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Acid rain

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28920684/stilbene-boronic-acids-form-a-covalent-bond-with-human-transthyretin-and-inhibit-its-aggregation
#1
Thomas P Smith, Ian W Windsor, Katrina T Forest, Ronald T Raines
Transthyretin (TTR) is a homotetrameric protein. Its dissociation into monomers leads to the formation of fibrils that underlie human amyloidogenic diseases. The binding of small molecules to the thyroxin-binding sites in TTR stabilizes the homotetramer and attenuates TTR amyloidosis. Herein, we report on boronic acid-substituted stilbenes that limit TTR amyloidosis in vitro. Assays of affinity for TTR and inhibition of its tendency to form fibrils were coupled with X-ray crystallographic analysis of nine TTR·ligand complexes...
September 18, 2017: Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916280/non-linear-direct-effects-of-acid-rain-on-leaf-photosynthetic-rate-of-terrestrial-plants
#2
Dan Dong, Enzai Du, Zhengzhong Sun, Xuetong Zeng, Wim de Vries
Anthropogenic emissions of acid precursors have enhanced global occurrence of acid rain, especially in East Asia. Acid rain directly suppresses leaf function by eroding surface waxes and cuticle and leaching base cations from mesophyll cells, while the simultaneous foliar uptake of nitrates in rainwater may directly benefit leaf photosynthesis and plant growth, suggesting a non-linear direct effect of acid rain. By synthesizing data from literature on acid rain exposure experiments, we assessed the direct effects of acid rain on leaf photosynthesis across 49 terrestrial plants in China...
September 12, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28895025/leaching-variations-of-heavy-metals-in-chelator-assisted-phytoextraction-by-zea-mays-l-exposed-to-acid-rainfall
#3
Yayin Lu, Dinggui Luo, Lirong Liu, Zicong Tan, An Lai, Guowei Liu, Junhui Li, Jianyou Long, Xuexia Huang, Yongheng Chen
Chelant-enhanced phytoextraction method has been put forward as an effective soil remediation method, whereas the heavy metal leaching could not be ignored. In this study, a cropping-leaching experiment, using soil columns, was applied to study the metal leaching variations during assisted phytoextraction of Cd- and Pb-polluted soils, using seedlings of Zea mays, applying three different chelators (EDTA, EDDS, and rhamnolipid), and artificial rainfall (acid rainfall or normal rainfall). It showed that artificial rainfall, especially artificial acid rain, after chelator application led to the increase of heavy metals in the leaching solution...
September 11, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28886384/hpv16-e7-genetic-conservation-is-critical-to-carcinogenesis
#4
Lisa Mirabello, Meredith Yeager, Kai Yu, Gary M Clifford, Yanzi Xiao, Bin Zhu, Michael Cullen, Joseph F Boland, Nicolas Wentzensen, Chase W Nelson, Tina Raine-Bennett, Zigui Chen, Sara Bass, Lei Song, Qi Yang, Mia Steinberg, Laurie Burdett, Michael Dean, David Roberson, Jason Mitchell, Thomas Lorey, Silvia Franceschi, Philip E Castle, Joan Walker, Rosemary Zuna, Aimée R Kreimer, Daniel C Beachler, Allan Hildesheim, Paula Gonzalez, Carolina Porras, Robert D Burk, Mark Schiffman
Although most cervical human papillomavirus type 16 (HPV16) infections become undetectable within 1-2 years, persistent HPV16 causes half of all cervical cancers. We used a novel HPV whole-genome sequencing technique to evaluate an exceptionally large collection of 5,570 HPV16-infected case-control samples to determine whether viral genetic variation influences risk of cervical precancer and cancer. We observed thousands of unique HPV16 genomes; very few women shared the identical HPV16 sequence, which should stimulate a careful re-evaluation of the clinical implications of HPV mutation rates, transmission, clearance, and persistence...
September 7, 2017: Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28873234/effect-of-seasonal-climate-fluctuations-on-the-evolution-of-glycoconjugates-along-the-ripening-period-of-grapevine-cv-muscat-a-petits-grains-blancs-berries
#5
Julia Crespo, Peggy Rigou, Valeria Romero, Margarita García, Teresa Arroyo, Juan M Cabellos
BACKGROUND: Temperature changes and rainfall fluctuations affect the winemaking industry by altering vine phenology, crop yield, must composition and wine quality. Here, the evolution of the varietal aroma potential along the ripening over three consecutive seasons has been analyzed considering climate conditions. The effect of season, ripening date and climatic conditions on the aroma precursor's accumulation in grapes was studied by multivariate analysis and discussed in regard to the potential aromatic quality of the wine...
September 5, 2017: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28866398/holistic-assessment-of-occurrence-and-fate-of-metolachlor-within-environmental-compartments-of-agricultural-watersheds
#6
Claire E Rose, Richard H Coupe, Paul D Capel, Richard M T Webb
BACKGROUND: Metolachlor [(RS)-2-Chloro-N-(2-ethyl-6-methyl-phenyl)-N-(1-methoxypropan-2-yl)acetamide] and two degradates (metolachlor ethane-sulfonic acid and metolachlor oxanilic acid) are commonly observed in surface and groundwater. The behavior and fate of these compounds were examined over a 12-year period in seven agricultural watersheds in the United States. They were quantified in air, rain, streams, overland flow, groundwater, soil water, subsurface drain water, and water at the stream/groundwater interface...
September 1, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28857763/competitive-antagonism-of-anesthetic-action-at-the-%C3%AE-aminobutyric-acid-type-a-receptor-by-a-novel-etomidate-analog-with-low-intrinsic-efficacy
#7
Celena Ma, Ervin Pejo, Megan McGrath, Selwyn S Jayakar, Xiaojuan Zhou, Keith W Miller, Jonathan B Cohen, Douglas E Raines
BACKGROUND: The authors characterized the γ-aminobutyric acid type A receptor pharmacology of the novel etomidate analog naphthalene-etomidate, a potential lead compound for the development of anesthetic-selective competitive antagonists. METHODS: The positive modulatory potencies and efficacies of etomidate and naphthalene-etomidate were defined in oocyte-expressed α1β3γ2L γ-aminobutyric acid type A receptors using voltage clamp electrophysiology. Using the same technique, the ability of naphthalene-etomidate to reduce currents evoked by γ-aminobutyric acid alone or γ-aminobutyric acid potentiated by etomidate, propofol, pentobarbital, and diazepam was quantified...
August 29, 2017: Anesthesiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28841504/combined-acid-rain-and-lanthanum-pollution-and-its-potential-ecological-risk-for-nitrogen-assimilation-in-soybean-seedling-roots
#8
Fan Zhang, Mengzhu Cheng, Zhaoguo Sun, Lihong Wang, Qing Zhou, Xiaohua Huang
Rare earth elements (REEs) are used in various fields, resulting in their accumulation in the environment. This accumulation has affected the survival and distribution of crops in various ways. Acid rain is a serious global environmental problem. The combined effects on crops from these two types of pollution have been reported, but the effects on crop root nitrogen assimilation are rarely known. To explore the impact of combined contamination from these two pollutants on crop nitrogen assimilation, the soybean seedlings were treated with simulated environmental pollution from acid rain and a representative rare earth ion, lanthanum ion (La(3+)), then the indexes related to plant nitrogen assimilation process in roots were determined...
August 22, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28840926/structure-dependent-reactivity-of-criegee-intermediates-studied-with-spectroscopic-methods
#9
Jim Jr-Min Lin, Wen Chao
Criegee intermediates are very reactive carbonyl oxides that are formed in reactions of unsaturated hydrocarbons with ozone (ozonolysis). Recently, Criegee intermediates have gained significant attention since a new preparation method has been reported in 2012, which employs the reaction of iodoalkyl radical with molecular oxygen: for instance, CH2I + O2 → CH2OO + I. This new synthesis route can produce Criegee intermediates with a high number density, which allows direct detection of the Criegee intermediate via various spectroscopic tools, including vacuum UV photoionization mass spectrometry, absorption and action spectroscopy in the UV and IR regions, and microwave spectroscopy...
August 25, 2017: Chemical Society Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28840553/the-role-of-nitric-oxide-from-neurological-disease-to-cancer
#10
Ahmed Maher, Mohamed F Abdel Rahman, Mohamed Z Gad
Until the beginning of the 1980s, nitric oxide (NO) was just a toxic molecule of a lengthy list of environmental pollutants such as cigarette smoke and smog. In fact, NO had a very bad reputation of being destroyer of ozone, suspected carcinogen and precursor of acid rain. However, by the early 1990s it was well recognized by the medical research community. Over the last two decades, the picture has been totally changed. Diverse lines of evidence have converged to show that this sometime poison is a fundamental player in the everyday business of the human body...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28816601/stomate-based-defense-and-environmental-cues
#11
Shweta Panchal, Maeli Melotto
Environmental conditions play crucial roles in modulating immunity and disease in plants. For instance, many bacterial disease outbreaks occur after periods of high humidity and rain. A critical step in bacterial infection is entry into the plant interior through wounds or natural openings, such as stomata. Bacterium-triggered stomatal closure is an integral part of the plant immune response to reduce pathogen invasion. Recently, we found that high humidity compromises stomatal defense, which is accompanied by regulation of the salicylic acid and jasmonic acid pathways in guard cells...
August 17, 2017: Plant Signaling & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28764828/the-infant-born-to-a-woman-with-gestational-diabetes
#12
Theresa Povinelli, Caitlin Lim, Deborah A Raines
Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is defined as glucose intolerance with onset during pregnancy. During pregnancy, women with GDM develop insulin resistance, which results in altered glucose tolerance. As a result, there are frequent episodes of hyperglycemia and high levels of circulating amino acids, increasing the transfer of nutrients to the fetus. This article discusses the role of the mother-baby nursing in the care of neonates born to women with gestational diabetes.
July 1, 2017: Neonatal Network: NN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28763202/paleo-ecotoxicology-what-can-lake-sediments-tell-us-about-ecosystem-responses-to-environmental-pollutants
#13
Jennifer B Korosi, Joshua R Thienpont, John P Smol, Jules M Blais
The development of effective risk reduction strategies for aquatic pollutants requires a comprehensive understanding of toxic impacts on ecosystems. Classical toxicological studies are effective for characterizing pollutant impacts on biota in a controlled, simplified environment. Nonetheless, it is well-acknowledged that predictions based on the results of these studies must be tested over the long-term in a natural ecosystem setting to account for increased complexity and multiple stressors. Paleolimnology (the study of lake sediment cores to reconstruct environmental change) can address many key knowledge gaps...
August 18, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28762047/pyrite-oxidation-under-simulated-acid-rain-weathering-conditions
#14
Kai Zheng, Heping Li, Luying Wang, Xiaoying Wen, Qingyou Liu
We investigated the electrochemical corrosion behavior of pyrite in simulated acid rain with different acidities and at different temperatures. The cyclic voltammetry, polarization curve, and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy results showed that pyrite has the same electrochemical interaction mechanism under different simulated acid rain conditions, regardless of acidity or environmental temperature. Either stronger acid rain acidity or higher environmental temperature can accelerate pyrite corrosion. Compared with acid rain having a pH of 5...
July 31, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28755408/effects-of-simple-rain-shelter-cultivation-on-fatty-acid-and-amino-acid-accumulation-in-chardonnay-grape-berries
#15
Nan Meng, Zhi-Yuan Ren, Xiao-Fan Yang, Qiu-Hong Pan
BACKGROUND: Fatty acids and amino acids are the precursors of aliphatic and aromatic volatile compounds, higher alcohols and esters. They are also nutrition for yeast metabolism during fermentation. However, few reports have been concerned about the effect of viticulture practices on the accumulation of fatty acids and amino acids in wine grapes. This study aimed to explore the accumulation of these compounds in developing Vitis vinifera L. cv. Chardonnay grape berries under two vintages, and compare the influences of the rain-shelter and open-field cultivation...
July 29, 2017: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28747920/unraveling-key-metabolomic-alterations-in-wheat-embryos-derived-from-freshly-harvested-and-water-imbibed-seeds-of-two-wheat-cultivars-with-contrasting-dormancy-status
#16
Aayudh Das, Dea-Wook Kim, Pramod Khadka, Randeep Rakwal, Jai S Rohila
Untimely rains in wheat fields during harvest season can cause pre-harvest sprouting (PHS), which deteriorates the yield and quality of wheat crop. Metabolic homeostasis of the embryo plays a role in seed dormancy, determining the status of the maturing grains either as dormant (PHS-tolerant) or non-dormant (PHS-susceptible). Very little is known for direct measurements of global metabolites in embryonic tissues of dormant and non-dormant wheat seeds. In this study, physiologically matured and freshly harvested wheat seeds of PHS-tolerant (cv...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730363/leaching-of-cu-cd-pb-and-phosphorus-and-their-availability-in-the-phosphate-amended-contaminated-soils-under-simulated-acid-rain
#17
Hongbiao Cui, Shiwen Zhang, Ruyan Li, Qitao Yi, Xuebo Zheng, Youbiao Hu, Jing Zhou
Phosphate amendments have been used to immobilize heavy metal-contaminated soils. However, phosphate amendments contain large amounts of phosphorus, which could leach out to potentially contaminate groundwater and surface water. A laboratory column leaching experiment was designed to study the effects of simulated acid rain (SAR) on the potential release of copper (Cu), lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd), and phosphorus (P), and their availability after immobilizing with hydroxyapatite (HAP) and potassium dihydrogen phosphate (PDP)...
July 20, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725374/snowbeds-are-more-affected-than-other-subalpine-alpine-plant-communities-by-climate-change-in-the-swiss-alps
#18
Magalì Matteodo, Klaus Ammann, Eric Pascal Verrecchia, Pascal Vittoz
While the upward shift of plant species has been observed on many alpine and nival summits, the reaction of the subalpine and lower alpine plant communities to the current warming and lower snow precipitation has been little investigated so far. To this aim, 63 old, exhaustive plant inventories, distributed along a subalpine-alpine elevation gradient of the Swiss Alps and covering different plant community types (acidic and calcareous grasslands; windy ridges; snowbeds), were revisited after 25-50 years. Old and recent inventories were compared in terms of species diversity with Simpson diversity and Bray-Curtis dissimilarity indices, and in terms of community composition with principal component analysis...
October 2016: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28717252/rain-induced-changes-in-soil-co2-flux-and-microbial-community-composition-in-a-tropical-forest-of-china
#19
Qi Deng, Dafeng Hui, Guowei Chu, Xi Han, Quanfa Zhang
Rain-induced soil CO2 pulse, a rapid excitation in soil CO2 flux after rain, is ubiquitously observed in terrestrial ecosystems, yet the underlying mechanisms in tropical forests are still not clear. We conducted a rain simulation experiment to quantify rain-induced changes in soil CO2 flux and microbial community composition in a tropical forest. Soil CO2 flux rapidly increased by ~83% after rains, accompanied by increases in both bacterial (~51%) and fungal (~58%) Phospholipid Fatty Acids (PLFA) biomass. However, soil CO2 flux and microbial community in the plots without litters showed limited response to rains...
July 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28691753/effect-of-aging-and-surface-interactions-on-the-diffusion-of-endogenous-compounds-in-latent-fingerprints-studied-by-mass-spectrometry-imaging
#20
Kelly C O'Neill, Young Jin Lee
The ability to determine the age of fingerprints would be immeasurably beneficial in criminal investigations. We explore the possibility of determining the age of fingerprints by analyzing various compounds as they diffuse from the ridges to the valleys of fingerprints using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry imaging. The diffusion of two classes of endogenous fingerprint compounds, fatty acids and triacylglycerols (TGs), was studied in fresh and aged fingerprints on four surfaces...
July 10, 2017: Journal of Forensic Sciences
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