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Rosa Margesin, De-Chao Zhang, Luciana Albuquerque, Hugo J C Froufe, Conceição Egas, Milton S da Costa
A Gram-stain-negative, rod-shaped, motile, catalase-positive and cytochrome c oxidase-positive bacterial strain, designated AM20-91T , was isolated from alpine forest soil. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequencing showed that strain AM20-91T was related to the genus Lysobacter and had highest 16S rRNA gene sequence similarities to the type strains of Lysobacter novalis THG-PC7T (97.8 %), Luteimonas tolerans UM1T (97.7 %) and Lysobacter ximonensis XM415T (97.0 %). The strain contained ubiquinone 8 as the predominant respiratory quinone; its polar lipid profile contained phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylglycerol, diphosphatidylglycerol and two unidentified aminophospholipids...
March 16, 2018: International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology
Mai-He Li, Yong Jiang, Ao Wang, Xiaobin Li, Wanze Zhu, Cai-Feng Yan, Zhong Du, Zheng Shi, Jingpin Lei, Leonie Schönbeck, Peng He, Fei-Hai Yu, Xue Wang
The low-temperature limited alpine treeline is one of the most obvious boundaries in mountain landscapes. The question of whether resource limitation is the physiological mechanism for the formation of the alpine treeline is still waiting for conclusive evidence and answers. We therefore examined non-structural carbohydrates (NSC) and nitrogen (N) in treeline trees (TATs) and low-elevation trees (LETs) in both summer and winter in 11 alpine treeline cases ranging from subtropical monsoon to temperate continental climates across Eurasia...
March 12, 2018: Tree Physiology
Silvia Revoltella, Giorgia Baraldo, Birgit Waltenberger, Stefan Schwaiger, Philipp Kofler, Julia Moesslacher, Astrid Huber-Seidel, Konrad Pagitz, Roland Kohl, Pidder Jansen-Duerr, Hermann Stuppner
NADPH oxidase 4 (Nox4) has recently been implicated as driving force in cellular senescence. Thus, there is growing interest to develop Nox4 inhibitors, which might be valuable agents for cosmeceutical applications. Alpine plants represent a valuable source for the identification of novel bioactive natural products with anti-ageing effects, especially substances that protect plants against UV radiation, which is also known to contribute to the ageing of human skin. Therefore, the aim of this study was to identify novel Nox4 inhibitors from alpine plants...
March 14, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Hamish McGowan, John Nikolaus Callow, Joshua Soderholm, Gavan McGrath, Micheline Campbell, Jian-Xin Zhao
Annual resolution reconstructions of alpine temperatures are rare, particularly for the Southern Hemisphere, while no snow cover reconstructions exist. These records are essential to place in context the impact of anthropogenic global warming against historical major natural climate events such as the Roman Warm Period (RWP), Medieval Climate Anomaly (MCA) and Little Ice Age (LIA). Here we show for a marginal alpine region of Australia using a carbon isotope speleothem reconstruction, warming over the past five decades has experienced equivalent magnitude of temperature change and snow cover decline to the RWP and MCA...
March 13, 2018: Scientific Reports
Beatriz Vidondo, Bernhard Voelkl
BACKGROUND: Livestock herds are interconnected with each other via an intricate network of transports of animals which represents a potential substrate for the spread of epidemic diseases. We analysed four years (2012-2015) of daily bovine transports to assess the risk of disease transmission and identify times and locations where monitoring would be most effective. Specifically, we investigated how the seasonal dynamics of transport networks, driven by the alpine summering and traditional cattle markets, affect the risk of epidemic outbreaks...
March 13, 2018: BMC Veterinary Research
Maik Rehnus, Kurt Bollmann, Dirk R Schmatz, Klaus Hackländer, Veronika Braunisch
Alpine and Arctic species are considered to be particularly vulnerable to climate change, which is expected to cause habitat loss, fragmentation and-ultimately-extinction of cold-adapted species. However, the impact of climate change on glacial relict populations is not well understood, and specific recommendations for adaptive conservation management are lacking. We focused on the mountain hare (Lepus timidus) as a model species and modelled species distribution in combination with patch and landscape-based connectivity metrics...
March 13, 2018: Global Change Biology
Monika Janišová, Katarína Skokanová, Tomáš Hlásny
Tephroseris longifolia agg. is a complex group of outcrossing perennials distributed throughout Central Europe. Recent morphological study revealed six morphotypes corresponding to five previously distinguished subspecies, together with Alpine and Pannonian morphotypes of T. longifolia subsp. longifolia . The delimited morphotypes differ in relative DNA content, geographical range, and rarity. We compared ecological niches of the six morphotypes in order to assess the impact of ecological differentiation on the speciation processes within the T...
March 2018: Ecology and Evolution
Steven D Leavitt, Martin Westberg, Matthew P Nelsen, John A Elix, Einar Timdal, Mohammad Sohrabi, Larry L St Clair, Laura Williams, Mats Wedin, H T Lumbsch
Multiple drivers shape the spatial distribution of species, including dispersal capacity, niche incumbency, climate variability, orographic barriers, and plate tectonics. However, biogeographic patterns of fungi commonly do not fit conventional expectations based on studies of animals and plants. Fungi, in general, are known to occur across exceedingly broad, intercontinental distributions, including some important components of biological soil crust communities (BSCs). However, molecular data often reveal unexpected biogeographic patterns in lichenized fungal species that are assumed to have cosmopolitan distributions...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Ivona Žura Žaja, Silvijo Vince, Suzana Milinković-Tur, Nina Poljičak Milas, Marko Samardžija, Hrvoje Valpotić, Velimir Berta, Marinko Vilić, Kristina Rakić
The aim of this study was to establish subpopulations of spermatozoa in bucks using the principal component (PC) and cluster analysis according to morphometric head and tail variables, and to determine differences in proportions of subpopulations between exogenous melatonin-treated and control bucks. The bucks (n = 12) were assigned to two groups comprising six bucks each. By the end of March, four melatonin implants were inserted in the bucks in the experimental group. Semen was collected weekly using an artificial vagina from March to May (the non-breeding season)...
March 5, 2018: Animal Reproduction Science
Wenjie Liu, Shengyun Chen, Junyi Liang, Xiang Qin, Shichang Kang, Jiawen Ren, Dahe Qin
The objective of this study is to investigate the effect of decreased permafrost stability on carbon storage of the alpine ecosystems in the northeastern margin of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau. During July and August 2013, we selected 18 sites in five types of permafrost (stable, substable, transitional, unstable, and extremely unstable) regions. We measured aboveground phytomass carbon (APC) and soil respiration (SR), soil inorganic carbon (SIC), soil organic carbon (SOC), belowground phytomass carbon, and soil properties down to 50 cm at same types of soils and grasslands...
March 8, 2018: Scientific Reports
Fangzhou Chen, Todd P Knutson, Max Ciarlet, Matthew Sturos, Douglas G Marthaler
Rotavirus B (RVB) has been associated with enteric disease in many animal species. An RVB strain was identified in pooled intestinal samples from Alpine caprine kids (between 2 and 3 days of age) experiencing high (>90 %) morbidity, and the complete caprine RVB genome was characterized. Histology revealed villus atrophy, the samples tested positive for RVB by real-time RT-PCR and metagenomic next-generation sequencing identified only RVB and orf virus. In the VP4 gene segment, the caprine RVB strain had a higher percentage nucleotide identity to the Indian bovine RVB strains than to the Japanese bovine RVB strains, but the VP7, VP6, VP2, NSP1, NSP2 and NSP5 gene segments of the American caprine RVB strain were genetically related to the Japanese bovine RVB strains...
March 8, 2018: Journal of General Virology
Günay Kırkım, Başak Mutlu, Yüksel Olgun, Tural Tanriverdizade, Pembe Keskinoğlu, Enis Alpin Güneri, Gülden Akdal
Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate and compare the auditory findings in vestibular migraine (VM) and migraine patients without a history of vertigo. Methods: This study was conducted on 44 patients diagnosed with definite VM and 31 patients diagnosed with migraine who were followed and treated between January 2011 and February 2015. Also, 52 healthy subjects were included in this study as a control group. All participants underwent a detailed otorhinolaryngological examination followed by audiological evaluation, including pure tone audiometry, speech reception threshold, speech recognition score, and acoustic immitancemetry...
December 2017: Turkish Archives of Otorhinolaryngology
Brent J Sinclair, Katie E Marshall
Temperate, polar and alpine insects generally do not feed over winter and hence must manage their energy stores to fuel their metabolism over winter and to meet the energetic demands of development and reproduction in the spring. In this Review, we give an overview of the accumulation, use and conservation of fat reserves in overwintering insects and discuss the ways insects modify fats to facilitate their selective consumption or conservation. Many insects are in diapause and have depressed metabolic rates over winter; together with low temperatures, this means that lipid stores are likely to be consumed predominantly in the autumn and spring, when temperatures are higher but insects remain dormant...
March 7, 2018: Journal of Experimental Biology
Andrea Chiocchio, Roberta Bisconti, Mauro Zampiglia, Giuseppe Nascetti, Daniele Canestrelli
A correction to this article has been published and is linked from the HTML and PDF versions of this paper. The error has been fixed in the paper.
March 6, 2018: Scientific Reports
Laura F Grogan, Jason Mulvenna, Joel P A Gummer, Ben C Scheele, Lee Berger, Scott D Cashins, Michael S McFadden, Peter Harlow, David A Hunter, Robert D Trengove, Lee F Skerratt
The fungal skin disease chytridiomycosis has caused the devastating decline and extinction of hundreds of amphibian species globally, yet the potential for evolving resistance, and the underlying pathophysiological mechanisms remain poorly understood. We exposed 406 naïve, captive-raised alpine tree frogs (Litoria verreauxii alpina) from multiple populations (one evolutionarily naïve to chytridiomycosis) to the aetiological agent Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis in two concurrent and controlled infection experiments...
March 6, 2018: Scientific Data
Nathan A M Chrismas, Alexandre M Anesio, Patricia Sánchez-Baracaldo
In recent years, genomic analyses have arisen as an exciting way of investigating the functional capacity and environmental adaptations of numerous micro-organisms of global relevance, including cyanobacteria. In the extreme cold of Arctic, Antarctic and alpine environments, cyanobacteria are of fundamental ecological importance as primary producers and ecosystem engineers. While their role in biogeochemical cycles is well appreciated, little is known about the genomic makeup of polar and alpine cyanobacteria...
April 1, 2018: FEMS Microbiology Ecology
Y Wang, J H Kim, Z Mao, M Ramel, F Pailler, J Perez, H Rey, S Tron, C Jourdan, A Stokes
Background and Aims: The structure of heterogeneous forests has consequences for their biophysical environment. Variations in the local climate significantly affect tree physiological processes. We hypothesize that forest structure also alters tree root elongation and longevity through temporal and spatial variations in soil temperature and water potential. Methods: We installed rhizotrons in paired vegetation communities of closed forest (tree islands) and open patches (canopy gaps), along a soil temperature gradient (elevations of 1400, 1700 and 2000 m) in a heterogeneous mixed forest...
February 28, 2018: Annals of Botany
Daniel Molins-Delgado, Daniel García-Sillero, M Silvia Díaz-Cruz, Damià Barceló
Insect repellents (IRs) are a group of organic chemicals whose function is to prevent the ability of insects of landing in a surface. These compounds have been found in the environment and may pose a risk to non-target organisms. In this study, an on-line solid phase extraction - high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry multiresidue method was developed using an atmospheric photoionization source (SPE-HPLC-(APPI)-MS/MS). The use of the APPI as an alternative ionization technique to electrospray (ESI) and atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (APCI) allowed expanding the range of analytical techniques suitable for the analysis of IRs, so far relied in gas chromatography...
February 21, 2018: Journal of Chromatography. A
Fırat Dogan, Selvi Deniz Dorttas, Seval Bilge Dagalp, Veysel Soydal Ataseven, Feray Alkan
Papillomaviruses (PVs) are epitheliotropic viruses that cause benign proliferative lesions in the skin (warts or papillomas) and mucous membranes of their natural hosts. Recently, new PVs have been found in many animal species. The most common current approach for identifying novel PV types is based on PCR, using various consensus or degenerated primer (broad-range primers), designed on the basis of the multiple alignment of nucleotide or amino acid sequences of a large number of different human papillomaviruses (HPV)...
March 3, 2018: Archives of Virology
Peter Schumann, De-Chao Zhang, Luís França, Rosa Margesin
A Gram-stain-positive, flagellated, catalase- and cytochrome c oxidase-positive bacterial strain, designated S20-100T , was isolated from alpine forest soil. Growth occurred at a temperature range of 0-30 °C, at pH 6-9 and in the presence of 0-1 % (w/v) NaCl. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequence showed that strain S20-100T was related to the genus Marmoricola and had the highest 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity to Marmoricola ginsengisoli Gsoil 097T (98.4 %) and Marmoricola solisilvae KIS18-7T (98...
March 2, 2018: International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology
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