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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529264/communities-of-putative-ericoid-mycorrhizal-fungi-isolated-from-alpine-dwarf-shrubs-in-japan-effects-of-host-identity-and-microhabitat
#1
Takahiko Koizumi, Kazuhide Nara
Dwarf shrubs of the family Ericaceae are common in arctic and alpine regions. Many of these plants are associated with ericoid mycorrhizal (ERM) fungi, which allow them to take nutrients and water from the soil under harsh environmental conditions and, thus, affect host plant survival. Despite the importance of ERM fungi to alpine plant communities, limited information is available on the effects of microhabitat and host identity on ERM fungal communities. We investigated the communities of putative ERM fungi isolated from five dwarf shrub species (Arcterica nana, Diapensia lapponica, Empetrum nigrum, Loiseleuria procumbens, and Vaccinium vitis-idaea) that co-occur in an alpine region of Japan, with reference to distinct microhabitats provided by large stone pine (Pinus pumila) shrubs (i...
May 20, 2017: Microbes and Environments
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527334/photo-protective-mechanisms-in-reed-canary-grass-to-alleviate-photo-inhibition-of-psii-on-the-qinghai-tibet-plateau
#2
Chao Zhang, Da-Wei Zhang, Yan-Ni Sun, Muhammad Arfan, Da-Xu Li, Jia-Jun Yan, Ming-Hong You, Shi-Qie Bai, Hong-Hui Lin
Due to its characteristic of high biomass yield potential, there is considerable interest in cultivating Phalaris arundinacea L. cv. 'chuancaoyin No.3' (reed canary grass) on the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau where there is an abundance of alpine steppe meadow and a potential large market for animal husbandry. In this study, we 1) investigate whether reed canary grass exhibits superior productive capacity to Elymus nutans 'Aba' (E. nutans), ordinary common pasture, during the long warm days of summer at high-altitude; and 2) compare the cold tolerance between reed canary grass and E...
May 4, 2017: Journal of Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526872/seasonal-soil-microbial-responses-are-limited-to-changes-in-functionality-at-two-alpine-forest-sites-differing-in-altitude-and-vegetation
#3
José A Siles, Rosa Margesin
The study of soil microbial responses to environmental changes is useful to improve simulation models and mitigation strategies for climate change. We here investigated two Alpine forest sites (deciduous forest vs. coniferous forest) situated at different altitudes (altitudinal effect) in spring and autumn (seasonal effect) regarding: (i) bacterial and fungal abundances (qPCR); (ii) diversity and structure of bacterial and fungal communities (amplicon sequencing); and (iii) diversity and composition of microbial functional gene community (Geochip 5...
May 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526841/organic-carbon-prediction-in-soil-cores-using-vnir-and-mir-techniques-in-an-alpine-landscape
#4
Xiaolin Jia, Songchao Chen, Yuanyuan Yang, Lianqing Zhou, Wu Yu, Zhou Shi
Diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS), including visible and near-infrared (VNIR) and mid-infrared (MIR) radiation, is a rapid, accurate and cost-effective technique for estimating soil organic carbon (SOC). We examined 24 soil cores (0-100 cm) from the Sygera Mountains on the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, considering field-moist intact VNIR, air-dried ground VNIR and air-dried ground MIR spectra at 5-cm intervals. Preprocessed spectra were used to predict the SOC in the soil cores using partial least squares regression (PLSR) and a support vector machine (SVM)...
May 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522806/the-alpine-lgm-in-the-boreal-ice-sheets-game
#5
Giovanni Monegato, Giancarlo Scardia, Irka Hajdas, Francesca Rizzini, Andrea Piccin
New chronologic and stratigraphic constraints from the Garda morainic amphitheater define the extension of the last glaciation in the Adige-Sarca system and improve the Alpine LGM dataset. Together with the available chronology of the Rhine and Tagliamento systems, our results indicate a synchronous maximum culmination of Alpine glaciers during the LGM, which anticipated by about 3.5 ka the maximum extension of the Eurasian Ice Sheet (EIS). This is ascribed to the sensitivity of Alpine glaciers to the availability of moisture from southerly circulation, as recently documented by speleothem δ(18)O curve from Sieben Hengste (7 H)...
May 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515896/a-worldwide-phylogeography-of-the-whiteworm-lichens-thamnolia-reveals-three-lineages-with-distinct-habitats-and-evolutionary-histories
#6
Ioana Onuţ-Brännström, Leif Tibell, Hanna Johannesson
Thamnolia is a lichenized fungus with an extremely wide distribution, being encountered in arctic and alpine environments in most continents. In this study, we used molecular markers to investigate the population structure of the fungal symbiont and the associated photosynthetic partner of Thamnolia. By analyzing molecular, morphological, and chemical variation among 253 specimens covering the species distribution range, we revealed the existence of three mycobiont lineages. One lineage (Lineage A) is confined to the tundra region of Siberia and the Aleutian Islands, a second (Lineage B) is found in the high alpine region of the Alps and the Carpathians Mountains, and a third (Lineage C) has a worldwide distribution and covers both the aforementioned ecosystems...
May 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515882/different-categories-of-biodiversity-explain-productivity-variation-after-fertilization-in-a-tibetan-alpine-meadow-community
#7
Xiaolong Zhou, Zhi Guo, Pengfei Zhang, Honglin Li, Chengjin Chu, Xilai Li, Guozhen Du
The relationship between productivity and biodiversity has long been an important issue in ecological research. However, in recent decades, most ecologists have primarily focused on species diversity while paying little attention to functional diversity and phylogenetic diversity (PD), especially in alpine meadow communities following fertilization. In this study, a fertilization experiment involving the addition of nitrogen, phosphorus, and a mixture of both was implemented in an alpine meadow on the Tibetan Plateau...
May 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28514626/influence-of-early-reproductive-success-on-longevity-and-late-reproductive-success-in-an-alpine-ungulate
#8
Andrea Panagakis, Sandra Hamel, Steeve D Côté
The life-history theories of aging predict lifetime trade-offs between early reproductive allocation and late-life survival, reproduction, or both components of fitness. Recent studies in wild populations have found evidence for these early-late life trade-offs, but rarely have they been found across multiple traits while exploring the additional effects of variation in environmental conditions and individual quality. Benefiting from longitudinal data on adult female mountain goats (Oreamnos americanus), we investigated the influence of age at first reproduction (AFR) and early reproductive success (ERS) on longevity, late reproductive success, and senescence rates while accounting for the influence of natal environmental conditions and individual quality...
June 2017: American Naturalist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28514440/extreme-hydrothermal-conditions-at-an-active-plate-bounding-fault
#9
Rupert Sutherland, John Townend, Virginia Toy, Phaedra Upton, Jamie Coussens, Michael Allen, Laura-May Baratin, Nicolas Barth, Leeza Becroft, Carolin Boese, Austin Boles, Carolyn Boulton, Neil G R Broderick, Lucie Janku-Capova, Brett M Carpenter, Bernard Célérier, Calum Chamberlain, Alan Cooper, Ashley Coutts, Simon Cox, Lisa Craw, Mai-Linh Doan, Jennifer Eccles, Dan Faulkner, Jason Grieve, Julia Grochowski, Anton Gulley, Arthur Hartog, Jamie Howarth, Katrina Jacobs, Tamara Jeppson, Naoki Kato, Steven Keys, Martina Kirilova, Yusuke Kometani, Rob Langridge, Weiren Lin, Timothy Little, Adrienn Lukacs, Deirdre Mallyon, Elisabetta Mariani, Cécile Massiot, Loren Mathewson, Ben Melosh, Catriona Menzies, Jo Moore, Luiz Morales, Chance Morgan, Hiroshi Mori, Andre Niemeijer, Osamu Nishikawa, David Prior, Katrina Sauer, Martha Savage, Anja Schleicher, Douglas R Schmitt, Norio Shigematsu, Sam Taylor-Offord, Damon Teagle, Harold Tobin, Robert Valdez, Konrad Weaver, Thomas Wiersberg, Jack Williams, Nick Woodman, Martin Zimmer
Temperature and fluid pressure conditions control rock deformation and mineralization on geological faults, and hence the distribution of earthquakes. Typical intraplate continental crust has hydrostatic fluid pressure and a near-surface thermal gradient of 31 ± 15 degrees Celsius per kilometre. At temperatures above 300-450 degrees Celsius, usually found at depths greater than 10-15 kilometres, the intra-crystalline plasticity of quartz and feldspar relieves stress by aseismic creep and earthquakes are infrequent...
May 17, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28513243/performance-of-alpine-touring-boots-when-used-in-alpine-ski-bindings
#10
Jeffrey R Campbell, Irving S Scher, David Carpenter, Bruce L Jahnke, Randal P Ching
Alpine Touring (AT) equipment is designed for ascending mountains and snow skiing down backcountry terrain. Skiers have been observed using AT boots in alpine (not made for Alpine Touring) ski bindings. We tested the effect on the retention-release characteristics of AT boots used in alpine bindings. Ten AT ski boots and five alpine ski boots were tested in eight models of alpine ski bindings using an ASTM F504-05 (2012) apparatus. 31% of the AT boots released appropriately when used in alpine ski bindings...
May 17, 2017: Journal of Applied Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28505891/modelling-sediment-fluxes-in-the-danube-river-basin-with-swat
#11
Olga Vigiak, Anna Malagó, Fayçal Bouraoui, Matthias Vanmaercke, Florin Obreja, Jean Poesen, Helmut Habersack, János Fehér, Samo Grošelj
Sediment management is of prior concern in the Danube Basin for provision of economic and environmental services. This study aimed at assessing current (1995-2009) sediment fluxes of the Danube Basin with SWAT model and identifying sediment budget knowledge gaps. After hydrologic calibration, hillslope gross erosion and sediment yields were broadly calibrated using ancillary data (measurements in plots and small catchments, and national and European erosion maps). Mean annual sediment concentrations (SSC) from 269 gauging stations (2968 station-year entries; median 19mg/L, interquartile range IQR 10-36mg/L) were used for calibrating in-stream sediments...
May 11, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28505550/histological-differences-in-the-adrenal-glands-and-cortisol-levels-of-suckling-dairy-goat-kids-in-enriched-and-non-enriched-environments
#12
A P Rosas-Trigueros, I E Candanosa-Aranda, A E Ducoing-Watty, J Gutiérrez-Molotla, F Galindo, A M Sisto-Burt
Intensive production systems can negatively affect the welfare of goats. Environmental enrichment techniques can be used to reduce stress. The aim of this study was analyze the effect of environmental enrichment on the histological characteristics of adrenal glands, cortisol levels and weekly weight gain of suckling Alpine French male kids under confinement. A randomised design was used to test the effect of the treatment. The animals (n=20) were randomly assigned to two treatments (enriched and non-enriched) with two replicates each...
May 6, 2017: Research in Veterinary Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28500343/a-genome-scan-for-milk-production-traits-in-dairy-goats-reveals-two-new-mutations-in-dgat1-reducing-milk-fat-content
#13
Pauline Martin, Isabelle Palhière, Cyrielle Maroteau, Philippe Bardou, Kamila Canale-Tabet, Julien Sarry, Florent Woloszyn, Justine Bertrand-Michel, Ines Racke, Hüseyin Besir, Rachel Rupp, Gwenola Tosser-Klopp
The quantity of milk and milk fat and proteins are particularly important traits in dairy livestock. However, little is known about the regions of the genome that influence these traits in goats. We conducted a genome wide association study in French goats and identified 109 regions associated with dairy traits. For a major region on chromosome 14 closely associated with fat content, the Diacylglycerol O-Acyltransferase 1 (DGAT1) gene turned out to be a functional and positional candidate gene. The caprine reference sequence of this gene was completed and 29 polymorphisms were found in the gene sequence, including two novel exonic mutations: R251L and R396W, leading to substitutions in the protein sequence...
May 12, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28500336/phylogeographical-structure-and-demographic-expansion-in-the-endemic-alpine-stream-salamander-hynobiidae-batrachuperus-of-the-qinling-mountains
#14
Zu-Shi Huang, Feng-Lan Yu, Hui-Sheng Gong, Yan-Ling Song, Zhi-Gao Zeng, Qiong Zhang
The Qinling Mountains of China provide an excellent study area for assessing the effect of Pleistocene climatic oscillations and paleogeological events on intraspecific diversification. To assess genetic diversity of an endemic stream salamander, Batrachuperus tibetanus, for its conservation, a phylogeographical survey was performed based on mitochondrial DNA and morphological data. The mitochondrial data revealed three lineages of B. tibetanus in the Qinling Mountains. A lineage present in the northwestern Qinling Mountains groups with the Tibet lineage of B...
May 12, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28493440/tear-production-intraocular-pressure-and-conjunctival-bacterial-flora-in-selected-captive-wild-ruminants
#15
Pavel Kvapil, Tina Pirš, Brigita Slavec, Roman Luštrik, Tadej Zemljič, Eva Bártová, Bojana Stranjac, Marjan Kastelic
OBJECTIVE: Evaluation of tear production (Schirmer's tear test, STT) and measurement of intraocular pressure (IOP) were performed in a population of captive wild ungulates in a Slovenian ZOO during routine annual health check. ANIMALS STUDIED: In total, 10 fallow deer (Dama dama), 25 mouflons (Ovis aries musimon), 20 alpine ibexes (Capra ibex), and three alpine chamois (Rupicapra rupicapra) were included in the study. METHODS: Tear production was performed by Schirmer's tear test, IOP was measured with an applanation tonometer, and ophthalmological examination was conducted with slit-lamp biomicroscopy and indirect ophthalmoscopy...
May 11, 2017: Veterinary Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28489850/testing-the-effect-of-the-himalayan-mountains-as-a-physical-barrier-to-gene-flow-in-hippophae-tibetana-schlect-elaeagnaceae
#16
La Qiong, Wenju Zhang, Hao Wang, Liyan Zeng, H John B Birks, Yang Zhong
Hippophae tibetana is a small, dioecious wind-pollinated shrub endemic to the Tibetan-Qinghai Plateau. It is one of the shrubs that occur at very high elevations (5250 m a.s.l.). The Himalayan mountains provides a significant geographical barrier to the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau, dividing the Himalayan area into two regions with Nepal to the south and Tibet to the north. There is no information on how the Himalayan mountains influence gene flow and population differentiation of alpine plants. In this study, we analyzed eight nuclear microsatellite markers and cpDNA trnT-trnF regions to test the role of the Himalayan mountains as a barrier to gene flow between populations of H...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28488673/climate-warming-reduces-the-temporal-stability-of-plant-community-biomass-production
#17
Zhiyuan Ma, Huiying Liu, Zhaorong Mi, Zhenhua Zhang, Yonghui Wang, Wei Xu, Lin Jiang, Jin-Sheng He
Anthropogenic climate change has emerged as a critical environmental problem, prompting frequent investigations into its consequences for various ecological systems. Few studies, however, have explored the effect of climate change on ecological stability and the underlying mechanisms. We conduct a field experiment to assess the influence of warming and altered precipitation on the temporal stability of plant community biomass in an alpine grassland located on the Tibetan Plateau. We find that whereas precipitation alteration does not influence biomass temporal stability, warming lowers stability through reducing the degree of species asynchrony...
May 10, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28486336/seasonal-variations-of-bone-metabolism-and-bone-mineral-density-in-collegiate-alpine-skiers
#18
Teruyuki Sato, Keishoku Sakuraba, Yosuke Tsuchiya, Shinya Maruyama, Eisuke Ochi
This study investigated the seasonal variations in bone metabolism, mineral density, and physical characteristics in collegiate alpine skiers. Twelve male subjects (20.6 ± 1.5 years) were evaluated for body composition, body mineral density (BMD), serum levels of osteocalcin (OC), bone alkaline phosphatase (BAP), tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase 5b (TRACP-5b), parathormone, and 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D). We also measured the knee extensor and flexor strength, maximal power, and vertical jump. Measurements were conducted in the pre-season period (T1), competitive period (T2), end-of-season period (T3), and resting period (T4)...
May 5, 2017: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28479994/pollinator-preference-and-pollen-viability-mediated-by-flower-color-synergistically-determine-seed-set-in-an-alpine-annual-herb
#19
Junpeng Mu, Yulian Yang, Yanling Luo, Ruijun Su, Karl J Niklas
Gentiana leucomelaena manifests dramatic flower color polymorphism, with both blue- and white-flowered individuals (pollinated by flies and bees) both within a population and on an individual plant. Previous studies of this species have shown that pollinator preference and flower temperature change as a function of flower color throughout the flowering season. However, few if any studies have explored the effects of flower color on both pollen viability (mediated by anther temperature) and pollinator preference on reproductive success (seed set) in a population or on individual plants over the course of the entire flowering season...
May 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28479925/inhibition-of-cardiac-hypertrophy-effects-in-d-galactose-induced-senescent-hearts-by-alpinate-oxyphyllae-fructus-treatment
#20
Yung-Ming Chang, Hen-Hong Chang, Hung-Jen Lin, Chin-Chuan Tsai, Chuan-Te Tsai, Hsin-Nung Chang, Shu-Luan Lin, Vijaya PadmaViswanadha, Ray-Jade Chen, Chih-Yang Huang
Aging is a complex physiological phenomenon accelerated by ROS accumulation, with multisystem decline and increasing vulnerability to degenerative diseases and death. Cardiac hypertrophy is a key pathophysiological component that accompanies the aging process. Alpinate Oxyphyllae Fructus (Alpinia oxyphylla MIQ, AOF) is a traditional Chinese medicine, which provides cardioprotective activity against aging, hypertension, and cerebrovascular disorders. In this study, we found the protective effect of AOF against cardiac hypertrophy in D-galactose-induced aging rat model...
2017: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine: ECAM
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