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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909827/remediation-of-blowouts-by-clonal-plants-in-maqu-degraded-alpine-grasslands-of-northwest-china
#1
JianJun Kang, WenZhi Zhao, Ming Zhao
The sand-fixation of plants is considered to be the most effective and fundamental measure in desertification control in many arid and semi-arid regions. Carex brunnescens (Carex spp) and Leymus secalinus (Leymus), two perennial clonal herbs native to the Maqu degraded alpine areas of northwest China, are dominant and constructive species in active sand dunes that have excellent adaptability to fix sand dunes found to date. In order to study the ability and mechanism of sandland blowout remediation by two clone plants C...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Plant Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909817/phylogenetic-structure-of-arbuscular-mycorrhizal-fungal-communities-along-an-elevation-gradient
#2
Cameron P Egan, Ragan M Callaway, Miranda M Hart, Jason Pither, John Klironomos
Despite the importance of arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi within terrestrial ecosystems, we know little about how natural AM fungal communities are structured. To date, the majority of studies examining AM fungal community diversity have focused on single habitats with similar environmental conditions, with relatively few studies having assessed the diversity of AM fungi over large-scale environmental gradients. In this study, we characterized AM fungal communities in the soil along a high-elevation gradient in the North American Rocky Mountains...
December 1, 2016: Mycorrhiza
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909816/ecological-and-physical-barriers-shape-genetic-structure-of-the-alpine-porcini-boletus-reticuloceps
#3
Bang Feng, Jian Wei Liu, Jianping Xu, Kuan Zhao, Zai Wei Ge, Zhu L Yang
The Alpine porcini, Boletus reticuloceps, is an ectomycorrhizal mushroom distributed in subalpine areas of Southwest China, central China, and Taiwan Island. This distribution pattern makes it an ideal organism to infer how ectomycorrhizal fungi have reacted to historical tectonic and climatic changes, and to illustrate the mechanism for the disjunction of organisms between Southwest China and Taiwan. In this study, we explored the phylogeographic pattern of B. reticuloceps by microsatellite genotyping, DNA sequencing, ecological factor analysis, and species distribution modeling...
December 1, 2016: Mycorrhiza
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908741/resolving-interspecific-relationships-within-evolutionarily-young-lineages-using-rna-seq-data-an-example-from-pedicularis-section-cyathophora-orobanchaceae
#4
Hong-Juan Wang, Wei-Tao Li, Ya-Nan Liu, Fu-Sheng Yang, Xiao-Quan Wang
Phylogenomics has shown great potential in resolving evolutionary relationships at different taxonomical levels. However, it remains controversial whether all orthologous genes under different selective pressures can be concatenated for phylogenomic reconstruction. Here we used sect. Cyathophora of Pedicularis, one of the most species-rich genera of angiosperms in the alpine and arctic regions of the Northern Hemisphere, as a model to investigate the efficiency of RNA-seq in resolving relationships of closely related congeneric species...
November 28, 2016: Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908625/a-novel-integrated-modelling-framework-to-assess-the-impacts-of-climate-and-socio-economic-drivers-on-land-use-and-water-quality
#5
Matthias Zessner, Martin Schönhart, Juraj Parajka, Helene Trautvetter, Hermine Mitter, Mathias Kirchner, Gerold Hepp, Alfred Paul Blaschke, Birgit Strenn, Erwin Schmid
Changes in climatic conditions will directly affect the quality and quantity of water resources. Further on, they will affect them indirectly through adaptation in land use which ultimately influences diffuse nutrient emissions to rivers and therefore potentially the compliance with good ecological status according to the EU Water Framework Directive (WFD). We present an integrated impact modelling framework (IIMF) to track and quantify direct and indirect pollution impacts along policy-economy-climate-agriculture-water interfaces...
November 28, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902757/evidence-of-facilitation-cascade-processes-as-drivers-of-successional-patterns-of-ecosystem-engineers-at-the-upper-altitudinal-limit-of-the-dry-puna
#6
Luca Malatesta, Federico Maria Tardella, Karina Piermarteri, Andrea Catorci
Facilitation processes constitute basic elements of vegetation dynamics in harsh systems. Recent studies in tropical alpine environments demonstrated how pioneer plant species defined as "ecosystem engineers" are capable of enhancing landscape-level richness by adding new species to the community through the modification of microhabitats, and also provided hints about the alternation of different ecosystem engineers over time. Nevertheless, most of the existing works analysed different ecosystem engineers separately, without considering the interaction of different ecosystem engineers...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902317/psychromicrobium-silvestre-gen-nov-sp-nov-a-novel-actinobacterium-isolated-from-alpine-forest-soils
#7
Peter Schumann, De-Chao Zhang, Luís Franca, Luciana Albuquerque, Milton S da Costa, Rosa Margesin
Two Gram-stain-variable, non-motile, catalase-positive and cytochrome c oxidase-negative bacteria, designated AK20-18T and AM20-54, were isolated from forest soil samples collected in the Italian Alps. Growth occurred at a temperature range of 5-30 °C, at pH 6-9 and in the presence of 0-5 % (w/v) NaCl. The 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity between strains AK20-18T and AM20-54 was 100 %. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequence showed that AK20-18T had highest 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity with the type strain of Arthrobacter psychrochitiniphilus (96...
November 21, 2016: International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27901343/colonization-of-snow-by-microorganisms-as-revealed-using-miniature-raman-spectrometers-possibilities-for-detecting-carotenoids-of-psychrophiles-on-mars
#8
Jan Jehlička, Adam Culka, Linda Nedbalová
We tested the potential of a miniaturized Raman spectrometer for use in field detection of snow algae pigments. A miniature Raman spectrometer, equipped with an excitation laser at 532 nm, allowed for the detection of carotenoids in cells of Chloromonas nivalis and Chlamydomonas nivalis at different stages of their life cycle. Astaxanthin, the major photoprotective pigment, was detected in algal blooms originating in snows at two alpine European sites that differed in altitude (Krkonoše Mts., Czech Republic, 1502 m a...
November 30, 2016: Astrobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899529/short-term-effects-of-trans-fatty-acids-from-ruminant-and-industrial-sources-on-surrogate-markers-of-cardiovascular-risk-in-healthy-men-and-women-a-randomized-controlled-double-blind-trial
#9
Thomas Radtke, Alexandra Schmid, Anja Trepp, Frieda Dähler, Michael Coslovsky, Prisca Eser, Matthias Wilhelm, Hugo Saner
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to determine short-term effects of trans fatty acid (TFA) intake from ruminant and industrial sources on surrogate markers of cardiovascular risk in the context of a balanced diet with 30-36% of daily energy from fat. DESIGN: Prospective, randomized, double-blind, parallel-design study. METHODS: In this study, 142 healthy volunteers aged 45 to 69 years were randomly allocated to three different diets: either a diet enriched with 2% of daily energy intake from ruminant TFA (rTFA) or with industrial TFA (iTFA), or a diet without TFA (wTFA), for a duration of four weeks...
November 29, 2016: European Journal of Preventive Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27897429/temporal-variability-of-bacterial-communities-in-cryoconite-on-an-alpine-glacier
#10
Andrea Franzetti, Federico Navarra, Ilario Tagliaferri, Isabella Gandolfi, Giuseppina Bestetti, Umberto Minora, Roberto Sergio Azzoni, Guglielmina Diolaiuti, Claudio Smiraglia, Roberto Ambrosini
Cryoconite holes, i.e. small ponds that form on glacier surface, are considered the most biologically active environments on glaciers. Bacterial communities in these environments have been extensively studied, but often through snapshot studies based on the assumption of a general stability of community structure. In this study, we investigated the temporal variation of bacterial communities in cryoconite holes on the Forni Glacier (Italian Alps) by high throughput DNA sequencing. We found a temporal change of bacterial communities, with autotrophic Cyanobacteria populations dominating communities after snowmelt, and heterotrophic Sphingobacteriales populations increasing in abundance later in the season...
November 29, 2016: Environmental Microbiology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27897252/soil-respiration-and-its-environmental-response-varies-by-day-night-and-by-growing-dormant-season-in-a-subalpine-forest
#11
Zongda Hu, Shirong Liu, Xingliang Liu, Liyong Fu, Jingxin Wang, Kuan Liu, Xueman Huang, Yuandong Zhang, Fei He
Comparisons of soil respiration (RS) and its components of heterotrophic (RH) and rhizospheric (RR) respiration during daytime and nighttime, growing (GS) and dormant season (DS), have not being well studied and documented. In this study, we compared RS, RH, RR, and their responses to soil temperature (T5) and moisture (θ5) in daytime vs. nighttime and GS vs. DS in a subalpine forest in 2011. In GS, nighttime RS and RH rates were 30.5 ± 4.4% (mean ± SE) and 30.2 ± 6.5% lower than in daytime, while in DS, they were 35...
November 29, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27891142/genetic-structure-and-evolutionary-history-of-three-alpine-sclerophyllous-oaks-in-east-himalaya-hengduan-mountains-and-adjacent-regions
#12
Li Feng, Qi-Jian Zheng, Zeng-Qiang Qian, Jia Yang, Yan-Ping Zhang, Zhong-Hu Li, Gui-Fang Zhao
The East Himalaya-Hengduan Mountains (EH-HM) region has a high biodiversity and harbors numerous endemic alpine plants. This is probably the result of combined orographic and climate oscillations occurring since late Tertiary. Here, we determined the genetic structure and evolutionary history of alpine oak species (including Quercus spinosa, Quercus aquifolioides, and Quercus rehderiana) using both cytoplasmic-nuclear markers and ecological niche models (ENMs), and elucidated the impacts of climate oscillations and environmental heterogeneity on their population demography...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890773/primary-photosensitization-caused-by-ingestion-of-froelichia-humboldtiana-by-dairy-goats
#13
Danielle S Santos, Caio C B Silva, Valber O Araújo, Maria de Fátima Souza, Patrícia B Lacerda-Lucena, Sara V D Simões, Franklin Riet-Correa, Ricardo B Lucena
This study aimed to describe the first report of an outbreak of primary photosensitization in dairy goats caused by Froelichia humboldtiana. The disease occurred from March to May 2014, in a mixed flock of 15 Saanen, Alpine, and crossbred lactating goats. The entire flock was affected; however, the Saanen and cross-bred goats developed more severe lesions, and their milk production decreased by as much as 75%. Lesions were progressive and consisted of skin hyperemia, edema, and necrosis, especially in depigmented areas...
November 24, 2016: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27887836/modelling-white-water-rafting-suitability-in-a-hydropower-regulated-alpine-river
#14
Mauro Carolli, Guido Zolezzi, Davide Geneletti, Annunziato Siviglia, Fabiano Carolli, Oscar Cainelli
Cultural and recreational river ecosystem services and their relations with the flow regime are still poorly investigated. We develop a modelling-based approach to assess recreational flow requirements and the spatially distributed river suitability for white-water rafting, a typical service offered by mountain streams, with potential conflicts of interest with hydropower regulation. The approach is based on the principles of habitat suitability modelling using water depth as the main attribute, with preference curves defined through interviews with local rafting guides...
November 22, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27885769/diverging-shrub-and-tree-growth-from-the-polar-to-the-mediterranean-biomes-across-the-european-continent
#15
Elena Pellizzari, J Julio Camarero, Antonio Gazol, Elena Granda, Rohan Shetti, Martin Wilmking, Pavel Moiseev, Mario Pividori, Marco Carrer
Climate warming is expected to enhance productivity and growth of woody plants, particularly in temperature-limited environments at the northernmost or uppermost limits of their distribution. However, this warming is spatially uneven and temporally variable, and the rise in temperatures differently affects biomes and growth forms. Here, applying a dendroecological approach with generalized additive mixed models, we analysed how the growth of shrubby junipers and coexisting trees (larch and pine species) responds to rising temperatures along a 5000-km latitudinal range including sites from the Polar, Alpine to the Mediterranean biomes...
November 25, 2016: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27884864/sports-injuries-and-illnesses-in-the-lillehammer-2016-youth-olympic-winter-games
#16
Kathrin Steffen, Christine Holm Moseid, Lars Engebretsen, Pia K Søberg, Olav Amundsen, Kristian Holm, Thomas Moger, Torbjørn Soligard
BACKGROUND: Injury and illness surveillance during high-level youth sports events is an important first step in health prevention and caretaking of the young elite athletes. AIM: To analyse injuries and illnesses that occurred during the 10 days 2nd Youth Olympic Winter Games (YOG), held in Lillehammer 2016. METHODS: We recorded the daily occurrence (or non-occurrence) of injuries and illnesses through the reporting of (1) all National Olympic Committee (NOC) medical teams and (2) the polyclinic and medical venues by the Lillehammer Organising Committee (LYOCOG) medical staff...
November 24, 2016: British Journal of Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27876390/landscape-changes-traditional-ecological-knowledge-and-future-scenarios-in-the-alps-a-holistic-ecological-approach
#17
Clara Tattoni, Elena Ianni, Davide Geneletti, Paolo Zatelli, Marco Ciolli
In recent decades, a dramatic landscape change has occurred in the European alpine region: open areas have been naturally recolonized by forests as traditional agricultural and forest activities were reduced and reorganized. Land use changes (LUC) are generally measured through GIS and photo interpretation techniques, but despite many studies focused on this phenomenon and its effects on biodiversity and on the environment in general, there is a lack of information about the transformation of the human-environment connection...
November 19, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27870888/phylogeographic-insights-into-a-peripheral-refugium-the-importance-of-cumulative-effect-of-glaciation-on-the-genetic-structure-of-two-endemic-plants
#18
Gabriele Casazza, Fabrizio Grassi, Giovanni Zecca, Luigi Minuto
Quaternary glaciations and mostly last glacial maximum have shaped the contemporary distribution of many species in the Alps. However, in the Maritime and Ligurian Alps a more complex picture is suggested by the presence of many Tertiary paleoendemisms and by the divergence time between lineages in one endemic species predating the Late Pleistocene glaciation. The low number of endemic species studied limits the understanding of the processes that took place within this region. We used species distribution models and phylogeographical methods to infer glacial refugia and to reconstruct the phylogeographical pattern of Silene cordifolia All...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27862701/climate-induced-glacier-and-snow-loss-imperils-alpine-stream-insects
#19
J Joseph Giersch, Scott Hotaling, Ryan P Kovach, Leslie A Jones, Clint C Muhlfeld
Climate warming is causing rapid loss of glaciers and snowpack in mountainous regions worldwide. These changes are predicted to negatively impact the habitats of many range-restricted species, particularly endemic, mountaintop species dependent on the unique thermal and hydrologic conditions found only in glacier-fed and snowmelt-driven alpine streams. Though progress has been made, existing understanding of the status, distribution, and ecology of alpine aquatic species, particularly in North America, is lacking, thereby hindering conservation and management programs...
November 14, 2016: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27861616/seasonal-and-inter-annual-variations-in-carbon-dioxide-exchange-over-an-alpine-grassland-in-the-eastern-qinghai-tibetan-plateau
#20
Lunyu Shang, Yu Zhang, Shihua Lyu, Shaoying Wang
This work analyzed carbon dioxide exchange and its controlling factors over an alpine grassland on the eastern Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau. The main results show that air temperature and photosynthetically active radiation are two dominant factors controlling daily gross primary production. Soil temperature and soil water content are the main factors controlling ecosystem respiration. Canopy photosynthetic activity is also responsible for the variation of daily ecosystem respiration other than environmental factors...
2016: PloS One
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