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Acid rain

Tony Hadibarata, Achmad Syafiuddin, Fahad A Al-Dhabaan, Mohamed Soliman Elshikh, Rubiyatno
Herein, we systematically reported the capability of T. harzianum RY44 for decolorization of Mordant orange-1. The fungi strains were isolated from the Universiti Teknologi Malaysia tropical rain forest. For initial screening, the decolorization was conducted using 50 strains of the fungi for 20 days incubation time and the best performance was selected. Then, the decolorization capability and fungal biomass were evaluated using different dye concentrations, namely, 0, 50, 75 and 100 ppm. Effects of the carbon sources (fructose, glucose, and galactose), nitrogen sources (ammonium nitrate, ammonium sulfate and yeast extract), surfactant (tween 80), aromatic compounds (benzoic acid, catechol and salicylic acid), and pH on the decolorization efficiency were examined...
January 18, 2018: Bioprocess and Biosystems Engineering
Sujay S Kaushal, Gene E Likens, Michael L Pace, Ryan M Utz, Shahan Haq, Julia Gorman, Melissa Grese
Salt pollution and human-accelerated weathering are shifting the chemical composition of major ions in fresh water and increasing salinization and alkalinization across North America. We propose a concept, the freshwater salinization syndrome, which links salinization and alkalinization processes. This syndrome manifests as concurrent trends in specific conductance, pH, alkalinity, and base cations. Although individual trends can vary in strength, changes in salinization and alkalinization have affected 37% and 90%, respectively, of the drainage area of the contiguous United States over the past century...
January 8, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Fan Zhang, Huiqing Hu, Lihong Wang, Qing Zhou, Xiaohua Huang
Combined rare earth and acid rain pollution has become a new environmental problem, seriously affecting plant survival. The effects of these two kinds of pollutants on plant photosynthesis have been reported, but the micro mechanisms are not very clear. In this research, we studied the effects of lanthanum [La(III), 0.08, 1.20 and 2.40 mM] and acid rain (pH value = 2.5, 3.5 and 4.5) on the ATPase activity and gene transcription level and the functional element contents in rice leaf chloroplasts. The results showed that the combined 0...
December 1, 2017: Chemosphere
Mei Wang, Houqiao Luo, Yong Chen, Jinyan Yang
Phosphogypsum (PG) stored close to phosphorus chemical plants has caused worldwide environmental problems. Column leaching experiments were conducted to evaluate Ca and Sr leaching from PG under simulated acid rain at pH levels typical for rain in the study region (Shifang, China). High concentrations of Ca and Sr in leachates in the first five leaching events could pollute the soil and groundwater around the PG. Leachates pH was lower than and had no correlation with simulated rain pH. No correlations between simulated rain pH and cumulative Ca and Sr content in leachates were noted...
November 24, 2017: Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
Xin Liu, Wenrui Zhao, Miaojing Meng, Zhiyuan Fu, Linhao Xu, Yan Zha, Jianmin Yue, Shuifeng Zhang, Jinchi Zhang
The influence of acid rain on forest trees includes direct effects on foliage as well as indirect soil-mediated effects that cause a reduction in fine-root growth. In addition, the concentration of NO3(-) in acid rain increases with the rapidly growing of nitrogen deposition. In this study, we investigated the impact of simulated acid rain with different SO4(2-)/NO3(-) (S/N) ratios, which were 5:1 (S), 1:1 (SN) and 1:5 (N), on fine-root growth from March 2015 to February 2016. Results showed that fine roots were more sensitive to the effects of acid rain than soils in the short-term...
November 10, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
Raine Lunde-Young, Katie Davis-Anderson, Vishal Naik, Matthew Nemec, Guoyao Wu, Jayanth Ramadoss
The fetal brain exhibits exquisite alcohol-induced regional neuronal vulnerability. A candidate mechanism for alcohol-mediated brain deficits is disruption of amino acid (AA) bioavailability. AAs are vitally important for proper neurodevelopment, as they comprise the most abundant neurotransmitters in the brain and act as neurotransmitter precursors, nitric oxide donors, antioxidants, and neurotrophic factors, which induce synaptogenesis, neuronal proliferation, and migration. We hypothesized that gestational alcohol alters brain AA concentrations, disrupts AAs associated with neuropathogenesis, and that alterations are region-specific...
September 30, 2017: Alcohol
Yinghao Zhao, Ling Zhao, Yanyan Mei, Feiyue Li, Xinde Cao
Biochar is a potential amendment for improving soil fertility due to its richness of nutrients, P, K, Ca, and Mg. However, soil amended with metal-rich biochars may pose a risk of heavy metal release to the environment. Biochars derived from pig manure and sewage sludge (PM-biochar and SS-biochar) were investigated for their nutrient and heavy metal release in two soils (acidic and alkaline soil) under simulated landfill and acid rain conditions. Results showed that under both environmental conditions, adding PM-biochar into the soil increased K, P, and Mg release significantly by about 40-50 times, while only 2-4 times increase of the nutrients was observed in the SS-biochar-amended soil...
November 10, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Nannan Li, Hongjun Meng, Haitao Xing, Lan Liang, Xin Zhao, Keming Luo, Christine Raines
Ionic aluminum (Al) in acidic soils, comprising approximately 50% of arable land globally, is highly toxic to most plant species. Populus grow naturally in acidic soils and tolerate high concentrations of Al. Multidrug and toxic compound extrusion (MATE) family genes in plants are involved in responses to Al tolerance. To date, however, the functional roles of the MATE genes in Populus remain unclear. In the present study, 71 putative MATE transporters were predicted in the genome of Populus trichocarpa. The chromosome distribution, phylogenetic relationships, and expression level analysis revealed that four candidate MATE genes belonging to subgroup IIIc might contribute to high Al tolerance in poplar...
November 1, 2017: Journal of Experimental Botany
Ying Wang, YongAn Xu, Dan Li, BiCong Tang, ShuLei Man, YiFan Jia, Heng Xu
This experiment was conducted to investigate the remediation effects of bio-conditioners vermicompost (VC) and biochar (BC) on cadmium contaminated soil under the threat of acid rain, individually and associatively. With the application of soil conditioners, the percentages of HOAc-extractable Cd decreased 5.2-6.8%, 9.0-13.5% and 7.9-12.1% in the groups amended with VC, BC and VC combined BC, respectively. When the pH of rain decreased from 7.0 to 4.0, the activity of acid phosphatase decreased 2.0%, 12.3%, 3...
October 21, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
Shuming Ju, Liping Wang, Cuiying Zhang, Tingchao Yin, Siliang Shao
Silicon (Si) is a macroelement in plants. The biological effects and mitigation mechanisms of silicon under environmental stress have become hot topics. The main objectives of this study were to elucidate the roles of Si in alleviating the effects on the phenotype, micromorphology and anatomy of the leaves of rice seedlings under acid rain stress. The results indicated that the combined or single effects of Si and simulated acid rain (SAR) stress on rice roots depended on the concentration of Si and the intensity of the SAR stress...
2017: PloS One
Yulia V Kochergina, Martin Udatný, Vít Penížek, Martin Mihaljevič
Early efforts at remediation of contaminated soils involve overturn or removal of the uppermost soil horizons. We find that such disruption is counterproductive, as it actually increases the mobility of the heavy metals involved. In our study, we sought to replicate in a controlled manner this commonly used remediation strategy and measure Pb, Zn, Cu and As concentrations in all soil horizons-both prior to and 1 year after disruption by trenching. BCR analyses (sequential leaching) indicate that Pb is affected to the greatest degree and is most highly mobile; however, Zn and As remain insoluble, thus partially ameliorating the detrimental effect...
October 18, 2017: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
Xianzeng Niu, Anna Wendt, Zhenhui Li, Amal Agarwal, Lingzhou Xue, Matthew Gonzales, Susan L Brantley
To understand how extraction of different energy sources impacts water resources requires assessment of how water chemistry has changed in comparison with the background values of pristine streams. With such understanding, we can develop better water quality standards and ecological interpretations. However, determination of pristine background chemistry is difficult in areas with heavy human impact. To learn to do this, we compiled a master dataset of sulfate and barium concentrations ([SO4], [Ba]) in Pennsylvania (PA, USA) streams from publically available sources...
October 13, 2017: Environmental Geochemistry and Health
Michael L Wong, Benjamin D Charnay, Peter Gao, Yuk L Yung, Michael J Russell
We quantify the amount of nitrogen oxides (NOx) produced through lightning and photochemical processes in the Hadean atmosphere to be available in the Hadean ocean for the emergence of life. Atmospherically generated nitrate (NO3(-)) and nitrite (NO2(-)) are the most attractive high-potential electron acceptors for pulling and enabling crucial redox reactions of autotrophic metabolic pathways at submarine alkaline hydrothermal vents. The Hadean atmosphere, dominated by CO2 and N2, will produce nitric oxide (NO) when shocked by lightning...
October 12, 2017: Astrobiology
Nacer Bellaloui, James R Smith, Alemu Mengistu
The timing of harvest is a major factor affecting seed quality in soybean, particularly in Midsouthern USA, when rain during harvest period is not uncommon. The objective of this research was to evaluate the effects of time of harvest on soybean seed quality (seed composition, germination, seed coat boron, and lignin) in high germinability (HG) breeding lines (50% exotic) developed under high heat. The hypothesis was that seeds of HG lines possess physiological and genetic traits for a better seed quality at harvest maturity and delayed harvest...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
Ganesan Gowrisankar, Ramachandran Chelliah, Sudha Rani Ramakrishnan, Vetrimurugan Elumalai, Saravanan Dhanamadhavan, Karthikeyan Brindha, Usha Antony, Lakshmanan Elango
During floods, human exposure to pathogens through contaminated water leads to the outbreak of epidemic diseases. This research presents the first extensive assessment of surface and groundwater samples collected immediately after a flood (December 2015) and post-flood (April 2016) from the Adyar River of Chennai, a major city in India, for major ions, trace metals, bacterial population, and pathogens. Severe rains in a short period of time resulted in flooding which inundated the wells, allowing the entry of sewage contaminated river water into the groundwater zone...
October 10, 2017: Scientific Data
Que Kong, Wei Ma, Haibing Yang, Guojie Ma, Jenny J Mantyla, Christoph Benning, Christine Raines
WRINKLED1 (WRI1) is a key transcriptional regulator of fatty acid biosynthesis genes in diverse oil-containing tissues. Loss of function of Arabidopsis WRI1 leads to a reduction in the expression of genes for fatty acid biosynthesis and glycolysis, and concomitant strong reduction of seed oil content. The wri1-1 loss-of-function mutant shows reduced primary root growth and decreased acidification of the growth medium. The content of a conjugated form of the plant growth hormone auxin, indole-3-acetic acid (IAA)-Asp, was higher in wri1-1 plants compared with the wild-type...
July 20, 2017: Journal of Experimental Botany
Yanjun Zhang, Xiangqiang Kong, Jianlong Dai, Zhen Luo, Zhenhuai Li, Hequan Lu, Shizhen Xu, Wei Tang, Dongmei Zhang, Weijiang Li, Chengsong Xin, Hezhong Dong
Cotton is sensitive to waterlogging stress, which usually results in stunted growth and yield loss. To date, the molecular mechanisms underlying the responses to waterlogging in cotton remain elusive. Cotton was grown in a rain-shelter and subjected to 0 (control)-, 10-, 15- and 20-d waterlogging at flowering stage. The fourth-leaves on the main-stem from the top were sampled and immediately frozen in liquid nitrogen for physiological measurement. Global gene transcription in the leaves of 15-d waterlogged plants was analyzed by RNA-Seq...
2017: PloS One
Sooraj Nizamani, Tasneem G Kazi, Hassan I Afridi
An efficient preconcentration technique based on ultrasonic-assisted ionic liquid-based dual microextraction (UA-ILDµE) method has been developed to preconcentrate the lead (Pb(+2)) in ground and stored rain water. In the current proposed method, Pb(+2) was complexed with a chelating agent (dithizone), whereas an ionic liquid (1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate) was used for extraction purpose. The ultrasonic irradiation and electrical shaking system were applied to enhance the dispersion and extraction of Pb(+2) complex in aqueous samples...
January 2018: Ultrasonics Sonochemistry
Yolanda Bouzas-Cid, Elena Falqué, Ignacio Orriols, José M Mirás-Avalos
Amino acids and volatile compounds play an important role in wine aroma and sensory characteristics. The concentrations of these compounds might be altered by climate interanual variability and by management practices such as irrigation. The aim of the current study was to assess the amino acid profile of musts and wines, volatile composition and sensory profile of wines from Vitis vinifera (L.) cultivar 'Treixadura' obtained from vines under rain-fed and irrigation conditions over three consecutive vintages (2012-2014)...
February 1, 2018: Food Chemistry
Thomas P Smith, Ian W Windsor, Katrina T Forest, Ronald T Raines
Transthyretin (TTR) is a homotetrameric protein. Its dissociation into monomers leads to the formation of fibrils that underlie human amyloidogenic diseases. The binding of small molecules to the thyroxin-binding sites in TTR stabilizes the homotetramer and attenuates TTR amyloidosis. Herein, we report on boronic acid-substituted stilbenes that limit TTR amyloidosis in vitro. Assays of affinity for TTR and inhibition of its tendency to form fibrils were coupled with X-ray crystallographic analysis of nine TTR·ligand complexes...
September 28, 2017: Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
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