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Acid rain

Kalie Ann Mix, Matthew R Aronoff, Ronald T Raines
Diazo groups have broad and tunable reactivity. That and other attributes endow diazo compounds with the potential to be valuable reagents for chemical biologists. The presence of diazo groups in natural products underscores their metabolic stability and anticipates their utility in a biological context. The chemoselectivity of diazo groups, even in the presence of azido groups, presents many opportunities. Already, diazo compounds have served as chemical probes and elicited novel modifications of proteins and nucleic acids...
October 14, 2016: ACS Chemical Biology
Shweta Panchal, Reejana Chitrakar, Blaine K Thompson, Nisita Obulareddy, Debanjana Roy, W Sealy Hambright, Maeli Melotto
It has long been observed that environmental conditions play crucial roles in modulating immunity and disease in plants and animals. For instance, many bacterial plant disease outbreaks occur after periods of high humidity and rain. A critical step in bacterial infection is entry into the plant interior through wounds and natural openings, such as stomata, which are adjustable microscopic pores in the epidermal tissue. Several studies have shown that stomatal closure is an integral part of the plant immune response to reduce pathogen invasion...
October 4, 2016: Plant Physiology
Hui Wei, Wen Liu, Jiaen Zhang, Zhong Qin
Acid rain is one of the severest environmental issues globally. Relative to other global changes (e.g., warming, elevated atmospheric [CO2], and nitrogen deposition), however, acid rain has received less attention than its due. Soil fauna play important roles in multiple ecological processes, but how soil fauna community responds to acid rain remains less studied. This microcosm experiment was conducted using latosol with simulated acid rain (SAR) manipulations to observe potential changes in soil fauna community under acid rain stress...
September 30, 2016: Environmental Pollution
Marco Napoli, Anna Dalla Marta, Camillo A Zanchi, Simone Orlandini
Worldwide, glyphosate is the most widely used herbicide in controlling the growth of annual and perennial weeds. An increasing number of studies have highlighted the environmental risk resulting from the use of this molecule in aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems. The objective of the study was to determine the transport of glyphosate and its degradation product, aminomethylphosphonic acid (AMPA), through runoff and transported sediment from a vineyard under two different soil management systems: harrowed inter-row (HR) and permanent grass covered inter-row (GR)...
September 2016: Journal of Environmental Quality
Ming Luo, Xing-Hong Zhang, Donald J Darensbourg
Carbonyl sulfide (COS) is an air pollutant that causes acid rain, ozonosphere damage, and carbon dioxide (CO2) generation. It is a heterocumulene and structural analogue of CO2. Relevant to organic synthesis, it is a source of C═O or C═S groups and thus an ideal one-carbon (C1) building block for synthesizing sulfur-containing polymers through the similar route of CO2 copolymerization. In contrast, traditional synthesis of sulfur-containing polymers often involves the condensation of thiols with phosgene and ring-opening polymerization of cyclic thiocarbonates that are generally derived from thiols and phosgene; thus, COS/epoxide copolymerization is a "greener" route to supplement or supplant current processes for the production of sulfur-containing polymers...
October 18, 2016: Accounts of Chemical Research
Ritesh Ghosh, Ratnesh Chandra Mishra, Bosung Choi, Young Sang Kwon, Dong Won Bae, Soo-Chul Park, Mi-Jeong Jeong, Hanhong Bae
Sound vibration (SV) is considered as an external mechanical force that modulates plant growth and development like other mechanical stimuli (e.g., wind, rain, touch and vibration). A number of previous and recent studies reported developmental responses in plants tailored against SV of varied frequencies. This strongly suggests the existence of sophisticated molecular mechanisms for SV perception and signal transduction. Despite this there exists a huge gap in our understanding regarding the SV-mediated molecular alterations, which is a prerequisite to gain insight into SV-mediated plant development...
September 26, 2016: Scientific Reports
Yinghua Duan, Minggang Xu, Suduan Gao, Hua Liu, Shaomin Huang, Boren Wang
Improving soil fertility/productivity and reducing environmental impact of nitrogen (N) fertilization are essential for sustainable agriculture. Quantifying the contribution of various fertilization regimes to soil N storage and loss has been lacking in a wide range of spatiotemporal scales. Based on data collected from field experiments at three typical agricultural zones in China, soil N dynamics and N changes in soil profile (0-100 cm) were examined during 1990-2009 under chemical fertilization, manure incorporation with fertilizer, and fertilizer with straw return treatments...
2016: Scientific Reports
C M Visagie, J B Renaud, K M N Burgess, D W Malloch, D Clark, L Ketch, M Urb, G Louis-Seize, R Assabgui, M W Sumarah, K A Seifert
We introduce 15 new species of Penicillium isolated from a diverse range of locations, including Canada, Costa Rica, Germany, Italy, New Zealand, Tanzania, USA and the Dry Valleys of Antarctica, from a variety of habitats, including leaf surfaces in tropical rain forests, soil eaten by chimpanzees, infrabuccal pockets of carpenter ants, intestinal contents of caterpillars and soil. The new species are classified in sections Aspergilloides (1), Canescentia (2), Charlesia (1), Exilicaulis (3), Lanata-Divaricata (7) and Stolkia (1)...
June 2016: Persoonia
Ana B Benavides, Mario Ulcuango, Lucía Yépez, Gabriela N Tenea
Lactic acid bacteria are known for their biotechnological potential. In various regions of Ecuador numerous indigenous biological resources are largely undocumented. In this study, we evaluated the potential probiotic characteristics and antagonistic in vitro properties of some lactic acid bacteria from native niches of the subtropical rain forests of Ecuador. These isolates were identified according to their morphological properties, standard API50CH fermentation profile and RAPD-DNA polymorphism pattern. The selected isolates were further evaluated for their probiotic potential...
July 2016: Revista Argentina de Microbiología
Felipe B Beato, Basti Bergdahl, Carlos A Rosa, Jochen Forster, Andreas K Gombert
Fourteen indigenous Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains isolated from the barks of three tree species located in the Atlantic Rain Forest and Cerrado biomes in Brazil were genetically and physiologically compared to laboratory strains and to strains from the Brazilian fuel ethanol industry. Although no clear correlation could be found either between phenotype and isolation spot or between phenotype and genomic lineage, a set of indigenous strains with superior industrially relevant traits over commonly known industrial and laboratory strains was identified: strain UFMG-CM-Y257 has a very high specific growth rate on sucrose (0...
November 2016: FEMS Yeast Research
Torsten W Berger, Alexander Muras
Release of stored sulfur may delay the recovery of soil pH from Acid Rain. It is hypothesized that analyzing the micro-spatial heterogeneity of soil columns downhill of a beech stem enables predictions of soil recovery as a function of historic acid loads and time. We demonstrated in a very simplified approach, how these two different factors may be untangled from each other using synthetic data. Thereafter, we evaluated the stated hypothesis based upon chemical soil data with increasing distance from the stem of beech trees...
2016: Modeling Earth Systems and Environment
Henry S Nzioki, Florence Oyosi, Cindy E Morris, Eylul Kaya, Alice L Pilgeram, Claire S Baker, David C Sands
Striga hermonthica (witchweed) is a parasitic weed that attacks and significantly reduces the yields of maize, sorghum, millet, and sugarcane throughout sub-Saharan Africa. Low cost management methods such as hand weeding, short crop rotations, trap cropping, or conventional biocontrol have not been effective. Likewise, Striga-tolerant or herbicide-resistant maize cultivars are higher yielding, but are often beyond the economic means of sustenance farmers. The fungal pathogen, Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. strigae, has been the object of numerous studies to develop Striga biocontrol...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
Ervin Pejo, Xiaojuan Zhou, S Shaukat Husain, Douglas E Raines
BACKGROUND: Etomidate potently suppresses adrenocortical steroid synthesis with potentially deleterious consequences by binding to 11β-hydroxylase and inhibiting its function. The authors hypothesized that other sedative-hypnotics currently in clinical use or under development (or their metabolites) might bind to the same site at clinically relevant concentrations. The authors tested this hypothesis by defining etomidate's affinity for this site and the potencies with which other sedative-hypnotics (and their metabolites) inhibit etomidate binding...
November 2016: Anesthesiology
François-Étienne Sylvain, Bachar Cheaib, Martin Llewellyn, Tiago Gabriel Correia, Daniel Barros Fagundes, Adalberto Luis Val, Nicolas Derome
Aquatic organisms are increasingly exposed to lowering of environmental pH due to anthropogenic pressure (e.g. acid rain, acid mine drainages). Such acute variations trigger imbalance of fish-associated microbiota, which in turn favour opportunistic diseases. We used the tambaqui (Colossoma macropomum), an Amazonian fish tolerant to significant pH variation in its natural environment, to assess the response of fish endogenous microbiota to acute short-term acid stress. We exposed 36 specimens of tambaquis to acidic water (pH 4...
2016: Scientific Reports
Monica Albini, Cristina Chiavari, Elena Bernardi, Carla Martini, Lidia Mathys, Edith Joseph
Recently, research gives emphasis to eco-friendly and sustainable approaches for the preservation of cultural heritage that could offer advantages in terms of compatibility, durability and safety. Hence, a biological treatment, based on a specific fungal strain of Beauveria bassiana, is exploited for the stabilization of soluble and/or active bronze corrosion products, converting them into copper oxalates. The chemical stability of the latter represents a real improvement for the long-term preservation of bronze, especially in case of exposure to acid rain...
August 10, 2016: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
M Zaeem Cader, Katharina Boroviak, Qifeng Zhang, Ghazaleh Assadi, Sarah L Kempster, Gavin W Sewell, Svetlana Saveljeva, Jonathan W Ashcroft, Simon Clare, Subhankar Mukhopadhyay, Karen P Brown, Markus Tschurtschenthaler, Tim Raine, Brendan Doe, Edwin R Chilvers, Jules L Griffin, Nicole C Kaneider, R Andres Floto, Mauro D'Amato, Allan Bradley, Michael J O Wakelam, Gordon Dougan, Arthur Kaser
Single-nucleotide variations in C13orf31 (LACC1) that encode p.C284R and p.I254V in a protein of unknown function (called 'FAMIN' here) are associated with increased risk for systemic juvenile idiopathic arthritis, leprosy and Crohn's disease. Here we set out to identify the biological mechanism affected by these coding variations. FAMIN formed a complex with fatty acid synthase (FASN) on peroxisomes and promoted flux through de novo lipogenesis to concomitantly drive high levels of fatty-acid oxidation (FAO) and glycolysis and, consequently, ATP regeneration...
September 2016: Nature Immunology
Ola F A Talkhan, Safaa A E Abd Elwahab, Ebtessam M Shalapy
Low concentration of a heavy metal is toxic and can be classified as one of the pollution sources. Industrial and human waste can pollute water with heavy metals and soils breaking down under the effect of acidic rain, which release heavy metals into river, streams, lakes, and ground water. Bioaccumulation of heavy metals in vital organs of the human body damages these organs, including the liver and kidney, which are the main organs for metabolism, detoxification, and excretion. The present study aims to investigate into concentrations of such heavy metals (Fe, Cu, Zn, and Pb) in both ground and tap water samples collected from different areas in Hail region, KSA...
August 2016: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
Beini Gong, Pingxiao Wu, Zhujian Huang, Yuanyuan Li, Shanshan Yang, Zhi Dang, Bo Ruan, Chunxi Kang
The potential application of triethylenetetramine intercalated montmorillonite (TETA-Mt) in mine tailings treatment and AMD (acid mine drainage) remediation was investigated with batch experiments. The structural and morphological characteristics of TETA-Mt were analyzed with XRD, FTIR, DTG-TG and SEM. The inhibition efficiencies of TETA-Mt against heavy metal release from mine tailings when exposed to acid rain leaching was examined and compared with that of triethylenetetramine (TETA) and Mt. Results showed that the overall inhibition by TETA-Mt surpassed that by TETA or Mt for various heavy metal ions over an acid rain pH range of 3-5...
November 15, 2016: Journal of Hazardous Materials
Sahar Roshanbin, Frida A Lindberg, Emilia Lekholm, Mikaela M Eriksson, Emelie Perland, Johan Åhlund, Amanda Raine, Robert Fredriksson
BACKGROUND: MCT14 (SLC16A14) is an orphan member of the monocarboxylate transporter (MCT) family, also known as the SLC16 family of secondary active transmembrane transporters. Available expression data for this transporter is limited, and in this paper we aim to characterize MCT14 with respect to tissue distribution and cellular localization in mouse brain. RESULTS: Using qPCR, we found that Slc16a14 mRNA was highly abundant in mouse kidney and moderately in central nervous system, testis, uterus and liver...
2016: BMC Neuroscience
Liu-yi Zhang, Yuan Liu, Bao-qing Qiao, Chuan Fu, Huan-bo Wang, Yi-min Huang, Fu-mo Yang
In order to investigate the characteristics of atmospheric trace metals deposition in the hinterland of the Three Gorges Reservoir, the wet and dry deposition samples were collected at an urban area sampling site in Wanzhou during January to June 2014. Besides, the samples were collected at five other sampling sites in April 2014 for comparative analysis, including factory region, town suburb, nature reserve, county suburb, and rural area. pH, conductivity, and trace metals (Al, As, B, Ba, Bi, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Li, Mn, Pb, Ni, Sb, Sr, Sn, Ti, Zn, V) were analyzed...
February 15, 2016: Huan Jing Ke Xue= Huanjing Kexue
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