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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28099770/cryptic-lineages-of-a-common-alpine-mayfly-show-strong-life-history-divergence
#1
Marie Leys, Irene Keller, Christopher T Robinson, Katja Räsänen
Understanding ecological divergence of morphologically similar but genetically distinct species ̶ previously considered as a single morphospecies ̶ is of key importance in evolutionary ecology and conservation biology. Despite their morphological similarity, cryptic species may have evolved distinct adaptations. If such ecological divergence is unaccounted for, any predictions about their responses to environmental change and biodiversity loss may be biased. We used spatio-temporally replicated field surveys of larval cohort structure and population genetic analyses (using nuclear microsatellite markers) to test for life history divergence between two cryptic lineages of the alpine mayfly Baetis alpinus in the Swiss Alps...
January 18, 2017: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28097496/historical-trends-of-organochlorine-pesticides-ocps-recorded-in-sediments-across-the-tibetan-plateau
#2
Ruiqiang Yang, Ting Xie, Handong Yang, Simon Turner, Guangjian Wu
Sediment cores from four lakes across the Tibetan Plateau were used as natural archives to study the time trends of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs). The total concentrations of dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (ΣDDT) and hexachlorocyclohexane isomers (ΣHCH) were in the range of 0.04-1.61 and 0.08-1.88 ng/g based on dry weight (dw), while the input fluxes were in the range of 0.3-236 and 0.7-295 pg/cm(2)/y in the core sediments, respectively. The input fluxes of ΣDDT and ΣHCH generally peaked in sediment layers corresponding to the 1970s-1990s and peaked in top sediment layers...
January 17, 2017: Environmental Geochemistry and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093040/cadmium-in-liver-and-kidneys-of-domestic-balkan-and-alpine-dairy-goat-breeds-from-montenegro-and-serbia
#3
Vladimir Tomović, Marija Jokanović, Mila Tomović, Milana Lazović, Branislav Šojić, Snežana Škaljac, Maja Ivić, Sunčica Kocić-Tanackov, Igor Tomašević, Aleksandra Martinović
Concentrations of cadmium (Cd) were determined in the samples of 144 animals around 1 and of 144 animals around 4 years old. Cd was analyzed by Inductively Coupled Plasma-Optical Emission Spectrometry (ICP-OES), after microwave digestion. Cd concentrations were higher (p < 0.05) in kidney than in liver and higher (p < 0.05) in older animals than in young ones. In domestic Balkan goat which was raised in a free-ranged system Cd accumulation was lower (p < 0.05) than in Alpine goat raised in an intensive production system...
January 16, 2017: Food Additives & Contaminants. Part B, Surveillance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28086991/does-waterfall-aerosol-influence-mucosal-immunity-and-chronic-stress-a-randomized-controlled-clinical-trial
#4
Carina Grafetstätter, Martin Gaisberger, Johanna Prossegger, Markus Ritter, Predrag Kolarž, Christina Pichler, Josef Thalhamer, Arnulf Hartl
BACKGROUND: The specific microclimate of alpine waterfalls with high levels of ionized water aerosols has been suggested to trigger beneficial immunological and psychological effects. In the present three-armed randomized controlled clinical study, we focused on effects on (i) immunological reagibility, on (ii) physiological stress responses, and on (iii) stress-related psychological parameters. METHODS: People with moderate to high stress levels (n = 65) spent an active sojourn with daily hiking tours in the National Park Hohe Tauern (Großkirchheim, Austria)...
January 13, 2017: Journal of Physiological Anthropology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079052/corrigendum-contrasting-effects-of-nitrogen-and-phosphorus-addition-on-soil-respiration-in-an-alpine-grassland-on-the-qinghai-tibetan-plateau
#5
Fei Ren, Xiaoxia Yang, Huakun Zhou, Wenyan Zhu, Zhenhua Zhang, Litong Chen, Guangmin Cao, Jin-Sheng He
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 12, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28070287/mountains-too-high-and-valleys-too-deep-drive-population-structuring-and-demographics-in-a-qinghai-tibetan-plateau-frog-nanorana-pleskei-dicroglossidae
#6
Weiwei Zhou, Jieqiong Jin, Jun Wu, Hongman Chen, Junxiao Yang, Robert W Murphy, Jing Che
Pleistocene glacial-interglacial climatic oscillations greatly shaped the current genetic structure of many species. However, geographic features may influence the impact of climatic cycling. Distinct geographic and environmental characters between northern and southern parts of the eastern Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau (EQTP) facilitate explorations into the impacts of geographic features on species. The northern parts of EQTP contain large areas of marsh, and the environment is rather homogeneous. In contrast, the southern EQTP harbors complex alpine valleys and a much more heterogeneous setting...
January 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28068392/vegetation-changes-in-the-permafrost-regions-of-the-qinghai-tibetan-plateau-from-1982-2012-different-responses-related-to-geographical-locations-and-vegetation-types-in-high-altitude-areas
#7
Zhiwei Wang, Qian Wang, Xiaodong Wu, Lin Zhao, Guangyang Yue, Zhuotong Nan, Puchang Wang, Shuhua Yi, Defu Zou, Yu Qin, Tonghua Wu, Jianzong Shi
The Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau (QTP) contains the largest permafrost area in a high-altitude region in the world, and the unique hydrothermal environments of the active layers in this region have an important impact on vegetation growth. Geographical locations present different climatic conditions, and in combination with the permafrost environments, these conditions comprehensively affect the local vegetation activity. Therefore, the responses of vegetation to climate change in the permafrost region of the QTP may be varied differently by geographical location and vegetation condition...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28067300/effects-of-plant-species-richness-on-13-c-assimilate-partitioning-in-artificial-grasslands-of-different-established-ages
#8
Longhua Xu, Buqing Yao, Wenying Wang, Fangping Wang, Huakun Zhou, Jianjun Shi, Xinquan Zhao
Artificial grasslands play a role in carbon storage on the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau. The artificial grasslands exhibit decreased proportions of graminate and increased species richness with age. However, the effect of the graminate proportions and species richness on ecosystem C stocks in artificial grasslands have not been elucidated. We conducted an in situ(13)C pulse-labeling experiment in August 2012 using artificial grasslands that had been established for two years (2Y), five years (5Y), and twelve years (12Y)...
January 9, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28066694/ice-residual-properties-in-mixed-phase-clouds-at-the-high-alpine-jungfraujoch-site
#9
Piotr Kupiszewski, Marco Zanatta, Stephan Mertes, Paul Vochezer, Gary Lloyd, Johannes Schneider, Ludwig Schenk, Martin Schnaiter, Urs Baltensperger, Ernest Weingartner, Martin Gysel
Ice residual (IR) and total aerosol properties were measured in mixed-phase clouds (MPCs) at the high-alpine Jungfraujoch research station. Black carbon (BC) content and coating thickness of BC-containing particles were determined using single-particle soot photometers. The ice activated fraction (IAF), derived from a comparison of IR and total aerosol particle size distributions, showed an enrichment of large particles in the IR, with an increase in the IAF from values on the order of 10(-4) to 10(-3) for 100 nm (diameter) particles to 0...
October 27, 2016: Journal of Geophysical Research. Atmospheres: JGR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28063181/climatic-warming-strengthens-a-positive-feedback-between-alpine-shrubs-and-fire
#10
James S Camac, Richard J Williams, Carl-Henrik Wahren, Ary A Hoffmann, Peter A Vesk
Climate change is expected to increase fire activity and woody plant encroachment in arctic and alpine landscapes. However, the extent to which these increases interact to affect the structure, function and composition of alpine ecosystems is largely unknown. Here we use field surveys and experimental manipulations to examine how warming and fire affect recruitment, seedling growth and seedling survival in four dominant Australian alpine shrubs. We found that fire increased establishment of shrub seedlings by as much as 33-fold...
January 7, 2017: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28059057/-open-borders-for-alpine-pastures-the-history-of-the-pacage-franco-suisse
#11
J Schluep
Alpine transhumance and summer grazing of animals on both sides of the French-Swiss border has a long tradition. The Bernese authorities first regulated the movement of animals across the French border in the 18th century due to outbreaks of epidemics. At that time the importation of cattle from the "Franche-Comté" was forbidden, but grazing on the French side of the border remained allowed. The 1912 agreement, relating to grazing on both sides of the border, was used for decades as a guideline to ensure the open communication and close cooperation of the veterinary and customs authorities of both countries with regard to border traffic...
January 2017: Schweizer Archiv Für Tierheilkunde
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28057338/effects-of-local-factors-and-climate-on-permafrost-conditions-and-distribution-in-beiluhe-basin-qinghai-tibet-plateau-china
#12
Guoan Yin, Fujun Niu, Zhanju Lin, Jing Luo, Minghao Liu
Beiluhe basin is underlain by warm and ice-rich permafrost, and covered by vegetation and soils characteristic of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau. A field monitoring network was established to investigate permafrost conditions and to assess potential impacts of local factors and climate change. This paper describes the spatial variations in permafrost conditions from instrumented boreholes, controlling environmental factors, and recent thermal evolution of permafrost in the basin. The study area was divided into 10 ecotypes using satellite imagery based classification...
January 2, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28056054/effect-of-dietary-types-on-feed-intakes-growth-performance-and-economic-benefit-in-tibetan-sheep-and-yaks-on-the-qinghai-tibet-plateau-during-cold-season
#13
Tianwei Xu, Shixiao Xu, Linyong Hu, Na Zhao, Zhe Liu, Li Ma, Hongjin Liu, Xinquan Zhao
Pastoralists on the Tibetan alpine rangeland suffered great economic loss in cold season, due to serious live-weight loss of domestic livestock under traditional grazing management. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of dietary types (crude protein levels) on feed intakes, growth performance and economic returns of local Tibetan sheep and yaks during cold season. Twenty-four yearling Tibetan sheep (25.29±3.95 kg LW) and twenty two-year-old yaks (100.62±4.55 kg LW) with familiar body conditions were randomly assigned to four groups, fed oats hay (OH), oats silage (OS), total mixed ration (TMR) and traditionally grazed on the local cool-season pasture (TG), respectively, over a 135-day experiment...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28055123/regional-variation-in-the-temperature-sensitivity-of-soil-organic-matter-decomposition-in-china-s-forests-and-grasslands
#14
Yuan Liu, Nianpeng He, Jianxing Zhu, Li Xu, Guirui Yu, Shuli Niu, Xiaomin Sun, Xuefa Wen
How to assess the temperature sensitivity (Q10 ) of soil organic matter (SOM) decomposition and its regional variation with high accuracy is one of the largest uncertainties in determining the intensity and direction of the global carbon (C) cycle in response to climate change. In this study, we collected a series of soils from 22 forest sites and 30 grassland sites across China to explore regional variation in Q10 and its underlying mechanisms. We conducted a novel incubation experiment with periodically changing temperature (5-30 °C), while continuously measuring soil microbial respiration rates...
January 5, 2017: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28054962/cosmo-skymed-image-investigation-of-snow-features-in-alpine-environment
#15
Simonetta Paloscia, Simone Pettinato, Emanuele Santi, Mauro Valt
In this work, X band images acquired by COSMO-SkyMed (CSK) on alpine environment have been analyzed for investigating snow characteristics and their effect on backscattering variations. Preliminary results confirmed the capability of simultaneous optical and Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) images (Landsat-8 and CSK) in separating snow/no-snow areas and in detecting wet snow. The sensitivity of backscattering to snow depth has not always been confirmed, depending on snow characteristics related to the season...
January 4, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28049539/swiss-ethnoveterinary-knowledge-on-medicinal-plants-a-within-country-comparison-of-italian-speaking-regions-with-north-western-german-speaking-regions
#16
Maria Mayer, Mirjam Zbinden, Christan R Vogl, Silvia Ivemeyer, Beat Meier, Michele Amorena, Ariane Maeschli, Matthias Hamburger, Michael Walkenhorst
BACKGROUND: Ethnoveterinary knowledge in Europe may play an important role as a basis for sustainable treatment options for livestock. Aims of our study were (a) to compare the ethnoveterinary practices of two culturally and sociodemographically different regions of Switzerland, (b) to compare results with earlier ethnoveterinary studies conducted in Switzerland and in adjacent Italian regions and, (c) to evaluate possible reasons for regional differences in European ethnoveterinary medicine...
January 3, 2017: Journal of Ethnobiology and Ethnomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28045938/exposure-to-indoor-allergens-in-different-residential-settings-and-its-influence-on-ige-sensitization-in-a-geographically-confined-austrian-cohort
#17
Teresa Stemeseder, Bettina Schweidler, Patrick Doppler, Eva Klinglmayr, Stephanie Moser, Lisa Lueftenegger, Martin Himly, Roland Lang, Joerg Zumbach, Gertie J Oostingh, Thomas Hawranek, Arne C Bathke, Gabriele Gadermaier
BACKGROUND: Exposure to indoor allergens is crucial for IgE sensitization and development of allergic symptoms. Residential settings influence the allergen amount in house dust and hence allergic sensitization. Within this study, we investigated allergen exposure and molecule-based IgE levels in a geographically confined region and evaluated the impact of housing, pets and cleaning. METHODS: 501 adolescents from Salzburg, Austria participated in this cross-sectional study...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28035281/good-bye-to-tropical-alpine-plant-giants-under-warmer-climates-loss-of-range-and-genetic-diversity-in-lobelia-rhynchopetalum
#18
Desalegn Chala, Christian Brochmann, Achilleas Psomas, Dorothee Ehrich, Abel Gizaw, Catherine A Masao, Vegar Bakkestuen, Niklaus E Zimmermann
The main aim of this paper is to address consequences of climate warming on loss of habitat and genetic diversity in the enigmatic tropical alpine giant rosette plants using the Ethiopian endemic Lobelia rhynchopetalum as a model. We modeled the habitat suitability of L. rhynchopetalum and assessed how its range is affected under two climate models and four emission scenarios. We used three statistical algorithms calibrated to represent two different complexity levels of the response. We analyzed genetic diversity using amplified fragment length polymorphisms and assessed the impact of the projected range loss...
December 2016: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28035276/nitrogen-phosphorous-supply-ratio-and-allometry-in-five-alpine-plant-species
#19
Xi Luo, Susan J Mazer, Hui Guo, Nan Zhang, Jacob Weiner, Shuijin Hu
: In terrestrial ecosystems, atmospheric nitrogen (N) deposition has greatly increased N availability relative to other elements, particularly phosphorus (P). Alterations in the availability of N relative to P can affect plant growth rate and functional traits, as well as resource allocation to above- versus belowground biomass (MA and MB). Biomass allocation among individual plants is broadly size-dependent, and this can often be described as an allometric relationship between MA and MB, as represented by the equation MA=αMBβ, or log MA = logα + βlog MB...
December 2016: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28031806/intensified-plant-n-and-c-pool-with-more-available-nitrogen-under-experimental-warming-in-an-alpine-meadow-ecosystem
#20
Fei Peng, Xian Xue, Quangang You, Manhou Xu, Xiang Chen, Jian Guo, Tao Wang
Nitrogen (N) availability is projected to increase in a warming climate. But whether the more available N is immobilized by microbes (thus stimulates soil carbon (C) decomposition), or is absorbed by plants (thus intensifies C uptake) remains unknown in the alpine meadow ecosystem. Infrared heaters were used to simulate climate warming with a paired experimental design. Soil ammonification, nitrification, and net mineralization were obtained by in situ incubation in a permafrost region of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau (QTP)...
December 2016: Ecology and Evolution
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