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Acid rain

Hao Zhang, Jimei Zheng, Junli Zhuang, Yuhua Xin, Xiaowei Zheng, Jianli Zhang
A novel actinomycete, designated strain m16T, was isolated from a soil sample collected from Xishuangbanna's tropical rain forest, a prefecture in Yunnan Province, south-west China, and characterized by using polyphasic taxomomy. Cells were aerobic, Gram-positive and spore chains were observed to be of the helical type, with elliptical spores and smooth spore surfaces. The novel strain grew over a temperature range of 15-35 °C, at pH values of 5.0-11.0 and in the presence of 0-3 % (w/v) NaCl. The DNA G+C content of strain m16T was 70...
October 13, 2016: International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology
Min Pan, L M Chu
Agricultural fields worldwide are being contaminated by the escalating application of veterinary antibiotics (VAs) via animal manure and biosolids applied as fertilizers or of wastewater for irrigation, resulting in soil degradation and damage to the health of terrestrial environments. This paper describes a series of column studies investigating the leaching behavior of five VAs, tetracycline (TC), sulfamethazine (SMZ), norfloxacin (NOR), erythromycin (ERY) and chloramphenicol (CAP), under different simulated rainfall conditions that could occur in agricultural environments...
November 25, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
Yihong Xiao, Dongmei Wang, Guohui Cai, Yong Zheng, Fulan Zhong
NOx is a notorious emission from motor vehicles and chemical factories as the precursor of acid rain and photochemical smog. Although zirconia-based NOx sensors have been developed and showed high sensitivity and selectivity at a high temperature of above 800 °C, they fail to show good performance, and even don't work at the typical work temperature window of the automotive engine (<500 °C). It still is a formidable challenge for development of mild-temperature NOx detector or sensor. Herein, a novel amperometric solid-state NOx sensor was developed using perovskite-type oxide Gd1-xCaxAlO3-δ(GCA) as the electrolyte and NiO as the sensing electrode...
November 25, 2016: Scientific Reports
Cristina N Butterfield, Zhou Li, Peter F Andeer, Susan Spaulding, Brian C Thomas, Andrea Singh, Robert L Hettich, Kenwyn B Suttle, Alexander J Probst, Susannah G Tringe, Trent Northen, Chongle Pan, Jillian F Banfield
Annually, half of all plant-derived carbon is added to soil where it is microbially respired to CO2. However, understanding of the microbiology of this process is limited because most culture-independent methods cannot link metabolic processes to the organisms present, and this link to causative agents is necessary to predict the results of perturbations on the system. We collected soil samples at two sub-root depths (10-20 cm and 30-40 cm) before and after a rainfall-driven nutrient perturbation event in a Northern California grassland that experiences a Mediterranean climate...
2016: PeerJ
Jenny Makkonen, Arto Vesterbacka, Frank Martin, Japo Jussila, Javier Diéguez-Uribeondo, Raine Kortet, Harri Kokko
The genus Aphanomyces (Saprolegniales, Oomycetes) includes species with a variety of ecologies from saprotrophs to plant and animal parasites. Two important species in this genus are A. astaci, the cause of crayfish plague and its close relative, A. invadans, which causes the epizootic ulcerative syndrome on fish. In this study, we have assembled and annotated the mitochondrial (mt) genomes of A. astaci and A. invadans from the whole genome shotgun sequence reads (PRJNA187372; PRJNA258292, respectively). The assembly was generated from A...
November 3, 2016: Scientific Reports
Yayin Lu, Dinggui Luo, An Lai, Guowei Liu, Lirong Liu, Jianyou Long, Hongguo Zhang, Yongheng Chen
Chelator-assisted phytoextraction is an alternative and effective technique for the remediation of heavy metal-contaminated soils, but the potential for heavy metal leaching needs to be assessed. In the present study, a soil column cultivation-leaching experiment was conducted to investigate the Cd and Pb leaching characteristics during assisted phytoextraction of metal-contaminated soils containing different particle-size soil aggregates. The columns were planted with Zea mays "Zhengdan 958" seedlings and treated with combined applications of EDTA and simulated rainfall (pH 4...
October 30, 2016: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Tao Wang, Likun Xue, Peter Brimblecombe, Yun Fat Lam, Li Li, Li Zhang
High concentrations of ozone in urban and industrial regions worldwide have long been a major air quality issue. With the rapid increase in fossil fuel consumption in China over the past three decades, the emission of chemical precursors to ozone-nitrogen oxides and volatile organic compounds-has increased sharply, surpassing that of North America and Europe and raising concerns about worsening ozone pollution in China. Historically, research and control have prioritized acid rain, particulate matter, and more recently fine particulate matter (PM2...
October 24, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
Kalie Ann Mix, Matthew R Aronoff, Ronald T Raines
Diazo groups have broad and tunable reactivity. That and other attributes endow diazo compounds with the potential to be valuable reagents for chemical biologists. The presence of diazo groups in natural products underscores their metabolic stability and anticipates their utility in a biological context. The chemoselectivity of diazo groups, even in the presence of azido groups, presents many opportunities. Already, diazo compounds have served as chemical probes and elicited novel modifications of proteins and nucleic acids...
October 14, 2016: ACS Chemical Biology
Shweta Panchal, Reejana Chitrakar, Blaine K Thompson, Nisita Obulareddy, Debanjana Roy, W Sealy Hambright, Maeli Melotto
It has long been observed that environmental conditions play crucial roles in modulating immunity and disease in plants and animals. For instance, many bacterial plant disease outbreaks occur after periods of high humidity and rain. A critical step in bacterial infection is entry into the plant interior through wounds and natural openings, such as stomata, which are adjustable microscopic pores in the epidermal tissue. Several studies have shown that stomatal closure is an integral part of the plant immune response to reduce pathogen invasion...
November 2016: Plant Physiology
Hui Wei, Wen Liu, Jiaen Zhang, Zhong Qin
Acid rain is one of the severest environmental issues globally. Relative to other global changes (e.g., warming, elevated atmospheric [CO2], and nitrogen deposition), however, acid rain has received less attention than its due. Soil fauna play important roles in multiple ecological processes, but how soil fauna community responds to acid rain remains less studied. This microcosm experiment was conducted using latosol with simulated acid rain (SAR) manipulations to observe potential changes in soil fauna community under acid rain stress...
January 2017: Environmental Pollution
Marco Napoli, Anna Dalla Marta, Camillo A Zanchi, Simone Orlandini
Worldwide, glyphosate is the most widely used herbicide in controlling the growth of annual and perennial weeds. An increasing number of studies have highlighted the environmental risk resulting from the use of this molecule in aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems. The objective of the study was to determine the transport of glyphosate and its degradation product, aminomethylphosphonic acid (AMPA), through runoff and transported sediment from a vineyard under two different soil management systems: harrowed inter-row (HR) and permanent grass covered inter-row (GR)...
September 2016: Journal of Environmental Quality
Ming Luo, Xing-Hong Zhang, Donald J Darensbourg
Carbonyl sulfide (COS) is an air pollutant that causes acid rain, ozonosphere damage, and carbon dioxide (CO2) generation. It is a heterocumulene and structural analogue of CO2. Relevant to organic synthesis, it is a source of C═O or C═S groups and thus an ideal one-carbon (C1) building block for synthesizing sulfur-containing polymers through the similar route of CO2 copolymerization. In contrast, traditional synthesis of sulfur-containing polymers often involves the condensation of thiols with phosgene and ring-opening polymerization of cyclic thiocarbonates that are generally derived from thiols and phosgene; thus, COS/epoxide copolymerization is a "greener" route to supplement or supplant current processes for the production of sulfur-containing polymers...
October 18, 2016: Accounts of Chemical Research
Ritesh Ghosh, Ratnesh Chandra Mishra, Bosung Choi, Young Sang Kwon, Dong Won Bae, Soo-Chul Park, Mi-Jeong Jeong, Hanhong Bae
Sound vibration (SV) is considered as an external mechanical force that modulates plant growth and development like other mechanical stimuli (e.g., wind, rain, touch and vibration). A number of previous and recent studies reported developmental responses in plants tailored against SV of varied frequencies. This strongly suggests the existence of sophisticated molecular mechanisms for SV perception and signal transduction. Despite this there exists a huge gap in our understanding regarding the SV-mediated molecular alterations, which is a prerequisite to gain insight into SV-mediated plant development...
September 26, 2016: Scientific Reports
Yinghua Duan, Minggang Xu, Suduan Gao, Hua Liu, Shaomin Huang, Boren Wang
Improving soil fertility/productivity and reducing environmental impact of nitrogen (N) fertilization are essential for sustainable agriculture. Quantifying the contribution of various fertilization regimes to soil N storage and loss has been lacking in a wide range of spatiotemporal scales. Based on data collected from field experiments at three typical agricultural zones in China, soil N dynamics and N changes in soil profile (0-100 cm) were examined during 1990-2009 under chemical fertilization, manure incorporation with fertilizer, and fertilizer with straw return treatments...
2016: Scientific Reports
C M Visagie, J B Renaud, K M N Burgess, D W Malloch, D Clark, L Ketch, M Urb, G Louis-Seize, R Assabgui, M W Sumarah, K A Seifert
We introduce 15 new species of Penicillium isolated from a diverse range of locations, including Canada, Costa Rica, Germany, Italy, New Zealand, Tanzania, USA and the Dry Valleys of Antarctica, from a variety of habitats, including leaf surfaces in tropical rain forests, soil eaten by chimpanzees, infrabuccal pockets of carpenter ants, intestinal contents of caterpillars and soil. The new species are classified in sections Aspergilloides (1), Canescentia (2), Charlesia (1), Exilicaulis (3), Lanata-Divaricata (7) and Stolkia (1)...
June 2016: Persoonia
Ana B Benavides, Mario Ulcuango, Lucía Yépez, Gabriela N Tenea
Lactic acid bacteria are known for their biotechnological potential. In various regions of Ecuador numerous indigenous biological resources are largely undocumented. In this study, we evaluated the potential probiotic characteristics and antagonistic in vitro properties of some lactic acid bacteria from native niches of the subtropical rain forests of Ecuador. These isolates were identified according to their morphological properties, standard API50CH fermentation profile and RAPD-DNA polymorphism pattern. The selected isolates were further evaluated for their probiotic potential...
July 2016: Revista Argentina de Microbiología
Felipe B Beato, Basti Bergdahl, Carlos A Rosa, Jochen Forster, Andreas K Gombert
Fourteen indigenous Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains isolated from the barks of three tree species located in the Atlantic Rain Forest and Cerrado biomes in Brazil were genetically and physiologically compared to laboratory strains and to strains from the Brazilian fuel ethanol industry. Although no clear correlation could be found either between phenotype and isolation spot or between phenotype and genomic lineage, a set of indigenous strains with superior industrially relevant traits over commonly known industrial and laboratory strains was identified: strain UFMG-CM-Y257 has a very high specific growth rate on sucrose (0...
November 2016: FEMS Yeast Research
Torsten W Berger, Alexander Muras
Release of stored sulfur may delay the recovery of soil pH from Acid Rain. It is hypothesized that analyzing the micro-spatial heterogeneity of soil columns downhill of a beech stem enables predictions of soil recovery as a function of historic acid loads and time. We demonstrated in a very simplified approach, how these two different factors may be untangled from each other using synthetic data. Thereafter, we evaluated the stated hypothesis based upon chemical soil data with increasing distance from the stem of beech trees...
2016: Modeling Earth Systems and Environment
Henry S Nzioki, Florence Oyosi, Cindy E Morris, Eylul Kaya, Alice L Pilgeram, Claire S Baker, David C Sands
Striga hermonthica (witchweed) is a parasitic weed that attacks and significantly reduces the yields of maize, sorghum, millet, and sugarcane throughout sub-Saharan Africa. Low cost management methods such as hand weeding, short crop rotations, trap cropping, or conventional biocontrol have not been effective. Likewise, Striga-tolerant or herbicide-resistant maize cultivars are higher yielding, but are often beyond the economic means of sustenance farmers. The fungal pathogen, Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. strigae, has been the object of numerous studies to develop Striga biocontrol...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
Ervin Pejo, Xiaojuan Zhou, S Shaukat Husain, Douglas E Raines
BACKGROUND: Etomidate potently suppresses adrenocortical steroid synthesis with potentially deleterious consequences by binding to 11β-hydroxylase and inhibiting its function. The authors hypothesized that other sedative-hypnotics currently in clinical use or under development (or their metabolites) might bind to the same site at clinically relevant concentrations. The authors tested this hypothesis by defining etomidate's affinity for this site and the potencies with which other sedative-hypnotics (and their metabolites) inhibit etomidate binding...
November 2016: Anesthesiology
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