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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29908886/the-potential-role-of-substance-p-in-brainstem-homeostatic-control-in-the-pathogenesis-of-sudden-infant-death-syndrome-sids
#1
REVIEW
Fiona M Bright, Robert Vink, Roger W Byard
Victims of sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) are believed to have an underlying dysfunction in medullary homeostatic control that impairs critical responses to life threatening challenges such as hypoxia, hypercarbia and asphyxia, often during a sleep period. This failure is thought to result from abnormalities in a network of neural pathways in the medulla oblongata that control respiration, chemosensitivity, autonomic function and arousal. Studies have mainly focused on the role of serotonin, 5-hydroxytyptamine (5HT), although the neuropeptide substance P (SP) has also been shown to play an integral role in the modulation of medullary homeostatic function, often in conjunction with 5-HT...
May 5, 2018: Neuropeptides
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29908394/system-on-chip-design-of-the-cortical-diencephalic-centre-of-the-lower-urinary-tract
#2
Francisco Maciá Pérez, Leandro Zambrano Méndez, José Vicente Berná Martínez, Roberto Sepúlveda Lima
This article presents the design of a field programmable gate array (FPGA)-based prototype of a system on chip (SoC) capable of behaving as one of the nerve centres comprising the neuroregulatory system in humans: the cortical-diencephalic nerve centre. The neuroregulatory system is a complex nerve system consisting of a heterogeneous group of nerve centres. These centres are distributed throughout the length of the spinal cord, are autonomous, communicate via interneurons, and govern and regulate the behaviour of multiple organs and systems in the human body...
June 13, 2018: Computers in Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29906098/flexible-guidance-of-microengines-by-dynamic-topographical-pathways-in-ferrofluids
#3
Fan Yang, Fangzhi Mou, Yuzhou Jiang, Ming Luo, Leilei Xu, Huiru Ma, Jianguo Guan
In this work, we demonstrate a simple, versatile and real-time motion guidance strategy for artificial microengines and motile microorganisms in a ferrofluid by dynamic topographical pathways (DTPs), which are assembled from superparamagnetic nanoparticles in response to external magnetic field ( H). In this general strategy, the DTPs can exert anisotropic resistance forces on autonomously moving microengines and thus regulate their orientation. As the DTPs with different directions and lengths can be reversibly and swiftly assembled in response to the applied H, the microengines in the ferrofluid can be guided on demand with controlled motion directions and trajectories, including circular, elliptical, straight-line, semi-sine and sinusoidal trajectories...
June 15, 2018: ACS Nano
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29905835/glucocorticoids-and-bone-consequences-of-endogenous-and-exogenous-excess-and-replacement-therapy
#4
Rowan S Hardy, Hong Zhou, Markus J Seibel, Mark S Cooper
Osteoporosis associated with long-term glucocorticoid therapy remains a common and serious bone disease. In addition, in recent years it has become clear that more subtle states of endogenous glucocorticoid excess may have a major impact on bone health. Adverse effects can be seen with mild systemic glucocorticoid excess but there is also evidence of tissue-specific regulation of glucocorticoid action within bone as a mechanism of disease. This review article will examine a) the role of endogenous glucocorticoids in normal bone physiology, b) the skeletal effects of endogenous glucocorticoid excess in the context of endocrine conditions such as Cushing's disease/syndrome and autonomous cortisol secretion (subclinical Cushing's syndrome), and c) the actions of therapeutic (exogenous) glucocorticoids on bone...
June 13, 2018: Endocrine Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29905656/pain-processing-in-the-human-brainstem-and-spinal-cord-before-during-and-after-the-application-of-noxious-heat-stimuli
#5
P W Stroman, G Ioachim, J M Powers, R Staud, C Pukall
Descending regulation of spinal cord responses to nociceptive signaling has a strong influence on pain perception. Prior studies using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) have indicated that in addition to reactive responses to nociceptive signals there is a continuous component to regulation, and that it may vary with differences in pain sensitivity. We hypothesize that this continuous regulation component occurs routinely in fMRI studies prior to noxious stimulation, as well as during, and following stimulation...
June 12, 2018: Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29904631/chronic-diffuse-pain-and-functional-gastrointestinal-disorders-after-traumatic-stress-pathophysiology-through-a-polyvagal-perspective
#6
Jacek Kolacz, Stephen W Porges
Chronic diffuse pain disorders, such as fibromyalgia, and functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGIDs), such as irritable bowel syndrome, place substantial burden on those affected and on the medical system. Despite their sizable impact, their pathophysiology is poorly understood. In contrast to an approach that focuses on the correlation between heart rate variability (HRV) and a specific organ or symptom, we propose that a bio-evolutionary threat-related autonomic response-as outlined in the Polyvagal Theory-may serve as a plausible explanation of how HRV, particularly respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA), would index the pathophysiology of these disorders...
2018: Frontiers in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29903768/central-administration-of-trv027-improves-baroreflex-sensitivity-and-vascular-reactivity-in-spontaneously-hypertensive-rats
#7
Alynne Carvalho-Galvão, Blessing Ogunlade, Jiaxi Xu, Cristiane R A Silva-Alves, Leônidas G Mendes-Júnior, Drielle D Guimarães, Josiane C Cruz, Thyago M Queiroz, Camille M Balarini, Valdir A Braga, Catalin M Filipeanu, Eric Lazartigues, Maria S França-Silva
TRV027 is a biased agonist for the Angiotensin (Ang)-II type 1 receptor (AT1 R), able to recruit ß-arrestin 2 independently of G-proteins activation. ß-arrestin activation in the central nervous system (CNS) was suggested to oppose the effects of Ang-II. This study evaluates the effect of central infusion of TRV027 on arterial pressure (AP), autonomic function, baroreflex sensitivity and peripheral vascular reactivity. Spontaneously hypertensive (SH) and Wistar Kyoto (WKY) rats were treated with TRV027 for 14 days (20 ng/hour) delivered to the lateral ventricle via osmotic minipumps...
June 14, 2018: Clinical Science (1979-)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29902177/do-incentives-undermine-intrinsic-motivation-increases-in-intrinsic-motivation-within-an-incentive-based-intervention-for-people-living-with-hiv-in-tanzania
#8
Nancy L Czaicki, William H Dow, Prosper F Njau, Sandra I McCoy
BACKGROUND: Cash and in-kind incentives can improve health outcomes in various settings; however, there is concern that incentives may 'crowd out' intrinsic motivation to engage in beneficial behaviors. We examined this hypothesis in a randomized trial of food and cash incentives for people living with HIV infection in Tanzania. METHODS: We analyzed data from 469 individuals randomized to one of three study arms: standard of care, short-term cash transfers, or short-term food assistance...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29901832/autonomous-and-nonautonomous-functions-of-the-maize-shohai1-gene-encoding-a-rwp-rk-putative-transcription-factor-in-regulation-of-embryo-and-endosperm-development
#9
Manaki Mimura, Toru Kudo, Shan Wu, Donald R McCarty, Masaharu Suzuki
In plants, establishment of the basic body plan during embryogenesis involves complex processes of axis formation, cell fate specification and organ differentiation. While molecular mechanisms of embryogenesis have been well studied in the eudicot Arabidopsis, only a small number of genes regulating embryogenesis has been identified in grass species. Here, we show that a RKD-type RWP-RK transcription factor encoded by Shohai1 (Shai1) is indispensable for embryo and endosperm development in maize. Loss of Shai1 function causes variable morphological defects in the embryo including small scutellum, shoot axis bifurcation and arrest during early organogenesis...
June 14, 2018: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29898959/myeloid-cell-restricted-stat3-signaling-controls-a-cell-autonomous-antifibrotic-repair-program
#10
Nhu-Nguyen Do, Sebastian Willenborg, Beate Eckes, Christian Jüngst, Gerhard Sengle, Frank Zaucke, Sabine A Eming
Myeloid cells can be beneficial as well as harmful in tissue regenerative responses. The molecular mechanisms by which myeloid cells control this critical decision of the immune system are not well understood. Using two different models of physiological acute or pathological chronic skin damage, in this study we identified myeloid cell-restricted STAT3 signaling as important and an injury context-dependent regulator of skin fibrosis. Targeted disruption of STAT3 signaling in myeloid cells significantly accelerated development of pathological skin fibrosis in a model of chronic bleomycin-induced tissue injury, whereas the impact on wound closure dynamics and quality of healing after acute excision skin injury was minor...
June 13, 2018: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29898682/patient-care-activities-by-community-pharmacists-in-a-capitation-funding-model-mental-health-and-addictions-program
#11
Andrea L Murphy, David M Gardner, Lisa M Jacobs
BACKGROUND: Community pharmacists are autonomous, regulated health care professionals located in urban and rural communities in Canada. The accessibility, knowledge, and skills of community pharmacists can be leveraged to increase mental illness and addictions care in communities. METHODS: The Bloom Program was designed, developed, and implemented based on the Behaviour Change Wheel and a program of research in community pharmacy mental healthcare capacity building...
June 14, 2018: BMC Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29898392/corticostriatal-transmission-is-selectively-enhanced-in-striatonigral-neurons-with-postnatal-loss-of-tsc1
#12
Katelyn N Benthall, Stacie L Ong, Helen S Bateup
mTORC1 is a central signaling hub that integrates intra- and extracellular signals to regulate a variety of cellular metabolic processes. Mutations in regulators of mTORC1 lead to neurodevelopmental disorders associated with autism, which is characterized by repetitive, inflexible behaviors. These behaviors may result from alterations in striatal circuits that control motor learning and habit formation. However, the consequences of mTORC1 dysregulation on striatal neuron function are largely unknown. To investigate this, we deleted the mTORC1 negative regulator Tsc1 from identified striatonigral and striatopallidal neurons and examined how cell-autonomous upregulation of mTORC1 activity affects their morphology and physiology...
June 12, 2018: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29895972/e-i-balance-emerges-naturally-from-continuous-hebbian-learning-in-autonomous-neural-networks
#13
Philip Trapp, Rodrigo Echeveste, Claudius Gros
Spontaneous brain activity is characterized in part by a balanced asynchronous chaotic state. Cortical recordings show that excitatory (E) and inhibitory (I) drivings in the E-I balanced state are substantially larger than the overall input. We show that such a state arises naturally in fully adapting networks which are deterministic, autonomously active and not subject to stochastic external or internal drivings. Temporary imbalances between excitatory and inhibitory inputs lead to large but short-lived activity bursts that stabilize irregular dynamics...
June 12, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29893999/folliculin-regulates-osteoclastogenesis-through-metabolic-regulation
#14
Masaya Baba, Mitsuhiro Endoh, Wenjuan Ma, Hirofumi Toyama, Akiyoshi Hirayama, Keizo Nishikawa, Keiyo Takubo, Hiroyuki Hano, Hisashi Hasumi, Terumasa Umemoto, Michihiro Hashimoto, Nobuko Irie, Chiharu Esumi, Miho Kataoka, Naomi Nakagata, Tomoyoshi Soga, Masahiro Yao, Tomomi Kamba, Takashi Minami, Masaru Ishii, Toshio Suda
Osteoclast differentiation is a dynamic differentiation process, which is accompanied by dramatic changes in metabolic status as well as in gene expression. Recent findings have revealed an essential connection between metabolic reprogramming and dynamic gene expression changes during osteoclast differentiation. However, the upstream regulatory mechanisms that drive these metabolic changes in osteoclastogenesis remain to be elucidated. Here we demonstrate that induced deletion of a tumor suppressor gene, Folliculin (Flcn), in mouse osteoclast precursors causes severe osteoporosis in 3 weeks through excess osteoclastogenesis...
June 12, 2018: Journal of Bone and Mineral Research: the Official Journal of the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29891768/long-non-coding-rna-malat1-regulates-angiogenesis-in-hindlimb-ischemia
#15
Xuejing Zhang, Xuelian Tang, Milton H Hamblin, Ke-Jie Yin
Angiogenesis is a complex process that depends on the delicate regulation of gene expression. Dysregulation of transcription during angiogenesis often leads to various human diseases. Emerging evidence has recently begun to show that long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) may mediate angiogenesis in both physiological and pathological conditions; concurrently, underlying molecular mechanisms are largely unexplored. Previously, our lab identified metastasis associates lung adenocarcinoma transcript 1 ( Malat1 ) as an oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD)-responsive endothelial lncRNA...
June 11, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29890740/responsiveness-of-carnosine-homeostasis-genes-in-the-pancreas-and-brain-of-streptozotocin-treated-mice-exposed-to-dietary-carnosine
#16
Amilcare Barca, Francesca Gatti, Daniela Spagnolo, Stefania Ippati, Carla Vetrugno, Tiziano Verri
In excitable tissues, the endogenous dipeptide carnosine (CAR, β-Ala-l-His) sustains homeostatic responses to various challenges. By eliciting hypoglycemic effects via actions on the autonomic nervous system and protection of pancreatic beta-cells, CAR is also relevant in diabetes. We investigated the expression of genes involved in CAR biosynthesis, degradation, and membrane transport pathways, in the pancreas and brains of mice treated with streptozotocin (STZ) and then exposed to dietary CAR. We induced hyperglycemia by STZ intraperitoneal injections; then, STZ-treated mice received drinking water with or without CAR for two weeks...
June 9, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29890731/wip-yap-taz-as-a-new-pro-oncogenic-pathway-in-glioma
#17
Sergio Rivas, Inés M Antón, Francisco Wandosell
Wild-type p53 (wtp53) is described as a tumour suppressor gene, and mutations in p53 occur in many human cancers. Indeed, in high-grade malignant glioma, numerous molecular genetics studies have established central roles of RTK-PI3K-PTEN and ARF-MDM2-p53 INK4a-RB pathways in promoting oncogenic capacity. Deregulation of these signalling pathways, among others, drives changes in the glial/stem cell state and environment that permit autonomous growth. The initially transformed cell may undergo subsequent modifications, acquiring a more complete tumour-initiating phenotype responsible for disease advancement to stages that are more aggressive...
June 9, 2018: Cancers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29887570/curcumin-downregulates-8-br-camp-induced-steroidogenesis-in-mouse-leydig-cells-by-suppressing-the-expression-of-cyp11a1-and-star-independently-of-the-pka-creb-pathway
#18
Yi-Chun Lin, Chih-Hsien Chiu, Hung-Chang Liu, Jyun-Yuan Wang
Although curcumin was widely applied as a functional food for different diseases, it was found to reduce serum testosterone level and fertility in male animals by unknown molecular mechanisms. Here in our study, we investigated the possible mechanisms of curcumin-suppressed testosterone production in Leydig cells. Our enzyme immunoassay results showed that curcumin cell-autonomously suppressed ovine luteinizing hormone-stimulated testosterone production in primary Leydig cells and 8-bromo-cyclic adenosine monophosphate (8-br-cAMP)-induced progesterone production in MA-10 cells...
June 9, 2018: Endocrine Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29886180/corrigendum-to-differential-contribution-of-pomc-and-agrp-neurons-to-the-regulation-of-regional-autonomic-nerve-activity-by-leptin-molecular-metabolism-8-2018-1-12
#19
Balyssa B Bell, Shannon M Harlan, Donald A Morgan, Deng-Fu Guo, Huxing Cui, Kamal Rahmouni
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 4, 2018: Molecular Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29882514/a-strategic-framework-for-the-development-and-enhancement-of-safety-culture-in-the-artificial-tanning-sector-in-greece
#20
Aspasia Georgios Petri, Efthymios Karabetsos
Herein, the strategic framework for the development and enhancement of safety culture in the artificial tanning sector in Greece is presented. This framework has been designed and promoted by the competent national regulatory authority, which is the Greek Atomic Energy Commission (EEAE). The aim is to ensure a common understanding regarding ultraviolet radiation (UVR) and artificial tanning among the artificial tanning professionals, the stakeholders and the general public. The strategic framework is founded on the international organizations' recommendations, the EU requirements and the relevant technical standards...
June 8, 2018: Journal of Radiological Protection: Official Journal of the Society for Radiological Protection
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