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Obesity and nutrition

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922238/parental-perception-and-child-s-nutritional-status
#1
S Songül Yalçın, Esra Serdaroğlu, O Tolga İnce
Childhood obesity is a health hazard increasing worldwide. Preschool period which is under supervision of parents is a critical period to detect overweight and take precautions. We studied the factors affecting parental estimation of their preschool child's weight. Three hundred sixty seven mothers completed questionnaires consisting of child's and parents' anthropometric measurements, parents' assessment of their child's and their own weight status, and general information about their lifestyle. Mothers also chose their wish for current and future body image of their child from child drawings representing percentiles...
2016: Turkish Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916904/impact-of-pre-pregnancy-bmi-on-b-vitamin-and-inflammatory-status-in-early-pregnancy-an-observational-cohort-study
#2
Anne-Lise Bjørke-Monsen, Arve Ulvik, Roy M Nilsen, Øivind Midttun, Christine Roth, Per Magnus, Camilla Stoltenberg, Stein Emil Vollset, Ted Reichborn-Kjennerud, Per Magne Ueland
Maternal nutrition and inflammation have been suggested as mediators in the development of various adverse pregnancy outcomes associated with maternal obesity. We have investigated the relation between pre-pregnancy BMI, B vitamin status, and inflammatory markers in a group of healthy pregnant women. Cobalamin, folate, pyridoxal 5'-phosphate, and riboflavin; and the metabolic markers homocysteine, methylmalonic acid, and 3-hydroxykynurenine/xanthurenic acid ratio (HK/XA); and markers of cellular inflammation, neopterin and kynurenine/tryptophan ratio (KTR) were determined in pregnancy week 18 and related to pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI), in 2797 women from the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa)...
November 30, 2016: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914922/negative-regulation-of-hepatic-fat-mass-and-obesity-associated-fto-gene-expression-by-insulin
#3
Tooru M Mizuno, Pei San Lew, Yanming Luo, Arnold Leckstrom
AIMS: To investigate the role of glucose and insulin in the regulation of hepatic fat mass and obesity associated (Fto) gene expression and the role of hepatic Fto in the regulation of gluconeogenic gene expression. MAIN METHODS: To determine the effect of hyperglycemia on hepatic Fto expression, levels of Fto mRNA in liver were compared between normoglycemic/normoinsulinemic, hypereglycemic/hyperinsulinemic, and hyperglycemic/hypoinsulinemic mice. To determine the direct effect of insulin on Fto expression, levels of Fto, glucose-6-phosphatase (G6pase), and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (Pepck) mRNA levels were compared between control and insulin-treated mouse liver tissues cultured ex vivo and immortalized mouse hepatocytes AML12...
November 30, 2016: Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914732/interaction-of-sex-steroid-hormones-and-obesity-on-insulin-resistance-and-type-2-diabetes-in-men-the-third-national-health-and-nutrition-examination-survey
#4
Ji Li, Hong Lai, Shaoguang Chen, Hong Zhu, Shenghan Lai
AIMS: We examined interaction of sex steroid hormones and obesity with regard to insulin resistance (IR) and type 2 diabetes (T2D) by using nationally representative data from the US. METHODS: Data of 1461 men aged ≥20years who participated in the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey were analyzed. Multiplicative interaction was calculated by cross-product interaction terms in multivariable logistic regression models. Additive interaction was assessed by the relative excess risk due to interaction (RERI)...
October 22, 2016: Journal of Diabetes and its Complications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27912741/impact-of-a-school-based-intervention-on-nutritional-education-and-physical-activity-in-primary-public-schools-in-chile-kind-programme-study-protocol-cluster-randomised-controlled-trial
#5
Nelly Bustos, Sonia Olivares, Bárbara Leyton, Marcelo Cano, Cecilia Albala
BACKGROUND: Chile has suffered a fast increase in childhood obesity in the last 10 years. As a result, several school programmes have been implemented, however the effectiveness of these needs to be evaluated to identify and prioritize strategies to curve this trend. METHODS: Cluster randomized controlled trial. Twelve primary public schools chosen at random over three regions of the country will take part in this study. The sample size consisted of a total of 1,655 children...
December 3, 2016: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911089/don-t-say-that-to-me-opposition-to-targeting-in-weight-centric-intervention-messages
#6
Becky Robinson, Samantha Coveleski
Obesity is a global health issue. Despite well-intentioned efforts by public institutions, traditional health promotion techniques often lead to offending those most in need of weight loss. For example, when Bryn Mawr College targeted overweight students to offer a free fitness and nutrition program, it was met with accusations of fat-shaming, indicating that weight-centric messages operate in a more complex sociocultural system than many public health concerns. To better understand reactions to weight-centric health messages, college-aged women evaluated the Bryn Mawr College e-mail...
December 2, 2016: Health Communication
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909992/roles-for-orexin-hypocretin-in-the-control-of-energy-balance-and-metabolism
#7
Paulette B Goforth, Martin G Myers
The neuropeptide hypocretin is also commonly referred to as orexin, since its orexigenic action was recognized early. Orexin/hypocretin (OX) neurons project widely throughout the brain and the physiologic and behavioral functions of OX are much more complex than initially conceived based upon the stimulation of feeding. OX most notably controls functions relevant to attention, alertness, and motivation. OX also plays multiple crucial roles in the control of food intake, metabolism, and overall energy balance in mammals...
December 2, 2016: Current Topics in Behavioral Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909585/developmental-idealism-body-weight-and-shape-and-marriage-entry-in-transitional-china
#8
Hongwei Xu
New trends toward later and less marriage are emerging in post-reform China. Previous research has examined the changing individual-level socioeconomic and demographic characteristics shaping marriage entry in Chinese adults. Employing a cultural model known as developmental idealism (DI), this study argues that a new worldview specifying an ideal body type has become popular in the West and that this new worldview has been exported to China. This new part of the DI package is likely stratified by gender, has a stronger impact on women than on men, and has likely penetrated urban areas more than rural areas...
April 2016: Chinese Journal of Sociology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909562/educating-restaurant-owners-and-cooks-to-lower-their-own-sodium-intake-is-a-potential-strategy-for-reducing-the-sodium-contents-of-restaurant-foods-a-small-scale-pilot-study-in-south-korea
#9
Sohyun Park, Heeseung Lee, Dong-Il Seo, Kwang-Hwan Oh, Taik Gun Hwang, Bo Youl Choi
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: This study was conducted to evaluate the feasibility of a sodium reduction program at local restaurants through nutrition education and examination of the health of restaurant owners and cooks. SUBJECTS/METHODS: The study was a single-arm pilot intervention using a pre-post design in one business district with densely populated restaurants in Seoul, South Korea. The intervention focused on improving nutrition behaviors and psychosocial factors through education, health examination, and counseling of restaurant personnel...
December 2016: Nutrition Research and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909557/eating-habits-physical-activity-nutrition-knowledge-and-self-efficacy-by-obesity-status-in-upper-grade-elementary-school-students
#10
Seong Ah Ha, Seo Yeon Lee, Kyung A Kim, Jung Sook Seo, Cheong Min Sohn, Hae Ryun Park, Kyung Won Kim
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Childhood obesity has increased in recent decades in Korea. This study was designed to examine differences in the eating habits, physical activity (PA), nutrition knowledge, and self-efficacy of children by obesity status. SUBJECTS/METHODS: Subjects were 5th-grade children from 70 elementary schools in 17 cities nationwide. Two-stage stratified cluster sampling was employed. Survey questionnaire included items related to general characteristics, eating habits, PA, nutrition knowledge and self-efficacy...
December 2016: Nutrition Research and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908845/design-response-rates-and-population-characteristics-of-a-cross-sectional-study-in-zanzibar-tanzania
#11
Maria Adam Nyangasa, Soerge Kelm, Mohammed Ali Sheikh, Antje Hebestreit
BACKGROUND: Data on nutritional status and correlates of noncommunicable diseases are scarce for resource-poor settings in sub-Saharan countries. With the scope of a project, "Access to Food and Nutrition Status of the Zanzibari Population," data for investigating public health questions were collected using proven measurement and laboratory standards. OBJECTIVE: The present study aims at providing a descriptive overview of recruitment approaches, standardization, quality control measures, and data collection, with special attention to the design, responses, and participant characteristics of the overall project...
December 1, 2016: JMIR Research Protocols
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906710/who-s-your-daddy-paternal-inheritance-of-metabolic-disease-risk
#12
Elvira Isganaitis, Harumi Suehiro, Connie Cardona
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Although the importance of optimizing mothers' health prior to conception and during pregnancy is now well accepted, recent data also implicate health and nutritional status of fathers as contributors to chronic disease risk in their progeny. This brief review will highlight recent epidemiological and experimental studies linking paternal overnutrition, undernutrition, and other forms of stress, to metabolic disease in the offspring. RECENT FINDINGS: The past 2 years have brought tremendous insights into the mechanisms by which paternal exposures can contribute to disease susceptibility in the next generation...
November 30, 2016: Current Opinion in Endocrinology, Diabetes, and Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905954/measuring-and-tracking-obesity-inequality-in-the-united-states-evidence-from-nhanes-1971-2014
#13
Tae-Young Pak, Susana Ferreira, Gregory Colson
BACKGROUND: Because people care about their weight relative to peers and society, obesity inequality plays a role in explaining obesity incidence and the impacts of being obese on subjective well-being. While the increase in obesity prevalence and mean body mass index (BMI) is well documented, the measurement of distributional changes and corresponding obesity inequality is yet to be fully explored. METHODS: The present study analyzed BMI data for adults aged 20 to 74 from the National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey (NHANES) I (1971-1974), II (1976-1980), III (1988-1994), and continuous NHANES (1999-2014)...
April 4, 2016: Population Health Metrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905942/a-novel-method-for-estimating-distributions-of-body-mass-index
#14
Marie Ng, Patrick Liu, Blake Thomson, Christopher J L Murray
BACKGROUND: Understanding trends in the distribution of body mass index (BMI) is a critical aspect of monitoring the global overweight and obesity epidemic. Conventional population health metrics often only focus on estimating and reporting the mean BMI and the prevalence of overweight and obesity, which do not fully characterize the distribution of BMI. In this study, we propose a novel method which allows for the estimation of the entire distribution. METHODS: The proposed method utilizes the optimization algorithm, L-BFGS-B, to derive the distribution of BMI from three commonly available population health statistics: mean BMI, prevalence of overweight, and prevalence of obesity...
March 12, 2016: Population Health Metrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904645/predicting-resting-energy-expenditure-in-underweight-normal-weight-overweight-and-obese-adult-hospital-patients
#15
Hinke M Kruizenga, Geesje H Hofsteenge, Peter J M Weijs
BACKGROUND: When indirect calorimetry is not available, predictive equations are used to estimate resing energy expenditure (REE). There is no consensus about which equation to use in hospitalized patients. The objective of this study is to examine the validity of REE predictive equations for underweight, normal weight, overweight, and obese inpatients and outpatients by comparison with indirect calorimetry. METHODS: Equations were included when based on weight, height, age, and/or gender...
2016: Nutrition & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903767/characterization-of-body-composition-and-fat-mass-distribution-1-year-after-kidney-transplantation
#16
Catherine Pantik, Young-Eun Cho, Donna Hathaway, Elizabeth Tolley, Ann Cashion
PURPOSE: In some recipients, significant weight gain occurs after kidney transplantation. Weight gain is associated with poor outcomes, particularly increased cardiovascular risk. In this study, we characterized changes in body mass index and body fat mass and compared them based on gender and race. METHODS: Fifty-two kidney transplant recipients (aged ≥18 years old, 50% men, 58% African American) were enrolled into a prospective study. Body mass index and body fat mass were measured at baseline and 12 months posttransplant...
November 30, 2016: Progress in Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903152/obesity-and-cancer-mechanisms-cancer-metabolism
#17
Benjamin D Hopkins, Marcus D Goncalves, Lewis C Cantley
Obesity is a risk factor for cancer development and is associated with poor prognosis in multiple tumor types. The positive energy balance linked with obesity induces a variety of systemic changes including altered levels of insulin, insulin-like growth factor-1, leptin, adiponectin, steroid hormones, and cytokines. Each of these factors alters the nutritional milieu and has the potential to create an environment that favors tumor initiation and progression. Although the complete ramifications of obesity as it relates to cancer are still unclear, there is convincing evidence that reducing the magnitude of the systemic hormonal and inflammatory changes has significant clinical benefits...
December 10, 2016: Journal of Clinical Oncology: Official Journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27901033/impact-of-dietary-glycemic-challenge-on-fuel-partitioning
#18
REVIEW
A Bosy-Westphal, F Hägele, A Nas
The 'carbohydrate-insulin theory of obesity' is used to justify popular health claims stating that carbohydrates make you fat or a high glycemic load and consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) and breakfast skipping increase fat gain. According to this theory, the elevated postprandial insulin secretion to a high glycemic challenge is blamed as a causal mechanism by directing nutrients away from oxidation in muscle towards storage in adipose tissue. Scientific evidence is however largely disagreeing with an adverse effect of postprandial hyperinsulinemia on fuel partitioning...
November 30, 2016: European Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27901032/from-the-past-to-future-from-energy-expenditure-to-energy-intake-to-energy-expenditure
#19
REVIEW
M J Müller, C Geisler
Although most recent research on energy balance focusses on energy intake (EI) there is still need to think about both sides of the energy balance. Current research on energy expenditure (EE) relates to metabolic adaptation to negative energy balance, mitochondrial metabolism associated with aging, obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus, the role of EE in hunger and appetite control, non-shivering thermogenesis and brown adipose tissue activity, cellular bioenergetics as a target of obesity treatment and the evolutionary and ecological determinants of EE in humans and other primates...
November 30, 2016: European Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27901031/effect-of-body-mass-index-on-overall-survival-of-patients-with-allogeneic-hematopoietic-stem-cell-transplantation
#20
J Yang, S-L Xue, X Zhang, Y-N Zhou, L-Q Qin, Y-P Shen, D-P Wu
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: The present work was performed to investigate the association between body mass index (BMI) before transplantation and the overall survival (OS) of patients with allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT). SUBJECTS/METHODS: Data from 310 adults who were diagnosed with acute leukemia and underwent allo-HSCT between March 2001 and December 2011 were analyzed. According to the suggested BMI categories for Asian population, patients with BMIs of ⩾23 and ⩾25 kg/m(2) were identified as overweight and obese, respectively...
November 30, 2016: European Journal of Clinical Nutrition
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