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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29231547/-effects-of-electroacupuncture-at-acupoints-with-different-nerve-segments-on-gastric-emptying-in-ot-gene-knockout-mice
#1
Weiwei Liu, Chao Zhang, Yukai Zhang, Jiongjie Ning, Jiangshan Li
OBJECTIVE: To observe the effects of electroacupuncture (EA) at acupoints with different nerve segments on gastric emptying in oxytocin (OT) gene knockout mice, and to explore the role of paraventricular nucleus OT in EA regulating gastric function. METHODS: Twenty OT knockout mice and twenty wild-type mice (8-9 weeks old, male and female in half) were divided into a control group, a Zusanli (ST 36) group, a Neiguan (PC 6) group and a Weishu (BL 21) group randomly, 5 mice in each group...
July 12, 2017: Zhongguo Zhen Jiu, Chinese Acupuncture & Moxibustion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29229900/post-transcriptional-3%C3%A2-utr-cleavage-of-mrna-transcripts-generates-thousands-of-stable-uncapped-autonomous-rna-fragments
#2
Yuval Malka, Avital Steiman-Shimony, Eran Rosenthal, Liron Argaman, Leonor Cohen-Daniel, Eliran Arbib, Hanah Margalit, Tommy Kaplan, Michael Berger
The majority of mammalian genes contain one or more alternative polyadenylation sites. Choice of polyadenylation sites was suggested as one of the underlying mechanisms for generating longer/shorter transcript isoforms. Here, we demonstrate that mature mRNA transcripts can undergo additional cleavage and polyadenylation at a proximal internal site in the 3'-UTR, resulting in two stable, autonomous, RNA fragments: a coding sequence with a shorter 3'-UTR (body) and an uncapped 3'-UTR sequence downstream of the cleavage point (tail)...
December 11, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29229444/neural-control-of-choroidal-blood-flow
#3
REVIEW
Anton Reiner, Malinda E C Fitzgerald, Nobel Del Mar, Chunyan Li
The choroid is richly innervated by parasympathetic, sympathetic and trigeminal sensory nerve fibers that regulate choroidal blood flow in birds and mammals, and presumably other vertebrate classes as well. The parasympathetic innervation has been shown to vasodilate and increase choroidal blood flow, the sympathetic input has been shown to vasoconstrict and decrease choroidal blood flow, and the sensory input has been shown to both convey pain and thermal information centrally and act locally to vasodilate and increase choroidal blood flow...
December 8, 2017: Progress in Retinal and Eye Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29229014/effects-of-pre-and-postnatal-maternal-stress-on-infant-temperament-and-autonomic-nervous-system-reactivity-and-regulation-in-a-diverse-low-income-population-corrigendum
#4
Nicole R Bush, Karen Jones-Mason, Michael Coccia, Zoe Caron, Abbey Alkon, Melanie Thomas, Kim Coleman-Phox, Pathik D Wadhwa, Barbara A Laraia, Nancy E Adler, Elissa S Epel
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 12, 2017: Development and Psychopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228003/a-mig-15-jnk-1-map-kinase-cascade-opposes-rpm-1-signaling-in-synapse-formation-and-learning
#5
Oliver Crawley, Andrew C Giles, Muriel Desbois, Sudhanva Kashyap, Rayna Birnbaum, Brock Grill
The Pam/Highwire/RPM-1 (PHR) proteins are conserved intracellular signaling hubs that regulate synapse formation and axon termination. The C. elegans PHR protein, called RPM-1, acts as a ubiquitin ligase to inhibit the DLK-1 and MLK-1 MAP kinase pathways. We have identified several kinases that are likely to form a new MAP kinase pathway that suppresses synapse formation defects, but not axon termination defects, in the mechanosensory neurons of rpm-1 mutants. This pathway includes: MIG-15 (MAP4K), NSY-1 (MAP3K), JKK-1 (MAP2K) and JNK-1 (MAPK)...
December 11, 2017: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29226326/retreg1-fam134b-a-new-player-in-human-diseases-15-years-after-the-discovery-in-cancer
#6
REVIEW
Farhadul Islam, Vinod Gopalan, Alfred King-Yin Lam
FAM134B (family with sequence similarity 134, member B) / RETREG1 and its functional roles are relatively new in human diseases. This review aimed to summarize various functions of FAM134B since our first discovery of the gene in 2001. The protein encoded by FAM134B is a reticulophagy receptor that regulates turnover of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) by selective phagocytosis. Absence or non-functional expression of FAM134B protein impairs ER-turnover and thereby is involved in the pathogenesis of some human diseases...
December 11, 2017: Journal of Cellular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29226156/micrornas-regulate-thymic-epithelium-in-age-related-thymic-involution-via-down-or-upregulation-of-transcription-factors
#7
REVIEW
Minwen Xu, Xiaoli Zhang, Ruiyun Hong, Dong-Ming Su, Liefeng Wang
Age-related thymic involution is primarily induced by defects in nonhematopoietic thymic epithelial cells (TECs). It is characterized by dysfunction of multiple transcription factors (TFs), such as p63 and FoxN1, and also involves other TEC-associated regulators, such as Aire. These TFs and regulators are controlled by complicated regulatory networks, in which microRNAs (miRNAs) act as a key player. miRNAs can either directly target the 3'-UTRs (untranslated regions) of the TFs to suppress TF expression or target TF inhibitors to reduce or increase TF inhibitor expression and thereby indirectly enhance or inhibit TF expression...
2017: Journal of Immunology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29224782/mfd-dynamically-regulates-transcription-via-a-release-and-catch-up-mechanism
#8
Tung T Le, Yi Yang, Chuang Tan, Margaret M Suhanovsky, Robert M Fulbright, James T Inman, Ming Li, Jaeyoon Lee, Sarah Perelman, Jeffrey W Roberts, Alexandra M Deaconescu, Michelle D Wang
The bacterial Mfd ATPase is increasingly recognized as a general transcription factor that participates in the resolution of transcription conflicts with other processes/roadblocks. This function stems from Mfd's ability to preferentially act on stalled RNA polymerases (RNAPs). However, the mechanism underlying this preference and the subsequent coordination between Mfd and RNAP have remained elusive. Here, using a novel real-time translocase assay, we unexpectedly discovered that Mfd translocates autonomously on DNA...
November 30, 2017: Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29224103/sex-differences-and-role-of-estradiol-in-hypoglycemia-associated-counter-regulation
#9
Karen P Briski, Hussain N Alhamami, Ayed Alshamrani, Santosh K Mandal, Manita Shakya, Mostafa H H Ibrahim
Vital nerve cell functions, including maintenance of transmembrane voltage and information transfer, occur at high energy expense. Inadequate provision of the obligate metabolic fuel glucose exposes neurons to risk of dysfunction or injury. Clinical hypoglycemia rarely occurs in nondiabetic individuals but is an unfortunate regular occurrence in patients with type 1 or advanced insulin-treated type 2 diabetes mellitus. Requisite strict glycemic control, involving treatment with insulin, sulfonylureas, or glinides, can cause frequent episodes of iatrogenic hypoglycemia due to defective counter-regulation, including reduced glycemic thresholds and diminished magnitude of motor responses...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29224089/cellular-mechanisms-driving-sex-differences-in-adipose-tissue-biology-and-body-shape-in-humans-and-mouse-models
#10
Kalypso Karastergiou, Susan K Fried
Sex differences in adipose tissue distribution and the metabolic, endocrine, and immune functions of different anatomical fat depots have been described, but they are incompletely documented in the literature. It is becoming increasingly clear that adipose depots serve distinct functions in males and females and have specific physiological roles. However, the mechanisms that regulate the size and function of specific adipose tissues in men and women remain poorly understood. New insights from mouse models have advanced our understanding of depot differences in adipose growth and remodeling via the proliferation and differentiation of adipose progenitors that can expand adipocyte number in the tissue or simply replace dysfunctional older and larger adipocytes...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223951/heart-rate-variability-in-bipolar-disorder-and-borderline-personality-disorder-a-clinical-review
#11
REVIEW
Oliver Carr, Maarten de Vos, Kate E A Saunders
Heart rate variability (HRV) in psychiatric disorders has become an increasing area of interest in recent years following technological advances that enable non-invasive monitoring of autonomic nervous system regulation. However, the clinical interpretation of HRV features remain widely debated or unknown. Standardisation within studies of HRV in psychiatric disorders is poor, making it difficult to reproduce or build on previous work. Recently, a Guidelines for Reporting Articles on Psychiatry and Heart rate variability checklist has been proposed to address this issue...
December 9, 2017: Evidence-based Mental Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223281/human-studies-on-hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal-hpa-axis
#12
REVIEW
Kamani Liyanarachchi, Richard Ross, Miguel Debono
The daily rhythm of the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis is regulated by the central clock in the suprachiasmatic nucleus. Cortisol, a glucocorticoid, acts as a secondary messenger between the central clock and the peripheral tissues. Changes in clock time, as seen in shift workers, alters the HPA axis and results in metabolic disturbances associated with ill health. Depression, anorexia nervosa and obstructive sleep apnoea, are associated with cortisol rhythm phase shifts and increased cortisol exposure...
October 2017: Best Practice & Research. Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222227/pings-phone-based-intervention-under-nurse-guidance-after-stroke-interim-results-of-a-pilot-randomized-controlled-trial
#13
Fred Sarfo, Frank Treiber, Mulugeta Gebregziabher, Sheila Adamu, Sachin Patel, Michelle Nichols, Dominic Awuah, Asumadu Sakyi, Nyantakyi Adu-Darko, Arti Singh, Raelle Tagge, Jenkins Carolyn, Bruce Ovbiagele
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Stroke exacts an immense toll in sub-Saharan Africa where there are few resources, and stroke prevention research is limited. The aim of this study is to test the feasibility and preliminary efficacy of an m-Health technology-enabled, nurse-guided intervention in improving blood pressure (BP) control among Ghanaian stroke patients within 1 month of symptom onset. METHODS: We conducted a 2-arm cluster pilot randomized controlled trial involving 60 recent stroke survivors encountered within a single tertiary medical system in Ghana...
December 8, 2017: Stroke; a Journal of Cerebral Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222023/regional-brain-gray-matter-changes-in-adolescents-with-single-ventricle-heart-disease
#14
Sadhana Singh, Rajesh Kumar, Bhaswati Roy, Mary A Woo, Alan Lewis, Nancy Halnon, Nancy Pike
Adolescents with single ventricle heart disease (SVHD) show autonomic, mood, and cognitive deficits, indicating aberrations in brain areas that regulate these functions. However, the gray matter integrity in autonomic, mood, and cognitive control sites is unclear. We examined regional brain gray matter changes, using high-resolution T1-weighted images (3.0-T magnetic resonance scanner) with voxel based morphometry procedures, as well as mood and cognitive functions in SVHD (n=18; age, 15.7±1.1years; male, 10) and controls (n=31; age, 16...
December 6, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29220864/the-nature-of-catecholamine-containing-neurons-in-the-enteric-nervous-system-in-relationship-with-organogenesis-normal-human-anatomy-and-neurodegeneration
#15
G Natale, L Ryskalin, C L Busceti, F Biagioni, F Fornai
The gastrointestinal tract is provided with extrinsic and intrinsic innervation. The extrinsic innervation includes the classic vagal parasympathetic and sympathetic components, with afferent sensitive and efferent secretomotor fibers. The intrinsic innervations is represented by the enteric nervous system (ENS), which is recognized as a complex neural network controlling a variety of cell populations, including smooth muscle cells, mucosal secretory cells, endocrine cells, microvasculature, immune and inflammatory cells...
September 1, 2017: Archives Italiennes de Biologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29220503/downregulation-of-survivin-contributes-to-cell-cycle-arrest-during-postnatal-cardiac-development-in-a-severe-spinal-muscular-atrophy-mouse-model
#16
Lei Sheng, Bo Wan, Pengchao Feng, Junjie Sun, Frank Rigo, C Frank Bennett, Martin Akerman, Adrian R Krainer, Yimin Hua
Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) is the leading genetic cause of infant mortality, characterized by progressive degeneration of spinal-cord motor neurons, leading to atrophy of skeletal muscles. However, accumulating evidence indicates that it is a multi-system disorder, particularly in its severe forms. Several studies delineated structural and functional cardiac abnormalities in SMA patients and mouse models, yet the abnormalities have been primarily attributed to autonomic dysfunction. Here, we show in a severe mouse model that its cardiomyocytes undergo G0/G1 cell-cycle arrest and enhanced apoptosis during postnatal development...
December 6, 2017: Human Molecular Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29215757/hypothalamic-paraventricular-nucleus-neuronal-nitric-oxide-synthase-activity-is-a-major-determinant-of-renal-sympathetic-discharge-in-conscious-wistar-rats
#17
F D McBryde, B H Liu, E V Roloff, S Kasparov, J F R Paton
The paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PVN) plays a crucial role in cardiovascular and neuroendocrine regulation. Application of nitric oxide donors to the PVN stimulates GABAergic transmission, and may suppress sympathetic nerve activity (SNA) to lower arterial pressure. However, the role of endogenous nitric oxide within PVN in regulating renal SNA chronically remains to be established in conscious animals. To address this, we used our previously established lentiviral vectors to selectively knock down neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) in the PVN of conscious Wistar rats...
December 7, 2017: Experimental Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29212396/dysautonomia-in-the-pathogenesis-of-migraine
#18
Parisa Gazerani, Brian Edwin Cairns
Migraine is a common complex neurological disorder involving multiple brain areas that regulate autonomic, affective, cognitive, and sensory functions. This review explores autonomic nervous system (ANS) dysfunction in migraine headache sufferers. Areas covered: Reference material for this review was obtained through PubMed searches. Migraine attacks can present with up to 4 phases (premonitory, aura, headache, postdrome) each with distinguishable signs and symptoms. Altered ANS tone can be found from the premonitory through the postdrome phases...
December 7, 2017: Expert Review of Neurotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29211796/reprogramming-pancreatic-stellate-cells-via-p53-activation-a-putative-target-for-pancreatic-cancer-therapy
#19
Maya Saison-Ridinger, Kathleen E DelGiorno, Tejia Zhang, Annabelle Kraus, Randall French, Dawn Jaquish, Crystal Tsui, Galina Erikson, Benjamin T Spike, Maxim N Shokhirev, Christopher Liddle, Ruth T Yu, Michael Downes, Ronald M Evans, Alan Saghatelian, Andrew M Lowy, Geoffrey M Wahl
Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is characterized by an extremely dense fibrotic stroma, which contributes to tumor growth, metastasis, and drug resistance. During tumorigenesis, quiescent pancreatic stellate cells (PSCs) are activated and become major contributors to fibrosis, by increasing growth factor signaling and extracellular matrix deposition. The p53 tumor suppressor is known to restrict tumor initiation and progression through cell autonomous mechanisms including apoptosis, cell cycle arrest, and senescence...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29211708/selective-silencing-of-euchromatic-l1s-revealed-by-genome-wide-screens-for-l1-regulators
#20
Nian Liu, Cameron H Lee, Tomek Swigut, Edward Grow, Bo Gu, Michael Bassik, Joanna Wysocka
Transposable elements (TEs) are now recognized not only as parasitic DNA, whose spread in the genome must be controlled by the host, but also as major players in genome evolution and regulation1-6. Long INterspersed Element-1 (LINE-1 or L1), the only currently autonomous mobile transposon in humans, occupies 17% of the genome and continues to generate inter- and intra-individual genetic variation, in some cases resulting in disease1-7. Nonetheless, how L1 activity is controlled and what function L1s play in host gene regulation remain incompletely understood...
December 6, 2017: Nature
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