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Acid rain

Kelsey Craig
Sulfur dioxide (SO2 ) is an atmospheric pollutant that is moderately persistent in the atmosphere and highly water soluble. When applied as a pesticide, SO2 may be transported, deposited, or transformed in various chemical reactions. SO2 participates in the sulfur biogeochemical cycle, which involves complex reactions of sulfur-containing compounds between abiotic and biotic components of ecosystems. The main degradation route of SO2 is atmospheric oxidation, and sulfur oxides may undergo long-distance transport prior to removal from the atmosphere by wet or dry deposition...
March 11, 2018: Reviews of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
Shanqian Wang, Xiuying Zhang, Yuandan Ma, Xinhui Li, Min Cheng, Xiaomin Zhang, Lei Liu
Acid rain, which has become one of the most severe global environmental issues, is detrimental to plant growth. However, effective methods for monitoring plant responses to acid rain stress are currently lacking. The hyperspectral technique provides a cost-effective and nondestructive way to diagnose acid rain stresses. Taking a widely distributed species ( Quercus glauca ) in Southern China as an example, this study aims to monitor the hyperspectral responses of Q. glauca to simulated sulfuric acid rain (SAR) and nitric acid rain (NAR)...
March 9, 2018: Sensors
Flávia Melo de Lima, Talitha de Andrade Borges, Renata Martins Braga, Dulce Maria de Araújo Melo, Antônio Eduardo Martinelli
There is global concern about acid rain and other pollution which is caused by the consumption of oil. By decreasing sulfur content in the oil, we can reduce unwanted emissions and acid rain. Shale was used which is a solid waste generated in the pyrolysis of shale, impregnated with Zn as an adsorbent which removes sulfur present in fuels from the hexane/toluene model solution. An influence of the agitation time (60-180 min), temperature (25-35 °C), adsorbent mass (0.1-0.25 g), and initial sulfur concentration (100-250 ppm) factorial 24 with three central points totaling 19 experiments was applied to investigate the effect of the variables on the efficiency of sulfur removal in fuels...
March 5, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Markus T Müller
The Chemistry Cube Game invites students at secondary school level 1 and 2 to explore basic concepts of chemistry in a playful way, either as individuals or in teams. It consists of 15 different cubes, 9 cubes for different acids, their corresponding bases and precursors, and 6 cubes for different reducing and oxidising agents. The cubes can be rotated in those directions indicated. Each 'allowed' vertical or horizontal rotation of 90° stands for a chemical reaction or a physical transition. Two different games and playing modes are presented here: First, redox chemistry is introduced for the formation of salts from elementary metals and non-metals...
February 1, 2018: Chimia
Dirk Schulze-Makuch, Dirk Wagner, Samuel P Kounaves, Kai Mangelsdorf, Kevin G Devine, Jean-Pierre de Vera, Philippe Schmitt-Kopplin, Hans-Peter Grossart, Victor Parro, Martin Kaupenjohann, Albert Galy, Beate Schneider, Alessandro Airo, Jan Frösler, Alfonso F Davila, Felix L Arens, Luis Cáceres, Francisco Solís Cornejo, Daniel Carrizo, Lewis Dartnell, Jocelyne DiRuggiero, Markus Flury, Lars Ganzert, Mark O Gessner, Peter Grathwohl, Lisa Guan, Jacob Heinz, Matthias Hess, Frank Keppler, Deborah Maus, Christopher P McKay, Rainer U Meckenstock, Wren Montgomery, Elizabeth A Oberlin, Alexander J Probst, Johan S Sáenz, Tobias Sattler, Janosch Schirmack, Mark A Sephton, Michael Schloter, Jenny Uhl, Bernardita Valenzuela, Gisle Vestergaard, Lars Wörmer, Pedro Zamorano
Traces of life are nearly ubiquitous on Earth. However, a central unresolved question is whether these traces always indicate an active microbial community or whether, in extreme environments, such as hyperarid deserts, they instead reflect just dormant or dead cells. Although microbial biomass and diversity decrease with increasing aridity in the Atacama Desert, we provide multiple lines of evidence for the presence of an at times metabolically active, microbial community in one of the driest places on Earth...
February 26, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Róli R Simões, Scheila I Kraus, Igor S Coelho, Daniela Dal-Secco, Diogo A Siebert, Gustavo A Micke, Michele D Alberton, Adair R S Santos
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Eugenia brasiliensis Lam. (Myrtaceae) is a Brazilian tree distributed throughout Atlantic rain forest, since Bahia until Santa Catarina state, and is popularly known as "grumixaba, grumixameira, cumbixaba, ibaporoiti, and cereja-brasileira". The bark and leaves of Eugenia brasiliensis are used in folk medicine as adstringent, diuretic, energizing, anti-rheumatic and anti-inflammatory. This study aimed at investigating the chemical composition, antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory effect of the hydroalcoholic extract of Eugenia brasiliensis (HEEb)...
February 17, 2018: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
Biswojit Debnath, Mubasher Hussain, Muhammad Irshad, Sangeeta Mitra, Min Li, Shuang Liu, Dongliang Qiu
Acid rain (AR) is a serious global environmental issue causing physio-morphological changes in plants. Melatonin, as an indoleamine molecule, has been known to mediate many physiological processes in plants under different kinds of environmental stress. However, the role of melatonin in acid rain stress tolerance remains inexpressible. This study investigated the possible role of melatonin on different physiological responses involving reactive oxygen species (ROS) metabolism in tomato plants under simulated acid rain (SAR) stress...
February 11, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Xi Guo, Hongyi Li, Huimin Yu, Weifeng Li, Yingcong Ye, Asim Biswas
The spatio-temporal distribution soil pH is critical for understanding the productivity and long-term sustainability of our agri-ecosystem. This study quantified the spatio-temporal distribution of paddy soil pH in Jiangxi province, China, and the potential driver of the change between 1980 and 2010. Data from the Soil Survey Information of Jiangxi province (1980s) and Jiangxi Soil Testing and Fertilizer Recommendation study (2010s) were collected and categorized into six pH ranges from strongly-acidic to strongly-alkaline with unit pH differences...
February 9, 2018: Scientific Reports
Chenchen Zhao, Shuxia Ren, Qingqing Zuo, Shutao Wang, Yapeng Zhou, Wei Liu, Shuxuan Liang
Cadmium (Cd) contamination in soil is a global environmental pollution issue. Nanohydroxyapatite (NHAP) has been used in soil remediation to immobilize cadmium in contaminated soils. However, the effect of acid rain on the export of cadmium from topsoil and its behavior in deep soil and leachate is unclear. In this study, column experiments and development of parsimonious model were performed to estimate Cd leaching behavior from topsoil and environmental risk of groundwater after 0.5% NHAP remediation. Four leaching events were performed and total Cd, different fractions of Cd determined by sequential extraction procedure and pH were determined for each leaching...
February 1, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Ziyuan Wang, Yuhang Wang, Jianfeng Li, Stephan Henne, Boya Zhang, Jianxin Hu, Jianbo Zhang
HFO-1234yf (2,3,3,3-tetrafluoropropene) was proposed as a mobile air conditioners (MACs) refrigerant worldwide. However, its atmospheric degradation product is the highly soluble and phytotoxic trifluoroacetic acid (TFA), which persists in aquatic environments. We used a global 3-D chemical transport model to assess the potential environmental effects resulting from complete future conversion of all MACs to HFO-1234yf in China, the United States and Europe. The annual mean atmospheric concentrations of HFO-1234yf were 2...
January 30, 2018: Environmental Science & Technology
Min Liu, Jicheng Zhong, Xiaolan Zheng, Juhua Yu, Dehong Liu, Chengxin Fan
The objectives of this study were to characterize the heavy metal contamination status of surface soils sampled at two dredged sediment land disposal sites (the Baimao and Kongwan landfills) in Meiliang Bay, Lake Taihu, China, as well as to investigate the effect on their leaching behaviors due to acid rain. Among all the metals, only the nickel content in the Baimao landfill was higher than the Chinese reference value, and all metal contents were below the limit values for agricultural soils. The fraction distribution of metals by sequential extraction was similar at both sites...
January 24, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Shigeki Harada, Miyu Yanbe
This report describes the use of porous concrete at the bottom of a sewage trap to prevent runoff of non-point heavy metals into receiving waters, and, secondarily, to reduce total runoff volume during heavy rains in urbanized areas while simultaneously increasing the recharge volume of heavy-metal-free water into underground aquifers. This idea has the advantage of preventing clogging, which is fundamentally very important when using pervious materials. During actual field experiments, two important parameters were identified: maximum adsorption weight of lead and zinc by the volume of porous concrete, and heavy metal recovery rate by artificial acidification after adsorption...
January 19, 2018: Chemosphere
Alex E Gbaguidi, Zifa Wang, Wei Wang, Ting Yang, Huan-Sheng Chen
Strong acid rain was recently observed over Northeastern China, particularly in summer in Liaoning Province where alkaline dust largely neutralized acids in the past. This seems to be related to the regional transboundary pollution and poses new challenges in acid rain control scheme in China. In order to delve into the regional transport impact, and quantify its potential contributions to such an "eruption" of acid rain over Liaoning, this paper employs an online source tagging model in coupling with the Nested Air Quality Prediction Modeling System (NAQPMS)...
January 16, 2018: Environmental Pollution
Tony Hadibarata, Achmad Syafiuddin, Fahad A Al-Dhabaan, Mohamed Soliman Elshikh, Rubiyatno
Herein, we systematically reported the capability of T. harzianum RY44 for decolorization of Mordant orange-1. The fungi strains were isolated from the Universiti Teknologi Malaysia tropical rain forest. For initial screening, the decolorization was conducted using 50 strains of the fungi for 20 days incubation time and the best performance was selected. Then, the decolorization capability and fungal biomass were evaluated using different dye concentrations, namely, 0, 50, 75 and 100 ppm. Effects of the carbon sources (fructose, glucose, and galactose), nitrogen sources (ammonium nitrate, ammonium sulfate and yeast extract), surfactant (tween 80), aromatic compounds (benzoic acid, catechol and salicylic acid), and pH on the decolorization efficiency were examined...
January 18, 2018: Bioprocess and Biosystems Engineering
Sujay S Kaushal, Gene E Likens, Michael L Pace, Ryan M Utz, Shahan Haq, Julia Gorman, Melissa Grese
Salt pollution and human-accelerated weathering are shifting the chemical composition of major ions in fresh water and increasing salinization and alkalinization across North America. We propose a concept, the freshwater salinization syndrome, which links salinization and alkalinization processes. This syndrome manifests as concurrent trends in specific conductance, pH, alkalinity, and base cations. Although individual trends can vary in strength, changes in salinization and alkalinization have affected 37% and 90%, respectively, of the drainage area of the contiguous United States over the past century...
January 8, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Fan Zhang, Huiqing Hu, Lihong Wang, Qing Zhou, Xiaohua Huang
Combined rare earth and acid rain pollution has become a new environmental problem, seriously affecting plant survival. The effects of these two kinds of pollutants on plant photosynthesis have been reported, but the micro mechanisms are not very clear. In this research, we studied the effects of lanthanum [La(III), 0.08, 1.20 and 2.40 mM] and acid rain (pH value = 2.5, 3.5 and 4.5) on the ATPase activity and gene transcription level and the functional element contents in rice leaf chloroplasts. The results showed that the combined 0...
March 2018: Chemosphere
Mei Wang, Houqiao Luo, Yong Chen, Jinyan Yang
Phosphogypsum (PG) stored close to phosphorus chemical plants has caused worldwide environmental problems. Column leaching experiments were conducted to evaluate Ca and Sr leaching from PG under simulated acid rain at pH levels typical for rain in the study region (Shifang, China). High concentrations of Ca and Sr in leachates in the first five leaching events could pollute the soil and groundwater around the PG. Leachates pH was lower than and had no correlation with simulated rain pH. No correlations between simulated rain pH and cumulative Ca and Sr content in leachates were noted...
February 2018: Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
Xin Liu, Wenrui Zhao, Miaojing Meng, Zhiyuan Fu, Linhao Xu, Yan Zha, Jianmin Yue, Shuifeng Zhang, Jinchi Zhang
The influence of acid rain on forest trees includes direct effects on foliage as well as indirect soil-mediated effects that cause a reduction in fine-root growth. In addition, the concentration of NO3(-) in acid rain increases with the rapidly growing of nitrogen deposition. In this study, we investigated the impact of simulated acid rain with different SO4(2-)/NO3(-) (S/N) ratios, which were 5:1 (S), 1:1 (SN) and 1:5 (N), on fine-root growth from March 2015 to February 2016. Results showed that fine roots were more sensitive to the effects of acid rain than soils in the short-term...
November 10, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
Raine Lunde-Young, Katie Davis-Anderson, Vishal Naik, Matthew Nemec, Guoyao Wu, Jayanth Ramadoss
The fetal brain exhibits exquisite alcohol-induced regional neuronal vulnerability. A candidate mechanism for alcohol-mediated brain deficits is disruption of amino acid (AA) bioavailability. AAs are vitally important for proper neurodevelopment, as they comprise the most abundant neurotransmitters in the brain and act as neurotransmitter precursors, nitric oxide donors, antioxidants, and neurotrophic factors, which induce synaptogenesis, neuronal proliferation, and migration. We hypothesized that gestational alcohol alters brain AA concentrations, disrupts AAs associated with neuropathogenesis, and that alterations are region-specific...
September 30, 2017: Alcohol
Yinghao Zhao, Ling Zhao, Yanyan Mei, Feiyue Li, Xinde Cao
Biochar is a potential amendment for improving soil fertility due to its richness of nutrients, P, K, Ca, and Mg. However, soil amended with metal-rich biochars may pose a risk of heavy metal release to the environment. Biochars derived from pig manure and sewage sludge (PM-biochar and SS-biochar) were investigated for their nutrient and heavy metal release in two soils (acidic and alkaline soil) under simulated landfill and acid rain conditions. Results showed that under both environmental conditions, adding PM-biochar into the soil increased K, P, and Mg release significantly by about 40-50 times, while only 2-4 times increase of the nutrients was observed in the SS-biochar-amended soil...
January 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
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