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Obesity and nutrition

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918170/lifestyle-predictors-of-obese-and-non-obese-patients-with-nonalcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-a-cross-sectional-study
#1
Joo Hee Kwak, Dae Won Jun, Seung Min Lee, Yong Kyun Cho, Kang Nyeong Lee, Hang Lak Lee, Oh Young Lee, Ho Soon Choi, Byung Chul Yoon
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Most people with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) are obese, and they usually eat more while being less physically active as compared to healthy individuals. However, little is known about the lifestyle patterns of non-obese or obese patients with NAFLD. The aim of this study was to investigate nutrition components and behavioral differences between non-obese and obese patients with NAFLD. METHODS: This is a cross-sectional study comprising of 209 patients...
August 30, 2017: Clinical Nutrition: Official Journal of the European Society of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917242/comprehensive-school-based-intervention-to-control-overweight-and-obesity-in-china-a-cluster-randomized-controlled-trial
#2
Haiquan Xu, Yanping Li, Qian Zhang, Xiaoqi L Hu, Ailing Liu, Songming Du, Tingyu Li, Hongwei Guo, Ying Li, Guifa Xu, Weijia Liu, Jun Ma, Guansheng Ma
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: With prevalence of childhood obesity increasing rapidly, developing of effective and sustainable intervention strategies is becoming more and more important for the prevention of childhood obesity in China. A trial was developed to evaluate the effect of comprehensive school-based intervention on childhood obesity. METHODS AND STUDY DESIGN: A multi-center cluster randomized controlled trial was conducted among urban children (n=9,867) aged 6-13 years in 38 primary schools from six large cities...
2017: Asia Pacific Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917240/snack-and-beverage-consumption-and-preferences-in-a-sample-of-chinese-children-are-they-influenced-by-advertising
#3
Peng Liu, Yang Yu, Lesley King, Mu Li
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: The consumption of unhealthy snack and beverages can lead to childhood obesity, which has become a major concern globally. Television food advertisements may influence children's snack and beverages preferences. This article aims to explore children's snack and beverage consumption habits; examine the extent of television advertising for non-core (energy-dense, nutrient poor) snack and beverages; and assess the influence of television advertising on children's snack and beverages preferences in Harbin, China...
2017: Asia Pacific Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917226/energy-intake-in-the-first-week-in-an-emergency-intensive-care-unit-may-not-influence-clinical-outcomes-in-critically-ill-overweight-japanese-patients
#4
Satomi Ichimaru, Maren Sono, Ryutaro Seo, Koichi Ariyoshi, Teruyoshi Amagai
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: The American Society for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition recommends hypocaloric feeding for critically ill patients with a BMI of >=30.0 kg/m2. However, the cut-off value of obesity in Japan is BMI >25.0 kg/m2, due to the higher prevalence of type 2 diabetes mellitus, and cardiovascular risk factors, even at a lower BMI than in Western populations. Thus, the optimal energy intake for critically ill, overweight Asian patients is unknown. METHODS AND STUDY DESIGN: A retrospective chart review was conducted in patients with BMI of >=25...
2017: Asia Pacific Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916790/association-between-homa-ir-and-lung-function-in-korean-young-adults-based-on-the-korea-national-health-and-nutrition-examination-survey
#5
Young Bok Lee, Young Soo Kim, Dong-Hee Lee, Hee Yeon Kim, Jae-Im Lee, Hyo-Suk Ahn, Tae Seo Sohn, Tae-Kyu Lee, Jae Yen Song, Chang Dong Yeo, Mihee Hong, Kyungdo Han, Seong Cheol Jeong, Hiun Suk Chae
Metabolic syndrome, including obesity and insulin resistance, has been reported to lower lung function in elderly subjects with asthma or chronic obstructive lung disease. This study aimed to find the association between lung function and insulin resistance in Korean young adults. This study used data from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2011-2013, which is a representative sample of the Korean population. A total of 1,922 young adults aged 19 to 40 were included in the analysis...
September 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915797/effectiveness-of-a-16-month-multi-component-and-environmental-school-based-intervention-for-recovery-of-poor-income-overweight-obese-children-and-adolescents-study-protocol-of-the-health-multipliers-program
#6
Pollyanna Fernandes Patriota, Andrea Rocha Filgueiras, Viviane Belucci Pires de Almeida, Guilherme Aparecido Costa Alexmovitz, Carlos Eduardo da Silva, Vivian Fortuna Feres de Carvalho, Natália Carvalho, Maria Paula de Albuquerque, Semiramis Martins Alvares Domene, Wagner Luiz do Prado, Gustavo Enrique Salazar Torres, Ana Paula Reis de Oliveira, Ricardo Sesso, Ana Lydia Sawaya
BACKGROUND: Excess of weight is a serious public health concern in almost all countries, afflicting people of different ages and socioeconomic backgrounds. Studies have indicated the need for developing treatment strategies that intervene directly in the obesogenic environment. This study aims to evaluate the effectiveness of a multi-component and environmental school-based intervention, lasting 16 months, on the recovery of the nutritional status of low-income children and adolescents with overweight/ obesity...
September 15, 2017: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28914727/summer-healthy-lifestyle-intervention-program-for-young-children-who-are-overweight-results-from-a-nonrandomized-pilot-trial
#7
Paulo A Graziano, Alexis Garcia, Crystal S Lim
OBJECTIVE: To examine initial outcomes of an 8-week Healthy-Lifestyle Intervention Program (HIP) which included children's participation in a daily summer camp along with parents' participation in a parenting program focused on overweight/obesity. METHODS: Using a nonrandomized pilot trial design, 16 children (M child age = 6.42 yr; 81% male; 100% Latino) classified as overweight/obese and their mothers completed 3 assessments (baseline, posttreatment, and 6-8 mo follow-up)...
September 7, 2017: Journal of Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics: JDBP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28914448/significant-burden-of-nonalcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-with-advanced-fibrosis-in-the-us-a-cross-sectional-analysis-of-2011-2014-national-health-and-nutrition-examination-survey
#8
R J Wong, B Liu, T Bhuket
BACKGROUND: Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a leading cause of chronic liver disease in the US. Understanding the epidemiology of NAFLD, with specific focus on individuals with hepatic fibrosis is important to guide healthcare resource planning. AIM: To evaluate prevalence and predictors of hepatic fibrosis among US adults with NAFLD. METHODS: We performed a cross-sectional study using data from the updated 2011-2014 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, a national, stratified, multistage sampling survey of non-institutionalised US adults age ≥ 20...
September 15, 2017: Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28914421/acid-base-safety-during-the-course-of-a-very-low-calorie-ketogenic-diet
#9
Diego Gomez-Arbelaez, Ana B Crujeiras, Ana I Castro, Albert Goday, Antonio Mas-Lorenzo, Ana Bellon, Cristina Tejera, Diego Bellido, Cristobal Galban, Ignacio Sajoux, Patricio Lopez-Jaramillo, Felipe F Casanueva
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Very low-calorie ketogenic (VLCK) diets have been consistently shown to be an effective obesity treatment, but the current evidence for its acid-base safety is limited. The aim of the current work was to evaluate the acid-base status of obese patients during the course of a VLCK diet. METHOD: Twenty obese participants undertook a VLCK diet for 4 months. Anthropometric and biochemical parameters, and venous blood gases were obtained on four subsequent visits: visit C-1 (baseline); visit C-2, (1-2 months); maximum ketosis; visit C-3 (2-3 months), ketosis declining; and visit C-4 at 4 months, no ketosis...
September 15, 2017: Endocrine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28913889/prevalence-and-contributors-to-low-grade-inflammation-in-three-u-s-populations-of-reproductive-age-women
#10
Lindsey A Sjaarda, Rose G Radin, Chandra Swanson, Daniel L Kuhr, Sunni L Mumford, Noya Galai, Robert M Silver, Jean Wactawski-Wende, Neil J Perkins, Enrique F Schisterman
BACKGROUND: Inflammation, measured by high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP), is linked to adverse reproductive outcomes. However, prevalence and predictors of low-grade inflammation are poorly understood among reproductive age women. Therefore, the current aim was to characterize: (i) the prevalence of elevated hsCRP and (ii) whether the association of various demographic, anthropometric, life style, and metabolic characteristics with higher hsCRP varies across populations of reproductive age women with varying risk profiles for adverse reproductive outcomes...
September 15, 2017: Paediatric and Perinatal Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28911649/long-chain-bases-from-sea-cucumber-mitigate-endoplasmic-reticulum-stress-and-inflammation-in-obesity-mice
#11
Shiwei Hu, Jinhui Wang, Jingfeng Wang, Changhu Xue, Yuming Wang
Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and inflammation can induce hyperglycemia. Long-chain bases (LCBs) from sea cucumber exhibit antihyperglycemic activities. However, their effects on ER stress and inflammation are unknown. We investigated the effects of LCBs on ER stress and inflammatory response in high-fat, fructose diet-induced obesity mice. Reactive oxygen species and free fatty acids were measured. Inflammatory cytokines in serum and their mRNA expressions in epididymal adipose tissues were investigated...
July 2017: Journal of Food and Drug Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28911532/bioactive-phytochemicals-in-barley
#12
REVIEW
Emmanuel Idehen, Yao Tang, Shengmin Sang
Epidemiological studies have consistently shown that regular consumption of whole grain barley reduces the risk of developing chronic diseases. The presence of barley fiber, especially β-glucan in whole grain barley, has been largely credited for these health benefits. However, it is now widely believed that the actions of the fiber component alone do not explain the observed health benefits associated with the consumption of whole grain barley. Whole grain barley also contains phytochemicals including phenolic acids, flavonoids, lignans, tocols, phytosterols, and folate...
January 2017: Journal of Food and Drug Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28911148/age-related-anabolic-resistance-of-myofibrillar-protein-synthesis-is-exacerbated-in-obese-inactive-individuals
#13
Benoit Smeuninx, James Mckendry, Daisy Wilson, Una Martin, Leigh Breen
Context: A diminished muscle anabolic response to protein nutrition may underpin age-associated muscle loss. Objective: To determine how chronological and biological aging influence myofibrillar protein synthesis (MyoPS). Design: Cross-sectional comparison. Setting: Clinical research facility. Participants: Ten older lean [OL: 71.7 ± 6 years; body mass index (BMI) ≤25 kg ⋅ m-2], 7 older obese (OO: 69...
September 1, 2017: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28911059/forcing-the-vicious-circle-sarcopenia-increases-toxicity-decreases-response-to-chemotherapy-and-worsens-with-chemotherapy
#14
F Bozzetti
Sarcopenia has recently emerged as a new condition that, independently from malnutrition, may adversely affect the prognosis of cancer patients. Purpose of this narrative review is to define the prevalence of sarcopenia in different primaries, its role in leading to chemotherapy toxicity and decreased compliance with the oncological therapy and the effect of some drugs on the onset of sarcopenia. Finally, the review aims to describe the current approaches to restore the muscle mass through nutrition, exercise and anti-inflammatory agents or multimodal programmes with a special emphasis on the results of randomized controlled trials...
September 1, 2017: Annals of Oncology: Official Journal of the European Society for Medical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28910398/body-composition-and-prediction-equations-using-skinfold-thickness-for-body-fat-percentage-in-southern-brazilian-adolescents
#15
Wagner Luis Ripka, Leandra Ulbricht, Pedro Miguel Gewehr
OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to: a) determine the nutritional status of Brazilian adolescents, and; b) present a skinfold thickness model (ST) to estimate body fat developed with Brazilian samples, using dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) as reference method. METHODS: The main study group was composed of 374 adolescents, and further 42 adolescents for the validation group. Weight, height, waist circumference measurements, and body mass index (BMI) were collected, as well as nine ST-biceps (BI), triceps (TR), chest (CH), axillary (AX) subscapularis (SB), abdominal (AB), suprailiac (SI), medial thigh (TH), calf (CF), and fat percentage (%BF) obtained by DXA...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28906359/relationship-between-sleep-duration-and-framingham-cardiovascular-risk-score-and-prevalence-of-cardiovascular-disease-in-koreans
#16
Eui Im, Gwang-Sil Kim
Studies have shown sleep duration to be related to the prevalence of metabolic syndrome and hypertension. However, whether sleep duration is associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk and the prevalence of CVD irrespective of conventional CV-risk factor, such as diabetes mellitus, obesity, and metabolic syndrome, has not been well established for the Korean population.A total of 23,878 individuals aged 18 years or older from the 2007-2010 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey were analyzed...
September 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28905462/referrals-to-dietitians-nutritionists-a-cross-sectional-analysis-of-australian-gp-registrars-clinical-practice
#17
Katie J Mulquiney, Amanda Tapley, Mieke L van Driel, Simon Morgan, Andrew R Davey, Kim M Henderson, Neil A Spike, Rohan H Kerr, Jane F Watson, Nigel F Catzikiris, Parker J Magin
AIM: The present study aimed to describe referral patterns of general practitioner (GP) registrars to dietitians/nutritionists. There is a paucity of research regarding GP referral patterns to dietitians/nutritionists. Limited data show increasing referrals from established GPs to dietitians/nutritionists. There are no data on GP registrar (trainee) referrals. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional analysis of data from the Registrar Clinical Encounters in Training (ReCEnT) study...
September 14, 2017: Nutrition & Dietetics: the Journal of the Dietitians Association of Australia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28904851/body-related-perspectives-and-weight-control-methods-of-korean-chinese-nursing-school-students-in-yanbian-china-a-pilot-study
#18
Jounghee Lee, Meixiang Jin, Heejung Son, Wenying Cui
OBJECTIVES: This study aimed at identifying the current nutrition knowledge, body-related perspectives, and weight control behaviors of Korean-Chinese college students. METHODS: We conducted a pilot study by employing a healthy weight education program targeting Korean-Chinese nursing school students at the Yanbian University of Science and Technology in Yanbian, China. RESULTS: This pilot study included 40 participants (38 women and 2 men; mean age, 20...
August 2017: Osong Public Health and Research Perspectives
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28904467/post-bariatric-surgery-acute-axonal-polyneuropathy-doing-your-best-is-not-always-enough
#19
Zakia Mohammad Yasawy, Ali Hassan
Neurological complications are frequently recognized with weight reduction surgeries for morbid obesity. The spectrum of peripheral neuropathies complicating the weight loss surgery is wide, and among them, the acute axonal peripheral neuropathy resembling Guillain-Barre syndrome is rare and only less than a dozen cases are reported. We present three cases, which after bariatric surgery developed acute polyneuropathy that rapidly progressed over 4 weeks from the onset. All patients responded to aggressive parenteral Vitamin B1 and B12 replacement therapy...
July 2017: Annals of Indian Academy of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28903112/savoring-sweet-sugars-in-infant-and-toddler-feeding
#20
Robert D Murray
During the first years of life, the sweetness of sugars has a capacity to hinder or to help in laying a strong nutritional foundation for food preferences that often extend over a lifetime. Aside from supplying 4 g/kcal of energy, sugars are non-nutritive. However, sugars have a powerful attribute, sweetness, which strongly influences human food preference. A child's first relationship with sweet taste begins even before birth and continues to evolve throughout complementary feeding. The sweetness of breastmilk encourages consumption and soothes the neonate...
2017: Annals of Nutrition & Metabolism
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