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sleep related breathing disorders

Satoshi Izumi, Guang Hong, Koh Iwasaki, Masayuki Izumi, Yusuke Matsuyama, Mirei Chiba, Takashi Toda, Tada-Aki Kudo
The taste detection system for oral fatty acid may be related to obesity. In addition, sleep is intrinsically and closely related to food intake and metabolism. However, the association of gustatory salivation with body mass index (BMI), daytime sleepiness, or sleep habits is largely unknown. Therefore, we evaluated the relationship between gustatory salivation and BMI, Epworth sleepiness scale (ESS, a daytime sleepiness scale) or sleep habits among 26 healthy young individuals (20 males and 6 females; mean age: 26...
2016: Tohoku Journal of Experimental Medicine
Evelyn H Schlenker
The arcuate nucleus of the hypothalamus (ANH) interacts with other hypothalamic nuclei, forebrain regions, and downstream brain sites to affect autonomic nervous system outflow, energy balance, temperature regulation, sleep, arousal, neuroendocrine function, reproduction, and cardiopulmonary regulation. Compared to studies of other ANH functions, how the ANH regulates cardiopulmonary function is less understood. Importantly, the ANH exhibits structural and functional sexually dimorphic characteristics and contains numerous neuroactive substances and receptors including leptin, neuropeptide Y, glutamate, acetylcholine, endorphins, orexin, kisspeptin, insulin, Agouti-related protein, cocaine and amphetamine-regulated transcript, dopamine, somatostatin, components of renin-angiotensin system and gamma amino butyric acid that modulate physiological functions...
October 15, 2016: Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology
Chooza Moon, Cynthia H Phelan, Diane R Lauver, Lisa C Bratzke
PURPOSE/OBJECTIVES: Sleep-related breathing disorders (SRBDs), including obstructive sleep apnea and central sleep apnea, are common among patients with cardiovascular disease (CVD), but clinicians often do not pay enough attention to SRBDs. The purpose of this narrative review is to update advanced practice registered nurses on the literature focusing on the relationship between SRBDs and CVD (eg, hypertension, heart failure, coronary artery disease, arrhythmias, and stroke) and on treatments that can improve SRBDs in patients with CVD...
November 2016: Clinical Nurse Specialist CNS
Abdulghani Sankari, James A Rowley
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 15, 2016: American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
Matthieu Dubois, Cécile Chenivesse, Mathieu Raux, Adrian Morales-Robles, Marie-Cécile Nierat, Gilles Garcia, Xavier Navarro-Sune, Mario Chavez, Jacques Martinerie, Thomas Similowski
: Spontaneous ventilation in mammals is driven by automatic brainstem networks that generate the respiratory rhythm and increase ventilation in the presence of increased carbon dioxide production. Hypocapnia decreases the drive to breathe and induces apnea. In humans, this occurs during sleep but not during wakefulness. We hypothesized that hypocapnic breathing would be associated with respiratory-related cortical activity similar to that observed during volitional breathing, inspiratory constraints, or in patients with defective automatic breathing (preinspiratory potentials)...
October 12, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
J S Park, D K Chan, S R Parikh, A K Meyer, K W Rosbe
OBJECTIVE: To study the efficacy of surgical management for obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) syndrome in children with hypotonia, and to identify common anatomic sites of airway obstruction. METHODS: Retrospective chart review of polysomnographic parameters and quality of life instrument scores for seventy eight children with hypotonia who underwent surgical intervention for sleep-disordered breathing at two tertiary children's hospitals, and analysis of drug-induced sleep endoscopy data using a previously validated scoring system...
November 2016: International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology
Howard Faden, Vincent Callanan, Michael Pizzuto, Mark Nagy, Mark Wilby, Daryl Lamson, Brian Wrotniak, Stefan Juretschko, Kirsten St George
BACKGROUND: Airway obstruction due to enlargement of tonsils and adenoids is a common pediatric problem resulting in sleep disordered breathing. The cause for the relatively abnormal growth of tonsils and adenoids is poorly understood. METHODS: Non-acutely ill children undergoing tonsillectomy and adenoidectomy (T&A) for various reasons were enrolled prospectively in a study to determine the frequency of asymptomatic respiratory viral infections in each lymphoid tissue and to relate the number and types of virus to the degree of airway obstruction...
November 2016: International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology
Pnina Weiss, Meir Kryger
Positive airway pressure (PAP) is considered first-line therapy for moderate to severe obstructive sleep apnea and may also be considered for mild obstructive sleep apnea, particularly if it is symptomatic or there are concomitant cardiovascular disorders. Continuous PAP is most commonly used. Other modes, such as bilevel airway pressure, autotitrating positive airway pressure, average volume assured pressure support, and adaptive support ventilation, play important roles in the management of sleep-related breathing disorders...
October 6, 2016: Otolaryngologic Clinics of North America
Marc B Lande, Donald L Batisky, Juan C Kupferman, Joshua Samuels, Stephen R Hooper, Bonita Falkner, Shari R Waldstein, Peter G Szilagyi, Hongyue Wang, Jennifer Staskiewicz, Heather R Adams
OBJECTIVE: To compare neurocognitive test performance of children with primary hypertension with that of normotensive controls. STUDY DESIGN: Seventy-five children (10-18 years of age) with newly diagnosed, untreated hypertension and 75 frequency-matched normotensive controls had baseline neurocognitive testing as part of a prospective multicenter study of cognition in primary hypertension. Subjects completed tests of general intelligence, attention, memory, executive function, and processing speed...
September 27, 2016: Journal of Pediatrics
Magali Saint Martin, Emilia Sforza, Emilie Crawford-Achour, Lefèvre Pascal, Georges Lienard, Roche Frédéric
OBJECTIVE: Sleep breathing disorders (SBD) are the most common sleep disorders frequently under-diagnosed in elderly populations. However, it is it well known that this disorder may contribute to the age-related cognitive decline. In a cohort of healthy elderly subjects, we performed an 8-year longitudinal study to assess whether changes in cognitive function occur in untreated SBD elderly and the nocturnal factors implicated in these changes. MATERIAL/PATIENTS AND METHODS: A total of 559 participants of the community-based PROOF study aged 67years at the study entry and free from neurological disorders were examined...
September 2016: Annals of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine
J P Windfuhr, K Savva
BACKGROUND: Tonsillotomy procedures (TT) are being increasingly performed owing to the low postoperative morbidity compared with extracapsular tonsillectomy (TE). Patients may experience regrowth of tonsillar tissue or tonsillitis in the tonsillar remnants eventually resulting in a secondary tonsillectomy. OBJECTIVES: A review of the literature was undertaken to evaluate the current indications and contraindications, surgical instruments, risks of surgery, and the need for further research related to TT...
September 26, 2016: HNO
Steven R Olmos
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This article explains the high comorbidity of craniofacial pain (chronic face pain, temporomandibular disorders, and primary headaches) with obstructive sleep breathing disorders and obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). It is recommended that physicians treating OSA should be aware of the concurrent chronic pain that affects the quality of sleep, and also dentists treating chronic pain be aware of a sleep breathing origin so that proper reciprocal referrals be made for optimal patient treatment outcome...
November 2016: Current Opinion in Pulmonary Medicine
Ali M Hashmi, Shashi K Bhatia, Subhash K Bhatia, Imran S Khawaja
UNLABELLED: Sleep disturbances are common in pregnancy. Insomnia is a frequent sleep disturbance experienced by pregnant women which can be primary or due to co-morbid conditions. The differential diagnosis of insomnia in pregnancy includes anxiety disorders, mood disorders, breathing related sleep disorders and restless legs syndrome. Early interventions to treat the sleep disturbance are recommended to avoid adverse pregnancy outcomes. Management strategies include improving sleep hygiene, behavioral therapies, and pharmacotherapy...
July 2016: Pakistan Journal of Medical Sciences Quarterly
Bindu Akkanti, Richard J Castriotta, Pavani Sayana, Emmanuel Nunez, Indranee Rajapreyar, Sachin Kumar, Sriram Nathan, Ruckshanda Majid
Congestive heart failure is one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality in the United States, and left ventricular assist devices have revolutionized treatment of end-stage heart failure. Given that sleep apnea results in significant morbidity in these patients with advanced heart failure, practicing sleep physicians need to have an understanding of left ventricular assist devices. In this review, we summarize what is known about ventricular assist devices as they relate to sleep medicine.
August 25, 2016: Sleep Medicine Reviews
Andrea Vianello, Valeria Bisogni, Claudia Rinaldo, Federico Gallan, Giuseppe Maiolino, Fausto Braccioni, Luca Guarda-Nardini, Beatrice Molena, Gian P Rossi, Rosario Marchese-Ragona
Affecting a large number of middle-aged, frequently overweight subjects, obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is the most common sleep related breathing disorder. Partial or complete upper airway (UA) collapse during sleep causing repeated apneic episodes, which is the leading pathophysiological mechanism underlying the disorder, results in arterial oxygen desaturation and recurrent arousals from sleep to re-establish airway patency. Untreated OSA is commonly associated with a range of adverse consequences, including cardiovascular complications, such as arterial and/or pulmonary hypertension, arrhythmias, stroke, as well as diabetes mellitus and metabolic syndrome, and motor vehicle accidents...
December 2016: Minerva Medica
Christopher A Gerdung, Adetayo Adeleye, Valerie G Kirk
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Sleep-related breathing disorders are complex conditions that require the integration of clinical and sleep laboratory findings to support a diagnosis. Analysis of carbon dioxide (CO2) levels during sleep provides important additional information to the clinician that is not obtained from other polysomnographic indices, and that may have a direct impact on both diagnosis and patient mortality. Although arterial blood gas (ABG) is considered the gold standard for assessing PaCO2 levels, there are numerous drawbacks...
November 2016: Current Opinion in Pulmonary Medicine
Robert L Owens, Kathryn Gold, David Gozal, Paul E Peppard, Jonathan Jun, Scott M Lippman, Atul Malhotra
Sleep, like eating and breathing, is an essential part of the daily life cycle. Although the science is still emerging, sleep plays an important role in immune, cardiovascular, and neurocognitive function. Despite its great importance, nearly 40% of US Adults experience problems with sleep ranging from insufficient total sleep time, trouble initiating or maintaining sleep (Insomnia), Circadian Rhythm Disorders, Sleep-Related Movement Disorders, and Sleep-Related Breathing Disorders such as obstructive sleep apnea (OSA)...
September 7, 2016: Cancer Prevention Research
Maria Rosa Costanzo, Piotr Ponikowski, Shahrokh Javaheri, Ralph Augostini, Lee Goldberg, Richard Holcomb, Andrew Kao, Rami N Khayat, Olaf Oldenburg, Christoph Stellbrink, William T Abraham
BACKGROUND: Central sleep apnoea is a serious breathing disorder associated with poor outcomes. The remedé system (Respicardia Inc, Minnetonka, MN, USA) is an implantable device which transvenously stimulates a nerve causing diaphragmatic contraction similar to normal breathing. We evaluated the safety and effectiveness of unilateral neurostimulation in patients with central sleep apnoea. METHODS: We recruited patients from 31 hospital-based centres in Germany, Poland, and the USA in this prospective, multicentre, randomised trial...
September 3, 2016: Lancet
Ghassan Idris, Barbara Galland, Christopher J Robertson, Mauro Farella
BACKGROUND: Sleep-Disordered Breathing (SDB) varies from habitual snoring to partial or complete obstruction of the upper airway and can be found in up to 10% of children. SDB can significantly affect children's wellbeing, as it can cause growth disorders, educational and behavioral problems, and even life-threatening conditions, such as cardiorespiratory failure. Adenotonsillectomy represents the primary treatment for pediatric SDB where adeno-tonsillar hypertrophy is indicated. For those with craniofacial anomalies, or for whom adenotonsillectomy or other treatment modalities have failed, or surgery is contra-indicated, mandibular advancement splints (MAS) may represent a viable treatment option...
2016: Frontiers in Physiology
Dale L Smith, David Gozal, Scott J Hunter, Mona F Philby, Jaeson Kaylegian, Leila Kheirandish-Gozal
Sleep disordered breathing (SDB) in children has been associated with inattention, impulsivity and hyperactivity, but the associations between SDB severity and the type and severity of behavioural disruption are unclear.1022 children aged 5-7 years old prospectively underwent sleep studies and behavioural assessments through completion of standardised instruments. Participants were subdivided into four categorical groups based on the apnoea-hypopnoea index (AHI; measured per hour of total sleep time (hTST)), i...
September 1, 2016: European Respiratory Journal: Official Journal of the European Society for Clinical Respiratory Physiology
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