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Acid rain

Jill Portnoy, Adrian Raine, Jianghong Liu, Joseph R Hibbeln
Omega-3 supplementation has been found to reduce externalizing behavior in children. Reciprocal models of parent-child behavior suggest that improving child behavior could lead to improvements in parent behavior, however no study has examined whether omega-3 supplementation in children could reduce intimate partner violence or child maltreatment by their adult caregivers. In this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, stratified, parallel group trial, a community sample of children were randomized to receive either a fruit drink containing 1 gm of omega-3 fats (Smartfish Recharge; Omega-3 group, n = 100) or the same fruit drink without omega-3's (Placebo group, n = 100)...
May 20, 2018: Aggressive Behavior
Yong Si, Lihong Wang, Qing Zhou, Xiaohua Huang
REEs in the environment can be absorbed by plants and sequestered by plant phytoliths. Acid rain can directly or indirectly affect plant physiological functions. Currently, the effects of REEs and acid rain on phytolith-REEs complex in plants are not yet fully understood. In this study, a high-silicon accumulation crop, rice (Oryza sativa L.), was selected as a representative of plants, and orthogonal experiments were conducted under various levels of lanthanum [La(III)] and pH. The results showed that various La(III) concentrations could significantly improve the efficiency and sequestration of phytolith La(III) in germinated rice seeds...
2018: PloS One
Xuan Zhu, Jingzi Beiyuan, Abbe Y T Lau, Season S Chen, Daniel C W Tsang, Nigel J D Graham, Daohui Lin, Jianteng Sun, Yanheng Pan, Xin Yang, Xiang-Dong Li
Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are common pollutants released from electronic waste (e-waste) dismantling and recycling activities. Our city-wide survey of agricultural soils in Qingyuan (40 sampling sites), where e-waste recycling has been active, observed exceedance of PBDEs above background levels (average of 251.9ngg-1 , 87 times the regional baseline concentration) together with elevated levels of metals/metalloids at the contamination hotspots, such as As (180.4mgkg-1 ), Cu (100.7mgkg-1 ), Zn (93...
April 1, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Chang Xang, Zhi Qiang Lyu, Lian Chun Dong, Yi Xui, Fei Yu
To investigate sex-specific adaptive responses and cadmium accumulation of Morus alba seedlings, we analyzed growth parameters, photosynthetic capacity and chlorophyll fluorescence parameters, and Cd accumulation and allocation of Qiangsang 1 (female) and Nongsang 14 (male) under different treatments [cadmium (Cd, 100 mg·kg-1 ), acid rain (AR, pH 3.0) and their combinations (Cd+AR)]. When exposed to Cd stress alone, females showed higher cadmium content in root, stem and leaf than males. The root, stem and total biomass, and maximum net photosynthetic rate (Amax ) of males were significantly decreased, while those of females (except Amax ) showed no significant changes...
March 2018: Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao, the Journal of Applied Ecology
Yanira Méndez, Janoi Chang, Ana R Humpierre, Abel Zanuy, Raine Garrido, Aldrin V Vasco, Jessy Pedroso, Darielys Santana, Laura M Rodríguez, Dagmar García-Rivera, Yury Valdés, Vicente Vérez-Bencomo, Daniel G Rivera
A new synthetic strategy for the development of multivalent antibacterial glycoconjugate vaccines is described. The approach comprises the utilization of an isocyanide-based multicomponent process for the conjugation of functionalized capsular polysaccharides of S. pneumoniae and S. Typhi to carrier proteins such as diphtheria and tetanus toxoids. For the first time, oxo- and carboxylic acid-functionalized polysaccharides could be either independently or simultaneously conjugated to immunogenic proteins by means of the Ugi-multicomponent reaction, thus leading to mono- or multivalent unimolecular glycoconjugates as vaccine candidates...
March 7, 2018: Chemical Science
Feng Li, Zhian Li, Peng Mao, Yingwen Li, Yongxing Li, Murray B McBride, Jingtao Wu, Ping Zhuang
A pot experiment and a leaching experiment were conducted to investigate the effects of earthworms and pig manure on heavy metals (Cd, Pb, and Zn) immobility, in vitro bioaccessibility and leachability under simulated acid rain (SAR). Results showed manure significantly increased soil organic carbon (SOC), dissolved organic carbon (DOC), available phosphorus (AP), total N, total P and pH, and decreased CaCl2 -extractable metals and total heavy metals in water and SAR leachate. The addition of earthworms significantly increased AP (from 0...
April 28, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Jianhua Guo, Yinglan Cao, Zhuanxi Luo, Hongda Fang, Zhenfang Chen, Dapeng Wang, Feifei Xu, Changzhou Yan
Although thallium (Tl) is a highly toxic element, little information is available on the environmental risks of Tl in agricultural soils with intensive practices, particularly nearby mining sites. Therefore, we investigated the potential release of Tl in acidic soils with intensive cultivation nearby a waste copper mining site from southern China based on its level and chemical fractions as well as simulated release under artificial acid rain. Results showed that the average Tl content was 1.31 mg/kg in the studied area, which significantly exceeds the permissible thallium value of 1 mg/kg for agricultural soil in China...
April 23, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Kai Zheng, Heping Li, Luying Wang, Xiaoying Wen, Qingyou Liu
Galena can be easily weathered under acid rain conditions and causes environmental issues. This process, in nature, is an electrochemical process. In situ electrochemical technology and surface analysis technology were combined to investigate this weathering process. The experimental results showed that galena weathering under simulated acid rain (SAR) could cause an initial increase in Pb2+ ions and result in the formation of a passive S0 film, and the terminal product was SO42-. Increased acidity stimulates galena weathering, and the promotion efficiency was 2208% as the pH of the SAR decreased from 5...
April 23, 2018: Environmental Science. Processes & Impacts
Hao Zhu, Chunfa Wu, Jun Wang, Xumei Zhang
Stabilization technology is one of widely used remediation technologies for cadmium (Cd)-contaminated agricultural soils, but stabilized Cd in soil may be activated again when external conditions such as acid rain occurred. Therefore, it is necessary to study the effect of acid rain on the performance of different stabilizing agents on Cd-polluted agriculture soils. In this study, Cd-contaminated soils were treated with mono-calcium phosphate (MCP), mono-ammonium phosphate (MAP), and artificial zeolite (AZ) respectively and incubated 3 months...
April 16, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Long Yang, Yongchao Xu, Rui Zhang, Xiaotong Wang, Chao Yang
As a source of edible oil and protein, soybean is a major globally important economic crop; Improving its production has been an important objective of soybean breeding. Acid rain has been shown to influence soybean growth and productivity, with consequent adverse impacts on its production for use by human populations. In this study, RNA sequencing technology was utilized to examine changes in gene expression when soybean was exposed to simulated acid rain (SAR). We sampled soybean leaves at five time intervals (0, 6, 30, 54, 78, and 102 h), and built the cDNA library...
April 12, 2018: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
Olivia Choy, Adrian Raine
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Although there is an increasing body of literature on the relationship between omega-3 fatty acids and aggressive/antisocial behavior, evidence to date suggests that there are mixed findings on the efficacy of omega-3 supplementation as a dietary intervention to reduce such behaviors. This article describes the current state of the research regarding omega-3 supplementation and aggressive/antisocial behavior from intervention studies, with an emphasis on randomized controlled trials...
April 5, 2018: Current Psychiatry Reports
Fang Qiao, Xi-Min Zhang, Xiang Liu, Juan Chen, Wen-Jun Hu, Ting-Wu Liu, Ji-Yun Liu, Chun-Quan Zhu, Kabir Ghoto, Xue-Yi Zhu, Hai-Lei Zheng
Acid rain (AR) can induce great damages to plants and could be classified into different types according to the different SO4 2- /NO3 - ratio. However, the mechanism of plants' responding to different types of AR has not been elucidated clearly. Here, we found that nitric-rich simulated AR (N-SiAR) induced less leaves injury as lower necrosis percentage, better physiological parameters and reduced oxidative damage in the leaves of N-SiAR treated Arabidopsis thaliana compared with sulfate and nitrate mixed (SN-SiAR) or sulfuric-rich (S-SiAR) simulated AR treated ones...
March 26, 2018: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
He Sun, Yilin Xiao, Yongjun Gao, Guijie Zhang, John F Casey, Yanan Shen
Lithium (Li) isotope analyses of sedimentary rocks from the Meishan section in South China reveal extremely light seawater Li isotopic signatures at the Permian-Triassic boundary (PTB), which coincide with the most severe mass extinction in the history of animal life. Using a dynamic seawater lithium box model, we show that the light seawater Li isotopic signatures can be best explained by a significant influx of riverine [Li] with light δ7 Li to the ocean realm. The seawater Li isotope excursion started ≥300 Ky before and persisted up to the main extinction event, which is consistent with the eruption time of the Siberian Traps...
March 26, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Tibor Bešenić, Hrvoje Mikulčić, Milan Vujanović, Neven Duić
Among the combustion products, nitrogen oxides are one of the main contributors to a negative impact on the environment, participating in harmful processes such as tropospheric ozone and acid rains production. The main source of emissions of nitrogen oxides is the human combustion of fossil fuels. Their formation models are investigated and implemented with the goal of obtaining a tool for studying the nitrogen-containing pollutant production. In this work, numerical simulation of solid fuel combustion was carried out on a three-dimensional model of a drop tube furnace by using the commercial software FIRE...
March 20, 2018: Journal of Environmental Management
Jun-Ho Ha, Ju-Heon Kim, Sang-Gyu Kim, Hee-Jung Sim, Gisuk Lee, Rayko Halitschke, Ian T Baldwin, Jeong-Il Kim, Chung-Mo Park
The underground roots reside normally in darkness. However, they are often exposed to ambient light that penetrates through cracks of the soil layers, which would occur by wind, heavy rain, or temperature extremes. In response to light exposure, the roots produce reactive oxygen species (ROS), which promote root growth. It is known that the ROS-induced growth promotion facilitates rapid escape of the roots from non-natural light. Meanwhile, long-term exposure of the roots to light elicits ROS burst, which impose oxidative damages on cellular components, necessitating that cellular levels of ROS should be tightly regulated in the roots...
March 23, 2018: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
Guanghui Guo, Xinye Liu, Fenglong Sun, Jie Cao, Na Huo, Bala Wuda, Mingming Xin, Zhaorong Hu, Jinkun Du, Rui Xia, Vincenzo Rossi, Huiru Peng, Zhongfu Ni, Qixin Sun, Yingyin Yao
Seed germination is important for grain yield and quality and rapid, near-simultaneous germination helps in cultivation; however, cultivars that germinate too readily can undergo pre-harvest sprouting (PHS), which causes substantial losses in areas that tend to get rain around harvest time. Moreover, our knowledge of mechanisms regulating seed germination in wheat (Triticum aestivum) remains limited. In this study, we analyzed function of a wheat-specific microRNA 9678 (miR9678), which is specifically expressed in the scutellum of developing and germinating seeds...
March 22, 2018: Plant Cell
Mei Wang, Ya Tang, Christopher W N Anderson, Paramsothy Jeyakumar, Jinyan Yang
Contamination of soil and water with fluorine (F) leached from phosphogypsum (PG) stacks is a global environmental issue. Millions of tons of PG is produced each year as a by-product of fertilizer manufacture, and in China, weathering is exacerbated by acid rain. In this work, column leaching experiments using simulated acid rain were run to evaluate the mobility of F and the impact of weathering on native bacterial community composition in PG. After a simulated summer rainfall, 2.42-3.05 wt% of the total F content of PG was leached and the F concentration in leachate was above the quality standard for surface water and groundwater in China...
March 21, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Refilwe Given Kudumela, Peter Masoko
There is very little scientific information on indigenous plants used for medicinal purposes. Therefore, the aim of the study was to evaluate the antibacterial and antioxidant activities of the leaves of Commelina africana, Elephantorrhiza elephantina, Dombeya rotundifolia, and the whole plant excluding the roots of Schkuhria pinnata indigenous medicinal plants from the Limpopo Province, which may be used for the treatment in humans infected with bacterial pathogens. The screening of different phytoconstituents using standard methods revealed the presence of terpenoids, flavonoids, tannins, and saponins...
January 2018: Journal of evidence-based integrative medicine
Kelsey Craig
Sulfur dioxide (SO2 ) is an atmospheric pollutant that is moderately persistent in the atmosphere and highly water soluble. When applied as a pesticide, SO2 may be transported, deposited, or transformed in various chemical reactions. SO2 participates in the sulfur biogeochemical cycle, which involves complex reactions of sulfur-containing compounds between abiotic and biotic components of ecosystems. The main degradation route of SO2 is atmospheric oxidation, and sulfur oxides may undergo long-distance transport prior to removal from the atmosphere by wet or dry deposition...
March 11, 2018: Reviews of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
Shanqian Wang, Xiuying Zhang, Yuandan Ma, Xinhui Li, Min Cheng, Xiaomin Zhang, Lei Liu
Acid rain, which has become one of the most severe global environmental issues, is detrimental to plant growth. However, effective methods for monitoring plant responses to acid rain stress are currently lacking. The hyperspectral technique provides a cost-effective and nondestructive way to diagnose acid rain stresses. Taking a widely distributed species ( Quercus glauca ) in Southern China as an example, this study aims to monitor the hyperspectral responses of Q. glauca to simulated sulfuric acid rain (SAR) and nitric acid rain (NAR)...
March 9, 2018: Sensors
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