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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28530577/impact-of-apple-cultivar-ripening-stage-fermentation-type-and-yeast-strain-on-phenolic-composition-of-apple-ciders
#1
Oskar Laaksonen, Rain Kuldjärv, Toomas Paalme, Mira Virkki, Baoru Yang
Hydroxycinnamic acids and flavonoids in apple juices and ciders were studied using liquid chromatography. Samples were produced from four different Estonian apple cultivars using unripe, ripe and overripe apples, and six different commercial yeasts including Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Saccharomyces bayanus, and Torulaspora delbrueckii strains. Part of the samples was additionally inoculated with malolactic bacteria, Oenococcus oeni. The most notable difference among the samples was the appearance of phloretin in malolactic ciders in comparison to conventional ciders and the juices...
October 15, 2017: Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28508441/synthesis-of-an-aluminum-hydroxide-octamer-through-a-simple-dissolution-method
#2
Cory K Perkins, Eric S Eitrheim, Brantly L Fulton, Lauren B Fullmer, Christopher A Colla, Deok-Hie Park, Anna F Oliveri, James E Hutchison, May Nyman, William H Casey, Tori Z Forbes, Darren W Johnson, Douglas A Keszler
Multimeric oxo-hydroxo Al clusters function as models for common mineral structures and reactions. Cluster research, however, is often slowed by a lack of methods to prepare clusters in pure form and in large amounts. Herein, we report a facile synthesis of the little known cluster Al8 (OH)14 (H2 O)18 (SO4 )5 (Al8 ) through a simple dissolution method. We confirm its structure by single-crystal X-ray diffraction and show by (27) Al NMR spectroscopy, electrospray-ionization mass spectrometry, and small- and wide-angle X-ray scattering that it also exists in solution...
May 16, 2017: Angewandte Chemie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506599/application-of-vadose-zone-monitoring-system-for-real-time-characterization-of-leachate-percolation-in-and-under-a-municipal-landfill
#3
Imri Aharoni, Hagar Siebner, Ofer Dahan
Leachates from solid-waste landfills are considered a severe threat to groundwater quality. The fate of pollutants in the waste and underlying unsaturated zone is crucial for evaluating environmental risks and selecting a restoration strategy. In this study, a vadose-zone monitoring system (VMS) installed in a municipal landfill was used, for the first time, to continuously track leachates percolation dynamics and assess their chemical transformation across the entire thickness of the waste body (15m) and underlying unsaturated zone (16m) to the water table...
May 12, 2017: Waste Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28489194/antiproliferative-activity-in-tumor-cell-lines-antioxidant-capacity-and-total-phenolic-flavonoid-and-tannin-contents-of-myrciaria-floribunda
#4
Luis A C Tietbohl, Adriana P Oliveira, Ricardo S Esteves, Ricardo D D G Albuquerque, Diogo Folly, Francisco P Machado, Arthur L Corrêa, Marcelo G Santos, Ana L G Ruiz, Leandro Rocha
Myrciaria floribunda (H. West ex Willd.) O. Berg, Myrtaceae, is a native plant species of the Atlantic Rain Forest, from north to south of Brazil. The lyophilized ethyl acetate extract from the leaves of M. floribunda was investigated for its antiproliferative activity in tumor cell lines, antioxidant capacity and its total phenolic, flavonoid and tannin contents. Antiproliferative activity was tested in vitro against seven human cancer cells and against immortalized human skin keratinocytes line (HaCat, no cancer cell)...
May 2, 2017: Anais da Academia Brasileira de Ciências
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28476077/acid-rain-footprint-three-decades-after-peak-deposition-long-term-recovery-from-pollutant-sulphate-in-the-uhlirska-catchment-czech-republic
#5
A Marx, S Hintze, M Sanda, J Jankovec, F Oulehle, J Dusek, T Vitvar, T Vogel, R van Geldern, J A C Barth
The granitic Uhlirska headwater catchment with a size of 1.78km(2) is located in the Jizera Mountains in the northern Czech Republic and received among the highest inputs of anthropogenic acid depositions in Europe. An analysis of sulphate (SO4(2-)) distribution in deposition, soil water, stream water and groundwater compartments allowed to establish a SO4(2-) mass-balance (deposition input minus surface water export) and helped to evaluate which changes occurred since the last evaluation of the catchment in 1997...
May 1, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28458109/sulfur-flows-and-biosolids-processing-using-material-flux-analysis-mfa-principles-at-wastewater-treatment-plants
#6
R M Fisher, J P Alvarez-Gaitan, R M Stuetz, S J Moore
High flows of sulfur through wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) may cause noxious gaseous emissions, corrosion of infrastructure, inhibit wastewater microbial communities, or contribute to acid rain if the biosolids or biogas is combusted. Yet, sulfur is an important agricultural nutrient and the direct application of biosolids to soils enables its beneficial re-use. Flows of sulfur throughout the biosolids processing of six WWTPs were investigated to identify how they were affected by biosolids processing configurations...
April 27, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28443109/novel-alleles-of-phosphorus-starvation-tolerance-1-gene-pstol1-from-oryza-rufipogon-confers-high-phosphorus-uptake-efficiency
#7
Kumari Neelam, Shiwali Thakur, Neha, Inderjit S Yadav, Kishor Kumar, Salwinder S Dhaliwal, Kuldeep Singh
Limited phosphorus availability in the soil is one of the major constraints to the growth and productivity of rice across Asian, African and South American countries, where 50% of the rice is grown under rain-fed systems on poor and problematic soils. With an aim to determine novel alleles for enhanced phosphorus uptake efficiency in wild species germplasm of rice Oryza rufipogon, we investigated phosphorus uptake1 (Pup1) locus with 11 previously reported SSR markers and sequence characterized the phosphorus-starvation tolerance 1 (PSTOL1) gene...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28375212/faecalibacterium-prausnitzii-treatment-improves-hepatic-health-and-reduces-adipose-tissue-inflammation-in-high-fat-fed-mice
#8
Eveliina Munukka, Anniina Rintala, Raine Toivonen, Matts Nylund, Baoru Yang, Anna Takanen, Arno Hänninen, Jaana Vuopio, Pentti Huovinen, Sirpa Jalkanen, Satu Pekkala
Faecalibacterium prausnitzii is considered as one of the most important bacterial indicators of a healthy gut. We studied the effects of oral F. prausnitzii treatment on high-fat fed mice. Compared to the high-fat control mice, F. prausnitzii-treated mice had lower hepatic fat content, aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase, and increased fatty acid oxidation and adiponectin signaling in liver. Hepatic lipidomic analyses revealed decreases in several species of triacylglycerols, phospholipids and cholesteryl esters...
April 4, 2017: ISME Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28368597/ammonia-catalyzed-formation-of-sulfuric-acid-in-troposphere-the-curious-case-of-a-base-promoting-acid-rain
#9
Biman Bandyopadhyay, Pradeep Kumar, Partha Biswas
Electronic structure calculations have been performed to investigate the role of ammonia in catalyzing the formation of sulfuric acid through hydrolysis of SO3 in Earth's atmosphere. The uncatalyzed process involves a high activation barrier and, until date, is mainly known to occur in Earth's atmosphere only when catalyzed by water and acids. Here we show that hydrolysis of SO3 can be very efficiently catalyzed by ammonia, the most abundant basic component in Earth's atmosphere. It was found, based on magnitude of relative potential energies as well as rate coefficients, that ammonia is the best among all the catalysts studied until now (water and acids) and could be a considerable factor in formation of sulfuric acid in troposphere...
April 13, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry. A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28365846/mechanistic-study-of-lead-desorption-during-the-leaching-process-of-ion-absorbed-rare-earths-ph-effect-and-the-column-experiment
#10
Jie Tang, Qiang Xue, Honghan Chen, Wenting Li
High concentrations of ammonium sulfate, often used in the in situ mining process, can result in a decrease of pH in the environment and dissolution of rare earth metals. Ammonium sulfate can also cause desorption of toxic heavy metals, leading to environmental and human health implications. In this study, the desorption behavior and fraction changes of lead in the ion-absorbed rare earth ore were studied using batch desorption experiments and column leaching tests. Results from batch desorption experiments showed that the desorption process of lead included fast and slow stages and followed an Elovich model well...
May 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28360990/sex-differences-in-the-association-of-phospholipids-with-components-of-the-metabolic-syndrome-in-young-adults
#11
Sebastian Rauschert, Olaf Uhl, Berthold Koletzko, Trevor A Mori, Lawrence J Beilin, Wendy H Oddy, Christian Hellmuth
BACKGROUND: There are differences in the prevalence and severity of diseases between males, females not taking hormonal contraceptives (non-HC females) and females taking hormonal contraceptives (HC females). The aim of this study was to identify sex-specific differences in the metabolome and its relation to components of the metabolic syndrome in a young adult population. METHODS: The subjects analysed are from the 20-year follow-up of the Western Australian Pregnancy Cohort (Raine) Study...
2017: Biology of Sex Differences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28350455/model-based-classification-for-digital-pcr-your-umbrella-for-rain
#12
Bart K M Jacobs, Els Goetghebeur, Jo Vandesompele, Ariane De Ganck, Nele Nijs, Anneleen Beckers, Nina Papazova, Nancy H Roosens, Lieven Clement
Standard data analysis pipelines for digital PCR estimate the concentration of a target nucleic acid by digitizing the end-point fluorescence of the parallel micro-PCR reactions, using an automated hard threshold. While it is known that misclassification has a major impact on the concentration estimate and substantially reduces accuracy, the uncertainty of this classification is typically ignored. We introduce a model-based clustering method to estimate the probability that the target is present (absent) in a partition conditional on its observed fluorescence and the distributional shape in no-template control samples...
April 7, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318693/the-influence-of-dual-substrate-layer-extensive-green-roofs-on-rainwater-runoff-quantity-and-quality
#13
Xiaoou Wang, Yimei Tian, Xinhua Zhao
This study investigates the ability of dual-substrate-layer extensive green roofs to retain rainwater and reduce pollutant leaching. The substrates in dual-substrate-layer green roofs consist of an upper organic nutrition layer for plant growth and a lower inorganic adsorption layer for water retention and pollutant reduction. One traditional single-substrate-layer extensive green roof was built for comparison with dual-substrate-layer green roofs. During the experimental period, dual-substrate-layer green roofs supported better natural vegetation growth, with coverage exceeding 90%, while the coverage in single-substrate-layer green roof was over 80%...
March 16, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303353/silicon-alleviates-simulated-acid-rain-stress-of-oryza-sativa-l-seedlings-by-adjusting-physiology-activity-and-mineral-nutrients
#14
Shuming Ju, Liping Wang, Ningning Yin, Dan Li, Yukun Wang, Cuiying Zhang
Silicon (Si) has been a modulator in plants under abiotic stresses, such as acid rain. To understand how silicon made an effect on rice (Oryza sativa L.) exposed to simulated acid rain (SAR) stress, the growth, physiologic activity, and mineral nutrient content in leaves of rice were investigated. The results showed that combined treatments with Si (1.0, 2.0, or 4.0 mM) and SAR (pH 4.0, 3.0, or 2.0) obviously improved the rice growth compared with the single treatment with SAR. Incorporation of Si into SAR treatment decreased malondialdehyde (MDA) content; increased soluble protein and proline contents; promoted CAT, POD, SOD, and APX activity; and maintained the K, Ca, Mg, Fe, Zn, Cu content balance in leaves of rice seedlings under SAR stress...
March 16, 2017: Protoplasma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28299408/differential-gene-expression-of-longan-under-simulated-acid-rain-stress
#15
Shan Zheng, Tengfei Pan, Cuilan Ma, Dongliang Qiu
Differential gene expression profile was studied in Dimocarpus longan Lour. in response to treatments of simulated acid rain with pH 2.5, 3.5, and a control (pH 5.6) using differential display reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (DDRT-PCR). Results showed that mRNA differential display conditions were optimized to find an expressed sequence tag (EST) related with acid rain stress. The potential encoding products had 80% similarity with a transcription initiation factor IIF of Gossypium raimondii and 81% similarity with a protein product of Theobroma cacao...
March 16, 2017: Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28291806/effects-of-silicon-on-oryza-sativa-l-seedling-roots-under-simulated-acid-rain-stress
#16
Shuming Ju, Ningning Yin, Liping Wang, Cuiying Zhang, Yukun Wang
Silicon (Si) has an important function in reducing the damage of environmental stress on plants. Acid rain is a serious abiotic stress factor, and Si can alleviate the stress induced by acid rain on plants. Based on these assumptions, we investigated the effects of silicon on the growth, root phenotype, mineral element contents, hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and antioxidative enzymes of rice (Oryza sativa L.) seedling roots under simulated acid rain (SAR) stress. The results showed that the combined or single effects of Si and/or SAR on rice roots depend on the concentration of Si and the pH of the SAR...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28259581/potential-rainfall-intensity-and-ph-driven-shifts-in-the-apparent-fluorescent-composition-of-dissolved-organic-matter-in-rainwater
#17
Yongqiang Zhou, Xiaolong Yao, Yibo Zhang, Kun Shi, Yunlin Zhang, Erik Jeppesen, Guang Gao, Guangwei Zhu, Boqiang Qin
Perturbations of rainwater chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM) fluorescence induced by changes in rainfall intensity and pH were investigated by field observations and laboratory pH titrations. Microbial humic-like fluorophores dominated the rainwater CDOM pool, followed by tryptophan-like and tyrosine-like substances. Increased rainfall intensity had notable dilution effects on all six fluorescent components (C1-C6) identified using parallel factor (PARAFAC) analysis, the effect being especially pronounced for the microbial humic-like C1, tryptophan-like C3, and tyrosine-like C5...
May 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28205659/the-bifunctional-catalytic-role-of-water-clusters-in-the-formation-of-acid-rain
#18
Eduardo Romero-Montalvo, José Manuel Guevara-Vela, Wilmer Esteban Vallejo Narváez, Aurora Costales, Ángel Martín Pendás, Marcos Hernández-Rodríguez, Tomás Rocha-Rinza
State-of-the-art chemical bonding analyses show that water clusters have a bifunctional catalytic role in the formation of H2SO4 in acid rain. The embedded H2O monomers mitigate the change in the chemical bonding scenario of the rate-limiting step, reducing thereby the corresponding activation energy in accordance with Hammond's postulate. We expect that the insights given herein will prove useful in the elucidation of the catalytic mechanisms of water in inorganic and organic aqueous chemistry.
February 16, 2017: Chemical Communications: Chem Comm
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28160097/indoor-environmental-factors-associated-with-pulmonary-function-among-adults-in-an-acid-rain-plagued-city-in-southwest-china
#19
Jie Yu, Longju Zhang, Ya Luo, Yin Tang, Fangxu Tuo, Jiaqi Yang, Jie Xu
OBJECTIVE: To assess the association of indoor environmental risk factors with respiratory function among adults in an acid rain-plagued city in China where coal use is frequent. METHODS: The subjects were randomly selected in the winter season. Information on selected home environmental factors was collected through administered questionnaires. Additionally, pulmonary function tests, including Forced Vital Capacity (FVC), Forced Expiratory Volume in 1 s (FEV1), FEV1/FVC and Peak Expiratory Flow Rate (PEFR) were also performed in participants...
February 3, 2017: Wiener Klinische Wochenschrift
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28130777/controls-of-nitrogen-cycling-evaluated-along-a-well-characterized-climate-gradient
#20
Christian von Sperber, Oliver A Chadwick, Karen L Casciotti, Kabir G Peay, Christopher A Francis, Amy E Kim, Peter M Vitousek
The supply of nitrogen (N) constrains primary productivity in many ecosystems, raising the question "what controls the availability and cycling of N"? As a step toward answering this question, we evaluated N cycling processes and aspects of their regulation on a climate gradient on Kohala Volcano, Hawaii, USA. The gradient extends from sites receiving <300 mm/yr of rain to those receiving >3,000 mm/yr, and the pedology and dynamics of rock-derived nutrients in soils on the gradient are well understood...
April 2017: Ecology
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