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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334304/livestock-grazing-shapes-the-vegetation-structure-and-subsequent-habitat-use-by-the-endangered-skipper-pyrgus-ruralis-lagunae-lepidoptera-hesperiidae
#1
Daniel A Marschalek, David K Faulkner, Douglas H Deutschman
Many species adapted to alpine and montane meadow ecosystems are at risk of extinction. The skipper Pyrgus ruralis lagunae Scott is a mountaintop butterfly restricted to San Diego County, CA, a federally listed endangered species, and is in imminent risk of extinction. Historically, P. r. lagunae was found in the Laguna and Palomar mountains. We did not detect the skipper in the Laguna Mountains, and the species has likely been extirpated from this area, which represents half of its historical range and is the type locality...
March 18, 2017: Environmental Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334284/genomic-diversity-guides-conservation-strategies-among-rare-terrestrial-orchid-species-when-taxonomy-remains-uncertain
#2
Collin W Ahrens, Megan A Supple, Nicola C Aitken, David J Cantrill, Justin O Borevitz, Elizabeth A James
Background and Aims: Species are often used as the unit for conservation, but may not be suitable for species complexes where taxa are difficult to distinguish. Under such circumstances, it may be more appropriate to consider species groups or populations as evolutionarily significant units (ESUs). A population genomic approach was employed to investigate the diversity within and among closely related species to create a more robust, lineage-specific conservation strategy for a nationally endangered terrestrial orchid and its relatives from south-eastern Australia...
March 15, 2017: Annals of Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326097/different-proteome-profiles-between-male-and-female-populus-cathayana-exposed-to-uv-b-radiation
#3
Yunxiang Zhang, Lihua Feng, Hao Jiang, Yuanbin Zhang, Sheng Zhang
With increasing altitude, solar UV-B radiation is enhanced. Based on the phenomenon of male-biased sex ratio of Populus cathayana Rehder in high altitude alpine area, we hypothesized that males have a faster and more sophisticated responsive mechanism to high UV-B radiation than that of females. Our previous studies have shown sexually different responses to high UV-B radiation were existed in P. cathayana at the morphological, physiological, and transcriptomic levels. However, the responses at the proteomic level remain unclear...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325987/new-and-poorly-known-palaearctic-fungus-gnats-diptera-sciaroidea
#4
Jukka Salmela, Levente-Péter Kolcsár
BACKGROUND: Fungus gnats (Sciaroidea) are a globally species rich group of lower Diptera. In Europe, Fennoscandian peninsula in particular holds a notable diversity, ca. 1000 species, of which 10 % are still unnamed. Fungus gnats are predominantly terrestrial insects, but some species dwell in wetland habitats. NEW INFORMATION: Eight new fungus gnat species, belonging to the families Keroplatidae (Orfelia boreoalpina Salmela sp.n.) and Mycetophilidae (Sciophila holopaineni Salmela sp...
2017: Biodiversity Data Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325898/experimental-evidence-suggests-that-specular-reflectance-and-glossy-appearance-help-amplify-warning-signals
#5
Samuel J Waldron, John A Endler, Janne K Valkonen, Atsushi Honma, Susanne Dobler, Johanna Mappes
Specular reflection appears as a bright spot or highlight on any smooth glossy convex surface and is caused by a near mirror-like reflectance off the surface. Convex shapes always provide the ideal geometry for highlights, areas of very strong reflectance, regardless of the orientation of the surface or position of the receiver. Despite highlights and glossy appearance being common in chemically defended insects, their potential signalling function is unknown. We tested the role of highlights in warning colouration of a chemically defended, alpine leaf beetle, Oreina cacaliae...
March 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28321514/surviving-at-high-elevations-an-inter-and-intra-specific-analysis-in-a-mountain-bird-community
#6
G Bastianelli, G Tavecchia, L Meléndez, J Seoane, J R Obeso, P Laiolo
Elevation represents an important selection agent on self-maintenance traits and correlated life histories in birds, but no study has analysed whether life-history variation along this environmental cline is consistent among and within species. In a sympatric community of passerines, we analysed how the average adult survival of 25 open-habitat species varied with their elevational distribution and how adult survival varied with elevation at the intra-specific level. For such purpose, we estimated intra-specific variation in adult survival in two mountainous species, the Water pipit (Anthus spinoletta) and the Northern wheatear (Oenanthe oenanthe) in NW Spain, by means of capture-recapture analyses...
March 20, 2017: Oecologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318700/effects-of-warming-and-nitrogen-deposition-on-ch4-co2-and-n2o-emissions-in-alpine-grassland-ecosystems-of-the-qinghai-tibetan-plateau
#7
Zhenzhen Zhao, Shikui Dong, Xiaoman Jiang, Shiliang Liu, Hanzhong Ji, Yu Li, Yuhui Han, Wei Sha
Increases in nitrogen (N) deposition along with climate warming can change the dynamics of carbon and nitrogen in the soil, and alter greenhouse gases (GHGs) fluxes. To examine how N deposition and warming affect GHGs (CH4, CO2 and N2O) fluxes in alpine grasslands, we conducted experiments in an alpine meadow (AM), alpine-steppe (AS), and alpine cultivated grassland (CG) on the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau (QTP). We simulated N deposition by treating soil with ammonium nitrate (NH4NO3) (8kgNha(-1)year(-1)), a warming treatment using an open top chamber (OTC) was carried out, and a combined treatment of warming and N deposition (8kgNha(-1)year(-1)) was conducted...
March 16, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317109/what-if-plant-functional-types-conceal-species-specific-responses-to-environment-study-on-arctic-shrub-communities
#8
Patrick Saccone, Kristiina Hoikka, Risto Virtanen
Plant functional types (PFT) are increasingly used to outline biome-scale plant-environment relationship and predict global change effects on community structure. However, the potentials and limitations of the PFT approach have to be tested as they can be less sensitive than trait-based or species-level approaches. Here, we compare the responses of deciduous-evergreen shrub PFTs and species to gradual snow-related environmental conditions by also considering effects of aboveground architectural traits and neighboring shrubs...
March 19, 2017: Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315057/changes-in-precipitating-snow-chemistry-with-seasonality-in-the-remote-laohugou-glacier-basin-western-qilian-mountains
#9
Zhiwen Dong, Dahe Qin, Xiang Qin, Jianyong Cui, Shichang Kang
Trace elements in the atmosphere could provide information about regional atmospheric pollution. This study presented a whole year of precipitation observation data regarding the concentrations of trace metals (e.g., Cr, Ni, Cu, Mn, Cd, Mo, Pb, Sb, Ti, and Zn), and a TEM-EDX (transmission electron microscope-energy dispersive X-ray spectrometer) analysis from June 2014 to September 2015 at a remote alpine glacier basin in Northwest China, the Laohugou (LHG) basin (4200 m a.s.l.), to determine the regional scale of atmospheric conditions and chemical processing in the free troposphere in the region...
March 18, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28314608/trophic-availability-buffers-the-detrimental-effects-of-clogging-in-an-alpine-stream
#10
Alberto Doretto, Francesca Bona, Elena Piano, Ilaria Zanin, Anna Chiara Eandi, Stefano Fenoglio
Clogging, the streambed colmation by fine sediments, is an important widespread source of impact affecting freshwaters. Alterations in stream morphology and hydrology, added to the effects of global climate change, are responsible for this phenomenon, that is particularly pernicious in mountainous lotic systems naturally characterized by coarse substrates. Among the studies investigating this issue some were descriptive, while others used artificial substrates to compare ongoing fine sediment accumulation and macroinvertebrate assemblage recruitment...
March 14, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303453/altitudinal-patterns-and-controls-of-trace-metal-distribution-in-soils-of-a-remote-high-mountain-southwest-china
#11
Rui Li, Haijian Bing, Yanhong Wu, Jun Zhou, Zhongxiang Xiang
The aim of this study is to reveal the effects of regional human activity on trace metal accumulation in remote alpine ecosystems under long-distance atmospheric transport. Trace metals (Cd, Pb, and Zn) in soils of the Mt. Luoji, Southwest China, were investigated along a large altitudinal gradient [2200-3850 m above sea level (a.s.l.)] to elaborate the key factors controlling their distribution by Pb isotopic composition and statistical models. The concentrations of Cd, Pb, and Zn in the surface soils (O and A horizons) were relatively low at the altitudes of 3500-3700 m a...
March 16, 2017: Environmental Geochemistry and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28295022/impacts-of-twenty-years-of-experimental-warming-on-soil-carbon-nitrogen-moisture-and-soil-mites-across-alpine-subarctic-tundra-communities
#12
Juha M Alatalo, Annika K Jägerbrand, Jaanis Juhanson, Anders Michelsen, Peter Ľuptáčik
High-altitude and alpine areas are predicted to experience rapid and substantial increases in future temperature, which may have serious impacts on soil carbon, nutrient and soil fauna. Here we report the impact of 20 years of experimental warming on soil properties and soil mites in three contrasting plant communities in alpine/subarctic Sweden. Long-term warming decreased juvenile oribatid mite density, but had no effect on adult oribatids density, total mite density, any major mite group or the most common species...
March 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28291234/collocated-observations-of-cloud-condensation-nuclei-particle-size-distributions-and-chemical-composition
#13
Julia Schmale, Silvia Henning, Bas Henzing, Helmi Keskinen, Karine Sellegri, Jurgita Ovadnevaite, Aikaterini Bougiatioti, Nikos Kalivitis, Iasonas Stavroulas, Anne Jefferson, Minsu Park, Patrick Schlag, Adam Kristensson, Yoko Iwamoto, Kirsty Pringle, Carly Reddington, Pasi Aalto, Mikko Äijälä, Urs Baltensperger, Jakub Bialek, Wolfram Birmili, Nicolas Bukowiecki, Mikael Ehn, Ann Mari Fjæraa, Markus Fiebig, Göran Frank, Roman Fröhlich, Arnoud Frumau, Masaki Furuya, Emanuel Hammer, Liine Heikkinen, Erik Herrmann, Rupert Holzinger, Hiroyuki Hyono, Maria Kanakidou, Astrid Kiendler-Scharr, Kento Kinouchi, Gerard Kos, Markku Kulmala, Nikolaos Mihalopoulos, Ghislain Motos, Athanasios Nenes, Colin O'Dowd, Mikhail Paramonov, Tuukka Petäjä, David Picard, Laurent Poulain, André Stephan Henry Prévôt, Jay Slowik, Andre Sonntag, Erik Swietlicki, Birgitta Svenningsson, Hiroshi Tsurumaru, Alfred Wiedensohler, Cerina Wittbom, John A Ogren, Atsushi Matsuki, Seong Soo Yum, Cathrine Lund Myhre, Ken Carslaw, Frank Stratmann, Martin Gysel
Cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) number concentrations alongside with submicrometer particle number size distributions and particle chemical composition have been measured at atmospheric observatories of the Aerosols, Clouds, and Trace gases Research InfraStructure (ACTRIS) as well as other international sites over multiple years. Here, harmonized data records from 11 observatories are summarized, spanning 98,677 instrument hours for CCN data, 157,880 for particle number size distributions, and 70,817 for chemical composition data...
March 14, 2017: Scientific Data
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28284643/climate-change-will-seriously-impact-bird-species-dwelling-above-the-treeline-a-prospective-study-for-the-italian-alps
#14
Alessandro Ferrarini, Juha M Alatalo, Marco Gustin
High mountain systems are predicted to be especially vulnerable to the impact of climate change, with the climatically-constrained tree limit rapidly shifted upslope. In turn, the impact of upward treeline migration on mountain-dwelling bird species is expected to significantly reduce habitat suitability. We developed the first projection of the expected climate-driven rise of the whole treeline (19,256km) of the Italian Alps. The study area extends over 20,700km(2), ranging over 550km in longitude and 320km in latitude...
March 8, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28284634/contamination-sources-and-distribution-patterns-of-pharmaceuticals-and-personal-care-products-in-alpine-rivers-strongly-affected-by-tourism
#15
Ladislav Mandaric, Elena Diamantini, Elisa Stella, Karina Cano-Paoli, Jennifer Valle-Sistac, Daniel Molins-Delgado, Alberto Bellin, Gabriele Chiogna, Bruno Majone, M Silvia Diaz-Cruz, Sergi Sabater, Damia Barcelo, Mira Petrovic
Knowledge regarding the impact of tourism on the emergence of pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) in Alpine river waters is limited and scarce. Therefore, a study on the occurrence patterns and spatiotemporal variability of 105 PPCPs in an Alpine river basin located in the Trentino-Alto Adige region (North-Eastern Italy) has been conducted. We observed that the total concentration of analyzed PPCPs was generally higher in all sampling sites during winter than in the summer. The analysis of tourist data revealed that during both sampling campaigns the number of tourists was lower in the downstream sites in comparison with the upstream area of the basin (Val di Sole)...
March 8, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28282041/habitat-specific-patterns-and-drivers-of-bacterial-%C3%AE-diversity-in-china-s-drylands
#16
Xiao-Bo Wang, Xiao-Tao Lü, Jing Yao, Zheng-Wen Wang, Ye Deng, Wei-Xin Cheng, Ji-Zhong Zhou, Xing-Guo Han
The existence of biogeographic patterns among most free-living microbial taxa has been well established, yet little is known about the underlying mechanisms that shape these patterns. Here, we examined soil bacterial β-diversity across different habitats in the drylands of northern China. We evaluated the relative importance of environmental factors versus geographic distance to a distance-decay relationship, which would be explained by the relative effect of basic ecological processes recognized as drivers of diversity patterns in macrobial theoretical models such as selection and dispersal...
March 10, 2017: ISME Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28280941/diversity-and-community-structure-of-ectomycorrhizal-fungi-associated-with-larix-chinensis-across-the-alpine-treeline-ecotone-of-taibai-mountain
#17
Qisheng Han, Jian Huang, Dongfeng Long, Xiaobing Wang, Jianjun Liu
Alpine treeline ecotones represent ecosystems that are vulnerable to climate change. We investigated the ectomycorrhizal (ECM) community, which has potential to stabilize alpine ecosystems. ECM communities associated with Larix chinensis were studied in four zones along a natural ecotone from a mixed forest stand over pure forest stands, the timberline, and eventually, the treeline (3050-3450 m) in Tabai Mountain, China. Sixty operational taxonomic units (OTUs) of ECM fungi were identified by sequencing the rDNA internal transcribed spacer of ECM tips...
March 9, 2017: Mycorrhiza
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28272927/muscle-degeneration-associated-with-rotator-cuff-tendon-release-and-or-denervation-in-sheep
#18
Christian Gerber, Dominik C Meyer, Martin Flück, Paola Valdivieso, Brigitte von Rechenberg, Mario C Benn, Karl Wieser
BACKGROUND: The effect of an additional neurological injury (suprascapular nerve traction injury) to a chronically retracted rotator cuff muscle is incompletely understood and warrants clarification. PURPOSE: To investigate the microscopic and macroscopic muscle degeneration patterns caused by tendon release and/or muscle denervation in a sheep rotator cuff model. STUDY DESIGN: Controlled laboratory study. METHODS: Infraspinatus muscle biopsy specimens (for histological analysis) were obtained from 18 Swiss alpine sheep before and 16 weeks after release of the infraspinatus tendon (tenotomy [T] group; n = 6), transection of the suprascapular nerve (neurectomy [N] group; n = 6), or tendon release plus nerve transection (tenotomy + neurectomy [T&N] group; n = 6)...
March 2017: American Journal of Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28271353/magnetic-biomonitoring-of-roadside-pollution-in-the-restricted-midagahara-area-of-mt-tateyama-toyama-japan
#19
Kazuo Kawasaki, Keiji Horikawa, Hideo Sakai
Magnetic biomonitoring techniques and in situ topsoil magnetic susceptibility measurements have been shown to be rapid, cost-effective, and useful methods for investigating roadside pollution. However, combustible vegetation in samples makes it very difficult to use them in high-temperature magnetic experiments although the thermal alteration of spontaneous magnetization is a fundamental magnetic property and can be used to identify reliably the magnetic minerals. Here, we report the first magnetic biomonitoring results of dust deposited on plant leaves along the Tateyama-Kurobe Alpine route at the highly protected Midagahara wetland areas of Mt...
March 7, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28268240/-causes-of-accidents-and-risk-factors-among-adults-during-recreational-sledging-tobogganing-a-retrospective-study
#20
Gerhard Ruedl, Elena Pocecco, Christoph Raas, Peter U Brucker, Klaus Greier, Martin Burtscher
Background Recreational sledging (tobogganing) is a very popular winter sport in Alpine regions. Ascending and sledging down on the same track, however, might be associated with a certain risk of injury. Therefore, the aim of this study was to gather data on the causes of accidents and potential risk factors during recreational sledging. Methods Adults indulging in recreational sledging were interviewed between March 2013 and March 2015 at six public sledging tracks in the environs of the city of Innsbruck (Tyrol, Austria) on demographics, skill level, sledging frequency, risk-taking behavior, use of protective gear, type of sledge used, previous sledging-related injuries, injured body parts and causes of accidents...
March 7, 2017: Sportverletzung Sportschaden: Organ der Gesellschaft Für Orthopädisch-Traumatologische Sportmedizin
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