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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088183/incidence-aetiology-and-outcome-of-community-acquired-acute-kidney-injury-in-medical-admissions-in-malawi
#1
Rhys D R Evans, Ulla Hemmilä, Alison Craik, Mwayi Mtekateka, Fergus Hamilton, Zuze Kawale, Christopher J Kirwan, Hamish Dobbie, Gavin Dreyer
BACKGROUND: Epidemiological data on Acute Kidney Injury (AKI) from low-income countries is sparse. The aim of this study was to establish the incidence, severity, aetiology, and outcomes of community-acquired AKI in Malawi. METHODS: We conducted a prospective observational study of general medical admissions to a tertiary hospital in Blantyre between 27(th) April and 17(th) July 2015. All patients were screened on admission with a serum creatinine; those with creatinine above laboratory reference range were managed by the nephrology team...
January 14, 2017: BMC Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087922/urogenital-tuberculosis
#2
André A Figueiredo, Antônio M Lucon, Miguel Srougi
Urogenital tuberculosis is the second most frequent form of extrapulmonary tuberculosis. Starting with a pulmonary focus, 2 to 20% of patients develop urogenital tuberculosis through hematogenous spread to the kidneys, prostate, and epididymis; through the descending collecting system to the ureters, bladder, and urethra; and through the ejaculatory ducts to the genital organs. Urogenital tuberculosis occurs at all age ranges, but it is predominant in males in their fourth and fifth decades. It is a serious, insidious disease, generally developing symptoms only at a late stage, which leads to a diagnostic delay with consequent urogenital organ destruction; there are reports of patients with renal failure as their initial clinical presentation...
January 2017: Microbiology Spectrum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28043636/evaluation-the-virulence-of-mycobacterium-bovis-isolated-from-milk-samples-through-histopathological-study-in-laboratory-animals
#3
I M Al-Saqur, A N Al-Thwani, I M Al-Attar, M S Al-Mashhadani
INTRODUCTION: Mycobacterium bovis has a broad host range, and it is the principal agent responsible for tuberculosis (TB) in bovine, domestic and wild mammals. M. bovis also infects human, causing zoonotic TB through ingestion, inhalation and, less frequently by contact with mucous membranes and broken skin. Zoonotic TB was formerly an endemic disease, usually transmitted to man by consumption of raw cow's milk. It is indistinguishable clinically or pathologically from TB caused by M...
December 2016: International Journal of Mycobacteriology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27998279/mycobacterium-tuberculosis-infections-in-cynomolgus-monkey-transplant-recipients-and-institution-of-a-screening-program-for-the-prevention-and-control-of-tuberculosis
#4
Eun Wha Choi, Kyo Won Lee, Tae Min Kim, Hyojun Park, Mi Ri Jeon, Chan Woo Cho, Jae Berm Park, Sungjoo Kim
BACKGROUND: Tuberculosis is a major health concern in not only humans, but also in non-human primates. In this paper, we report recent cases of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in cynomolgus monkeys from Cambodia used in transplantation research in a Korean facility and describe a program instituted to prevent and control subsequent infections. CASE PRESENTATION: All monkeys were antibody negative for tuberculosis during quarantine; however, suspected tuberculosis gross lesions were observed in two cynomolgus monkeys who underwent allograft kidney transplantation...
December 20, 2016: BMC Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27979049/medical-management-of-severe-alcoholic-hepatitis-expert%C3%A2-review-from-the-clinical-practice-updates-committee-of%C3%A2-the-aga-institute
#5
Mack C Mitchell, Lawrence S Friedman, Craig J McClain
The purpose of this clinical practice update is to review diagnostic criteria for severe acute alcoholic hepatitis and to determine the current best practices for this life-threatening condition. The best practices in this review are based on clinical trials, systematic reviews including meta-analysis and expert opinion to develop an approach to diagnosis and management. Best Practice Advice 1: Abstinence from drinking alcohol is the cornerstone of treatment for alcohol hepatitis (AH). Best Practice Advice 2: Patients with jaundice and suspected AH should have cultures of blood, urine, and ascites, if present, to determine the presence of bacterial infections regardless of whether they have fever...
January 2017: Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920569/does-calcium-channel-blockade-have-a-role-in-prevention-of-expression-of-sepsis-in-renal-transplant-recipients
#6
REVIEW
John A D'Elia, Ray E Gleason, Anthony P Monaco, Larry A Weinrauch
Many antihypertensive agents have been demonstrated to assist in preservation of kidney function, among them those that modulate calcium channels. Calcium channel blockers may also be of value in protecting hemodialysis patients from complications of sepsis. In diabetic recipients of kidney transplant allografts treated with cyclosporine, calcium channel blockade has been retrospectively linked to improved graft preservation and to fewer episodes of sepsis. This brief review outlines clinical and experimental publications on potential protection from sepsis by addition of calcium channel blockers to standard antibiotic therapy in individuals who may or may not have normal kidney function, or in the presence or absence of immunosuppression...
2016: International Journal of Nephrology and Renovascular Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917313/open-surgery-versus-retroperitoneal-laparoscopic-nephrectomy-for-renal-tuberculosis-a-retrospective-study-of-120-patients
#7
Su Zhang, You Luo, Cheng Wang, Hu Xiong, Sheng-Jun Fu, Li Yang
BACKGROUND: Laparoscopic renal surgery has been widely used in the treatment of renal diseases. However, there is still little research about its application in addressing renal tuberculosis. The purpose of this study is to retrospectively investigate the surgical results of laparoscopic and open surgery for nonfunctional tuberculous kidneys. METHODS: Between May 2011 and June 2016, 120 nephrectomies were performed in patients with a nonfunctional tuberculous kidney...
2016: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914798/antimycobacterial-activity-of-novel-hydrazide-hydrazone-derivatives-with-2h-chromene-and-coumarin-scaffold
#8
Violina T Angelova, Violeta Valcheva, Nikolay G Vassilev, Rosen Buyukliev, Georgi Momekov, Ivan Dimitrov, Luciano Saso, Mirjana Djukic, Boris Shivachev
This study reports the synthesis of new 2H-chromene or coumarin based acylhydrazones, which were evaluated for their in vitro antimycobacterial activity against reference strain Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv and compared to the first-line antituberculosis drugs, isoniazid (INH) and ethambutol (EMB). The most active compounds 7m (MIC 0.13μM), 7o (MIC 0.15μM) and 7k (MIC 0.17μM) demonstrated antimycobacterial activity at submicromolar concentration level and remarkably minimal associated cytotoxicity in the human embryonic kidney cell line HEK-293T...
January 15, 2017: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914739/infection-by-mycobacterium-bovis-in-a-dog-from-brazil
#9
Vivianne Cambuí Figueiredo Rocha, Salomão Cambuí de Figueiredo, Cesar Alejandro Rodriguez Rosales, Camila Dias Porto, Julio Lopes Sequeira, José Soares Ferreira Neto, Antônio Carlos Paes, Vanessa Riesz Salgado
Tuberculosis (TB) is a chronic disease caused by bacteria belonging to the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MtbC). This disease rarely affects dogs. Canine infections are usually caused by M. tuberculosis. Mycobacterium bovis infections are rare in dogs and associated with consumption of raw milk or contaminated products. Here, we report a Boxer dog who had a M. bovis infection and was admitted to a Brazilian veterinary hospital with a presumptive diagnosis of chronic ehrlichiosis. Despite receiving treatment for chronic ehrlichiosis, it progressed to death...
October 3, 2016: Brazilian Journal of Microbiology: [publication of the Brazilian Society for Microbiology]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904125/use-of-corticosteroids-for-urinary-tuberculosis-patients-at-risk-of-developing-ureteral-obstruction
#10
Kosuke Matsui, Akitsugu Furumoto, Kojiro Ohba, Kota Mochizuki, Takeshi Tanaka, Masahiro Takaki, Konosuke Morimoto, Koya Ariyoshi
A 77-year-old man with urinary tuberculosis developed post renal anuria two days after starting an anti-tuberculosis drug regimen. He had bilateral hydronephrosis, and his right kidney was radiologically diagnosed to be non-functioning. A transurethral catheter was placed in the left ureter. No improvement in the ureteral stricture was noted during the initial three weeks of treatment; however, the stricture did thereafter improve after the commencement of oral prednisolone. In cases of urinary tuberculosis, ureteral stricture can deteriorate and result in ureteral obstruction during anti-tuberculosis treatment...
2016: Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888179/predicting-tuberculosis-risk-in-the-foreign-born-population-of-british-columbia-canada-study-protocol-for-a-retrospective-population-based-cohort-study
#11
Lisa A Ronald, Jonathon R Campbell, Robert F Balshaw, David Z Roth, Kamila Romanowski, Fawziah Marra, Victoria J Cook, James C Johnston
INTRODUCTION: Improved understanding of risk factors for developing active tuberculosis (TB) will better inform decisions about diagnostic testing and treatment for latent TB infection (LTBI) in migrant populations in low-incidence regions. We aim to examine TB risk factors among the foreign-born population in British Columbia (BC), Canada, and to create and validate a clinically relevant multivariate risk score to predict active TB. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: This retrospective population-based cohort study will include all foreign-born individuals who acquired permanent resident status in Canada between 1 January 1985 and 31 December 2013 and acquired healthcare coverage in BC at any point during this period...
November 25, 2016: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27867891/bangladesh-national-guidelines-on-the-management-of-tuberculosis-and-diabetes-mellitus-co-morbidity-summary
#12
REVIEW
Mohammad Delwar Hossain, Jamal Uddin Ahmed, Muhammad Abdur Rahim, A K M Musa, Zafar Ahmed Latif
Tuberculosis (TB) and diabetes mellitus (DM) have synergetic relationship. People with diabetes are 2-3 times at higher risk of getting active TB disease. On the other hand, TB or anti-TB treatment may cause glucose intolerance. The dual disease of DM and TB is more likely to be associated with atypical disease presentation, higher probability of treatment failure and complications. In most of the health-care delivery systems of the world, DM and TB are managed separately by two vertical health-care delivery programs in spite of clear interaction between the two diseases...
November 2016: Indian Journal of Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27865246/renal-tuberculosis-presenting-as-acute-pyelonephritis-a-rarity
#13
Ajay Kumar Verma, Ashwini Kumar Mishra, Manoj Kumar, Surya Kant, Anubhuti Singh, Ajay Singh
One of the major health problems faced particularly by the developing world since ages is that of tuberculosis (TB). Genito-urinary tuberculosis (GUTB) is the second most common extrapulmonary TB, with kidney being the most frequent site of infection. Due to the diverse and atypical clinical manifestations of urinary TB, the disease is easy to misdiagnose. The diagnosis of renal TB should be suspected in a nonspecific bacterial cystitis associated with a therapeutic failure or a sterile pyuria and a past history of pulmonary TB with important radiologic findings, particularly with the help of CT scan...
July 2016: Indian Journal of Tuberculosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27861333/isolated-neurosarcoidosis-mimicking-multifocal-meningiomas-a-diagnosis-pitfall-a-case-report
#14
Kun Wang, Xiaoying He, Wei Wang, Huanjiang Niu, Yirong Wang, Xiujun Cai, Shuxu Yang
INTRODUCTION: Neurosarcoidosis accounts for approximately 5% of the sarcoidosis, which develops exclusively in the nervous system and is always difficult to diagnose. We describe a rare case of isolated neurosarcoidosis mimicking as multifocal meningiomas. A 27-year-old male was admitted to our hospital with a history of unconsciousness and convulsion 1 month ago, which was suspected as a seizure. The results showed no abnormalities in complete blood count; serum electrolytes; erythrocyte sedimentation rate and ultrasonography of the liver, pancreas, spleen, kidney and parotid gland, and so on...
November 2016: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27843865/a-rare-case-of-isolated-testicular-tuberculosis-and-review-of-literature
#15
Anirban Das, Saikat Batabyal, Soumya Bhattacharjee, Amitabha Sengupta
Testicular tuberculosis (TB) is a rare form of genitourinary TB. It is usually presented as painful or painless testicular swelling with or without scrotal ulceration or discharging sinus. Infertility may occur. Epididymal involvement is usually seen in testicular TB. In most cases, genital TB is associated with TB involvement of kidneys or lower urinary tract. Ultrasound (USG) and USG-guided fine needle aspiration cytology of testicular swelling confirm the diagnosis. Anti-TB chemotherapy is the mainstay of treatment to ensure the complete resolution of the lesion...
April 2016: Journal of Family Medicine and Primary Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27805533/lung-biopsy-findings-of-patients-who-have-undergone-a-liver-and-kidney-transplant
#16
Gonca Özgün, Merih Tepeoğlu, Binnaz Handan Özdemir, Eda Yılmaz Akçay, Ebru Şebnem Ayva, Emine Ebru Deniz, Mehmet Haberal
OBJECTIVES: Our objective was to analyze the incidence of pulmonary disorders in solid-organ transplant recipients and report on outcomes in these patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Seventy liver and kidney transplant patients, who underwent lung biopsy because of pulmonary symptoms between January 2000 and December 2015, were enrolled in the study. We examined and evaluated histopathologic findings of these patients based on clinical data recorded in patients' files...
2016: Experimental and Clinical Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27795624/rifampicin-and-anti-hypertensive-drugs-in-chronic-kidney-disease-pharmacokinetic-interactions-and-their-clinical-impact
#17
A Agrawal, S K Agarwal, T Kaleekal, Y K Gupta
Patients on dialysis have an increased incidence of tuberculosis (TB). Rifampicin, a first-line antitubercular therapy (ATT) drug, is a potent inducer of hepatic cytochrome P450 (CYP). There is potential for pharmacokinetic interaction between rifampicin and anti-hypertensives that are CYP substrates: amlodipine and metoprolol. Therefore, hypertensive patients receiving rifampicin-based ATT are at risk for worsening of hypertension. However, this hypothesis has not yet been systematically studied. In this prospective study, hypertensive CKD 5D patients with TB were followed after rifampicin initiation...
September 2016: Indian Journal of Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27729256/successful-management-of-acute-interstitial-nephritis-in-two-cases-of-disseminated-tuberculosis
#18
Quratulain Kizilbash
Acute interstitial nephritis (AIN) is characterized by an inflammatory infiltrate in the kidney interstitium and a decline in the creatinine clearance. Medications used for the treatment of tuberculosis have been implicated in the development of AIN, but there is limited data on how to manage AIN in this setting and which medications and dosages should be used to treat tuberculosis once AIN occurs. We describe two cases of AIN in the setting of disseminated tuberculosis in which AIN was successfully managed...
December 2016: Tuberculosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27701138/the-ameliorating-effect-of-centella-asiatica-ethanolic-extract-on-albino-rats-treated-with-isoniazid
#19
Kavisa Ghosh, N Indra, G Jagadeesan
BACKGROUND: Isoniazid, also called isonicotinyl hydrazine (INH), is a commonly used drug for treating tuberculosis. The main drawback is its toxic side effects. Centella asiatica has long been used in the Ayurvedic system of medicine owing to its wide medicinal properties. This study was designed to examine the effectiveness of C. asiatica ethanolic leaf extract (CA) on INH-treated albino rats. METHODS: The adverse effects induced by INH (50 mg/kg bw) administration on haematological parameters, oxidative status (thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances, superoxide dismutase, catalase, and reduced glutathione), liver and kidney function markers, and their amelioration by various concentrations of CA (20, 40, 60, and 100 mg/kg bw) or silymarin (SIL) (50 mg/kg bw, administered before 1 h of INH treatment for 30 days to rats) were studied...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Basic and Clinical Physiology and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27688899/patterns-and-trends-in-mortality-among-hiv-infected-and-hiv-uninfected-patients-in-a-major-internal-medicine-unit-in-yaound%C3%A3-cameroon-a-retrospective-cohort-study
#20
Josephine Mbuagbaw, Ahmadou M Jingi, Jean Jacques N Noubiap, Arnaud D Kaze, Jobert Richie N Nansseu, Jean Joel R Bigna, Edvine Wawo Yonta, Kathleen Ngu Blackett
OBJECTIVE: To describe the trends in mortality and the spectrum of disease in HIV-infected and -uninfected inpatients in a population in Yaoundé. DESIGN: A retrospective study. SETTING: Internal Medicine Unit, University Hospital Centre, Yaoundé, Cameroon. PARTICIPANTS: All deaths registered between January 2000 and May 2007 in the unit. MAIN OUTCOMES MEASURES: Sociodemographic characteristics, clinical features and results of all investigations done, cause of death...
September 2016: JRSM Open
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