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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909225/recovery-of-the-immune-system-after-exercise
#1
Jonathan M Peake, Oliver Neubauer, Neil P Walsh, Richard J Simpson
The notion that prolonged, intense exercise causes an 'open window' of immunodepression during recovery after exercise is well accepted. Repeated exercise bouts or intensified training without sufficient recovery may increase the risk of illness. However, except for salivary IgA, clear and consistent markers of this immunodepression remain elusive. Exercise increases circulating neutrophil and monocyte counts, and reduces circulating lymphocyte count during recovery. This lymphopenia results from preferential egress of lymphocyte subtypes with potent effector functions (e...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27896954/effect-of-carbohydrate-counting-using-bolus-calculators-on-glycemic-control-in-type-1-diabetes-patients-during-continuous-subcutaneous-insulin-infusion
#2
Eijiro Yamada, Shuichi Okada, Yasuyo Nakajima, Claire C Bastie, Yuko Tagaya, Aya Osaki, Yoko Shimoda, Ryo Shibusawa, Tsugumichi Saito, Atsushi Ozawa, Masanobu Yamada
This study examined the long-term efficacy of insulin pump therapy for type 1 diabetes patients when performed using carbohydrate counting with bolus calculators for one year. Twenty-two type 1 diabetes patients who had just started continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion were examined and divided into 2 groups: one that was educated about carbohydrate counting using bolus calculators (n=14) and another that did not use bolus calculators (n=8). After one year, the hemoglobin A1c levels of the patient group that used bolus calculators decreased persistently and significantly (P=0...
November 29, 2016: Journal of Diabetes Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27872168/accurate-carbohydrate-counting-is-an-important-determinant-of-postprandial-glycemia-in-children-and-adolescents-with-type-1-diabetes-on-insulin-pump-therapy
#3
Asma Deeb, Ahlam Al Hajeri, Iman Alhmoudi, Nico Nagelkerke
BACKGROUND: Carbohydrate (CHO) counting is a key nutritional intervention utilized in the management of diabetes to optimize postprandial glycemia. The aim of the study was to examine the impact of accuracy of CHO counting on the postprandial glucose in children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes on insulin pump therapy. METHODS: Children/adolescents with type 1 diabetes who were on insulin pump therapy for a minimum of 6 months are enrolled in the study. Patients were instructed to record details of meals consumed, estimated CHO count per meal, and 2-hour postprandial glucose readings over 3-5 days...
November 20, 2016: Journal of Diabetes Science and Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27866040/in-vitro-fermentation-of-different-fructo-oligosaccharides-by-bifidobacterium-strains-for-the-selection-of-synbiotic-combinations
#4
Lorena Valdés-Varela, Patricia Ruas-Madiedo, Miguel Gueimonde
The use of selected probiotics, prebiotics and/or synbiotics, constitute an interesting dietary strategy for intestinal microbiota modulation in case of dysbiosis. Species of the genus Bifidobacterium are among the most currently used probiotics for human consumption since they have shown beneficial effects in the prevention and treatment of some disorders. Bifidobacteria are saccharolytic microorganisms, but their ability to use different carbohydrates varies among strains. In this study, we investigate the utilization of three prebiotic substrates (two different short-chain fructo-oligosaccharides [scFOS] and inulin) by strains of Bifidobacterium, in order to determine the synbiotic potential of the different probiotic/prebiotic combinations...
November 12, 2016: International Journal of Food Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27858027/%C3%AE-galactosides-present-in-lupin-flour-affect-several-metabolic-parameters-in-wistar-rats
#5
María I Palacio, Adriana R Weisstaub, Ángela Zuleta, Analía I Etcheverría, Guillermo D Manrique
The aim of this study is to evaluate the influence of α-galactosides present in a lupin diet on metabolic parameters in growing Wistar rats. Lupin (Lupinus albus) is a rich source of non-digestible carbohydrates called α-galactosides whose beneficial health effects have been widely reported. For our investigation, twenty male Wistar rats were fed with two different diets: control (C) and lupin flour (L) for a 60-day period. The fermentation of these α-galactosides was monitored by measuring the following indicators: changes in the dynamic lactobacilli and enterobacteriaceae population, cecal content pH, generation of short chain fatty acids (SCFA), Ca and P absorption, and serum lipid (triglycerides and cholesterol) contents...
November 18, 2016: Food & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27825820/the-upregulation-of-immune-responses-in-tyrosine-hydroxylase-th-silenced-litopenaeus-vannamei
#6
Ratchaneegorn Mapanao, Chin-Chyuan Chang, Winton Cheng
Catecholamines (CAs) play a crucial role in maintaining physiological and immune homeostasis in invertebrates and vertebrates under stressful conditions. Tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) is the first and rate-limiting enzyme in CA synthesis. To develop an effective CA-related immunological defense system against stress and pathogen infection, various criteria, were evaluated in TH double-stranded (ds) RNA-injected white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei. Specifically, the relative transcript quantification of TH, dopamine β-hydroxylase (DBH), crustacean hyperglycemic hormone (CHH), and other immune-related genes; TH activity in the haemolymph; and the estimation of l-dihydroxyphenylalanine (l-DOPA), glucose, and lactate levels in the haemolymph were examined...
February 2017: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27788032/the-use-of-mobile-applications-among-adolescents-with-type-1-diabetes-results-from-diabetes-miles-youth-australia
#7
Steven Trawley, Jessica L Browne, Virginia L Hagger, Christel Hendrieckx, Elizabeth Holmes-Truscott, Frans Pouwer, Timothy C Skinner, Jane Speight
BACKGROUND: The use of mobile applications ("apps") for diabetes management is a rapidly developing area and has relevance to adolescents who tend to be early technology adopters. Apps may be useful for supporting self-management or connecting young people with type 1 diabetes (T1D) with their peers. However, outside controlled trials testing the effectiveness of apps, little is known about app usage in this population. Our aim was to explore app usage among adolescents with T1D. METHODS: Diabetes MILES Youth-Australia is a national, online cross-sectional survey focused on behavioral and psychosocial aspects relevant to adolescents with T1D...
October 27, 2016: Diabetes Technology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27761942/effects-of-advanced-carbohydrate-counting-guided-by-an-automated-bolus-calculator-in-type-1-diabetes-mellitus-stenoabc-a-12-month-randomized-clinical-trial
#8
E Hommel, S Schmidt, D Vistisen, K Neergaard, M Gribhild, T Almdal, K Nørgaard
AIMS: To test whether concomitant use of an automated bolus calculator for people with Type 1 diabetes carrying out advanced carbohydrate counting would induce further improvements in metabolic control. METHODS: We conducted a 12-month, randomized, parallel-group, open-label, single-centre, investigator-initiated clinical study. We enrolled advanced carbohydrate counting-naïve adults with Type 1 diabetes and HbA1c levels 64-100 mmol/mol (8.0-11.3%), who were receiving multiple daily insulin injection therapy...
October 20, 2016: Diabetic Medicine: a Journal of the British Diabetic Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27747801/comparison-of-serum-total-valproic-acid-levels-and-cdt-values-in-chronic-alcohol-addictive-patients-in-an-italian-clinic-a-retrospective-study
#9
Vincenzo De Iuliis, Raimondo Gelormini, Mariarosaria Flacco, Giuseppe Moriello, Marika Caruso, Eugenia Barone, Maria Golato, Elena Toniato, Pio Conti, Stefano Martinotti
BACKGROUND: Valproate is a broad-spectrum anticonvulsant that is effective in the treatment of tonic-clonic, myoclonic and absence seizures as well as in partial seizures as a second-line drug. It has been widely demonstrated in the literature that the effect of valproate on type-A γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA-A) receptors may reduce relapse to ethanol abuse. This retrospective study evaluated a 3-year period in which 42 patients from the Department of Alcoholism and Substance Abuse (DASA) were treated with valproate...
March 2016: Drugs—Real World Outcomes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27743669/natural-lactic-acid-bacteria-population-of-tropical-grasses-and-their-fermentation-factor-analysis-of-silage-prepared-with-cellulase-and-inoculant
#10
Waroon Khota, Suradej Pholsen, David Higgs, Yimin Cai
Natural lactic acid bacteria (LAB) populations in tropical grasses and their fermentation characteristics on silage prepared with cellulase enzyme and LAB inoculants were studied. A commercial inoculant Lactobacillus plantarum Chikuso 1 (CH), a local selected strain Lactobacillus casei TH14 (TH14), and 2 cellulases, Acremonium cellulase (AC) and Maicelase (MC; Meiji Seika Pharma Co. Ltd., Tokyo, Japan), were used as additives to silage preparation with fresh and wilted (6 h) Guinea grass and Napier grass. Silage was prepared using a laboratory-scale fermentation system...
October 13, 2016: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27729229/bacterial-membrane-binding-and-pore-formation-abilities-of-carbohydrate-recognition-domain-of-fish-lectin
#11
Abirami Arasu, Venkatesh Kumaresan, Rajesh Palanisamy, Mariadhas Valan Arasu, Naif Abdullah Al-Dhabi, Munuswamy-Ramanujam Ganesh, Jesu Arockiaraj
Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are innate molecules that are found in a wide variety of species ranging from bacteria to humans. In recent years, excessive usage of antibiotics resulted in development of multi-drug resistant pathogens which made researchers to focus on AMPs as potential substitute for antibiotics. Lily type mannose-binding lectin is an extended super-family of structurally and evolutionarily related sugar binding proteins. These lectins are well-known AMPs which play important roles in fish defense mechanism...
February 2017: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27726014/conut-a-novel-independent-predictive-score-for-colorectal-cancer-patients-undergoing-potentially-curative-resection
#12
Ryuma Tokunaga, Yasuo Sakamoto, Shigeki Nakagawa, Mayuko Ohuchi, Daisuke Izumi, Keisuke Kosumi, Katsunobu Taki, Takaaki Higashi, Yuji Miyamoto, Naoya Yoshida, Eiji Oki, Masayuki Watanabe, Hideo Baba
BACKGROUND: Controlling nutritional status (CONUT) score, calculated from serum albumin and total cholesterol concentrations and total lymphocyte count, is reportedly valuable for nutritional assessment. This study investigated whether CONUT score was predictive of outcomes in colorectal cancer (CRC) patients undergoing surgical resection. METHODS: Preoperative CONUT scores were retrospectively evaluated in 417 CRC patients who underwent potentially curative resection at Kumamoto University Hospital from March 2005 to August 2014...
October 10, 2016: International Journal of Colorectal Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27719904/nutritional-and-mineral-contents-of-honey-extracted-by-centrifugation-and-pressed-processes
#13
Samir Moura Kadri, Rodrigo Zaluski, Ricardo de Oliveira Orsi
In this study, wild honey samples extracted by two different methods (centrifugation and pressed processing) were characterized and compared based on their physicochemical, and nutritional properties, macro- and micro-mineral contents, and pollen counts. Twelve colonies of Africanized Apis mellifera were used; six honey samples were obtained by centrifugation and six by honeycomb press. All physicochemical parameters of honey samples (moisture, pH, total acidity, ash, dry matter, and qualitative absence of hydroxymethylfurfural) were within the limits established by EU legislation, and all parameters in pressed honey were superior (p<0...
March 1, 2017: Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27695487/increased-chitotriosidase-activity-in-plasma-of-patients-with-type-2-diabetes
#14
Ewa Żurawska-Płaksej, Maria Knapik-Kordecka, Anna Rorbach-Dolata, Agnieszka Piwowar
INTRODUCTION: Chitotriosidase (CHIT1) is a chitinolytic enzyme involved mainly in the immune and inflammatory response. It shows increased activity in many pathologies, including in newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes (T2D). This study aimed to investigate this enzyme's activity in plasma of patients with ongoing T2D and indicate factors related to the increased activity of this enzyme. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Ninety-one patients and 46 control subjects without abnormalities in carbohydrate metabolism and inflammatory states were enrolled in the study...
October 1, 2016: Archives of Medical Science: AMS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27666995/effects-of-lactobacillus-curvatus-and-leuconostoc-mesenteroides-on-suan-cai-fermentation-in-northeast-china
#15
Hongyan Yang, Hao Wu, Lijuan Gao, Hongbai Jia, Yuan Zhang, Zongjun Cui, Yuhua Li
To investigate the effects of Lactobacillus curvatus and Leuconostoc mesenteroides on suan cai fermentation, Lactobacillus curvatus and/or Leuconostoc mesenteroides were inoculated into suan cai. Physicochemical indexes were measured, and the microbial dynamics during the fermentation were analyzed by Illumina MiSeq sequencing and quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). The results showed that inoculation with lactic acid bacteria (LAB) lowered the pH of the fermentation system more rapidly. The decrease in water-soluble carbohydrates in the inoculated treatments occurred more rapidly than in the control...
September 23, 2016: Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27650876/effects-of-two-diet-techniques-and-delivery-mode-on-weight-loss-metabolic-profile-and-food-intake-of-obese-adolescents-a-fixed-diet-plan-and-a-calorie-counting-diet
#16
M D S D Mendes, M E de Melo, A E Fernandes, C T H Fujiwara, M B Pioltine, A Teixeira, K Coelho, M Galasso, C Cercato, M C Mancini
The aim of this study is to compare the weight loss of obese adolescents on two different low-calorie diets: fixed diet plan and calorie-counting diet. This is a randomized clinical study with 66 obese adolescents (body mass index Z score (ZBMI)>+3, 13.7±0.7 years, 60.6% male) with anthropometric, food intake, physical activity, laboratory, body composition and stage of pubertal development data evaluated. There was a reduction in the ZBMI in both groups (P<0.0001), without significant difference between them (P=0...
September 21, 2016: European Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27622917/diabetes-control-and-adherence-in-adolescence
#17
Christy Foster, Jayne Bellando, Yu-Chi Annie Wang
Type 1 diabetes is a chronic disease that can lead to severe complications if poorly controlled. Adolescents are particularly vulnerable to worsening diabetes control due to changes in physiology, family dynamics, and social interactions. Good diabetes control requires following a regimen of frequent blood glucose checks, accurate carbohydrate counts, and compliance with insulin administration. Patients who are challenged in controlling their diabetes do tend to respond to behavioral interventions; however, the effect of the intervention wanes over time...
September 1, 2016: Pediatric Annals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27621531/accuracy-of-carbohydrate-counting-in-adults
#18
Lisa T Meade, Wanda E Rushton
In Brief This study investigates carbohydrate counting accuracy in patients using insulin through a multiple daily injection regimen or continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion. The average accuracy test score for all patients was 59%. The carbohydrate test in this study can be used to emphasize the importance of carbohydrate counting to patients and to provide ongoing education.
July 2016: Clinical Diabetes: a Publication of the American Diabetes Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27621143/exploration-of-the-performance-of-a-hybrid-closed-loop-insulin-delivery-algorithm-that-includes-insulin-delivery-limits-designed-to-protect-against-hypoglycemia
#19
Martin de Bock, Julie Dart, Anirban Roy, Raymond Davey, Wayne Soon, Carolyn Berthold, Adam Retterath, Benyamin Grosman, Natalie Kurtz, Elizabeth Davis, Timothy Jones
BACKGROUND: Hypoglycemia remains a risk for closed loop insulin delivery particularly following exercise or if the glucose sensor is inaccurate. The aim of this study was to test whether an algorithm that includes a limit to insulin delivery is effective at protecting against hypoglycemia under those circumstances. METHODS: An observational study on 8 participants with type 1 diabetes was conducted, where a hybrid closed loop system (HCL) (Medtronic™ 670G) was challenged with hypoglycemic stimuli: exercise and an overreading glucose sensor...
September 12, 2016: Journal of Diabetes Science and Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27595656/anopheles-gambiae-females-readily-learn-to-associate-complex-visual-cues-with-the-quality-of-sugar-sources
#20
Balázs Bernáth, Victor Anstett, Patrick M Guerin
The ability to learn plays a key role in tuning and adapting the behaviours of animals for their unpredictable biotopes. This also applies to insect vectors of disease. Anautogenous mosquitoes need to find both sugar and blood for survival and reproduction. Learning processes are expected to contribute to a mosquito's ability to undertake repeated feeding behaviours more efficiently with time, serving to decrease energy demands and avoid hazards. Here we report how visual learning by the Afrotropical malaria mosquito Anopheles gambiae allows it to readily associate visual cues with the quality of a sugar source...
December 2016: Journal of Insect Physiology
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