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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29132001/comparative-effects-of-simulated-acid-rain-of-different-ratios-of-so4-2-to-no3-on-fine-root-in-subtropical-plantation-of-china
#1
Xin Liu, Wenrui Zhao, Miaojing Meng, Zhiyuan Fu, Linhao Xu, Yan Zha, Jianmin Yue, Shuifeng Zhang, Jinchi Zhang
The influence of acid rain on forest trees includes direct effects on foliage as well as indirect soil-mediated effects that cause a reduction in fine-root growth. In addition, the concentration of NO3(-) in acid rain increases with the rapidly growing of nitrogen deposition. In this study, we investigated the impact of simulated acid rain with different SO4(2-)/NO3(-) (S/N) ratios, which were 5:1 (S), 1:1 (SN) and 1:5 (N), on fine-root growth from March 2015 to February 2016. Results showed that fine roots were more sensitive to the effects of acid rain than soils in the short-term...
November 10, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29127884/regional-dysregulation-of-taurine-and-related-amino-acids-in-the-fetal-rat-brain-following-gestational-alcohol-exposure
#2
Raine Lunde-Young, Katie Davis-Anderson, Vishal Naik, Matthew Nemec, Guoyao Wu, Jayanth Ramadoss
The fetal brain exhibits exquisite alcohol-induced regional neuronal vulnerability. A candidate mechanism for alcohol-mediated brain deficits is disruption of amino acid (AA) bioavailability. AAs are vitally important for proper neurodevelopment, as they comprise the most abundant neurotransmitters in the brain and act as neurotransmitter precursors, nitric oxide donors, antioxidants, and neurotrophic factors, which induce synaptogenesis, neuronal proliferation, and migration. We hypothesized that gestational alcohol alters brain AA concentrations, disrupts AAs associated with neuropathogenesis, and that alterations are region-specific...
September 30, 2017: Alcohol
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29127636/release-of-nutrients-and-heavy-metals-from-biochar-amended-soil-under-environmentally-relevant-conditions
#3
Yinghao Zhao, Ling Zhao, Yanyan Mei, Feiyue Li, Xinde Cao
Biochar is a potential amendment for improving soil fertility due to its richness of nutrients, P, K, Ca, and Mg. However, soil amended with metal-rich biochars may pose a risk of heavy metal release to the environment. Biochars derived from pig manure and sewage sludge (PM-biochar and SS-biochar) were investigated for their nutrient and heavy metal release in two soils (acidic and alkaline soil) under simulated landfill and acid rain conditions. Results showed that under both environmental conditions, adding PM-biochar into the soil increased K, P, and Mg release significantly by about 40-50 times, while only 2-4 times increase of the nutrients was observed in the SS-biochar-amended soil...
November 10, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29099944/genome-wide-analysis-of-mate-transporters-and-molecular-characterization-of-aluminum-resistance-in-populus
#4
Nannan Li, Hongjun Meng, Haitao Xing, Lan Liang, Xin Zhao, Keming Luo, Christine Raines
Ionic aluminum (Al) in acidic soils, comprising approximately 50% of arable land globally, is highly toxic to most plant species. Populus grow naturally in acidic soils and tolerate high concentrations of Al. Multidrug and toxic compound extrusion (MATE) family genes in plants are involved in responses to Al tolerance. To date, however, the functional roles of the MATE genes in Populus remain unclear. In the present study, 71 putative MATE transporters were predicted in the genome of Populus trichocarpa. The chromosome distribution, phylogenetic relationships, and expression level analysis revealed that four candidate MATE genes belonging to subgroup IIIc might contribute to high Al tolerance in poplar...
November 1, 2017: Journal of Experimental Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29066203/vermicompost-and-biochar-as-bio-conditioners-to-immobilize-heavy-metal-and-improve-soil-fertility-on-cadmium-contaminated-soil-under-acid-rain-stress
#5
Ying Wang, YongAn Xu, Dan Li, BiCong Tang, ShuLei Man, YiFan Jia, Heng Xu
This experiment was conducted to investigate the remediation effects of bio-conditioners vermicompost (VC) and biochar (BC) on cadmium contaminated soil under the threat of acid rain, individually and associatively. With the application of soil conditioners, the percentages of HOAc-extractable Cd decreased 5.2-6.8%, 9.0-13.5% and 7.9-12.1% in the groups amended with VC, BC and VC combined BC, respectively. When the pH of rain decreased from 7.0 to 4.0, the activity of acid phosphatase decreased 2.0%, 12.3%, 3...
October 21, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29065171/alleviatory-effects-of-silicon-on-the-foliar-micromorphology-and-anatomy-of-rice-oryza-sativa-l-seedlings-under-simulated-acid-rain
#6
Shuming Ju, Liping Wang, Cuiying Zhang, Tingchao Yin, Siliang Shao
Silicon (Si) is a macroelement in plants. The biological effects and mitigation mechanisms of silicon under environmental stress have become hot topics. The main objectives of this study were to elucidate the roles of Si in alleviating the effects on the phenotype, micromorphology and anatomy of the leaves of rice seedlings under acid rain stress. The results indicated that the combined or single effects of Si and simulated acid rain (SAR) stress on rice roots depended on the concentration of Si and the intensity of the SAR stress...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29043459/mobility-of-pb-zn-cu-and-as-in-disturbed-forest-soils-affected-by-acid-rain
#7
Yulia V Kochergina, Martin Udatný, Vít Penížek, Martin Mihaljevič
Early efforts at remediation of contaminated soils involve overturn or removal of the uppermost soil horizons. We find that such disruption is counterproductive, as it actually increases the mobility of the heavy metals involved. In our study, we sought to replicate in a controlled manner this commonly used remediation strategy and measure Pb, Zn, Cu and As concentrations in all soil horizons-both prior to and 1 year after disruption by trenching. BCR analyses (sequential leaching) indicate that Pb is affected to the greatest degree and is most highly mobile; however, Zn and As remain insoluble, thus partially ameliorating the detrimental effect...
October 18, 2017: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29027593/detecting-the-effects-of-coal-mining-acid-rain-and-natural-gas-extraction-in-appalachian-basin-streams-in-pennsylvania-usa-through-analysis-of-barium-and-sulfate-concentrations
#8
Xianzeng Niu, Anna Wendt, Zhenhui Li, Amal Agarwal, Lingzhou Xue, Matthew Gonzales, Susan L Brantley
To understand how extraction of different energy sources impacts water resources requires assessment of how water chemistry has changed in comparison with the background values of pristine streams. With such understanding, we can develop better water quality standards and ecological interpretations. However, determination of pristine background chemistry is difficult in areas with heavy human impact. To learn to do this, we compiled a master dataset of sulfate and barium concentrations ([SO4], [Ba]) in Pennsylvania (PA, USA) streams from publically available sources...
October 13, 2017: Environmental Geochemistry and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29023147/nitrogen-oxides-in-early-earth-s-atmosphere-as-electron-acceptors-for-life-s-emergence
#9
Michael L Wong, Benjamin D Charnay, Peter Gao, Yuk L Yung, Michael J Russell
We quantify the amount of nitrogen oxides (NOx) produced through lightning and photochemical processes in the Hadean atmosphere to be available in the Hadean ocean for the emergence of life. Atmospherically generated nitrate (NO3(-)) and nitrite (NO2(-)) are the most attractive high-potential electron acceptors for pulling and enabling crucial redox reactions of autotrophic metabolic pathways at submarine alkaline hydrothermal vents. The Hadean atmosphere, dominated by CO2 and N2, will produce nitric oxide (NO) when shocked by lightning...
October 12, 2017: Astrobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29018455/seed-nutrition-and-quality-seed-coat-boron-and-lignin-are-influenced-by-delayed-harvest-in-exotically-derived-soybean-breeding-lines-under-high-heat
#10
Nacer Bellaloui, James R Smith, Alemu Mengistu
The timing of harvest is a major factor affecting seed quality in soybean, particularly in Midsouthern USA, when rain during harvest period is not uncommon. The objective of this research was to evaluate the effects of time of harvest on soybean seed quality (seed composition, germination, seed coat boron, and lignin) in high germinability (HG) breeding lines (50% exotic) developed under high heat. The hypothesis was that seeds of HG lines possess physiological and genetic traits for a better seed quality at harvest maturity and delayed harvest...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28994821/chemical-microbial-and-antibiotic-susceptibility-analyses-of-groundwater-after-a-major-flood-event-in-chennai
#11
Ganesan Gowrisankar, Ramachandran Chelliah, Sudha Rani Ramakrishnan, Vetrimurugan Elumalai, Saravanan Dhanamadhavan, Karthikeyan Brindha, Usha Antony, Lakshmanan Elango
During floods, human exposure to pathogens through contaminated water leads to the outbreak of epidemic diseases. This research presents the first extensive assessment of surface and groundwater samples collected immediately after a flood (December 2015) and post-flood (April 2016) from the Adyar River of Chennai, a major city in India, for major ions, trace metals, bacterial population, and pathogens. Severe rains in a short period of time resulted in flooding which inundated the wells, allowing the entry of sewage contaminated river water into the groundwater zone...
October 10, 2017: Scientific Data
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28981783/the-arabidopsis-wrinkled1-transcription-factor-affects-auxin-homeostasis-in-roots
#12
Que Kong, Wei Ma, Haibing Yang, Guojie Ma, Jenny J Mantyla, Christoph Benning, Christine Raines
WRINKLED1 (WRI1) is a key transcriptional regulator of fatty acid biosynthesis genes in diverse oil-containing tissues. Loss of function of Arabidopsis WRI1 leads to a reduction in the expression of genes for fatty acid biosynthesis and glycolysis, and concomitant strong reduction of seed oil content. The wri1-1 loss-of-function mutant shows reduced primary root growth and decreased acidification of the growth medium. The content of a conjugated form of the plant growth hormone auxin, indole-3-acetic acid (IAA)-Asp, was higher in wri1-1 plants compared with the wild-type...
July 20, 2017: Journal of Experimental Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28953908/global-gene-expression-in-cotton-gossypium-hirsutum-l-leaves-to-waterlogging-stress
#13
Yanjun Zhang, Xiangqiang Kong, Jianlong Dai, Zhen Luo, Zhenhuai Li, Hequan Lu, Shizhen Xu, Wei Tang, Dongmei Zhang, Weijiang Li, Chengsong Xin, Hezhong Dong
Cotton is sensitive to waterlogging stress, which usually results in stunted growth and yield loss. To date, the molecular mechanisms underlying the responses to waterlogging in cotton remain elusive. Cotton was grown in a rain-shelter and subjected to 0 (control)-, 10-, 15- and 20-d waterlogging at flowering stage. The fourth-leaves on the main-stem from the top were sampled and immediately frozen in liquid nitrogen for physiological measurement. Global gene transcription in the leaves of 15-d waterlogged plants was analyzed by RNA-Seq...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28946424/ultrasonic-energy-enhance-the-ionic-liquid-based-dual-microextraction-to-preconcentrate-the-lead-in-ground-and-stored-rain-water-samples-as-compared-to-conventional-shaking-method
#14
Sooraj Nizamani, Tasneem G Kazi, Hassan I Afridi
An efficient preconcentration technique based on ultrasonic-assisted ionic liquid-based dual microextraction (UA-ILDµE) method has been developed to preconcentrate the lead (Pb(+2)) in ground and stored rain water. In the current proposed method, Pb(+2) was complexed with a chelating agent (dithizone), whereas an ionic liquid (1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate) was used for extraction purpose. The ultrasonic irradiation and electrical shaking system were applied to enhance the dispersion and extraction of Pb(+2) complex in aqueous samples...
January 2018: Ultrasonics Sonochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28946333/effects-of-irrigation-over-three-years-on-the-amino-acid-composition-of-treixadura-vitis-vinifera-l-musts-and-wines-and-on-the-aromatic-composition-and-sensory-profiles-of-its-wines
#15
Yolanda Bouzas-Cid, Elena Falqué, Ignacio Orriols, José M Mirás-Avalos
Amino acids and volatile compounds play an important role in wine aroma and sensory characteristics. The concentrations of these compounds might be altered by climate interanual variability and by management practices such as irrigation. The aim of the current study was to assess the amino acid profile of musts and wines, volatile composition and sensory profile of wines from Vitis vinifera (L.) cultivar 'Treixadura' obtained from vines under rain-fed and irrigation conditions over three consecutive vintages (2012-2014)...
February 1, 2018: Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28920684/stilbene-boronic-acids-form-a-covalent-bond-with-human-transthyretin-and-inhibit-its-aggregation
#16
Thomas P Smith, Ian W Windsor, Katrina T Forest, Ronald T Raines
Transthyretin (TTR) is a homotetrameric protein. Its dissociation into monomers leads to the formation of fibrils that underlie human amyloidogenic diseases. The binding of small molecules to the thyroxin-binding sites in TTR stabilizes the homotetramer and attenuates TTR amyloidosis. Herein, we report on boronic acid-substituted stilbenes that limit TTR amyloidosis in vitro. Assays of affinity for TTR and inhibition of its tendency to form fibrils were coupled with X-ray crystallographic analysis of nine TTR·ligand complexes...
September 28, 2017: Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916280/non-linear-direct-effects-of-acid-rain-on-leaf-photosynthetic-rate-of-terrestrial-plants
#17
Dan Dong, Enzai Du, Zhengzhong Sun, Xuetong Zeng, Wim de Vries
Anthropogenic emissions of acid precursors have enhanced global occurrence of acid rain, especially in East Asia. Acid rain directly suppresses leaf function by eroding surface waxes and cuticle and leaching base cations from mesophyll cells, while the simultaneous foliar uptake of nitrates in rainwater may directly benefit leaf photosynthesis and plant growth, suggesting a non-linear direct effect of acid rain. By synthesizing data from literature on acid rain exposure experiments, we assessed the direct effects of acid rain on leaf photosynthesis across 49 terrestrial plants in China...
December 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28895025/leaching-variations-of-heavy-metals-in-chelator-assisted-phytoextraction-by-zea-mays-l-exposed-to-acid-rainfall
#18
Yayin Lu, Dinggui Luo, Lirong Liu, Zicong Tan, An Lai, Guowei Liu, Junhui Li, Jianyou Long, Xuexia Huang, Yongheng Chen
Chelant-enhanced phytoextraction method has been put forward as an effective soil remediation method, whereas the heavy metal leaching could not be ignored. In this study, a cropping-leaching experiment, using soil columns, was applied to study the metal leaching variations during assisted phytoextraction of Cd- and Pb-polluted soils, using seedlings of Zea mays, applying three different chelators (EDTA, EDDS, and rhamnolipid), and artificial rainfall (acid rainfall or normal rainfall). It showed that artificial rainfall, especially artificial acid rain, after chelator application led to the increase of heavy metals in the leaching solution...
November 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28886384/hpv16-e7-genetic-conservation-is-critical-to-carcinogenesis
#19
Lisa Mirabello, Meredith Yeager, Kai Yu, Gary M Clifford, Yanzi Xiao, Bin Zhu, Michael Cullen, Joseph F Boland, Nicolas Wentzensen, Chase W Nelson, Tina Raine-Bennett, Zigui Chen, Sara Bass, Lei Song, Qi Yang, Mia Steinberg, Laurie Burdett, Michael Dean, David Roberson, Jason Mitchell, Thomas Lorey, Silvia Franceschi, Philip E Castle, Joan Walker, Rosemary Zuna, Aimée R Kreimer, Daniel C Beachler, Allan Hildesheim, Paula Gonzalez, Carolina Porras, Robert D Burk, Mark Schiffman
Although most cervical human papillomavirus type 16 (HPV16) infections become undetectable within 1-2 years, persistent HPV16 causes half of all cervical cancers. We used a novel HPV whole-genome sequencing technique to evaluate an exceptionally large collection of 5,570 HPV16-infected case-control samples to determine whether viral genetic variation influences risk of cervical precancer and cancer. We observed thousands of unique HPV16 genomes; very few women shared the identical HPV16 sequence, which should stimulate a careful re-evaluation of the clinical implications of HPV mutation rates, transmission, clearance, and persistence...
September 7, 2017: Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28873234/effect-of-seasonal-climate-fluctuations-on-the-evolution-of-glycoconjugates-along-the-ripening-period-of-grapevine-cv-muscat-a-petits-grains-blancs-berries
#20
Julia Crespo, Peggy Rigou, Valeria Romero, Margarita García, Teresa Arroyo, Juan M Cabellos
BACKGROUND: Temperature changes and rainfall fluctuations affect the winemaking industry by altering vine phenology, crop yield, must composition and wine quality. Here, the evolution of the varietal aroma potential along the ripening over three consecutive seasons has been analyzed considering climate conditions. The effect of season, ripening date and climatic conditions on the aroma precursor's accumulation in grapes was studied by multivariate analysis and discussed in regard to the potential aromatic quality of the wine...
September 5, 2017: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
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