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Acid rain

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28205659/the-bifunctional-catalytic-role-of-water-clusters-in-the-formation-of-acid-rain
#1
Eduardo Romero-Montalvo, José Manuel Guevara-Vela, Wilmer Esteban Vallejo Narváez, Aurora Costales, Ángel Martín Pendás, Marcos Hernández-Rodríguez, Tomás Rocha-Rinza
State-of-the-art chemical bonding analyses show that water clusters have a bifunctional catalytic role in the formation of H2SO4 in acid rain. The embedded H2O monomers mitigate the change in the chemical bonding scenario of the rate-limiting step, reducing thereby the corresponding activation energy in accordance with Hammond's postulate. We expect that the insights given herein will prove useful in the elucidation of the catalytic mechanisms of water in inorganic and organic aqueous chemistry.
February 16, 2017: Chemical Communications: Chem Comm
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28160097/indoor-environmental-factors-associated-with-pulmonary-function-among-adults-in-an-acid-rain-plagued-city-in-southwest-china
#2
Jie Yu, Longju Zhang, Ya Luo, Yin Tang, Fangxu Tuo, Jiaqi Yang, Jie Xu
OBJECTIVE: To assess the association of indoor environmental risk factors with respiratory function among adults in an acid rain-plagued city in China where coal use is frequent. METHODS: The subjects were randomly selected in the winter season. Information on selected home environmental factors was collected through administered questionnaires. Additionally, pulmonary function tests, including Forced Vital Capacity (FVC), Forced Expiratory Volume in 1 s (FEV1), FEV1/FVC and Peak Expiratory Flow Rate (PEFR) were also performed in participants...
February 3, 2017: Wiener Klinische Wochenschrift
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28130777/controls-of-nitrogen-cycling-evaluated-along-a-well-characterized-climate-gradient
#3
Christian von Sperber, Oliver A Chadwick, Karen L Casciotti, Kabir G Peay, Christopher A Francis, Amy E Kim, Peter M Vitousek
The supply of nitrogen (N) constrains primary productivity in many ecosystems, raising the question "what controls the availability and cycling of N"? As a step towards answering this question, we evaluated N cycling processes and aspects of their regulation on a climate gradient on Kohala Volcano, Hawaii. The gradient extends from sites receiving <300 mm/yr of rain to those receiving >3000 mm/yr, and the pedology and dynamics of rock-derived nutrients in soils on the gradient are well understood. In particular, there is a soil process domain at intermediate rainfall within which ongoing weathering and biological uplift have enriched total and available pools of rock-derived nutrients substantially; sites at higher rainfall than this domain are acid and infertile as a consequence of depletion of rock-derived nutrients, while sites at lower rainfall are unproductive and subject to wind erosion...
January 28, 2017: Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28120377/a-boronic-acid-conjugate-of-angiogenin-that-shows-ros-responsive-neuroprotective-activity
#4
Trish T Hoang, Thomas P Smith, Ronald T Raines
Angiogenin (ANG) is a human ribonuclease that is compromised in patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). ANG also promotes neovascularization, and can induce hemorrhage and encourage tumor growth. The causal neurodegeneration of ALS is associated with reactive oxygen species, which are also known to elicit the oxidative cleavage of carbon-boron bonds. We have developed a synthetic boronic acid mask that restrains the ribonucleolytic activity of ANG. The masked ANG does not stimulate endothelial cell proliferation but protects astrocytes from oxidative stress...
March 1, 2017: Angewandte Chemie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28115140/characterization-of-heavy-metal-desorption-from-road-deposited-sediment-under-acid-rain-scenarios
#5
Bo Zhao, An Liu, Guangxue Wu, Dunzhu Li, Yuntao Guan
Road-deposited sediments (RDS) on urban impervious surfaces are important carriers of heavy metals. Dissolved heavy metals that come from RDS influenced by acid rain, are more harmful to urban receiving water than particulate parts. RDS and its associated heavy metals were investigated at typical functional areas, including industrial, commercial and residential sites, in Guangdong, Southern China, which was an acid rain sensitive area. Total and dissolved heavy metals in five particle size fractions were analyzed using a shaking method under acid rain scenarios...
January 2017: Journal of Environmental Sciences (China)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108890/toxic-and-heavy-metals-as-a-cause-of-crayfish-mass-mortality-from-acidified-headwater-streams
#6
Jitka Svobodová, Karel Douda, David Fischer, Natalia Lapšanská, Pavel Vlach
Mining activities are responsible for high concentrations of metals in river networks in many parts of the world. Mining activities and the resulting high loads of heavy metals interact with intensive acid rain, and often have great consequences for biodiversity. However, considering the frequently episodic nature of these heavy acid rains, there is little detailed evidence of direct impacts. In 2011 we observed a massive mortality of noble crayfish and stone crayfish in Padrťsko Special Area of Conservation (SAC) in the Brdy Mountain region of the Czech Republic...
January 21, 2017: Ecotoxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28098614/flumazenil-modulation-of-the-%C3%AE-aminobutyric-acid-type-a-receptor-competitive-versus-noncompetitive-antagonism-at-the-agonist-binding-site
#7
Douglas E Raines
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 2017: Anesthesiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28090765/aggregation-kinetics-of-diesel-soot-nanoparticles-in-wet-environments
#8
Chengyu Chen, Weilin Huang
Soot produced during incomplete combustion consists mainly of carbonaceous nanoparticles (NPs) with severe adverse environmental and health effects, and its environmental fate and transport are largely controlled by aggregation. In this study, we examined the aggregation behavior for diesel soot NPs under aqueous condition in an effort to elucidate the fundamental processes that govern soot particle-particle interactions in wet environments such as rain droplets or surface aquatic systems. The influence of electrolytes and aqueous pH on colloidal stability of these NPs was investigated by measuring their aggregation kinetics in different aqueous solution chemistries...
January 31, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073524/distribution-occurrence-and-biotoxin-composition-of-the-main-shellfish-toxin-producing-microalgae-within-european-waters-a-comparison-of-methods-of-analysis
#9
Sara E McNamee, Linda K Medlin, Jessica Kegel, Gary R McCoy, Robin Raine, Lucia Barra, Maria Valeria Ruggiero, Wiebe H C F Kooistra, Marina Montresor, Johannes Hagstrom, Eva Perez Blanco, Edna Graneli, Francisco Rodríguez, Laura Escalera, Beatriz Reguera, Simon Dittami, Bente Edvardsen, Joe Taylor, Jane M Lewis, Yolanda Pazos, Christopher T Elliott, Katrina Campbell
Harmful algal blooms (HABs) are a natural global phenomena emerging in severity and extent. Incidents have many economic, ecological and human health impacts. Monitoring and providing early warning of toxic HABs are critical for protecting public health. Current monitoring programmes include measuring the number of toxic phytoplankton cells in the water and biotoxin levels in shellfish tissue. As these efforts are demanding and labour intensive, methods which improve the efficiency are essential. This study compares the utilisation of a multitoxin surface plasmon resonance (multitoxin SPR) biosensor with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and analytical methods such as high performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection (HPLC-FLD) and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) for toxic HAB monitoring efforts in Europe...
May 2016: Harmful Algae
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28060293/automated-high-resolution-mobile-collection-system-for-the-nitrogen-isotopic-analysis-of-nox
#10
Paul K Wojtal, David J Miller, Mary O'Conner, Sydney C Clark, Meredith G Hastings
Nitrogen oxides (NOx = NO + NO2) are a family of atmospheric trace gases that have great impact on the environment. NOx concentrations directly influence the oxidizing capacity of the atmosphere through interactions with ozone and hydroxyl radicals. The main sink of NOx is the formation and deposition of nitric acid, a component of acid rain and a bioavailable nutrient. NOx is emitted from a mixture of natural and anthropogenic sources, which vary in space and time. The collocation of multiple sources and the short lifetime of NOx make it challenging to quantitatively constrain the influence of different emission sources and their impacts on the environment...
December 20, 2016: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28056417/analysis-of-the-combined-effects-of-lanthanum-and-acid-rain-and-their-mechanisms-on-nitrate-reductase-transcription-in-plants
#11
Binxin Xia, Zhaoguo Sun, Lihong Wang, Qing Zhou, Xiaohua Huang
Rare earth element (REE) pollution and acid rain are major global environmental concerns, and their spatial distributions overlap. Thus, both forms of pollution combine to act on plants. Nitrogen is important for plant growth, and nitrate reductase (NR) is a key plant enzyme that catalyzes nitrogen assimilation. Studying the combined effects of REEs and acid rain on plant nitrogen-based nutrients has important environmental significance. Here, soybean (Glycine max) plants, commonly used for toxicological studies, were exposed to lanthanum (La), a REE, and acid rain to study the NR activities and NR transcriptional levels in the roots...
April 2017: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28053582/desulphurization-characteristics-of-bamboo-charcoal-from-sulfur-solution
#12
Shengbo Ge, Zhenling Liu, Rende Li, Yuzo Furuta, Wanxi Peng
Sulfur powder and sulfur dioxide (SO2) often floated in air, produced acid rain and algal blooms, and could cause diseases. Bamboo charcoal could have adsorption and filtration properties. In order to figure out the optimal adsorption condition and the intrinsic change of the bamboo charcoal, five chemicals were adsorbed by bamboo charcoal and were analyzed by FT-IR. Fe2(SO4)3's, Na2SO4's, Na2S2O8's, S's, and Na2SO3's optimal adsorption condition was the concentration of 19 g/1000 g and stir time of 20 min, 21 g/1000 g and stir time of 60 min, 7 g/1000 g and stir time of 120 min, 11 g/1000 g and stir time of 120 min, 21 g/1000 g and stir time of 60 min, respectively...
January 2017: Saudi Journal of Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28018299/the-relationship-between-ph-and-bacterial-communities-in-a-single-karst-ecosystem-and-its-implication-for-soil-acidification
#13
Yuan Yun, Hongmei Wang, Baiying Man, Xing Xiang, Jianping Zhou, Xuan Qiu, Yong Duan, Annette S Engel
Enhanced monsoon duration and soil acidification from acid rain are expected to impact the distribution of microbial communities in surface and subsurface environments, although these impacts are poorly understood for most systems. In central China, soluble carbonate bedrock forms extensive karst landscapes. Current predictions are that the amount of monsoonal precipitation and acid rainfall in central China will increase, which is expected to lead to changes in the pH balance of karst ecosystems. To evaluate the role of pH, total organic carbon, and other geochemical parameters (e...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27987126/enhancing-tolerance-of-rice-oryza-sativa-to-simulated-acid-rain-by-exogenous-abscisic-acid
#14
Xi Wu, Chanjuan Liang
Abscisic acid (ABA) regulates much important plant physiological and biochemical processes and induces tolerance to different stresses. Here, we studied the regulation of exogenous ABA on adaptation of rice seedlings to simulated acid rain (SAR) stress by measuring biomass dry weight, stomatal conductance, net photosynthesis rate, nutrient elements, and endogenous hormones. The application of 10 μM ABA alleviated the SAR-induced inhibition on growth, stomatal conductance, net photosynthesis rate, and decreases in contents of nutrient (K, Mg, N, and P) and hormone (auxin, gibberellins, and zeatin)...
December 16, 2016: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27981474/a-cheap-protocol-for-colour-measure-and-for-diagnostic-in-planning-a-cultural-heritage-restoration-case-study-main-fa%C3%A3-ade-of-palazzo-governi-cagliari-sardinia-italy
#15
M P Sammartino, C Genova, S Ronca, G Cau, G Visco
Due to the bad state of conservation, "Palazzo Governi", a seventeenth-century building located in the old town district of "Stampace" in Cagliari (Sardinia, Italy), was subjected to restoration. Thus, according to the Italian Law n. 1089, the main façade colour must be reproduced, and therefore, its identification was required. The available samples looked fairly degraded, in particular as an easy plaster to crumble; so, some other analyses able to identify the degradation cause were performed. Two different approaches were adopted to attain the first goal, the visual colour assessment by a sensory panel (subjective) and the instrumental measurement by colorimetry (objective)...
December 15, 2016: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27976837/acid-rain-recovery-may-help-to-mitigate-the-impacts-of-climate-change-on-thermally-sensitive-fish-in-lakes-across-eastern-north-america
#16
Dana R Warren, Clifford E Kraft, Daniel C Josephson, Charles T Driscoll
From the 1970s to 1990s, more stringent air quality regulations were implemented across North America and Europe to reduce chemical emissions that contribute to acid rain. Surface water pH slowly increased during the following decades, but biological recovery lagged behind chemical recovery. Fortunately, this situation is changing. In the past few years, northeastern US fish populations have begun to recover in lakes that were historically incapable of sustaining wild fish due to acidic conditions. As lake ecosystems across the eastern United States recover from acid deposition, the stress to the most susceptible populations of native coldwater fish appears to be shifting from acidification effects to thermal impacts associated with changing climate...
December 15, 2016: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27934262/long-term-trends-in-acid-neutralizing-capacity-under-increasing-acidic-deposition-a-special-example-of-eutrophic-taihu-lake-china
#17
Tao Yu, Qiujin Xu, Chengda He, Haibing Cong, Dan Dai, Fengchang Wu, Wei Meng
While North America and Europe have been recovering from acidification, China is experiencing impacts of acid deposition. The Taihu region is a seriously impacted area by acid rain in China, with the average rainfall pH < 5. However, the acid neutralizing capacity (ANC) and pH of Taihu Lake have significantly increased over the past 60 years (p < 0.05). Analyses showed that watershed neutralization by carbonates and in-lake alkalinization by algae activities were the two major reactions responsible for the increase...
December 6, 2016: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933452/responses-of-tropical-legumes-from-the-brazilian-atlantic-rainforest-to-simulated-acid-rain
#18
Guilherme C Andrade, Luzimar C Silva
We investigated the morphological and anatomical effects of simulated acid rain on leaves of two species native to the Brazilian Atlantic Rainforest: Paubrasilia echinata and Libidibia ferrea var. leiostachya. Saplings were subjected to acid rain in a simulation chamber during 10 days for 15 min daily, using H2SO4 solution pH 3.0 and, in the control, deionized water. At the end of the experiment, fragments from young and expanding leaves were anatomically analyzed. Although L. ferrea var. leiostachya leaves are more hydrophobic, rain droplets remained in contact with them for a longer time, as in the hydrophilic P...
December 8, 2016: Protoplasma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902221/streptomyces-fuscichromogenes-sp-nov-an-actinomycete-from-soil
#19
Hao Zhang, Jimei Zheng, Junli Zhuang, Yuhua Xin, Xiaowei Zheng, Jianli Zhang
A novel actinomycete, designated strain m16T, was isolated from a soil sample collected from the tropical rain forest of Xishuangbanna, a prefecture in Yunnan Province, south-west China, and characterized by using polyphasic taxomomy. Cells were aerobic and Gram-reaction-positive, and spore chains were observed to be of the helical type, with elliptical spores and smooth spore surfaces. The novel strain grew over a temperature range of 15-35 °C, at pH 5.0-11.0 and in the presence of 0-3 % (w/v) NaCl. The DNA G+C content of strain m16T was 70...
January 2017: International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27894805/leaching-behavior-of-veterinary-antibiotics-in-animal-manure-applied-soils
#20
Min Pan, L M Chu
Agricultural fields worldwide are being contaminated by the escalating application of veterinary antibiotics (VAs) via animal manure and biosolids applied as fertilizers or of wastewater for irrigation, resulting in soil degradation and damage to the health of terrestrial environments. This paper describes a series of column studies investigating the leaching behavior of five VAs, tetracycline (TC), sulfamethazine (SMZ), norfloxacin (NOR), erythromycin (ERY) and chloramphenicol (CAP), under different simulated rainfall conditions that could occur in agricultural environments...
February 1, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
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