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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28239368/connection-of-nicotine-to-diet-induced-obesity-and-non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-cellular-and-mechanistic-insights
#1
REVIEW
Amiya P Sinha-Hikim, Indrani Sinha-Hikim, Theodore C Friedman
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) poses a serious health hazard affecting 20-40% of adults in the general population in the USA and over 70% of the obese and extremely obese people. In addition to obesity, nicotine is recognized as a risk factor for NAFLD, and it has been reported that nicotine can exaggerate obesity-induced hepatic steatosis. The development of NAFLD has serious clinical complications because of its potential progression from simple hepatic steatosis to non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), liver cirrhosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma...
2017: Frontiers in Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230324/effects-of-short-term-energy-restriction-on-liver-lipid-content-and-inflammatory-status-in-severely-obese-adults-results-of-a-randomised-controlled-trial-rct-using-two-dietary-approaches
#2
Emma L Baldry, Guruprasad P Aithal, Philip Kaye, Iskandar R Idris, Andrew Bennett, Paul C Leeder, Ian A Macdonald
Short-term very low energy diets (VLED) are used in clinical practice prior to bariatric surgery, however, regimens vary and outcomes for a short intervention are unclear. We examined the effect of two VLEDs; a food-based diet (FD) and meal replacement plan (MRP) (LighterLife) over two weeks in a randomised controlled trial (RCT). We collected clinical and anthropometric data, fasting blood samples, and dietary evaluation questionnaires. Surgeons took liver biopsies and made a visual assessment of the liver...
February 23, 2017: Diabetes, Obesity & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28225569/hepatic-alanine-differentiates-nonalcoholic-steatohepatitis-from-simple-steatosis-in-humans-and-mice-a-proton-mr-spectroscopy-study-with-long-echo-time
#3
Tae-Hoon Kim, Hong Young Jun, Ki-Jong Kim, Young Hwan Lee, Myeung Su Lee, Keum Ha Choi, Ki Jung Yun, Yong Yeon Jeong, Chung Hwan Jun, Eun Young Cho, Kwon-Ha Yoon
PURPOSE: To evaluate the hepatic metabolic alterations in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) by using (1) H-MRS (proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy) with long echo time and to test the reproducibility of human study in an animal model. Liver biopsy is the gold standard for diagnosing NAFLD but with practical constraints. (1) H-MRS allows in vivo assessment of hepatocellular metabolism and has shown potential for biochemical differentiation in diffuse liver disease. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In all, 32 subjects (11 patients with nonalcoholic steatohepatitis [NASH], 15 with simple steatosis [SS], and six healthy controls) were studied...
February 22, 2017: Journal of Magnetic Resonance Imaging: JMRI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28225186/randomised-clinical-trial-the-efficacy-and-safety-of-oltipraz-a-liver-x-receptor-alpha-inhibitory-dithiolethione-in-patients-with-non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease
#4
W Kim, B G Kim, J S Lee, C K Lee, J E Yeon, M S Chang, J H Kim, H Kim, S Yi, J Lee, J-Y Cho, S G Kim, J-H Lee, Y J Kim
BACKGROUND: Oltipraz is a synthetic dithiolethione with an antisteatotic effect by inhibiting the activity of liver X receptor alpha (LXR-α). Recent studies demonstrated the disruptive role of oltipraz on LXR-α-dependent lipogenesis in hepatocytes and a high-fat diet mouse model. AIM: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of oltipraz for reducing liver fat in subjects with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). METHODS: We performed a multicentre, double-blind, placebo-controlled, phase II study...
February 22, 2017: Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220495/influence-of-hyperglycemia-on-liver-inflammatory-conditions-in-the-early-phase-of-non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-in-mice
#5
Shinichi Harada, Kei Miyagi, Tokio Obata, Yasuko Morimoto, Kazuo Nakamoto, Ke Ih Kim, Soo Ki Kim, Soo Ryang Kim, Shogo Tokuyama
OBJECTIVES: A non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) has high prevalence and now important issue of public health. In general, there exists strong interaction between NAFLD and diabetes, but the detailed mechanism is unclear. In this study, we determined the effects of hyperglycemia on progression in the early phase of NAFLD in mice. METHODS: Male ddY mice were fed a choline-deficient, l-amino acid-defined, high-fat diet (CDAHFD) consisting of 60% of kcal from fat and 0...
February 21, 2017: Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220039/hormone-signaling-and-fatty-liver-in-females-analysis-of-estrogen-receptor-%C3%AE-mutant-mice
#6
S Hart-Unger, Y Arao, K J Hamilton, S L Lierz, D E Malarkey, S C Hewitt, M Freemark, K S Korach
BACKGROUND: Treatment with estrogen in early menopausal women protects against development of hepatic steatosis and NAFLD but estrogen has undesirable side effects which negate its beneficial effects in pre- and post-menopausal women. Targeted therapies require better understanding of the target sites and mechanisms by which estrogen signaling exerts its protective effects in women. ERα is thought to be the primary mediator for estrogen signaling to protect against hepatic steatosis...
February 21, 2017: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211103/impaired-learning-and-memory-in-rats-induced-by-a-high-fat-diet-involvement-with-the-imbalance-of-nesfatin-1-abundance-and-copine-6-expression
#7
Zheng Chen, Ya-Yun Xu, Rui Wu, Yin-Xiu Han, Yue Yu, Jin-Fang Ge, Fei-Hu Chen
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common cause of chronic liver disease, resulting not only in liver dysfunction, glucose and lipid metabolism disorder, but also in neuropsychiatric damage. In the present study, a NAFLD rat model was established via feeding of a high-fat diet, and the behavior was observed via the open field test (OFT), the sucrose preference test (SPT), the elevated plus maze (EPM), the forced swimming test (FST), and the Morris water maze (MWM). The plasma concentrations of alanine aminotransferase (ALT), glucose, free fatty acid (FFA), total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) were detected using chemiluminescence technique...
February 17, 2017: Journal of Neuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28209760/glucoraphanin-ameliorates-obesity-and-insulin-resistance-through-adipose-tissue-browning-and-reduction-of-metabolic-endotoxemia-in-mice
#8
Naoto Nagata, Liang Xu, Susumu Kohno, Yusuke Ushida, Yudai Aoki, Ryohei Umeda, Nobuo Fuke, Fen Zhuge, Yinhua Ni, Mayumi Nagashimada, Chiaki Takahashi, Hiroyuki Suganuma, Shuichi Kaneko, Tsuguhito Ota
Low-grade sustained inflammation links obesity to insulin resistance and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). However, therapeutic approaches to improve systemic energy balance and chronic inflammation in obesity are limited. Pharmacological activation of nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2 (Nrf2) alleviates obesity and insulin resistance in mice; however, Nrf2 inducers are not clinically available owing to safety concerns. Thus, we examined whether dietary glucoraphanin, a stable precursor of the Nrf2 inducer sulforaphane, ameliorates systemic energy balance, chronic inflammation, insulin resistance, and NAFLD in high-fat diet (HFD)-fed mice...
February 16, 2017: Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28207798/altered-hepatic-lipid-metabolism-in-mice-lacking-both-the-melanocortin-type-4-receptor-and-low-density-lipoprotein-receptor
#9
Vera Lede, Andrej Meusel, Antje Garten, Yulia Popkova, Melanie Penke, Christin Franke, Albert Ricken, Angela Schulz, Wieland Kiess, Daniel Huster, Torsten Schöneberg, Jürgen Schiller
Obesity is often associated with dyslipidemia and hepatosteatosis. A number of animal models of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) are established but they significantly differ in the molecular and biochemical changes depending on the genetic modification and diet used. Mice deficient for melanocortin type 4 receptor (Mc4rmut) develop hyperphagia, obesity, and subsequently NAFLD already under regular chow and resemble more closely the energy supply-driven obesity found in humans. This animal model was used to assess the molecular and biochemical consequences of hyperphagia-induced obesity on hepatic lipid metabolism...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28205519/mitochondrial-atp-transporter-depletion-protects-mice-against-liver-steatosis-and-insulin-resistance
#10
Joonseok Cho, Yujian Zhang, Shi-Young Park, Anna-Maria Joseph, Chul Han, Hyo-Jin Park, Srilaxmi Kalavalapalli, Sung-Kook Chun, Drake Morgan, Jae-Sung Kim, Shinichi Someya, Clayton E Mathews, Young Jae Lee, Stephanie E Wohlgemuth, Nishanth E Sunny, Hui-Young Lee, Cheol Soo Choi, Takayuki Shiratsuchi, S Paul Oh, Naohiro Terada
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a common metabolic disorder in obese individuals. Adenine nucleotide translocase (ANT) exchanges ADP/ATP through the mitochondrial inner membrane, and Ant2 is the predominant isoform expressed in the liver. Here we demonstrate that targeted disruption of Ant2 in mouse liver enhances uncoupled respiration without damaging mitochondrial integrity and liver functions. Interestingly, liver specific Ant2 knockout mice are leaner and resistant to hepatic steatosis, obesity and insulin resistance under a lipogenic diet...
February 16, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28195199/pemafibrate-a-novel-selective-peroxisome-proliferator-activated-receptor-alpha-modulator-improves-the-pathogenesis-in-a-rodent-model-of-nonalcoholic-steatohepatitis
#11
Yasushi Honda, Takaomi Kessoku, Yuji Ogawa, Wataru Tomeno, Kento Imajo, Koji Fujita, Masato Yoneda, Toshiaki Takizawa, Satoru Saito, Yoji Nagashima, Atsushi Nakajima
The efficacy of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α-agonists (e.g., fibrates) against nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD)/nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) in humans is not known. Pemafibrate is a novel selective peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α modulator that can maximize the beneficial effects and minimize the adverse effects of fibrates used currently. In a phase-2 study, pemafibrate was shown to improve liver dysfunction in patients with dyslipidaemia. In the present study, we first investigated the effect of pemafibrate on rodent models of NASH...
February 14, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28194019/il-25-stimulates-m2-macrophage-polarization-and-thereby-promotes-mitochondrial-respiratory-capacity-and-lipolysis-in-adipose-tissues-against-obesity
#12
Juan Feng, Lingyi Li, Zhiying Ou, Qiao Li, Baoyong Gong, Zhenxian Zhao, Weiwei Qi, Ti Zhou, Jun Zhong, Weibin Cai, Xia Yang, Aiping Zhao, Guoquan Gao, Zhonghan Yang
Obesity and associated metabolic diseases are characterized by a chronic low-grade inflammatory state with the infiltration of many inflammatory cells, especially macrophages. Immune molecules, including some cytokines, have a close relationship with metabolism. Interleukin (IL)-25 is a member of the IL-17 cytokine family that can regulate macrophages and alleviate some metabolic dysfunction; however, its role and mechanisms in lipid metabolism remain to be extensively clarified. Human serum and liver biopsy specimens, high-fat diet-induced obesity mice and DB/DB (Lepr-/-) animal models were used to examine IL-25 expression in obesity and nonalcoholic fatty liver diseases (NAFLD)...
February 13, 2017: Cellular & Molecular Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28184213/loss-of-hepatic-ceacam1-a-unifying-mechanism-linking-insulin-resistance-to-obesity-and-non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease
#13
REVIEW
Garrett Heinrich, Hilda E Ghadieh, Simona S Ghanem, Harrison T Muturi, Khadijeh Rezaei, Qusai Y Al-Share, Thomas A Bowman, Deqiang Zhang, Robert S Garofalo, Lei Yin, Sonia M Najjar
The pathogenesis of human non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) remains unclear, in particular in the context of its relationship to insulin resistance and visceral obesity. Work on the carcinoembryonic antigen-related cell adhesion molecule 1 (CEACAM1) in mice has resolved some of the related questions. CEACAM1 promotes insulin clearance by enhancing the rate of uptake of the insulin-receptor complex. It also mediates a negative acute effect of insulin on fatty acid synthase activity. This positions CEACAM1 to coordinate the regulation of insulin and lipid metabolism...
2017: Frontiers in Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28183444/effects-of-lifestyle-interventions-on-clinical-characteristics-of-patients-with-non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-a-meta-analysis
#14
Christina N Katsagoni, Michael Georgoulis, George V Papatheodoridis, Demosthenes B Panagiotakos, Meropi D Kontogianni
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Although lifestyle modifications remain the cornerstone therapy for non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), the optimal lifestyle intervention is still controversial. The aim of this meta-analysis was to evaluate the effect of exercise and/or dietary interventions, type or intensity of exercise and type of diet, on liver function outcomes (liver enzymes, intrahepatic fat and liver histology), as well as on anthropometric and glucose metabolism parameters in NAFLD patients...
March 2017: Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28177674/exercise-restores-bioavailability-of-hydrogen-sulfide-and-promotes-autophagy-influx-in-livers-of-mice-fed-with-high-fat-diet
#15
Bing Wang, Jing Zeng, Qi Gu
In the gold standard treatment for non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), exercise training has been shown to effectively improve NASH. However, limited data are available about the underlying mechanisms involved. This work was undertaken to investigate the mechanisms underlying the beneficial effect of exercise training on high-fat diet (HFD)-induced NAFLD in mice. Male mice were fed with HFD and given moderate-intensity exercise for 24 weeks. Exercise training lowered weight gain, attenuated systemic insulin resistance and glucose intolerance, mitigated hepatic steatosis and fibrosis in mice fed with HFD...
January 10, 2017: Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28169366/phytosterol-esters-attenuate-hepatic-steatosis-in-rats-with-non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-rats-fed-a-high-fat-diet
#16
Lihua Song, Dan Qu, Qing Zhang, Jing Jiang, Haiyue Zhou, Rui Jiang, Yating Li, Yao Zhang, Hongli Yan
Given the adverse effects of drugs used for NAFLD treatment, identifying novel and effective natural compound to prevent NAFLD is urgently needed. In the present study, the effects of phytosterol esters (PSEs) on NAFLD were explored. Adult SD rats were randomized into five groups: normal chow diet (NC), high-fat diet (HF), low-, medium- and high-dose PSE treatment plus high-fat diet groups (PSEL, PSEM, and PSEH). Our results showed that the levels of LDL-C in the PSEL group and hepatic TG, TC, and FFA in the three PSEs groups were significantly decreased...
February 7, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28167864/ezetimibe-reduces-cholesterol-content-and-nf-kappab-activation-in-liver-but-not-in-intestinal-tissue-in-guinea-pigs
#17
Peter Fraunberger, Elisabeth Gröne, Hermann-Josef Gröne, Heinz Drexel, Autar K Walli
BACKGROUND: Statins (HMG CoA reductase inhibitors), in addition to reducing circulating cholesterol and incidence of coronary heart disease, also have pleiotropic, anti-inflammatory effects. Patients with chronic liver diseases, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) or hepatitis C are often excluded from statin therapy because of adverse effects in a small cohort of patients despite increased cardiovascular risk cholesterol. Ezetimibe, which inhibits cholesterol absorption by inhibition of Niemann-Pick C1 like 1 (NPC1L1) protein in the brush border of intestinal cells, has been suggested as a new therapeutic option in these patients...
2017: Journal of Inflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28167322/-nlrp3-inflammasome-blockade-reduces-liver-inflammation-and-fibrosis-in-experimental-nash-in-mice
#18
Auvro R Mridha, Alexander Wree, Avril A B Robertson, Matthew M Yeh, Casey D Johnson, Derrick M Van Rooyen, Fahrettin Haczeyni, Narci C-H Teoh, Christopher Savard, George N Ioannou, Seth L Masters, Kate Schroder, Matthew A Cooper, Ariel E Feldstein, Geoffrey C Farrell
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: NOD-like receptor protein 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome activation occurs in NAFLD. We used the first small molecule NLRP3 inhibitor, MCC950, to test whether inflammasome blockade alters inflammatory recruitment and liver fibrosis in two murine models of steatohepatitis. METHODS: We fed foz/foz and wildtype (Wt) mice atherogenic diet 16 weeks, gavaged MCC950 or vehicle until 24 weeks, then determining NAFLD phenotype. In mice fed methionine/choline deficient (MCD) diet, we gavaged MCC950 or vehicle 6 weeks and determined effects on liver fibrosis...
February 3, 2017: Journal of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28164196/preventive-effect-of-silibinin-in-combination-with-pu-erh-tea-extract-on-non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-in-ob-ob-mice
#19
Wen-Yi Hu, Xiao-Hui Ma, Wang-Yi Zhou, Xin-Xin Li, Ting-Ting Sun, He Sun
There are presently no miracle drugs for non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). This study investigates the synergistic effect of Silibinin combined with Pu-erh tea extract (PTE) against NAFLD and explores the suggested mechanism of action. Ob/ob mice were fed a high fat diet along with the oral administration of Silibinin (86 mg per kg per day), PTE (250 mg per kg per day) or their combination for 6 weeks. Their lean littermates who were fed with standard chow diet were used as the control group. The blood biochemical index and histopathological evaluation were analyzed...
February 6, 2017: Food & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28163820/apolipoprotein-ciii-overexpression-induced-hypertriglyceridemia-increases-nonalcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-in-association-with-inflammation-and-cell-death
#20
Adriene A Paiva, Helena F Raposo, Amarylis C B A Wanschel, Tarlliza R Nardelli, Helena C F Oliveira
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the principal manifestation of liver disease in obesity and metabolic syndrome. By comparing hypertriglyceridemic transgenic mice expressing apolipoprotein (apo) CIII with control nontransgenic (NTg) littermates, we demonstrated that overexpression of apoCIII, independent of a high-fat diet (HFD), produces NAFLD-like features, including increased liver lipid content; decreased antioxidant power; increased expression of TNFα, TNFα receptor, cleaved caspase-1, and interleukin-1β; decreased expression of adiponectin receptor-2; and increased cell death...
2017: Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
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