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Acid rain

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644399/effects-of-biochar-derived-sewage-sludge-on-heavy-metal-adsorption-and-immobilization-in-soils
#1
Dan Zhou, Dan Liu, Fengxiang Gao, Mengke Li, Xianping Luo
The object of this study was to evaluate the effect of sewage sludge biochar on adsorption and mobility of Cr, Mn, Cu, and Zn. Biochar (BC400) was produced via pyrolysis of municipal sewage sludge at 400 °C. Maximum adsorption capacities (qm) for Zn, Cr, Mn, and Cu were 5.905, 5.724, 5.681, and 5.342 mg·g(-1), respectively, in the mono-metal solution and 2.475, 8.204, 1.01, and 5.415 mg·g(-1), respectively, in the multi-metal solution. The adsorption capacities for Mn, Cu, and Zn decreased in the multi-metal solution due to competitive adsorption, whereas the capacity for Cr increased...
June 23, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631831/spatial-and-temporal-trends-and-flow-dynamics-of-glyphosate-and-other-pesticides-within-an-agricultural-watershed-in-argentina
#2
Débora J Pérez, Elena Okada, Eduardo De Gerónimo, Mirta L Menone, Virginia C Aparicio, José L Costa
In the present study, we evaluated the spatial and temporal trends of current use pesticides in surface water and sediments and to determine its relation with hydrological stream dynamics within the agricultural watershed of El Crespo stream. We sampled two contrasting sites: Site 1 (upstream) surrounded by agricultural lands, and Site 2 (downstream) surrounded by natural grasslands. Most of the applied pesticides (i.e. glyphosate, 2,4-D, atrazine, tebuconazole and imidacloprid) were detected in high frequencies in surface water samples at both sites...
June 20, 2017: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28619476/brexanolone-sage-547-injection-in-post-partum-depression-a-randomised-controlled-trial
#3
Stephen Kanes, Helen Colquhoun, Handan Gunduz-Bruce, Shane Raines, Ryan Arnold, Amy Schacterle, James Doherty, C Neill Epperson, Kristina M Deligiannidis, Robert Riesenberg, Ethan Hoffmann, David Rubinow, Jeffrey Jonas, Steven Paul, Samantha Meltzer-Brody
BACKGROUND: Post-partum depression is a serious mood disorder in women that might be triggered by peripartum fluctuations in reproductive hormones. This phase 2 study investigated brexanolone (USAN; formerly SAGE-547 injection), an intravenous formulation of allopregnanolone, a positive allosteric modulator of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABAA) receptors, for the treatment of post-partum depression. METHODS: For this double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled trial, we enrolled self-referred or physician-referred female inpatients (≤6 months post partum) with severe post-partum depression (Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression [HAM-D] total score ≥26) in four hospitals in the USA...
June 12, 2017: Lancet
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28617286/improving-the-microbiological-quality-of-the-ruhr-river-near-essen-comparing-costs-and-effects-for-the-reduction-of-escherichia-coli-and-intestinal-enterococci
#4
Katharina Tondera, Kassandra Klaer, Silke Roder, Ira Brueckner, Johannes Pinnekamp
After rain events in densely populated areas, combined sewer overflows (CSOs) can have severe health-related effects upon surface water quality, as well as diffuse overland runoff and wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). All of these sources emit pathogens and fecal indicator bacteria into the surface water, which the EU Bathing Water Directive addresses by giving threshold values for the indicators Escherichia coli and intestinal enterococci. This study presents a comparison between 21 scenarios of costs for processes that reduce the load of Escherichia coli and intestinal enterococci into the Ruhr River during and shortly after rain events...
June 2017: Water Science and Technology: a Journal of the International Association on Water Pollution Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28612166/biodegradation-of-pyrene-by-candida-sp-s1-under-high-salinity-conditions
#5
Tony Hadibarata, Ameer Badr Khudhair, Risky Ayu Kristanti, Hesam Kamyab
Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon is a toxic recalcitrant environmental pollutant and its removal from the environment is very essential. In this study, a novel S1 strain isolated from the tropical rain forest was identified as Candida species based on 18S rRNA. The pyrene biodegradation was performed by Candida sp. S1. Pyrene was 35% degraded in 15 days. The percentage of pyrene biodegradation increased up to 75% with 24 g L(-1) of sodium chloride and decreased along with increasing salinity. Under the acidic condition, the biodegradation was increased up to 60% at pH 5...
June 13, 2017: Bioprocess and Biosystems Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28587474/pollution-by-nonylphenol-in-river-tap-water-and-aquatic-in-an-acid-rain-plagued-city-in-southwest-china
#6
Yu Jie, Zhou Jie, Luo Ya, Yang Xuesong, Yang Jing, Yang Yu, Yang Jiaqi, Xu Jie
OBJECTIVE: Nonylphenol (NP) has provoked much environmental concern because of their weak estrogenic activities; however, few data are available on the environmental levels of the chemical in China. METHOD: Environmental or river samples were assayed for NP by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) technique. RESULTS: The concentration for NP measured in Xiangjiang River, ranging from 0.174 to 3.411 μg/L with a mean value of 1.73 μg/L, was lower than the Water Quality Criteria for NP of the US (6...
June 6, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Health Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28582677/fast-and-safe-gas-detection-from-underground-coal-fire-by-drone-fly-over
#7
Lucila Dunnington, Masami Nakagawa
Underground coal fires start naturally or as a result of human activities. Besides burning away the important non-renewable energy resource and causing financial losses, burning coal seams emit carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, sulfur oxide and methane, and is a leading cause of smog, acid rain, global warming, and air toxins. In the U.S. alone, the combined cost of coal-fire remediation projects that have been completed, budgeted, or projected by the U.S. Department of the Interior's Office of Surface Mining Remediation and Enforcement (OSM), exceeds $1 billion...
June 2, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28578848/study-on-pharmacokinetics-and-bioequivalence-of-vonoprazan-pyroglutamate-in-rats-by-liquid-chromatography-with-tandem-mass-spectrometry
#8
Yuan Qiao, Jun Zhao, Xuanfeng Yue, Yang Zhang, Ruitao Zhang, Yuan Xu, Xiuling Tang, Xueying Liu, Qingwei Wang
Vonoprazan Fumarate (TAK-438F) is a new and effective drug approved in Japan in 2014 for treatment and prevention of acid-related diseases (ARDs), which exhibits many advantages compared with traditional proton-pump inhibitors (PPIs). However, the clinical applications of TAK0-438F suffers limitation due to the lack of injection dosage form. Efforts to overcome this limitation lead to the systhesis of Vonoprazan pyroglutamate (TAK-438P) for its high water solubility and more potent antisecretory effect. This was the first report to establish and validate a reliable and sensitive LC-MS/MS method for the quantification of TAK-438P in rat plasma and tissues (heart, liver, spleen, liver, kidney, rain, stomach and small intestine)...
August 1, 2017: Journal of Chromatography. B, Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28577402/comparative-effects-of-sulfuric-and-nitric-acid-rain-on-litter-decomposition-and-soil-microbial-community-in-subtropical-plantation-of-yangtze-river-delta-region
#9
Xin Liu, Bo Zhang, Wenrui Zhao, Ling Wang, Dejin Xie, Wentong Huo, Yanwen Wu, Jinchi Zhang
Acid rain is mainly caused by dissolution of sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides in the atmosphere, and has a significant negative effect on ecosystems. The relative composition of acid rain is changing gradually from sulfuric acid rain (SAR) to nitric acid rain (NAR) with the rapidly growing amount of nitrogen deposition. In this study, we investigated the impact of simulated SAR and NAR on litter decomposition and the soil microbial community over four seasons since March 2015. Results first showed that the effects of acid rain on litter decomposition and soil microbial were positive in the early period of the experiment, except for SAR on soil microbes...
May 31, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28562060/sphagnum-moss-as-an-indicator-of-contemporary-rates-of-atmospheric-dust-deposition-in-the-athabasca-bituminous-sands-region
#10
Gillian Mullan-Boudreau, Rene Belland, Kevin Devito, Tommy Noernberg, Rick Pelletier, William Shotyk
Sphagnum moss was collected from ombrotrophic (rain-fed) peat bogs to quantify dust emissions from the open-pit mining and upgrading of Athabasca bituminous sands (ABS). A total of 30 bogs were sampled in the ABS region, and 5 were sampled in central Alberta. Ash was separated into the acid-insoluble ash (AIA) and acid-soluble ash (ASA) fractions using HCl. The AIA concentrations increase toward industry from 0.4 ± 0.5% to 4.7 ± 2.0% over a distance of 30 km; the control site at the Utikuma Region Study Area (URSA) yielded 0...
June 14, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28530577/impact-of-apple-cultivar-ripening-stage-fermentation-type-and-yeast-strain-on-phenolic-composition-of-apple-ciders
#11
Oskar Laaksonen, Rain Kuldjärv, Toomas Paalme, Mira Virkki, Baoru Yang
Hydroxycinnamic acids and flavonoids in apple juices and ciders were studied using liquid chromatography. Samples were produced from four different Estonian apple cultivars using unripe, ripe and overripe apples, and six different commercial yeasts including Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Saccharomyces bayanus, and Torulaspora delbrueckii strains. Part of the samples was additionally inoculated with malolactic bacteria, Oenococcus oeni. The most notable difference among the samples was the appearance of phloretin in malolactic ciders in comparison to conventional ciders and the juices...
October 15, 2017: Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28508441/synthesis-of-an-aluminum-hydroxide-octamer-through-a-simple-dissolution-method
#12
Cory K Perkins, Eric S Eitrheim, Brantly L Fulton, Lauren B Fullmer, Christopher A Colla, Deok-Hie Park, Anna F Oliveri, James E Hutchison, May Nyman, William H Casey, Tori Z Forbes, Darren W Johnson, Douglas A Keszler
Multimeric oxo-hydroxo Al clusters function as models for common mineral structures and reactions. Cluster research, however, is often slowed by a lack of methods to prepare clusters in pure form and in large amounts. Herein, we report a facile synthesis of the little known cluster Al8 (OH)14 (H2 O)18 (SO4 )5 (Al8 ) through a simple dissolution method. We confirm its structure by single-crystal X-ray diffraction and show by (27) Al NMR spectroscopy, electrospray-ionization mass spectrometry, and small- and wide-angle X-ray scattering that it also exists in solution...
May 16, 2017: Angewandte Chemie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506599/application-of-vadose-zone-monitoring-system-for-real-time-characterization-of-leachate-percolation-in-and-under-a-municipal-landfill
#13
Imri Aharoni, Hagar Siebner, Ofer Dahan
Leachates from solid-waste landfills are considered a severe threat to groundwater quality. The fate of pollutants in the waste and underlying unsaturated zone is crucial for evaluating environmental risks and selecting a restoration strategy. In this study, a vadose-zone monitoring system (VMS) installed in a municipal landfill was used, for the first time, to continuously track leachates percolation dynamics and assess their chemical transformation across the entire thickness of the waste body (15m) and underlying unsaturated zone (16m) to the water table...
May 12, 2017: Waste Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28489194/antiproliferative-activity-in-tumor-cell-lines-antioxidant-capacity-and-total-phenolic-flavonoid-and-tannin-contents-of-myrciaria-floribunda
#14
Luis A C Tietbohl, Adriana P Oliveira, Ricardo S Esteves, Ricardo D D G Albuquerque, Diogo Folly, Francisco P Machado, Arthur L Corrêa, Marcelo G Santos, Ana L G Ruiz, Leandro Rocha
Myrciaria floribunda (H. West ex Willd.) O. Berg, Myrtaceae, is a native plant species of the Atlantic Rain Forest, from north to south of Brazil. The lyophilized ethyl acetate extract from the leaves of M. floribunda was investigated for its antiproliferative activity in tumor cell lines, antioxidant capacity and its total phenolic, flavonoid and tannin contents. Antiproliferative activity was tested in vitro against seven human cancer cells and against immortalized human skin keratinocytes line (HaCat, no cancer cell)...
May 2, 2017: Anais da Academia Brasileira de Ciências
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28476077/acid-rain-footprint-three-decades-after-peak-deposition-long-term-recovery-from-pollutant-sulphate-in-the-uhlirska-catchment-czech-republic
#15
A Marx, S Hintze, M Sanda, J Jankovec, F Oulehle, J Dusek, T Vitvar, T Vogel, R van Geldern, J A C Barth
The granitic Uhlirska headwater catchment with a size of 1.78km(2) is located in the Jizera Mountains in the northern Czech Republic and received among the highest inputs of anthropogenic acid depositions in Europe. An analysis of sulphate (SO4(2-)) distribution in deposition, soil water, stream water and groundwater compartments allowed to establish a SO4(2-) mass-balance (deposition input minus surface water export) and helped to evaluate which changes occurred since the last evaluation of the catchment in 1997...
November 15, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28458109/sulfur-flows-and-biosolids-processing-using-material-flux-analysis-mfa-principles-at-wastewater-treatment-plants
#16
R M Fisher, J P Alvarez-Gaitan, R M Stuetz, S J Moore
High flows of sulfur through wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) may cause noxious gaseous emissions, corrosion of infrastructure, inhibit wastewater microbial communities, or contribute to acid rain if the biosolids or biogas is combusted. Yet, sulfur is an important agricultural nutrient and the direct application of biosolids to soils enables its beneficial re-use. Flows of sulfur throughout the biosolids processing of six WWTPs were investigated to identify how they were affected by biosolids processing configurations...
April 27, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28443109/novel-alleles-of-phosphorus-starvation-tolerance-1-gene-pstol1-from-oryza-rufipogon-confers-high-phosphorus-uptake-efficiency
#17
Kumari Neelam, Shiwali Thakur, Neha, Inderjit S Yadav, Kishor Kumar, Salwinder S Dhaliwal, Kuldeep Singh
Limited phosphorus availability in the soil is one of the major constraints to the growth and productivity of rice across Asian, African and South American countries, where 50% of the rice is grown under rain-fed systems on poor and problematic soils. With an aim to determine novel alleles for enhanced phosphorus uptake efficiency in wild species germplasm of rice Oryza rufipogon, we investigated phosphorus uptake1 (Pup1) locus with 11 previously reported SSR markers and sequence characterized the phosphorus-starvation tolerance 1 (PSTOL1) gene...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28375212/faecalibacterium-prausnitzii-treatment-improves-hepatic-health-and-reduces-adipose-tissue-inflammation-in-high-fat-fed-mice
#18
Eveliina Munukka, Anniina Rintala, Raine Toivonen, Matts Nylund, Baoru Yang, Anna Takanen, Arno Hänninen, Jaana Vuopio, Pentti Huovinen, Sirpa Jalkanen, Satu Pekkala
Faecalibacterium prausnitzii is considered as one of the most important bacterial indicators of a healthy gut. We studied the effects of oral F. prausnitzii treatment on high-fat fed mice. Compared to the high-fat control mice, F. prausnitzii-treated mice had lower hepatic fat content, aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase, and increased fatty acid oxidation and adiponectin signaling in liver. Hepatic lipidomic analyses revealed decreases in several species of triacylglycerols, phospholipids and cholesteryl esters...
April 4, 2017: ISME Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28368597/ammonia-catalyzed-formation-of-sulfuric-acid-in-troposphere-the-curious-case-of-a-base-promoting-acid-rain
#19
Biman Bandyopadhyay, Pradeep Kumar, Partha Biswas
Electronic structure calculations have been performed to investigate the role of ammonia in catalyzing the formation of sulfuric acid through hydrolysis of SO3 in Earth's atmosphere. The uncatalyzed process involves a high activation barrier and, until date, is mainly known to occur in Earth's atmosphere only when catalyzed by water and acids. Here we show that hydrolysis of SO3 can be very efficiently catalyzed by ammonia, the most abundant basic component in Earth's atmosphere. It was found, based on magnitude of relative potential energies as well as rate coefficients, that ammonia is the best among all the catalysts studied until now (water and acids) and could be a considerable factor in formation of sulfuric acid in troposphere...
April 13, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry. A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28365846/mechanistic-study-of-lead-desorption-during-the-leaching-process-of-ion-absorbed-rare-earths-ph-effect-and-the-column-experiment
#20
Jie Tang, Qiang Xue, Honghan Chen, Wenting Li
High concentrations of ammonium sulfate, often used in the in situ mining process, can result in a decrease of pH in the environment and dissolution of rare earth metals. Ammonium sulfate can also cause desorption of toxic heavy metals, leading to environmental and human health implications. In this study, the desorption behavior and fraction changes of lead in the ion-absorbed rare earth ore were studied using batch desorption experiments and column leaching tests. Results from batch desorption experiments showed that the desorption process of lead included fast and slow stages and followed an Elovich model well...
May 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
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