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Boris P Ilyashuk, Elena A Ilyashuk, Roland Psenner, Richard Tessadri, Karin A Koinig
A global warming-induced transition from glacial to periglacial processes has been identified in mountainous regions around the world. Degrading permafrost in pristine periglacial environments can produce acid rock drainage (ARD) and cause severe ecological damage in areas underlain by sulfide-bearing bedrock. Limnological and paleolimnological approaches were used to assess and compare ARDs generated by rock glaciers, a typical landform of the mountain permafrost domain, and their effects on alpine headwater lakes with similar morphometric features and underlying bedrock geology, but characterized by different intensities of frost action in their catchments during the year...
November 15, 2017: Global Change Biology
Pascal Marchand, Pauline Freycon, Jean-Philippe Herbaux, Yvette Game, Carole Toïgo, Emmanuelle Gilot-Fromont, Sophie Rossi, Jean Hars
In a context of (re)emerging infectious diseases with wildlife reservoirs, understanding how animal ecology shapes epidemiology is a key issue, particularly in wild ungulates that share pathogens with domestic herbivores and have similar food requirements. For the first time in Europe, brucellosis (Brucella melitensis), a virulent zoonosis, persisted in an Alpine ibex (Capra ibex) population and was transmitted to cattle and humans. To better understand disease dynamics, we investigated the relationships between the spatial ecology of ibex and the epidemiology of brucellosis...
November 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
K R Miner, J Blais, C Bogdal, S Villa, M Schwikowski, P Pavlova, C Steinlin, C Gerbi, K J Kreutz
Northern Hemisphere alpine glaciers have been identified as a point of concentration and reemergence of legacy organochlorine pollutants (OCPs). In this review, we compile a selection of published literature combining long-range, global atmospheric transport and distribution-based compartmental environmental flux models, as well as data from glacial meltwater, ice core, crevasse and proglacial lake sediment studies. Regional studies of ice and meltwater in alpine glaciers of the northern latitudes show similarities in sample deposition profiles and concentration due to chemical atmospheric residence time, precipitation type and glacier flow rates...
November 15, 2017: Environmental Science. Processes & Impacts
Noel Alpins, James K Y Ong, George Stamatelatos
PURPOSE: To demonstrate how the concept of hemidivisional corneal topographic astigmatism (hemiCorT) enables the planning of hemidivisional corneal treatments to reduce irregularity and overall astigmatism. METHODS: Whole-of-cornea corneal topographic astigmatism (CorT) is calculated from topography data derived from a corneal topographer or tomographer. The cornea is conceptually divided into 2 hemidivisions along the flat meridian of the CorT. For each hemidivision, hemiCorTs are calculated...
November 9, 2017: Cornea
Sophie Elspeth Steenstrup, Arnhild Bakken, Tone Bere, Declan Alexander Patton, Roald Bahr
INTRODUCTION: Head injuries represent a concern in skiing and snowboarding, with traumatic brain injuries being the most common cause of death. AIM: To describe the mechanisms of head and face injuries among World Cup alpine and freestyle skiers and snowboarders. METHODS: We performed a qualitative analysis of videos obtained of head and face injuries reported through the International Ski Federation Injury Surveillance System during 10 World Cup seasons (2006-2016)...
November 13, 2017: British Journal of Sports Medicine
Miloslav Devetter, Ladislav Háněl, Klára Řeháková, Jiří Doležal
High-elevation cold deserts in Tibet and Himalaya are one of the most extreme environments. One consequence is that the diversity of macrofauna in this environment is often limited, and soil microorganisms have a more influential role in governing key surface and subsurface bioprocesses. High-elevation soil microfauna represent important components of cold ecosystems and dominant consumers of microbial communities. Still little is known about their diversity and distribution on the edge of their reproductive and metabolic abilities...
2017: PloS One
Marie-Laure Lastel, Agnès Fournier, Stefan Jurjanz, Jean-Pierre Thomé, Célia Joaquim-Justo, Harry Archimède, Maurice Mahieu, Cyril Feidt, Guido Rychen
Sixteen weaned male Alpine kids (Capra hircus) were subjected to a 21-day oral daily exposure of 0.05 mg kg(-1) BW. d(-1) of chlordecone (CLD) and 0.30 μg kg(-1) BW. d(-1) of each non-dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (NDL-PCBs, congeners 28, 52, 101, 138, 153 and 180). Four kids, identified as the CONTA group, were slaughtered at the end of the exposure, while the remaining animals (n = 12) were fed with specific diets for an additional 21-day decontamination period before slaughtering. Kids from the DECONTA (n = 4) group were fed a control diet, while those from the AC10% and PO8% group received pellets supplemented with 10% activated carbon (AC) and 8% paraffin oil (PO), respectively...
October 27, 2017: Chemosphere
Rafaela Schinegger, Matthias Pucher, Christiane Aschauer, Stefan Schmutz
This work addresses multiple human stressors and their impacts on fish assemblages of the Drava and Mura rivers in southern Austria. The impacts of single and multiple human stressors on riverine fish assemblages in these basins were disentangled, based on an extensive dataset. Stressor configuration, i.e. various metrics of multiple stressors belonging to stressor groups hydrology, morphology, connectivity and water quality were investigated for the first time at river basin scale in Austria. As biological response variables, the Fish Index Austria (FIA) and its related single as well as the WFD biological- and total state were investigated...
November 8, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
Jun Zeng, Ju-Pei Shen, Jun-Tao Wang, Hang-Wei Hu, Cui-Jing Zhang, Ren Bai, Li-Mei Zhang, Ji-Zheng He
Climate change is projected to have impacts on precipitation and temperature regimes in drylands of high elevation regions, with especially large effects in the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau. However, there was limited information about how the projected climate change will impact on the soil microbial community and their activity in the region. Here, we present results from a study conducted across 72 soil samples from 24 different sites along a temperature and precipitation gradient (substituted by aridity index ranging from 0...
November 9, 2017: Microbial Ecology
Ivano Brunner, Beat Frey, Martin Hartmann, Stephan Zimmermann, Frank Graf, Laura M Suz, Tuula Niskanen, Martin I Bidartondo, Beatrice Senn-Irlet
Historical datasets of living communities are important because they can be used to document creeping shifts in species compositions. Such a historical data set exists for alpine fungi. From 1941 to 1953, the Swiss geologist Jules Favre visited yearly the region of the Swiss National Park and recorded the occurring fruiting bodies of fungi >1 mm (so-called "macrofungi") in the alpine zone. Favre can be regarded as one of the pioneers of alpine fungal ecology not least because he noted location, elevation, geology, and associated plants during his numerous excursions...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
Fangyue Zhang, Quan Quan, Bing Song, Jian Sun, Youjun Chen, Qingping Zhou, Shuli Niu
The dynamics of net primary productivity (NPP) and its partitioning to the aboveground versus belowground are of fundamental importance to understand carbon cycling and its feedback to climate change. However, the responses of NPP and its partitioning to precipitation gradient are poorly understood. We conducted a manipulative field experiment with six precipitation treatments (1/12 P, 1/4 P, 1/2 P, 3/4 P, P, and 5/4 P, P is annual precipitation) in an alpine meadow to examine aboveground and belowground NPP (ANPP and BNPP) in response to precipitation gradient in 2015 and 2016...
November 9, 2017: Scientific Reports
Jianshuang Wu, Yunfei Feng, Xianzhou Zhang, Susanne Wurst, Britta Tietjen, Paolo Tarolli, Chunqiao Song
Resilience is an important aspect of the non-linear restoration of disturbed ecosystems. Fenced grassland patches on the northern Tibetan Plateau can be used to examine the resistance and resilience of degraded alpine grasslands to grazing and to a changing climate. To examine the non-linearity of restoration, we used moderate resolution imaging spectroradiometer (MODIS) normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) as a proxy for productivity during a ten-year restoration by fencing. Degraded alpine grasslands exhibited three restoration trajectories: an equilibrium in meadows, a non-linear increase across steppes, and an abrupt impulse in desert-steppes following a slight increase in productivity...
November 9, 2017: Scientific Reports
A Stenroos, L Handolin
BACKGROUND AND AIM: During the last decade urban skiing and snowboarding has gained a lot of popularity. In urban skiing/snowboarding riders try to balance on handrails and jump off buildings. Previous studies in skiing and snowboarding accidents have mostly been conducted at hospitals located close to alpine terrain with big ski resort areas. The aim of this study is to evaluate the types and severity of traumatic brain injuries occurring in small, suburban hills and in urban environment, and to characterize injury patterns to find out the specific mechanisms of injuries behind...
November 1, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Surgery: SJS
Karin Fieten, Renske Schappin, Wieneke Zijlstra, Lilian Figee, Jos Beutler, Florine Raymakers, Harmieke van Os-Medendorp, Rebecca Stellato, Maartje Vandewall, Joan Winkelhof, Monica Uniken Venema, Carla Bruijnzeel-Koomen, Lucia Rijssenbeek-Nouwens, Cornelis van der Ent, Els van Hoffen, Yolanda Meijer, Suzanne Pasmans
BACKGROUND: Alpine climate treatment has historically been used in Europe to treat atopic dermatitis (AD), but no randomized trials have been conducted to provide evidence for its effectiveness. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the long-term effectiveness of alpine climate treatment for children with difficult to treat AD. MATERIALS & METHODS: A pragmatic, open, randomized controlled trial was conducted. Children diagnosed with AD that was considered difficult to treat, aged between 8 and 18 years and willing to be treated in Switzerland were randomized to a six week personalized integrative multidisciplinary treatment period in a clinical setting in the alpine climate (Switzerland) or an outpatient setting in moderate maritime climate (Netherlands)...
November 9, 2017: Clinical and Experimental Allergy: Journal of the British Society for Allergy and Clinical Immunology
Martin Kyek, Peter H Kaufmann, Robert Lindner
This study focuses on the population trends of two widespread European anuran species: the common toad (Bufo bufo) and the common frog (Rana temporaria). The basis of this study is data gathered over two decades of amphibian fencing alongside roads in the Austrian state of Salzburg. Different statistical approaches were used to analyse the data. Overall average increase or decrease of each species was estimated by calculating a simple average locality index. In addition the statistical software TRIM was used to verify these trends as well as to categorize the data based on the geographic location of each migration site...
2017: PloS One
Sami A Malek, Francesco Avanzi, Keoma Brun-Laguna, Tessa Maurer, Carlos A Oroza, Peter C Hartsough, Thomas Watteyne, Steven D Glaser
Monitoring the snow pack is crucial for many stakeholders, whether for hydro-power optimization, water management or flood control. Traditional forecasting relies on regression methods, which often results in snow melt runoff predictions of low accuracy in non-average years. Existing ground-based real-time measurement systems do not cover enough physiographic variability and are mostly installed at low elevations. We present the hardware and software design of a state-of-the-art distributed Wireless Sensor Network (WSN)-based autonomous measurement system with real-time remote data transmission that gathers data of snow depth, air temperature, air relative humidity, soil moisture, soil temperature, and solar radiation in physiographically representative locations...
November 9, 2017: Sensors
Samuel D J Brown
Austromonticolagen. n. is proposed for a group of eight New Zealand alpine broad-nosed weevil species, all of which are here described: A. atriariussp. n. (type locality: Umbrella Mountains, Central Otago), A. caelibatussp. n. (type locality: Ohau Range, Mackenzie), A. furcatussp. n. (type locality: Old Man Range, Central Otago), A. inflatussp. n. (type locality: Hawkdun Range, Central Otago), A. planulatussp. n. (type locality: St Marys Range, Central Otago), A. postinventussp. n. (type locality: Kirkliston Range, South Canterbury), A...
2017: ZooKeys
Mikołaj Kaczmarski, Anna Maria Kubicka, Martin Hromada, Piotr Tryjanowski
Co-existence between potentially competing newt species can lead to niche differentiation (e.g., in terms of diet shifts). This may cause adaptive responses involving changes in head shape. Here, we tested the hypothesis: the head shape of Lissotriton montandoni is different in conditions of co-occurrence with Ichthyosaura alpestris than in conditions in which other newt species are absent. We analysed images depicting head shape of specimens of I. alpestris and L. montandoni from a museum collection. All specimens of I...
2017: Zoomorphology
Jun Li, Guo-Li Yuan, Xu-Chuan Duan, Yong Sun, Hong-Hui Yu, Gen-Hou Wang
The sedimentary core in remote alpine lakes has been recognized as an ideal proxy to reconstruct the emission and air deposition histories of persistent organic pollutants (POPs). Nevertheless, POPs formerly stored in a catchment might also contribute to the variation in the lake sediment by lateral remobilization. In this study, to reveal the relative importance of lateral remobilization, we measured the vertical profiles and isomeric ratios of dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethanes (DDTs), hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs) and endosulfan in a dated sedimentary core collected from Lake Yamzho Yumco in the southern Tibetan Plateau...
October 27, 2017: Environmental Pollution
Julian Schmidberger, Wolfgang Kratzer, Klaus Stark, Beate Grüner
PURPOSE: Alveolar echinococcosis is a rare disease caused by the parasite Echinococcus multilocularis. The newly established national database should enable us to determine high-risk areas and evaluate the endemic levels. METHODS: The national database was implemented using SQL Workbench. We used EpiInfo™ software to display the prevalence of disease. Moran's I geodata analysis according to cluster and high risk areas was performed with GeoDa™. SAS Version 9...
October 31, 2017: Infection
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