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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444363/sgh-stress-or-strain-gradient-hypothesis-insights-from-an-elevation-gradient-on-the-roof-of-the-world
#1
Pierre Liancourt, Yoann Le Bagousse-Pinguet, Christian Rixen, Jiri Dolezal
Background and Aims: The stress gradient hypothesis (SGH), the view that competition prevails in undisturbed and productive environments, and shifts to facilitation in disturbed or stressful environments, has become a central paradigm in ecology. However, an alternative view proposes that the relationship between biotic interactions and environmental severity should be unimodal instead of monotonic. Possible causes of discrepancies between these two views were examined in the high elevation desert of the arid Trans-Himalayas...
April 21, 2017: Annals of Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28435336/anterior-cruciate-ligament-injury-reinjury-in-alpine-ski-racing-a-narrative-review
#2
REVIEW
Matthew J Jordan, Per Aagaard, Walter Herzog
The purpose of the present review was to: 1) provide an overview of the current understanding on the epidemiology, etiology, risk factors, and prevention methods for anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury in alpine ski racing; and 2) provide an overview of what is known pertaining to ACL reinjury and return to sport after ACL injury in alpine ski racing. Given that most of the scientific studies on ACL injuries in alpine ski racing have been descriptive, and that very few studies contributed higher level scientific evidence, a nonsystematic narrative review was employed...
2017: Open Access Journal of Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429833/the-microbially-mediated-soil-organic-carbon-loss-under-degenerative-succession-in-an-alpine-meadow
#3
Yuguang Zhang, Xiao Liu, Jing Cong, Hui Lu, Yuyu Sheng, Xiulei Wang, Diqiang Li, Xueduan Liu, Huaqun Yin, Jizhong Zhou, Ye Deng
Land-cover change has long been recognized as having marked effect on the amount of soil organic carbon (SOC). However, the microbially-mediated processes and mechanisms on SOC are still unclear. In this study, the soil samples in a degenerative succession from alpine meadow to alpine steppe meadow in the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau were analyzed using high-throughput technologies, including Illumina sequencing and GeoChip functional gene arrays. The soil microbial community structure and diversity were significantly (P < 0...
April 21, 2017: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428847/lichen-acclimation-to-changing-environments-photobiont-switching-vs-climate-specific-uniqueness-in-psora-decipiens
#4
Laura Williams, Claudia Colesie, Anna Ullmann, Martin Westberg, Mats Wedin, Burkhard Büdel
Unraveling the complex relationship between lichen fungal and algal partners has been crucial in understanding lichen dispersal capacity, evolutionary processes, and responses in the face of environmental change. However, lichen symbiosis remains enigmatic, including the ability of a single fungal partner to associate with various algal partners. Psora decipiens is a characteristic lichen of biological soil crusts (BSCs), across semi-arid, temperate, and alpine biomes, which are particularly susceptible to habitat loss and climate change...
April 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428783/corrigendum-effects-of-short-term-warming-and-altered-precipitation-on-soil-microbial-communities-in-alpine-grassland-of-the-tibetan-plateau
#5
Kaoping Zhang, Yu Shi, Xin Jing, Jin-Sheng He, Ruibo Sun, Yunfeng Yang, Ashley Shade, Haiyan Chu
[This corrects the article on p. 1032 in vol. 7, PMID: 27446064.].
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424132/outcomes-of-recreational-activity-associated-trauma-in-elderly-persons-on-blood-thinning-medications
#6
Zachary M DeBoard, Jonathan Grotts, Lisa Ferrigno
With increasing life expectancy, the elderly are participating in recreational activities traditionally pursued by younger persons. Elderly patients have many reasons for worse outcomes after trauma, one of which may be the rising use of anticoagulant and/or antiplatelet medications. This study aimed to determine whether preinjury use of these agents yielded worse outcomes in geriatric patients injured during high-impact recreational activities. The National Trauma Data Bank was reviewed from 2007 to 2010 for patients ≥65 years admitted to Level I or II trauma centers with ICD-9 E-codes for specific mechanisms of injury...
April 1, 2017: American Surgeon
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421061/comparative-analysis-of-the-gut-microbial-communities-in-forest-and-alpine-musk-deer-using-high-throughput-sequencing
#7
Xiaolong Hu, Gang Liu, Aaron B A Shafer, Yuting Wei, Juntong Zhou, Shaobi Lin, Haibin Wu, Mi Zhou, Defu Hu, Shuqiang Liu
The gut ecosystem is characterized by dynamic and reciprocal interactions between the host and bacteria. Although characterizing microbiota for herbivores has become recognized as important tool for gauging species health, no study to date has investigated the bacterial communities and evaluated the age-related bacterial dynamics of musk deer. Moreover, gastrointestinal diseases have been hypothesized to be a limiting factor of population growth in captive musk deer. Here, high-throughput sequencing of the bacterial 16S rRNA gene was used to profile the fecal bacterial communities in juvenile and adult alpine and forest musk deer...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419257/rodent-pika-parasite-spillover-in-western-north-america
#8
Patrick Foley, Tara Roth, Janet Foley, Chris Ray
Competition during the Cenozoic expansion of the Rodentia may have contributed to ecological niche reduction of pikas, which are now increasingly under threat as their habitat degrades under global climate change, while some rodents expand their ranges and overlap with pikas. Range overlap carries the possibility of disease spillover. Contemporary North American pikas are cold-adapted and relegated primarily to alpine environments where they subsist on relatively low-quality herbaceous diet. Yet their evolutionary ancestors were distributed geographically even into the subtropics...
April 15, 2017: Journal of Medical Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28412764/how-networks-of-informal-trails-cause-landscape-level-damage-to-vegetation
#9
Agustina Barros, Catherine Marina Pickering
When visitors are not constrained to remain on formal trails, informal trail networks can develop and damage plant communities in protected areas. These networks can form in areas with low growing vegetation, where formal trails are limited, where there is limited regulation and where vegetation is slow to recover once disturbed. To demonstrate the extent of impacts from unregulated recreational use, we assessed damage to alpine vegetation by hikers and pack animals in the highest protected area in the southern Hemisphere: Aconcagua Park, in the Andes...
April 15, 2017: Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28411563/spatio-temporal-trends-in-fire-weather-in-the-french-alps
#10
S Dupire, T Curt, S Bigot
The Alpine area is particularly sensitive to climatic and environmental changes that might impact socio-ecosystems and modify the regime of natural hazards. Among them, wildfire is of major importance as it threatens both ecosystems and human lives and infrastructures. Wildfires result from complex interactions between available vegetation fuels, climate and weather, and humans who decide of the land use and are the main source of fire ignitions. The changes in fire weather during the past decades are rather unknown in the French Alps especially due to their complex topography...
April 12, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28409199/disc-degeneration-on-mri-is-more-prevalent-in-young-elite-skiers-compared-to-controls
#11
Wisam A Witwit, Peter Kovac, Anna Sward, Cecilia Agnvall, Carl Todd, Olof Thoreson, Hanna Hebelka, Adad Baranto
PURPOSE: Evidence-based facts regarding spine abnormalities and back pain are needed in order to develop rehabilitation programs and prevent spine injuries in young skiers. The aim therefore is to identify MRI changes in the thoraco-lumbar spine and the lifetime prevalence of back pain, as well as the association between them, in young skiers compared to non-athletes. METHODS: Seventy-five young elite alpine and mogul skiers, age range 16-20 years, were compared with 27 non-athletic controls...
April 13, 2017: Knee Surgery, Sports Traumatology, Arthroscopy: Official Journal of the ESSKA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28407248/evolutionary-priority-effects-persist-in-anthropogenically-created-habitats-but-not-through-nonnative-plant-invasion
#12
Angela J Brandt, William G Lee, Andrew J Tanentzap, Ella Hayman, Tadashi Fukami, Barbara J Anderson
Evolutionary priority effects, where early-arriving lineages occupy niche space via diversification and preclude dominance of later arrivals, have been observed in alpine and forest communities. However, the potential for evolutionary priority effects to persist in an era of rapid global change remains unclear. Here, we use a natural experiment of historical disturbance in New Zealand to test whether anthropogenic changes in available habitat and nonnative invasion eliminate the role of evolutionary priority effects in community assembly...
April 13, 2017: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28407107/phylogeography-of-sophora-moorcroftiana-supports-wu-s-hypothesis-on-the-origin-of-tibetan-alpine-flora
#13
Shanmei Cheng, Qiong La, Fan Lu, Takahiro Yonezawa, Ganqiang Yin, Zhiping Song, Yuguo Wang, Ji Yang, Wenju Zhang
Wu hypothesized that the Tibetan flora originated mostly from the paleotropical Tertiary flora in the Hengduan Mountains by adapting to the cold and arid environments associated with the strong uplift of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau (QTP). Here, we combine the phylogeographic history of Sophora moorcroftiana with that of S. davidii to explore the speciation of S. moorcroftiana to test this hypothesis. We collected 151 individuals from 17 populations and sequenced two chloroplast fragments and the internal transcribed spacer of rDNA...
April 12, 2017: Journal of Heredity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28405272/prey-diversity-as-a-driver-of-resource-partitioning-between-river-dwelling-fish-species
#14
Javier Sánchez-Hernández, Heidi-Marie Gabler, Per-Arne Amundsen
Although food resource partitioning among sympatric species has often been explored in riverine systems, the potential influence of prey diversity on resource partitioning is little known. Using empirical data, we modeled food resource partitioning (assessed as dietary overlap) of coexisting juvenile Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) and alpine bullhead (Cottus poecilopus). Explanatory variables incorporated into the model were fish abundance, benthic prey diversity and abundance, and several dietary metrics to give a total of seventeen potential explanatory variables...
April 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28404992/impacts-of-alpine-wetland-degradation-on-the-composition-diversity-and-trophic-structure-of-soil-nematodes-on-the-qinghai-tibetan-plateau
#15
Pengfei Wu, Hongzhi Zhang, Liwei Cui, Kyle Wickings, Shenglei Fu, Changting Wang
Alpine wetlands on the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau are undergoing degradation. However, little is known regarding the response of soil nematodes to this degradation. We conducted investigations in a wet meadow (WM), a grassland meadow (GM), a moderately degraded meadow (MDM) and a severely degraded meadow (SDM) from April to October 2011. The nematode community taxonomic composition was similar in the WM, GM and MDM and differed from that in the SDM. The abundance declined significantly from the WM to the SDM. The taxonomic richness and Shannon index were comparable between the WM and MDM but were significantly lower in the SDM, and the Pielou evenness showed the opposite pattern...
April 12, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28403243/within-season-variability-of-fighting-behaviour-in-an-australian-alpine-grasshopper
#16
Giselle Muschett, Kate D L Umbers, Marie E Herberstein
Throughout the breeding season, changing environmental and biological conditions can lead to variation in the reproductive landscape of many species. In alpine environments temperature is a key driver of behaviour for small ectotherms such as insects, but variable biotic factors such as mate quality and availability can also influence behaviour. Kosicuscola tristis is a small semelparous grasshopper of the Australian alpine region. In a rare behaviour among grasshoppers, K. tristis males engage in vigorous fights over access to females, involving mandible displays, kicking, biting and grappling...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28402793/lichenomphalia-altoandina-a-new-species-of-hygrophoraceae-from-the-chilean-altiplano
#17
P Sandoval-Leiva, N Niveiro, R Urbina-Casanova, R Scherson
Lichenomphalia is a lichenized agaric genus characterized by its omphalinoid basidiomes. Lichenomphalia species are associated with unicellular green algae in the genus Coccomyxa and are mainly distributed in polar and alpine habitats. The aim of this work is to describe L. altoandina, a new species from northern Chile that grows among cushion plants over 3000 m above sea level in the Andes Mountains. The species is remarkable for living in highly saline environments, in some cases virtually on salt crusts...
2017: Mycologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28401921/distinct-soil-microbial-communities-in-habitats-of-differing-soil-water-balance-on-the-tibetan-plateau
#18
Yuntao Li, Jonathan Adams, Yu Shi, Hao Wang, Jin-Sheng He, Haiyan Chu
Global change may be a severe threat to natural and agricultural systems, partly through its effects in altering soil biota and processes, due to changes in water balance. We studied the potential influence of changing soil water balance on soil biota by comparing existing sites along a natural water balance gradient in the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau. In this study, the community structure of bacteria, archaea and eukaryotes differed between the different soil water conditions. Soil moisture was the strongest predictor of bacterial and eukaryotic community structure, whereas C/N ratio was the key factor predicting variation in the archaeal community...
April 12, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28401298/neurovascular-hand-symptoms-in-relation-to-cold-exposure-in-northern-sweden-a-population-based-study
#19
Albin Stjernbrandt, Bodil Björ, Martin Andersson, Lage Burström, Ingrid Liljelind, Tohr Nilsson, Ronnie Lundström, Jens Wahlström
PURPOSE: To describe the self-reported ambient cold exposure in northern Sweden and to relate the level of cumulative cold exposure to the occurrence of sensory and vascular hand symptoms. We hypothesize that cold exposure is positively related to reporting such symptoms. METHODS: A questionnaire about cold exposure and related symptoms was sent out to 35,144 subjects aged 18-70 years and living in northern Sweden. RESULTS: A total of 12,627 out of 35,144 subjects returned the questionnaire (response rate 35...
April 11, 2017: International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28398944/alpine-skiing-as-winter-time-high-intensity-training
#20
Thomas Stöggl, Christoph Schwarzl, Edith E Müller, Masaru Nagasaki, Julia Stöggl, Martin Schönfelder, Josef Niebauer
INTRODUCTION: To counteract the winter activity deficit, we set out to analyze cardiorespiratory and metabolic responses of two high intensity training (HIT) protocols during alpine skiing (AS), cross-country skiing (XCS) and indoor cycling (IC) and the effects of sex, age and fitness level in this comparison. METHODS: Nineteen healthy subjects (two age and fitness groups, both sexes) performed AS, XCS, and IC with measurements of oxygen uptake (VO2), energy expenditure (EE), heart rate (HR), lactate, blood glucose and rate of perceived exertion, determined during 4-min of continuous high intensity (HITc: 90% HRmax for XCS and IC or short turn skiing during AS) or 10-min intermittent HIT [HITint: 5x1' high intensity (>90% HRmax or short turn skiing), 1' active recovery]...
April 11, 2017: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
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