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Acid rain

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730363/leaching-of-cu-cd-pb-and-phosphorus-and-their-availability-in-the-phosphate-amended-contaminated-soils-under-simulated-acid-rain
#1
Hongbiao Cui, Shiwen Zhang, Ruyan Li, Qitao Yi, Xuebo Zheng, Youbiao Hu, Jing Zhou
Phosphate amendments have been used to immobilize heavy metal-contaminated soils. However, phosphate amendments contain large amounts of phosphorus, which could leach out to potentially contaminate groundwater and surface water. A laboratory column leaching experiment was designed to study the effects of simulated acid rain (SAR) on the potential release of copper (Cu), lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd), and phosphorus (P), and their availability after immobilizing with hydroxyapatite (HAP) and potassium dihydrogen phosphate (PDP)...
July 20, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725374/snowbeds-are-more-affected-than-other-subalpine-alpine-plant-communities-by-climate-change-in-the-swiss-alps
#2
Magalì Matteodo, Klaus Ammann, Eric Pascal Verrecchia, Pascal Vittoz
While the upward shift of plant species has been observed on many alpine and nival summits, the reaction of the subalpine and lower alpine plant communities to the current warming and lower snow precipitation has been little investigated so far. To this aim, 63 old, exhaustive plant inventories, distributed along a subalpine-alpine elevation gradient of the Swiss Alps and covering different plant community types (acidic and calcareous grasslands; windy ridges; snowbeds), were revisited after 25-50 years. Old and recent inventories were compared in terms of species diversity with Simpson diversity and Bray-Curtis dissimilarity indices, and in terms of community composition with principal component analysis...
October 2016: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28717252/rain-induced-changes-in-soil-co2-flux-and-microbial-community-composition-in-a-tropical-forest-of-china
#3
Qi Deng, Dafeng Hui, Guowei Chu, Xi Han, Quanfa Zhang
Rain-induced soil CO2 pulse, a rapid excitation in soil CO2 flux after rain, is ubiquitously observed in terrestrial ecosystems, yet the underlying mechanisms in tropical forests are still not clear. We conducted a rain simulation experiment to quantify rain-induced changes in soil CO2 flux and microbial community composition in a tropical forest. Soil CO2 flux rapidly increased by ~83% after rains, accompanied by increases in both bacterial (~51%) and fungal (~58%) Phospholipid Fatty Acids (PLFA) biomass. However, soil CO2 flux and microbial community in the plots without litters showed limited response to rains...
July 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28691753/effect-of-aging-and-surface-interactions-on-the-diffusion-of-endogenous-compounds-in-latent-fingerprints-studied-by-mass-spectrometry-imaging
#4
Kelly C O'Neill, Young Jin Lee
The ability to determine the age of fingerprints would be immeasurably beneficial in criminal investigations. We explore the possibility of determining the age of fingerprints by analyzing various compounds as they diffuse from the ridges to the valleys of fingerprints using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry imaging. The diffusion of two classes of endogenous fingerprint compounds, fatty acids and triacylglycerols (TGs), was studied in fresh and aged fingerprints on four surfaces...
July 10, 2017: Journal of Forensic Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28690684/4-fluoroprolines-conformational-analysis-and-effects-on-the-stability-and-folding-of-peptides-and-proteins
#5
Robert W Newberry, Ronald T Raines
Proline is unique among proteinogenic amino acids because a pyrrolidine ring links its amino group to its side chain. This heterocycle constrains the conformations of the main chain and thus templates particular secondary structures. Proline residues undergo post-translational modification at the 4-position to yield 4-hydroxyproline, which is especially prevalent in collagen. Interest in characterizing the effects of this modification led to the use of 4-fluoroprolines to enhance inductive properties relative to the hydroxyl group of 4-hydroxyproline and to eliminate contributions from hydrogen bonding...
2017: Topics in Heterocyclic Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28679120/direct-effect-of-acid-rain-on-leaf-chlorophyll-content-of-terrestrial-plants-in-china
#6
Enzai Du, Dan Dong, Xuetong Zeng, Zhengzhong Sun, Xiaofei Jiang, Wim de Vries
Anthropogenic emissions of acid precursors in China have resulted in widespread acid rain since the 1980s. Although efforts have been made to assess the indirect, soil mediated ecological effects of acid rain, a systematic assessment of the direct foliage injury by acid rain across terrestrial plants is lacking. Leaf chlorophyll content is an important indicator of direct foliage damage and strongly related to plant productivity. We synthesized data from published literature on experiments of simulated acid rain, by directly exposing plants to acid solutions with varying pH levels, to assess the direct effect of acid rain on leaf chlorophyll content across 67 terrestrial plants in China...
July 2, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28664490/removal-of-organic-contaminants-in-bioretention-medium-amended-with-activated-carbon-from-sewage-sludge
#7
Karin Björklund, Loretta Li
Bioretention, also known as rain garden, allows stormwater to soak into the ground through a soil-based medium, leading to removal of particulate and dissolved pollutants and reduced peak flows. Although soil organic matter (SOM) is efficient at sorbing many pollutants, amending the bioretention medium with highly effective adsorbents has been proposed to optimize pollutant removal and extend bioretention lifetime. The aim of this research was to investigate whether soil amended with activated carbon produced from sewage sludge increases the efficiency to remove hydrophobic organic compounds frequently detected in stormwater, compared to non-amended soil...
June 29, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28662430/trends-of-two-decadal-precipitation-chemistry-in-a-subtropical-rainforest-in-east-asia
#8
Chung-Te Chang, Chiao-Ping Wang, Jr-Chuan Huang, Lih-Jih Wang, Chiung-Pin Liu, Teng-Chiu Lin
Long-term monitoring of precipitation chemistry provides a great opportunity to examine the evolution of air pollutant emissions and effectiveness of air pollution control measures. We evaluated the characteristics and trends of precipitation chemistry at both annual and seasonal scales based on the records of 1994-2013 at Fushan Experimental Forest (FEF) of northeastern Taiwan. The results showed that 77% of the weekly precipitation had pH<5.0. The two-decadal average annual pH was 4.62, without a significant inter-annual trend, possibly due to the concurrent declines of both acidic pollutants and base cations...
June 27, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644399/effects-of-biochar-derived-sewage-sludge-on-heavy-metal-adsorption-and-immobilization-in-soils
#9
Dan Zhou, Dan Liu, Fengxiang Gao, Mengke Li, Xianping Luo
The object of this study was to evaluate the effect of sewage sludge biochar on adsorption and mobility of Cr, Mn, Cu, and Zn. Biochar (BC400) was produced via pyrolysis of municipal sewage sludge at 400 °C. Maximum adsorption capacities (qm) for Zn, Cr, Mn, and Cu were 5.905, 5.724, 5.681, and 5.342 mg·g(-1), respectively, in the mono-metal solution and 2.475, 8.204, 1.01, and 5.415 mg·g(-1), respectively, in the multi-metal solution. The adsorption capacities for Mn, Cu, and Zn decreased in the multi-metal solution due to competitive adsorption, whereas the capacity for Cr increased...
June 23, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631831/spatial-and-temporal-trends-and-flow-dynamics-of-glyphosate-and-other-pesticides-within-an-agricultural-watershed-in-argentina
#10
Débora J Pérez, Elena Okada, Eduardo De Gerónimo, Mirta L Menone, Virginia C Aparicio, José L Costa
In the present study, we evaluated the spatial and temporal trends of current use pesticides in surface water and sediments and to determine its relation with hydrological stream dynamics within the agricultural watershed of El Crespo stream. We sampled two contrasting sites: Site 1 (upstream) surrounded by agricultural lands, and Site 2 (downstream) surrounded by natural grasslands. Most of the applied pesticides (i.e. glyphosate, 2,4-D, atrazine, tebuconazole and imidacloprid) were detected in high frequencies in surface water samples at both sites...
June 20, 2017: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28619476/brexanolone-sage-547-injection-in-post-partum-depression-a-randomised-controlled-trial
#11
Stephen Kanes, Helen Colquhoun, Handan Gunduz-Bruce, Shane Raines, Ryan Arnold, Amy Schacterle, James Doherty, C Neill Epperson, Kristina M Deligiannidis, Robert Riesenberg, Ethan Hoffmann, David Rubinow, Jeffrey Jonas, Steven Paul, Samantha Meltzer-Brody
BACKGROUND: Post-partum depression is a serious mood disorder in women that might be triggered by peripartum fluctuations in reproductive hormones. This phase 2 study investigated brexanolone (USAN; formerly SAGE-547 injection), an intravenous formulation of allopregnanolone, a positive allosteric modulator of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABAA) receptors, for the treatment of post-partum depression. METHODS: For this double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled trial, we enrolled self-referred or physician-referred female inpatients (≤6 months post partum) with severe post-partum depression (Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression [HAM-D] total score ≥26) in four hospitals in the USA...
June 12, 2017: Lancet
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28617286/improving-the-microbiological-quality-of-the-ruhr-river-near-essen-comparing-costs-and-effects-for-the-reduction-of-escherichia-coli-and-intestinal-enterococci
#12
Katharina Tondera, Kassandra Klaer, Silke Roder, Ira Brueckner, Johannes Pinnekamp
After rain events in densely populated areas, combined sewer overflows (CSOs) can have severe health-related effects upon surface water quality, as well as diffuse overland runoff and wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). All of these sources emit pathogens and fecal indicator bacteria into the surface water, which the EU Bathing Water Directive addresses by giving threshold values for the indicators Escherichia coli and intestinal enterococci. This study presents a comparison between 21 scenarios of costs for processes that reduce the load of Escherichia coli and intestinal enterococci into the Ruhr River during and shortly after rain events...
June 2017: Water Science and Technology: a Journal of the International Association on Water Pollution Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28612166/biodegradation-of-pyrene-by-candida-sp-s1-under-high-salinity-conditions
#13
Tony Hadibarata, Ameer Badr Khudhair, Risky Ayu Kristanti, Hesam Kamyab
Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon is a toxic recalcitrant environmental pollutant and its removal from the environment is very essential. In this study, a novel S1 strain isolated from the tropical rain forest was identified as Candida species based on 18S rRNA. The pyrene biodegradation was performed by Candida sp. S1. Pyrene was 35% degraded in 15 days. The percentage of pyrene biodegradation increased up to 75% with 24 g L(-1) of sodium chloride and decreased along with increasing salinity. Under the acidic condition, the biodegradation was increased up to 60% at pH 5...
June 13, 2017: Bioprocess and Biosystems Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28587474/pollution-by-nonylphenol-in-river-tap-water-and-aquatic-in-an-acid-rain-plagued-city-in-southwest-china
#14
Yu Jie, Zhou Jie, Luo Ya, Yang Xuesong, Yang Jing, Yang Yu, Yang Jiaqi, Xu Jie
OBJECTIVE: Nonylphenol (NP) has provoked much environmental concern because of their weak estrogenic activities; however, few data are available on the environmental levels of the chemical in China. METHOD: Environmental or river samples were assayed for NP by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) technique. RESULTS: The concentration for NP measured in Xiangjiang River, ranging from 0.174 to 3.411 μg/L with a mean value of 1.73 μg/L, was lower than the Water Quality Criteria for NP of the US (6...
June 6, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Health Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28582677/fast-and-safe-gas-detection-from-underground-coal-fire-by-drone-fly-over
#15
Lucila Dunnington, Masami Nakagawa
Underground coal fires start naturally or as a result of human activities. Besides burning away the important non-renewable energy resource and causing financial losses, burning coal seams emit carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, sulfur oxide and methane, and is a leading cause of smog, acid rain, global warming, and air toxins. In the U.S. alone, the combined cost of coal-fire remediation projects that have been completed, budgeted, or projected by the U.S. Department of the Interior's Office of Surface Mining Remediation and Enforcement (OSM), exceeds $1 billion...
June 2, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28578848/study-on-pharmacokinetics-and-bioequivalence-of-vonoprazan-pyroglutamate-in-rats-by-liquid-chromatography-with-tandem-mass-spectrometry
#16
Yuan Qiao, Jun Zhao, Xuanfeng Yue, Yang Zhang, Ruitao Zhang, Yuan Xu, Xiuling Tang, Xueying Liu, Qingwei Wang
Vonoprazan Fumarate (TAK-438F) is a new and effective drug approved in Japan in 2014 for treatment and prevention of acid-related diseases (ARDs), which exhibits many advantages compared with traditional proton-pump inhibitors (PPIs). However, the clinical applications of TAK0-438F suffers limitation due to the lack of injection dosage form. Efforts to overcome this limitation lead to the systhesis of Vonoprazan pyroglutamate (TAK-438P) for its high water solubility and more potent antisecretory effect. This was the first report to establish and validate a reliable and sensitive LC-MS/MS method for the quantification of TAK-438P in rat plasma and tissues (heart, liver, spleen, liver, kidney, rain, stomach and small intestine)...
August 1, 2017: Journal of Chromatography. B, Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28577402/comparative-effects-of-sulfuric-and-nitric-acid-rain-on-litter-decomposition-and-soil-microbial-community-in-subtropical-plantation-of-yangtze-river-delta-region
#17
Xin Liu, Bo Zhang, Wenrui Zhao, Ling Wang, Dejin Xie, Wentong Huo, Yanwen Wu, Jinchi Zhang
Acid rain is mainly caused by dissolution of sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides in the atmosphere, and has a significant negative effect on ecosystems. The relative composition of acid rain is changing gradually from sulfuric acid rain (SAR) to nitric acid rain (NAR) with the rapidly growing amount of nitrogen deposition. In this study, we investigated the impact of simulated SAR and NAR on litter decomposition and the soil microbial community over four seasons since March 2015. Results first showed that the effects of acid rain on litter decomposition and soil microbial were positive in the early period of the experiment, except for SAR on soil microbes...
May 31, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28562060/sphagnum-moss-as-an-indicator-of-contemporary-rates-of-atmospheric-dust-deposition-in-the-athabasca-bituminous-sands-region
#18
Gillian Mullan-Boudreau, Rene Belland, Kevin Devito, Tommy Noernberg, Rick Pelletier, William Shotyk
Sphagnum moss was collected from ombrotrophic (rain-fed) peat bogs to quantify dust emissions from the open-pit mining and upgrading of Athabasca bituminous sands (ABS). A total of 30 bogs were sampled in the ABS region, and 5 were sampled in central Alberta. Ash was separated into the acid-insoluble ash (AIA) and acid-soluble ash (ASA) fractions using HCl. The AIA concentrations increase toward industry from 0.4 ± 0.5% to 4.7 ± 2.0% over a distance of 30 km; the control site at the Utikuma Region Study Area (URSA) yielded 0...
June 14, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28530577/impact-of-apple-cultivar-ripening-stage-fermentation-type-and-yeast-strain-on-phenolic-composition-of-apple-ciders
#19
Oskar Laaksonen, Rain Kuldjärv, Toomas Paalme, Mira Virkki, Baoru Yang
Hydroxycinnamic acids and flavonoids in apple juices and ciders were studied using liquid chromatography. Samples were produced from four different Estonian apple cultivars using unripe, ripe and overripe apples, and six different commercial yeasts including Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Saccharomyces bayanus, and Torulaspora delbrueckii strains. Part of the samples was additionally inoculated with malolactic bacteria, Oenococcus oeni. The most notable difference among the samples was the appearance of phloretin in malolactic ciders in comparison to conventional ciders and the juices...
October 15, 2017: Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28508441/synthesis-of-an-aluminum-hydroxide-octamer-through-a-simple-dissolution-method
#20
Cory K Perkins, Eric S Eitrheim, Brantly L Fulton, Lauren B Fullmer, Christopher A Colla, Deok-Hie Park, Anna F Oliveri, James E Hutchison, May Nyman, William H Casey, Tori Z Forbes, Darren W Johnson, Douglas A Keszler
Multimeric oxo-hydroxo Al clusters function as models for common mineral structures and reactions. Cluster research, however, is often slowed by a lack of methods to prepare clusters in pure form and in large amounts. Herein, we report a facile synthesis of the little known cluster Al8 (OH)14 (H2 O)18 (SO4 )5 (Al8 ) through a simple dissolution method. We confirm its structure by single-crystal X-ray diffraction and show by (27) Al NMR spectroscopy, electrospray-ionization mass spectrometry, and small- and wide-angle X-ray scattering that it also exists in solution...
May 16, 2017: Angewandte Chemie
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