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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28640885/phylogeography-of-a-tough-rock-survivor-in-european-dry-grasslands
#1
Daniela Listl, Peter Poschlod, Christoph Reisch
Phylogeographic analyses of plants in Europe have revealed common glacial refugia and migration routes for several trees and herbs with arctic-alpine distributions. The postglacial histories of dry grassland species in central Europe have rarely been analyzed, even though the extremely species-rich habitat is threatened. Sedum album (Crassulaceae) is a common inhabitant of rocky sites in central European dry grasslands. We inferred the phylogeographic history of S. album over its distribution range in Europe...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28635966/testing-models-of-refugial-isolation-colonization-and-population-connectivity-in-two-species-of-montane-salamanders
#2
S M Rovito, S D Schoville
Pleistocene glaciations have profoundly affected patterns of genetic diversity within many species. Temperate alpine organisms likely experienced dramatic range shifts, given that much of their habitat was glaciated during this time. While the effects of glaciations are relatively well understood, the spatial locations of refugia and processes that gave rise to current patterns of diversity are less well known. We use a microsatellite data set to test hypotheses of population connectivity and refugial isolation in the web-toed salamanders (Hydromantes) of the Sierra Nevada...
June 21, 2017: Heredity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628787/biological-welfare-and-the-commons-a-natural-experiment-in-the-alps-1765-1845
#3
Trevor O'Grady, Claudio Tagliapietra
In the late 18th century hundreds self-governing alpine communities in Northern Italy came under the direct control of centralized states (Austria and France) at different times. We exploit the timing and location of these interventions in a difference-in-differences type design to investigate the effects of removing CPR (common-pool resources) institutions on biological welfare. We find a significant and persistent increase in infant mortality rates and a more modest decrease in birth rates as a result of state centralization...
June 6, 2017: Economics and Human Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28621735/anti-inflammatory-and-anti-oxidant-potential-of-the-root-extract-and-constituents-of-doronicum-austriacum
#4
Stefania Marzocco, Simona Adesso, Mostafa Alilou, Hermann Stuppner, Stefan Schwaiger
Doronicum austriacum Jacq., Asteraceae, is a plant which is used in traditional alpine medicine. Historical sources describe the medical use of the root, but up until now only a few studies evaluated its pharmacological properties. The evaluation of the dichloromethane extract, and its major compounds for their anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant potential was performed in macrophages J774A.1 and C6 astrocytes. Nitric oxide (NO) and reactive oxygen species (ROS) release, as well as nitrotyrosine formation, were evaluated...
June 16, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620759/participative-spatial-scenario-analysis-for-alpine-ecosystems
#5
Marina Kohler, Rike Stotten, Melanie Steinbacher, Georg Leitinger, Erich Tasser, Uta Schirpke, Ulrike Tappeiner, Markus Schermer
Land use and land cover patterns are shaped by the interplay of human and ecological processes. Thus, heterogeneous cultural landscapes have developed, delivering multiple ecosystem services. To guarantee human well-being, the development of land use types has to be evaluated. Scenario development and land use and land cover change models are well-known tools for assessing future landscape changes. However, as social and ecological systems are inextricably linked, land use-related management decisions are difficult to identify...
June 15, 2017: Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28618194/sexual-dimorphism-in-the-alpine-butterflies-boloria-pales-and-boloria-napaea-differences-in-movement-and-foraging-behaviour-lepidoptera-nymphalidae
#6
Stefan Ehl, Katharina Hostert, Jana Korsch, Patrick Gros, Thomas Schmitt
Sexual dimorphism is a widespread phenomenon in Lepidoptera. It is reflected in differences in life history, behaviour and morphology. Analyses of differences in behaviour are mostly difficult and time-consuming, especially in high mountain ecosystems. To enhance our knowledge on sexual dimorphisms of alpine butterflies, we performed a mark-release-recapture study on two species common in the Alps: Boloria pales and Boloria napaea. We analysed movement and foraging behaviour to investigate differences between sexes...
June 15, 2017: Insect Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28616164/elevational-gradient-and-human-effects-on-butterfly-species-richness-in-the-french-alps
#7
Arnaud Gallou, Yann Baillet, Gentile Francesco Ficetola, Laurence Després
We examined how butterfly species richness is affected by human impact and elevation, and how species ranges are distributed along the elevational gradient (200-2700 m) in the Isère Department (French Alps). A total of 35,724 butterfly observations gathered in summer (May-September) between 1995 and 2015 were analyzed. The number of estimated species per 100-m elevational band was fitted to the elevational gradient using a generalized additive model. Estimations were also performed on a 500 m × 500 m grid at low altitude (200-500 m) to test for the human impact on species richness using generalized least squares regression models...
June 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28614594/linkages-of-plant-stoichiometry-to-ecosystem-production-and-carbon-fluxes-with-increasing-nitrogen-inputs-in-an-alpine-steppe
#8
Yunfeng Peng, Fei Li, Guoying Zhou, Kai Fang, Dianye Zhang, Changbin Li, Guibiao Yang, Guanqin Wang, Jun Wang, Yuanhe Yang
Unprecedented levels of nitrogen (N) have entered terrestrial ecosystems over the past century, which substantially influences the carbon (C) exchange between the atmosphere and biosphere. Temperature and moisture are generally regarded as the major controllers over the N effects on ecosystem C uptake and release. N-phosphorous (P) stoichiometry regulates the growth and metabolisms of plants and soil organisms, thereby affecting many ecosystem C processes. However, it remains unclear how the N-induced shift in the plant N:P ratio affects ecosystem production and C fluxes and its relative importance...
June 14, 2017: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28611743/identification-and-characterization-of-mycoplasma-feriruminatoris-sp-nov-strains-isolated-from-alpine-ibex-a-4th-species-in-the-mycoplasma-mycoides-cluster-hosted-by-non-domesticated-ruminants
#9
Chloé Ambroset, Corinne Pau-Roblot, Yvette Game, Patrice Gaurivaud, Florence Tardy
The genus Mycoplasma, a group of free-living, wall-less prokaryotes includes more than 100 species of which dozens are primary pathogens of humans and domesticated animals. Mycoplasma species isolated from wildlife are rarely investigated but could provide a fuller picture of the evolutionary history and diversity of this genus. In 2013 several isolates from wild Caprinae were tentatively assigned to a new species, Mycoplasma (M.) feriruminatoris sp. nov., characterized by an unusually rapid growth in vitro and close genetic proximity to ruminant pathogenic species...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28610555/indication-for-selfing-in-geographically-separated-populations-and-evidence-for-pleistocene-survival-within-the-alps-the-case-of-cylindrus-obtusus-pulmonata-helicidae
#10
Luise Kruckenhauser, Elisabeth Haring, Barbara Tautscher, Luis Cadahía, Laura Zopp, Michael Duda, Josef Harl, Helmut Sattmann
BACKGROUND: Cylindrus obtusus is one of the most prominent endemic snail species of the Eastern Alps. It is restricted to alpine meadows and calcareous rocky habitats above 1500 m. Peculiar intraspecific differences have been observed in its genital tract in the eastern populations the two mucus glands associated with the love dart sac are highly variable, while almost no variation was observed in the western populations. This raises the question whether the mode and success of reproduction of the respective populations are different...
June 13, 2017: BMC Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28608426/monitoring-of-libido-and-semen-quality-parameters-in-melatonin-treated-french-alpine-bucks-during-the-non-breeding-season
#11
S Vince, H Valpotić, V Berta, S Milinković-Tur, M Samardžija, J Grizelj, B Špoljarić, D Đuričić, I Nazansky, I Žura Žaja
The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of exogenous melatonin on libido and semen quality parameters in bucks during the non-breeding season. Twelve bucks of the French alpine breed from 1.5 to 4 years of age were assigned into melatonin (MG) and control (CG) groups, with 6 bucks in each group. The experimental period was 3 months (March-May), divided into six periods of 15 days each. The bucks in the MG group received four melatonin implants at the end of March. Two semen samples were taken from the bucks by artificial vagina once per week and their libido estimated...
June 13, 2017: Reproduction in Domestic Animals, Zuchthygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28608300/in-situ-assay-of-nitrate-reductase-activity-using-portable-water-bath
#12
Adam Rajsz, Bronisław Wojtuń, Andrzej Bytnerowicz
In environmental research (i.e., plant ecophysiology, environmental microbiology, and environmental chemistry), some assays require incubation of samples at controlled temperature and darkness. Until now, due to a lack of equipment providing such possibility in situ, researchers had to move collected samples to the laboratory for incubation. Obviously, a delayed incubation and the ex situ conditions could seriously affect the assays' results. A good example of analysis where water bath use is needed is the nitrate reductase activity (NRA) in vivo assay where plant tissue samples are incubated in buffer solution at a predetermined temperature...
July 2017: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28608159/ozone-risk-assessment-for-an-alpine-larch-forest-in-two-vegetative-seasons-with-different-approaches-comparison-of-pod1-and-aot40
#13
Angelo Finco, Riccardo Marzuoli, Maria Chiesa, Giacomo Gerosa
The upper vegetation belts like larch forests are supposed to be under great pressure because of climate change in the next decades. For this reason, the evaluation of the risks due to abiotic stressors like ozone is a key step. Two different approaches were used here: mapping AOT40 index by means of passive samplers and direct measurements of ozone deposition.Measurements of ozone fluxes using the eddy-correlation technique were carried out for the first time over a larch forest in Paspardo (I) at 1750 m a...
June 12, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28605857/effects-of-warming-and-nitrogen-fertilization-on-ghg-flux-in-an-alpine-swamp-meadow-of-a-permafrost-region
#14
Xiaopeng Chen, Genxu Wang, Tao Zhang, Tianxu Mao, Da Wei, Chunlin Song, Zhaoyong Hu, Kewei Huang
Uncertainties in the seasonal changes of greenhouse gases (GHG) fluxes in wetlands limit our accurate understanding of the responses of permafrost ecosystems to future warming and increased nitrogen (N) deposition. Therefore, in an alpine swamp meadow in the hinterland of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, a simulated warming with N fertilization experiment was conducted to investigate the key GHG fluxes (ecosystem respiration [Re], CH4 and N2O) in the early (EG), mid (MG) and late (LG) growing seasons. Results showed that warming (6...
June 8, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28592856/quaternary-history-population-genetic-structure-and-diversity-of-the-cold-adapted-alpine-newt-ichthyosaura-alpestris-in-peninsular-italy
#15
Andrea Chiocchio, Roberta Bisconti, Mauro Zampiglia, Giuseppe Nascetti, Daniele Canestrelli
Mediterranean peninsulas are major biodiversity hotspots, and cold-adapted species are an important component of this biodiversity. However, cold-adapted species contributed surprisingly little to our knowledge of the intimate links between Quaternary environmental changes, species' responses to these changes, and current patterns of intraspecific biodiversity. Here, we investigated the genetic structure and evolutionary history of a cold-adapted amphibian, the Alpine newt Ichthyosaura alpestris, within the Italian peninsula...
June 7, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28591213/flight-of-the-bumble-bee-buzzes-predict-pollination-services
#16
Nicole E Miller-Struttmann, David Heise, Johannes Schul, Jennifer C Geib, Candace Galen
Multiple interacting factors drive recent declines in wild and managed bees, threatening their pollination services. Widespread and intensive monitoring could lead to more effective management of wild and managed bees. However, tracking their dynamic populations is costly. We tested the effectiveness of an inexpensive, noninvasive and passive acoustic survey technique for monitoring bumble bee behavior and pollination services. First, we assessed the relationship between the first harmonic of the flight buzz (characteristic frequency) and pollinator functional traits that influence pollination success using flight cage experiments and a literature search...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28587223/density-and-habitat-relationships-of-the-endemic-white-mountain-fritillary-boloria-chariclea-montinus-lepidoptera-nymphalidae
#17
Kent P McFarland, John D Lloyd, Spencer P Hardy
We conducted point counts in the alpine zone of the Presidential Range of the White Mountains, New Hampshire, USA, to estimate the distribution and density of the rare endemic White Mountain Fritillary (Boloria chariclea montinus). Incidence of occurrence and density of the endemic White Mountain Fritillary during surveys in 2012 and 2013 were greatest in the herbaceous-snowbank plant community. Densities at points in the heath-shrub-rush plant community were lower, but because this plant community is more widespread in the alpine zone, it likely supports the bulk of adult fritillaries...
June 4, 2017: Insects
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28579029/pharmacokinetics-and-anthelmintic-efficacy-of-injectable-eprinomectin-in-goats
#18
C Briqué-Pellet, N Ravinet, Y Quenet, M Alvinerie, C Chartier
The objective of this study was to assess the pharmacokinetics and the anthelmintic efficacy of eprinomectin (Eprecis(®) 20mg/mL) following subcutaneous administration to goats. Forty non-lactating female Alpine goats aged between one and three years and weighing between 32.7 and 59.5kg, were randomly allocated to one of the following groups (8 animals per group): two groups were not infected and were treated at a dose of either 0.2 or 0.4mg/kg BW of eprinomectin, two groups were experimentally infected with nematodes and treated at 0...
July 15, 2017: Veterinary Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28575931/recent-forest-cover-changes-2002-2015-in-the-southern-carpathians-a-case-study-of-the-iezer-mountains-romania
#19
Bogdan Mihai, Ionuț Săvulescu, Marina Rujoiu-Mare, Constantin Nistor
The paper explores the dynamics of the forest cover change in the Iezer Mountains, part of Southern Carpathians, in the context of the forest ownership recovery and deforestation processes, combined with the effects of biotic and abiotic disturbances. The aim of the study is to map and evaluate the typology and the spatial extension of changes in the montane forest cover between 700 and 2462m a.s.l., sampling all the representative Carpathian ecosystems, from the European beech zone up to the spruce-fir zone and the subalpine-alpine pastures...
December 1, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28566722/community-and-species-specific-responses-of-plant-traits-to-23-years-of-experimental-warming-across-subarctic-tundra-plant-communities
#20
Gaurav Baruah, Ulf Molau, Yang Bai, Juha M Alatalo
To improve understanding of how global warming may affect competitive interactions among plants, information on the responses of plant functional traits across species to long-term warming is needed. Here we report the effect of 23 years of experimental warming on plant traits across four different alpine subarctic plant communities: tussock tundra, Dryas heath, dry heath and wet meadow. Open-top chambers (OTCs) were used to passively warm the vegetation by 1.5-3 °C. Changes in leaf width, leaf length and plant height of 22 vascular plant species were measured...
May 31, 2017: Scientific Reports
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