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Obesity and nutrition

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28547736/rice-bran-metabolome-contains-amino-acids-vitamins-cofactors-and-phytochemicals-with-medicinal-and-nutritional-properties
#1
Iman Zarei, Dustin G Brown, Nora Jean Nealon, Elizabeth P Ryan
BACKGROUND: Rice bran is a functional food that has shown protection against major chronic diseases (e.g. obesity, diabetes, cardiovascular disease and cancer) in animals and humans, and these health effects have been associated with the presence of bioactive phytochemicals. Food metabolomics uses multiple chromatography and mass spectrometry platforms to detect and identify a diverse range of small molecules with high sensitivity and precision, and has not been completed for rice bran...
December 2017: Rice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28546222/prevalence-of-celiac-disease-in-52-721-youth-with-type-1-diabetes-international-comparison-across-three-continents
#2
Maria E Craig, Nicole Prinz, Claire T Boyle, Fiona M Campbell, Timothy W Jones, Sabine E Hofer, Jill H Simmons, Naomi Holman, Elaine Tham, Elke Fröhlich-Reiterer, Stephanie DuBose, Helen Thornton, Bruce King, David M Maahs, Reinhard W Holl, Justin T Warner
OBJECTIVE: Celiac disease (CD) has a recognized association with type 1 diabetes. We examined international differences in CD prevalence and clinical characteristics of youth with coexisting type 1 diabetes and CD versus type 1 diabetes only. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Data sources were as follows: the Prospective Diabetes Follow-up registry (Germany/Austria); the T1D Exchange Clinic Network (T1DX) (U.S.); the National Paediatric Diabetes Audit (U.K. [England/Wales]); and the Australasian Diabetes Data Network (ADDN) (Australia)...
May 25, 2017: Diabetes Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545403/long-lasting-effect-of-obesity-on-skeletal-muscle-transcriptome
#3
Ilhem Messaoudi, Mithila Handu, Maham Rais, Suhas Sureshchandra, Byung S Park, Suzanne S Fei, Hollis Wright, Ashley E White, Ruhee Jain, Judy L Cameron, Kerri M Winters-Stone, Oleg Varlamov
BACKGROUND: Reduced physical activity and increased intake of calorically-dense diets are the main risk factors for obesity, glucose intolerance, and type 2 diabetes. Chronic overnutrition and hyperglycemia can alter gene expression, contributing to long-term obesity complications. While caloric restriction can reduce obesity and glucose intolerance, it is currently unknown whether it can effectively reprogram transcriptome to a pre-obesity level. The present study addressed this question by the preliminary examination of the transcriptional dynamics in skeletal muscle after exposure to overnutrition and following caloric restriction...
May 25, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544064/obesity-is-inversely-related-to-the-risks-of-dental-caries-in-korean-adults
#4
In-Seok Song, Kyungdo Han, Jae-Jun Ryu, Jun-Beom Park
OBJECTIVE: This study investigated whether obesity is linked with dental caries. The present study hypothesized that obesity may influence the number or prevalence of dental caries in Korean adults. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Data was derived from Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey performed at 2008-2010. Lifestyle, sociodemographic, and biochemical variables were analyzed. Indices related with obesity, sarcopenia, and metabolic syndrome were investigated...
May 20, 2017: Oral Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28541807/surgical-site-infection-research-opportunities
#5
Kamal M F Itani, E Patchen Dellinger, John Mazuski, Joseph Solomkin, George Allen, Joan C Blanchard, Rachel Kelz, Sandra I Berríos-Torres
Much has been done to identify measures and modify risk factors to decrease the rate of surgical site infection (SSI). Development of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) Core recommendations for the prevention of SSI revealed evidence gaps in six areas: Parenteral antimicrobial prophylaxis, glycemic control, normothermia, oxygenation, antiseptic prophylaxis, and non-parenteral antimicrobial prophylaxis. Using a modified Delphi process, seven SSI content experts identified nutritional status, smoking, obesity, surgical technique, and anemia as additional areas for SSI prevention research...
May 2017: Surgical Infections
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28541498/how-food-insecurity-could-lead-to-obesity-in-lmics-%C3%A2-when-not-enough-is-too-much-a-realist-review-of-how-food-insecurity-could-lead-to-obesity-in-low-and-middle-income-countries
#6
Penny Farrell, Anne Marie Thow, Seye Abimbola, Neha Faruqui, Joel Negin
While food insecurity is a well-known cause of under-nutrition and stunting, in recent decades it has also been linked with obesity. Understanding and thus minimising the risk factors for obesity in low- and middle-income country contexts, which often lack the health system capacity to treat the consequent obesity-related illnesses, is crucial. This study adopted realist review methodology because it enabled us to analyse and organise the evidence from low- and middle-income countries into a coherent scheme...
May 24, 2017: Health Promotion International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28541435/lessons-from-singapore-s-national-weight-management-program-lose-to-win
#7
Kathryn Vasquez, Rahul Malhotra, Truls Østbye, Wilson Low, Mei Fen Chan, Ling Chew, Annie Ling
The prevalence of overweight and obesity in Singapore is lower than in most countries, but it is increasing. There is evidence health complications may appear at lower weights among Asians. We describe the evolution of a national weight management program [Lose To Win (LTW)] organized by the Singapore Health Promotion Board from 2009 to 2013. LTW is a 12-week program comprising nutrition education, physical activity and mental wellbeing sessions and interim assessments. Individuals aged 18-69 years with a body mass index (BMI) between 23 and 37...
May 24, 2017: Health Promotion International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28540345/barriers-and-facilitators-to-intake-of-dairy-products-in-adolescent-males-and-females-with-different-levels-of-habitual-intake
#8
Megan Racey, Jeanette Bransfield, Kathryn Capello, David Field, Verena Kulak, David Machmueller, Michèle Preyde, Genevieve Newton
Background: Dairy products and alternatives can contribute to overall good health including positive body composition and decreased adiposity; however, these foods are grossly underconsumed by youth, and worldwide, almost 25% of children are overweight or obese. Objective: The study investigated the barriers and facilitators toward dairy consumption by Grade 7 youth. Methods: Thirty 50-minute, audio-recorded focus groups were conducted with 134 students in eight Grade 7 classes across 5 elementary schools. Focus groups were led by trained facilitators in the elementary schools and participants were separated based on dairy consumption and gender...
2017: Global Pediatric Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28540158/childhood-obesity-is-a-high-risk-factor-for-hypertriglyceridemia-a-case-control-study-in-vietnam
#9
Nguyen Thi Hong Hanh, Le Thi Tuyet, Duong Thi Anh Dao, Yang Tao, Dinh-Toi Chu
OBJECTIVES: To investigate the relationship between dyslipidemia and obesity status among Viet-namese adolescents. METHODS: In this case-control study, 282 adolescents (6-11 years), including 88 obese cases and 194 normal-weight controls, were recruited from a population-based cross-sectional study from two provinces in Vietnam. The anthropometric, blood lipid, and other laboratory test results of the study subjects were analyzed. RESULTS: Obese children tended to have more visceral fat (Pearson's r = 0...
April 2017: Osong Public Health and Research Perspectives
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28539336/nutritional-regulation-of-renal-lipogenic-factor-expression-in-mice-comparison-to-regulation-in-the-liver-and-skeletal-muscle
#10
Suk-Jeong Kim, Ji-Eun Kim, Yong-Woon Kim, Jong-Yeon Kim, So-Young Park
Regulation of lipogenesis by pathophysiological factors in the liver and skeletal muscle is well understood; however, regulation in the kidney is still unclear. To elucidate nutritional regulation of lipogenic factors in the kidney, we measured the renal expression of lipogenic transcriptional factors and enzymes during fasting and refeeding in chow-fed and high-fat-fed mice. We also examined the regulatory effect of the liver X receptor (LXR) on the expression of lipogenic factors. The renal gene expression of sterol regulatory element-binding protein (SREBP)-1c and fatty acid synthase (FAS) was reduced by fasting for 48 h and restored by refeeding, whereas the mRNA levels of forkhead box O (FOXO)1/3 were increased by fasting and restored by refeeding...
May 24, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Renal Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28539168/effectiveness-of-nutritional-supplementation-on-sarcopenia-and-recovery-in-hip-fracture-patients-a-multi-centre-randomized-trial
#11
Vincenzo Malafarina, Francisco Uriz-Otano, Concetta Malafarina, J Alfredo Martinez, M Angeles Zulet
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Functional deterioration and reduced mobility in elderly patients with a hip fracture are associated with a loss of both muscle mass and function (sarcopenia). The aim of this study was to assess whether oral nutritional supplementation (ONS) improves muscle mass and nutritional markers (BMI, proteins) in elderly patients with hip fracture. METHODS: Patients aged 65 years and over with hip fractures admitted to either of two rehabilitation facilities were included...
July 2017: Maturitas
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28538941/-nutritional-status-of-schoolchildren-of-the-national-child-and-youth-education-teaching-network-of-the-social-service-of-commerce-sesc-brazil-2012
#12
Luiz Antonio Dos Anjos, Willian Dimas Bezerra da Silveira
The objective of this study was to identify and describe the growth and nutritional anthropometric profile of children enrolled in the Sesc National Network of Elementary Education. It is a cross-sectional study conducted among 20,113 students (9,992 girls) from 83 schools aged from 3 to 17. Nutritional status was determined using the body mass index for age and stature for age according to the WHO criteria. Stunting was observed in only 1.6% (girls) and 1.3% (boys). Overweight + obesity was observed in 29...
May 2017: Ciência & Saúde Coletiva
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28538843/-measurement-of-physical-activity-by-triaxial-accelerometers-n-schoolchildren-from-three-peruvian-cities
#13
Katherine Alvis-Chirinos, Lucio Huamán-Espino, Jenny Pillaca, Juan Pablo Aparco
Objectives.: To determine the proportion of primary school students who fulfill the World Health Organization (WHO)recommendations on physical activity and the factors associated with less time of moderate-intense physical activity in urban areas of three cities in Peru. Materials and methods.: Cross-sectional study with a random selection of schoolchildren aged 6 to 13 from public educational institutions in urban areas of Chiclayo, Huaraz and Tarapoto. In order to measure the time and intensity of physical activity, schoolchildren were given an accelerometer for a week...
January 2017: Revista Peruana de Medicina Experimental y Salud Pública
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28537431/reduction-of-leukocyte-derived-h2s-linked-to-abnormal-glycolipid-metabolism-in-hypertensive-subjects
#14
Xiaonan Sun, Yongzeng Chen, Qiang Zeng, Xianyong Huang, Junyan Cai
We deduced that leukocyte-derived H2S would also play a pivotal role regarding nutrition homeostasis in hypertensive subjects. Plasma was obtained from patients with hypertension (n  =  151) as well as control (n  =  41). Leukocyte-derived H2S speed was determined, and biochemical indices of glucose and lipid metabolism were measured. Western blot analyses of CSE were also performed. Inflammation factors were measured. Leukocyte-derived H2S is produced at a significantly lower rate in overweight or obese patients (p < 0...
May 24, 2017: Clinical and Experimental Hypertension: CHE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28537332/comparison-of-intermittent-fasting-versus-caloric-restriction-in-obese-subjects-a-two-year-follow-up
#15
F B Aksungar, M Sarıkaya, A Coskun, M Serteser, I Unsal
OBJECTIVE: Caloric restriction (CR) is proven to be effective in increasing life span and it is well known that, nutritional habits, sleeping pattern and meal frequency have profound effects on human health. In Ramadan some Muslims fast during the day-light hours for a month, providing us a unique model of intermittent fasting (IF) in humans. In the present study, we have investigated the effects of IF versus CR on the same non-diabetic obese subjects who were followed for two years according to the growth hormone (GH)/Insulin like growth factor (IGF)-1 axis and insulin resistance...
2017: Journal of Nutrition, Health & Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28536435/mid-arm-circumference-and-all-cause-cardiovascular-and-cancer-mortality-among-obese-and-non-obese-us-adults-the-national-health-and-nutrition-examination-survey-iii
#16
Li-Wei Wu, Yuan-Yung Lin, Tung-Wei Kao, Chien-Ming Lin, Chung-Ching Wang, Gia-Chi Wang, Tao-Chun Peng, Wei-Liang Chen
Epidemiological studies have shown that mid-arm circumference (MAC) can be used to predict death risk and malnutrition. We performed a retrospective observational study involving 11,958 US participants aged 20-90 years from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey III, 1988-1994, to determine the correlation between MAC and all-cause, cardiovascular, and cancer mortality risk in the obese and non-obese population. Death certificate data were obtained up to 2006. The participants were divided into three groups on the basis of body mass index: 19 ≤ BMI < 25 kg/m(2) (normal weight group), 25 ≤ BMI < 30 kg/m(2) (overweight group) and BMI ≥ 30 kg/m(2) (obesity group); each group was then divided into three subgroups depending on their MAC level...
May 23, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535769/association-between-home-food-preparation-skills-and-behaviour-and-consumption-of-ultra-processed-foods-cross-sectional-analysis-of-the-uk-national-diet-and-nutrition-survey-2008-2009
#17
Matthew Chak Leung Lam, Jean Adams
BACKGROUND: 'Ultra-processed foods' (UPF) have been industrially processed and tend to be higher in saturated fat, sodium and sugar than other foods. There is some evidence that consumption of UPF is associated with overweight, obesity and related diseases. In developed countries more than half of dietary energy is attributed to UPF. One reason for reliance on UPF may be poor home food preparation skills or infrequent use of these. This relationship has been previously proposed but not tested...
May 23, 2017: International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533070/maternal-and-paternal-periconceptional-nutrition-as-an-indicator-of-offspring-metabolic-syndrome-risk-in-later-life-through-epigenetic-imprinting-a-systematic-review
#18
REVIEW
Ashley R Dunford, Janice M Sangster
AIMS: This review examined whether maternal and paternal periconceptional nutrition effects an offspring's likelihood of developing chronic metabolic related conditions due to epigenetic imprinting. METHODS: A literature search was conducted in multiple science databases and limited to studies published after 2012, in English language and peer reviewed. The data from selected articles were extracted and a qualitative approach was employed due to heterogeneity of results...
May 10, 2017: Diabetes & Metabolic Syndrome
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28532472/an-audit-of-food-and-beverage-advertising-on-the-sydney-metropolitan-train-network-regulation-and-policy-implications
#19
Emma Sainsbury, Stephen Colagiuri, Roger Magnusson
BACKGROUND: Increased marketing of energy-dense, nutrient-poor foods has been identified as a driver of the global obesity epidemic and a priority area for preventative efforts. Local and international research has focused on the unhealthiness of television advertising, with limited research into the growing outdoor advertising industry. This study aimed to examine the extent of food and beverage advertising on the Sydney metropolitan train network, and to assess the nutritional quality of advertised products against the Australian Guide to Healthy Eating...
May 22, 2017: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28532446/dual-burden-of-malnutrition-in-us-affiliated-pacific-jurisdictions-in-the-children-s-healthy-living-program
#20
Rachel Novotny, Fenfang Li, Rachael Leon Guerrero, Patricia Coleman, Aifili J Tufa, Andrea Bersamin, Jonathan Deenik, Lynne R Wilkens
BACKGROUND: Few data are available on dual burden of under and over nutrition of children in the Pacific region. The objective was to examine prevalence of stunting at birth and current stunting and their relationship to obesity in US Affiliated Pacific (USAP) jurisdictions. METHODS: Cross sectional survey with cluster sampling by community. 5558, 2-8 years olds were measured in 51 communities in 11 USAP jurisdictions. The main outcome measures were stunting at birth, current stunting and obesity by body mass index...
May 22, 2017: BMC Public Health
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