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Maria Westin, Marita L Harringe, Björn Engström, Marie Alricsson, Suzanne Werner
Background: There is a high risk for anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries in alpine skiers. To reduce or try to prevent these injuries, intrinsic and extrinsic risk factors need to be identified. Purpose: To identify possible intrinsic and extrinsic ACL injury risk factors among competitive adolescent alpine skiers. Study Design: Case-control study; Level of evidence, 3. Methods: Between 2006 and 2009, a cohort of 339 alpine ski students (176 male, 163 female) from Swedish ski high schools were prospectively observed in terms of ACL injuries...
April 2018: Orthopaedic Journal of Sports Medicine
Domenico Savio, Philipp Stadler, Georg H Reischer, Alexander K T Kirschner, Katalin Demeter, Rita Linke, Alfred P Blaschke, Regina Sommer, Ulrich Szewzyk, Inés C Wilhartitz, Robert L Mach, Hermann Stadler, Andreas H Farnleitner
Over the past 15 years, pioneering interdisciplinary research has been performed on the microbiology of hydrogeologically well-defined alpine karst springs located in the Northern Calcareous Alps (NCA) of Austria. This article gives an overview on these activities and links them to other relevant research. Results from the NCA springs and comparable sites revealed that spring water harbors abundant natural microbial communities even in aquifers with high water residence times and the absence of immediate surface influence...
May 2018: WIREs. Water
Samuel M Luedin, Joël F Pothier, Francesco Danza, Nicola Storelli, Niels-Ulrik Frigaard, Matthias Wittwer, Mauro Tonolla
" Thiodictyon syntrophicum" sp. nov. strain Cad16T is a photoautotrophic purple sulfur bacterium belonging to the family of Chromatiaceae in the class of Gammaproteobacteria . The type strain Cad16T was isolated from the chemocline of the alpine meromictic Lake Cadagno in Switzerland. Strain Cad16T represents a key species within this sulfur-driven bacterial ecosystem with respect to carbon fixation. The 7.74-Mbp genome of strain Cad16T has been sequenced and annotated. It encodes 6237 predicted protein sequences and 59 RNA sequences...
2018: Standards in Genomic Sciences
Alberto Romanzin, Mirco Corazzin, Edi Piasentier, Stefano Bovolenta
During grazing on Alpine pastures, the use of concentrates in dairy cows' diet leads to a reduction of the environmental sustainability of farms, and influences the selective pressure on some plant species. In order to minimize the use of concentrates, it is imperative to obtain data on the grazing behavior of cows. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of concentrate levels on the behavior of dairy cows during grazing. One hundred and ten lactating Italian Simmental cows, that sequentially grazed two pastures characterized by Poion alpinae (Poion) and Seslerion caeruleae (Seslerion) alliance, were considered...
May 16, 2018: Animals: An Open Access Journal From MDPI
Hai-Rui Liu, Qing-Bo Gao, Fa-Qi Zhang, Gulzar Khan, Shi-Long Chen
The varying topography and environment that resulted from paleoorogeny and climate fluctuations of the Himalaya-Hengduan Mountains (HHM) areas had a considerable impact on the evolution of biota during the Quaternary. To understand the phylogeographic pattern and historical dynamics of Triosteum himalayanum (Caprifoliaceae), we sequenced three chloroplast DNA fragments ( rbcL-accD , rps15-ycf1 , and trnH-psbA ) from 238 individuals representing 20 populations. Nineteen haplotypes (H1-H19) were identified based on 23 single-site mutations and eight indels...
2018: PeerJ
Elizabeth Tinsley Johnson, Noah Snyder-Mackler, Amy Lu, Thore J Bergman, Jacinta C Beehner
Many nonseasonally breeding mammals demonstrate some degree of synchrony in births, which is generally associated with ecological factors that mediate fecundity. However, disruptive social events, such as alpha male replacements, also have the potential to affect the timing of female reproduction. Here, we examined reproductive seasonality in a wild population of geladas ( Theropithecus gelada ) living at high altitudes in an afro-alpine ecosystem in Ethiopia. Using 9 years of demographic data (2006-2014), we determined that, while females gave birth year-round, a seasonal peak in births coincided with peak green grass availability (their staple food source)...
May 2018: Behavioral Ecology: Official Journal of the International Society for Behavioral Ecology
Shan-Shan Sun, Peng-Cheng Fu, Xiao-Jun Zhou, Yan-Wei Cheng, Fa-Qi Zhang, Shi-Long Chen, Qing-Bo Gao
The chloroplast (cp) genome is useful in the study of phylogenomics, molecular dating, and molecular evolution. Gentiana sect. Kudoa is a predominantly alpine flowering plant that is valued for its contributions to medicine, ecology, and horticulture. Previous evolutionary studies showed that the plastid gene loss pattern and intra-sectional phylogenetics in sect. Kudoa are still unclear. In this study, we compared 11 Gentiana plastomes, including 7 newly sequenced plastomes from sect. Kudoa , to represent its three serious: ser...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
Peng Li, Changhui Peng, Meng Wang, Yunpeng Luo, Mingxu Li, Kerou Zhang, Dingling Zhang, Qiuan Zhu
Autumn phenological shifts induced by environmental change have resulted in substantial impacts on ecosystem processes. However, autumn phenology and its multiple related controlling factors have not been well studied. In this study, the spatiotemporal patterns of the end date of the vegetation growing season (EGS) and their multiple controls (climate change, summer vegetation growth and human activities) over the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau (QTP) were investigated using the satellite-derived normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) based on GIMMS3g datasets during 1982-2012...
May 11, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Robert Mesibov
Lissodesmus nivalis sp. n. is described from 1450-1550 m elevation on the treeless, alpine Ben Lomond plateau in northeast Tasmania, Australia. The new species is distinguished from all other Tasmanian and Victorian Lissodesmus species by a unique combination of gonopod telopodite features: solenomere without a pre-apical process, tibiotarsus Y-shaped, femoral process L-shaped with forked tips, prefemoral process with a long comb of teeth below an irregularly dentate apical margin, and a roughened "shoulder process" near the base of the prefemoral process...
2018: ZooKeys
Lenka Procházková, Daniel Remias, Andreas Holzinger, Tomáš Řezanka, Linda Nedbalová
Based on analyses of multiple molecular markers (18S rDNA, ITS1, ITS2 rDNA, rbc L), an alga that causes red snow on the melting ice cover of a high-alpine lake in the High Tatras (Slovakia) was shown to be identical with Chlainomonas sp. growing in a similar habitat in the Tyrolean Alps (Austria). Both populations consisted mostly of smooth-walled quadriflagellates. They occurred in slush, and shared similar photosynthetic performances (photoinhibition above 1300 µmol photons m-2 s-1 ), very high levels of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA, 64% and 74% respectively) and abundant astaxanthin accumulation, comparable to the red spores of Chlamydomonas nivalis (Bauer) Wille...
2018: European Journal of Phycology
Siegfried Aigner, Klaus Herburger, Andreas Holzinger, Ulf Karsten
Many alpine streams inhabit conspicuous epilithic biofilms on pebbles and rocks that are formed by members of the cyanobacterial genus Chamaesiphon (Synechococcales). In the Austrian Alps, some Chamaesiphon species can even overgrow up to 70% of the surface of river rocks, and hence they must play an important but still unstudied ecological role in the organic matter flux. Since photo-biological traits have not been investigated so far, photosynthetic features, pigments, and UV-sunscreen compounds were studied in three Chamaesiphon morphospecies ( C...
2018: Journal of Applied Phycology
Giuseppe M Vacca, Giorgia Stocco, Maria L Dettori, Emanuela Pira, Giovanni Bittante, Michele Pazzola
Goat milk and cheese production is continuously increasing and milk composition and coagulation properties (MCP) are useful tools to predict cheesemaking aptitude. The present study was planned to investigate the extension of lactodynamographic analysis up to 60 min in goat milk, to measure the farm and individual factors, and to investigate differences among 6 goat breeds. Daily milk yield (dMY) was recorded and milk samples collected from 1,272 goats reared in 35 farms. Goats were of 6 different breeds: Saanen and Camosciata delle Alpi for the Alpine type, and Murciano-Granadina, Maltese, Sarda, and Sarda Primitiva for the Mediterranean type...
May 9, 2018: Journal of Dairy Science
A B Cunningham, J A Brinckmann, S-J Pei, P Luo, U Schippmann, X Long, Y-F Bi
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Fritillaria cirrhosa D. Don bulbs contain alkaloids and are one of the most intensively exploited alpine Himalayan medicinal species. In terms of proprietary medicines, our study shows that 210 F. cirrhosa products are offered by 46 suppliers, most of which (44) are situated in China and two in Nepal. A widepread commercial use is as one of the main ingredients in cough syrups. A well known example is "Nin Jiom Pei Pa Koa Herbal Cough & Throat Syrup", which typically contains more F...
May 8, 2018: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
Minghua Song, Yu Guo, Feihai Yu, Xianzhou Zhang, Guangmin Cao, Johannes H C Cornelissen
Input of labile organic carbon can enhance decomposition of extant soil organic carbon (SOC) through priming. We hypothesized that long-term nitrogen (N) input in different chemical forms alters SOC pools by altering priming effects associated with N-mediated changes in plants and soil microbes. The hypothesis was tested by integrating field experimental data of plants, soil microbes and two incubation experiments with soils that had experienced 10 years of N enrichment with three chemical forms (ammonium, nitrate and both ammonium and nitrate) in an alpine meadow on the Tibetan Plateau...
May 10, 2018: Global Change Biology
Xiaolong Wang, Wei Zhao, Lin Li, Jian You, Biao Ni, Xia Chen
Four small oval populations and five large intensive populations of Rhododendron aureum growing at the alpine in Changbai Mountain (China) were studied in two types of habitat (in the tundra and in Betula ermanii forest). Identification and delimitation of genets were inferred from excavation in small populations and from amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) markers by the standardized sampling design in large populations. Clonal architecture and clonal diversity were then estimated. For the four small populations, they were monoclonal, the spacer length (18...
2018: PloS One
Ying Zhi Ning, Ting Ting Wang, Wei Ning Wu, Ling Yun Chen, Guo Zhen DU
In typical alpine meadow of southern Gansu Province, five sampling sites by fertilizer diammonium phosphate (DAP) addition ranging from 0 g·m-2 to 120 g·m-2 were set in order to examine the response of soil ciliate communities to different concentrations of DAP. An investigation on the abundance and species richness of soil ciliates was carried out by non-flooded Petri dish, observation in vivo and three-level ten-fold dilution methods. Soil physicochemical factors including soil water content, pH value, contents of soil total nitrogen, total phosphorus and organic carbon at different sites were also measured...
May 18, 2017: Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao, the Journal of Applied Ecology
Yu Jie Niu, Jian Wei Zhou, Si Wei Yang, Gui Zhen Wang, Li Liu, Li Min Hua
For understanding the effect of aspect and altitude of hill on soil moisture and temperature as well as the vegetation community, we selected an alpine meadow located on a hill in north-eastern Tibet Plateau as our study area. Data on soil moisture and temperature, as well as plant distribution pattern in this mountain ecosystem were collected. We used regression analysis, CCA ordination and variance decomposition, to determine the impacts of the key factors (aspect, altitude, soil temperature and moisture) on plant diversity distribution in 189 sample sites of the hill...
May 18, 2017: Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao, the Journal of Applied Ecology
Yu Jie Niu, Si Wei Yang, Gui Zhen Wang, Li Liu, Li Min Hua
The research selected the plots of six grazing intensities in an alpine meadow in north-eastern Tibet Plateau in four years (2012-2015) and studied the relation between ten species diversity indexes, including two measured indexes (Richness and Abundance) in field and two indexes of each dominance, evenness, richness, integrated indexes, and grazing intensity as well as grazing time aiming at scientific selection of biodiversity index under grazing disturbance. The results indicated that the abundance was a better index than importance value to calculate biodiversity level because it was more sensitive to grazing disturbance...
June 18, 2017: Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao, the Journal of Applied Ecology
Min Xia Liu
The adaptation strategies of plant populations under different disturbance conditions could be reflected by the distribution pattern and correlation. Potentilla fruticosais the dominant species in alpine meadow community in south of Gansu Province, China. Based on the field investigation, P. fruticosa population spatial distribution pattern and its correlation were studied by using Ripley K function of spatial point pattern analysis. The results showed that the distribution of P. fruticosa population had significant differences on different aspects, and its species richness, diversity index and coverage showed a decreasing trend from north to south slope...
June 18, 2017: Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao, the Journal of Applied Ecology
Zhi Jie Li, Wan Qin Yang, Ruo Yang He, Li Yan Zhuang, Kai Jun Yang, Qun Liu, Ting Ting Li, Zhen Feng Xu
Warming-induced decrease in seasonal snow cover has a great potential to affect soil nitrogen cycle in alpine cold forest ecosystems. In this study, a wooden-shelter method was used to remove the snow accumulation. Soil nitrogen pools and mineralization rates in the snow removal and control plots were measured synchronously in three critical periods (early snow cover, deep snow cover and snow cover melting) in a subalpine spruce forest of western Sichuan, China. Seasonal snow cover kept soil from cold air temperature...
June 18, 2017: Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao, the Journal of Applied Ecology
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