspers, M N Nierop Groot, J M B M van der Vossen, T Abee
Thermophilic bacilli such as Anoxybacillus and Geobacillus are important contaminants in dairy powder products. Remarkably, one of the common contaminants, Geobacillus thermoglucosidans, showed poor growth in skim milk, whereas significant growth of G. thermoglucosidans was observed in the presence of an Anoxybacillus flavithermus dairy isolate. In the present study, we investigated the underlying reason for this growth dependence of G. thermoglucosidans. Whole-genome sequences of 4 A. flavithermus strains and 4 G...
November 15, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
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