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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29678444/biliary-epithelium-a-neuroendocrine-compartment-in-cholestatic-liver-disease
#1
REVIEW
Laurent Ehrlich, Marinda Scrushy, Fanyin Meng, Terry C Lairmore, Gianfranco Alpini, Shannon Glaser
Hepatic fibrosis is characterized by abnormal accumulation of extracellular matrix (ECM) that can lead to ductopenia, cirrhosis, and even malignant transformation. In this review, we examine cholestatic liver diseases characterized by extensive biliary fibrosis such as primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC), primary biliary cholangitis (PBC), polycystic liver disease (PLD), and MDR2-/- and BDL mouse models. Following biliary injury, cholangiocytes, the epithelial cells that line the bile ducts, become reactive and adopt a neuroendocrine phenotype in which they secrete and respond to neurohormones and neuropeptides in an autocrine and paracrine fashion...
April 17, 2018: Clinics and Research in Hepatology and Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29678284/aberrant-g-protein-coupled-hormone-receptor-in-adrenal-diseases
#2
REVIEW
Matthieu St-Jean, Nada El Ghorayeb, Isabelle Bourdeau, André Lacroix
The regulation of cortisol or aldosterone production when ACTH of pituitary origin or the renin-angiotensin systems are suppressed in primary adrenal Cushing's syndrome or in primary aldosteronism is exerted by diverse genetic and molecular mechanisms. In addition to recently identified mutations in various genes implicated in the cyclic AMP or ion channel pathways, steroidogenesis is not really autonomous as it is frequently regulated by the aberrant adrenocortical expression of diverse hormone receptors, particularly G-protein coupled hormone receptors (GPCR) which can substitute for the normal function of ACTH or angiotensin-II...
April 2018: Best Practice & Research. Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29677475/molecular-and-functional-neuroscience-in-immunity
#3
Valentin A Pavlov, Sangeeta S Chavan, Kevin J Tracey
The nervous system regulates immunity and inflammation. The molecular detection of pathogen fragments, cytokines, and other immune molecules by sensory neurons generates immunoregulatory responses through efferent autonomic neuron signaling. The functional organization of this neural control is based on principles of reflex regulation. Reflexes involving the vagus nerve and other nerves have been therapeutically explored in models of inflammatory and autoimmune conditions, and recently in clinical settings...
April 26, 2018: Annual Review of Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29676614/sourcebook-update-intestinal-smooth-muscle-contractility-and-autonomic-control
#4
Philip D Langton
This laboratory practical requires first-year students to anticipate the effects of drugs active at cholinergic and adrenergic receptors on gut motility in order to design experiments during an authentic inquiry exercise. Rather than specifying a strict sequence of drug additions that aim to provide ideal demonstrations of pharmacological and physiological antagonism, I have instead designed switches into the drugs provided and set students, working in small teams, the task of identifying the switched drugs, an inquiry activity...
June 1, 2018: Advances in Physiology Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29675928/differential-cardiac-sympatho-inhibitory-responses-produced-by-the-agonists-b-ht-933-quinpirole-and-immepip-in-normoglycemic-and-diabetic-pithed-rats
#5
Eduardo Rivera-Mancilla, Alain H Altamirano-Espinoza, Guadalupe Manrique-Maldonado, Belinda Villanueva-Castillo, Carlos M Villalón
This study compared the cardiac sympatho-inhibitory responses produced by agonists at α2 -adrenergic (B-HT 933), dopamine D2 -like (quinpirole) and histamine H3 /H4 (immepip) receptors between normoglycemic and streptozotocin-pretreated (diabetic) pithed rats. Intravenous (i.v.) continuous infusions of B-HT 933, quinpirole or immepip were used in normoglycemic and diabetic pithed rats to analyse their sympatho-inhibitory effects on the electrically-stimulated cardioaccelerator sympathetic outflow. Both in normoglycemic and diabetic animals, B-HT 933 (until 100 μg/kg...
April 19, 2018: Clinical and Experimental Pharmacology & Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29675265/tissue-specific-transcriptome-profiling-of-drosophila-reveals-roles-for-gata-transcription-factors-in-longevity-by-dietary-restriction
#6
Adam J Dobson, Xiaoli He, Eric Blanc, Ekin Bolukbasi, Yodit Feseha, Mingyao Yang, Matthew D W Piper
Dietary restriction (DR) extends animal lifespan, but imposes fitness costs. This phenomenon depends on dietary essential amino acids (EAAs) and TOR signalling, which exert systemic effects. However, the roles of specific tissues and cell-autonomous transcriptional regulators in diverse aspects of the DR phenotype are unknown. Manipulating relevant transcription factors (TFs) specifically in lifespan-limiting tissues may separate the lifespan benefits of DR from the early-life fitness costs. Here, we systematically analyse transcription across organs of Drosophila subjected to DR or low TOR and predict regulatory TFs...
2018: NPJ Aging and Mechanisms of Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29673481/cell-autonomous-regulation-of-dendrite-self-avoidance-by-the-wnt-secretory-factor-mig-14-wntless
#7
Chien-Po Liao, Hsun Li, Hsiu-Hsiang Lee, Cheng-Ting Chien, Chun-Liang Pan
Self-avoidance allows sister dendrites from the same neuron to form non-redundant coverage of the sensory territory and is important for neural circuitry functions. Here, we report an unexpected, cell-autonomous role of the Wnt-secretory factor MIG-14/Wntless in mediating dendrite self-avoidance in the C. elegans multidendritic PVD neurons. Similar findings in Drosophila suggest that this novel function of Wntless is conserved. The mig-14 mutant shows defects in dendrite self-avoidance, and ectopic MIG-14 expression triggers dendrite repulsion...
April 18, 2018: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29669825/single-cardiac-ventricular-myosins-are-autonomous-motors
#8
Yihua Wang, Chen-Ching Yuan, Katarzyna Kazmierczak, Danuta Szczesna-Cordary, Thomas P Burghardt
Myosin transduces ATP free energy into mechanical work in muscle. Cardiac muscle has dynamically wide-ranging power demands on the motor as the muscle changes modes in a heartbeat from relaxation, via auxotonic shortening, to isometric contraction. The cardiac power output modulation mechanism is explored in vitro by assessing single cardiac myosin step-size selection versus load. Transgenic mice express human ventricular essential light chain (ELC) in wild- type (WT), or hypertrophic cardiomyopathy-linked mutant forms, A57G or E143K, in a background of mouse α-cardiac myosin heavy chain...
April 2018: Open Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29669801/stonewall-and-brickwall-two-partially-redundant-determinants-required-for-the-maintenance-of-female-germline-in-drosophila
#9
Vallari Shukla, Neena Dhiman, Prajna Nayak, Neelesh Dahanukar, Girish Deshpande, Girish Ratnaparkhi
Proper specification of germline stem cells (GSCs) in Drosophila ovaries depends on niche derived non-autonomous signaling and cell autonomous components of transcriptional machinery. Stonewall (Stwl), a MADF-BESS family protein, is one of the cell intrinsic transcriptional regulators involved in the establishment and/or maintenance of GSC fate in Drosophila ovaries. Here we report identification and functional characterization of another member of the same protein family, CG3838/Brickwall (Brwl) with analogous functions...
April 18, 2018: G3: Genes—Genomes—Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29669278/sarm1-myd88-5-regulates-neuronal-intrinsic-immune-response-to-traumatic-axonal-injuries
#10
Qi Wang, Shan Zhang, Tingting Liu, Huanhuan Wang, Kaili Liu, Qiujun Wang, Wenwen Zeng
Traumatic injuries can trigger inflammatory reactions, leading to profound neuropathological consequences. However, the immune capacity of neurons, distinct from that of immune cells or glial cells, in response to traumatic insults remains to be fully characterized. In this study, we demonstrate that neurons can detect, cell autonomously, distant axonal damage, resulting in rapid production of a specific collection of cytokines and chemokines. This neuronal immune response appears spatially and temporally separated from injury-induced axon degeneration...
April 17, 2018: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29668325/is-cushing-mechanism-a-dynamic-blood-pressure-stabilizing-system-insights-from-granger-causality-analysis-of-spontaneous-blood-pressure-and-cerebral-blood-flow
#11
Saqib Saleem, Paul D Teal, Connor A Howe, Michael M Tymko, Philip N Ainslie, Yu-Chieh Tzeng
Blood pressure regulation is widely recognised as being integral to the control of end-organ perfusion but it remains unclear whether end-organ perfusion also plays a role in driving changes in blood pressure (BP). A randomized and placebo controlled study design was followed to examine the feedback relationships between very-low-frequency fluctuations in BP and cerebral blood flow (CBF) in humans under placebo treatment and α1-adrenergic blockade. To determine the causal relations among haemodynamic variables, BP, middle cerebral artery blood velocity (MCAv), and end-tidal CO2 time-series were decimated, low-pass filtered (<0...
April 18, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29666634/dynamical-motor-control-learned-with-deep-deterministic-policy-gradient
#12
Haibo Shi, Yaoru Sun, Jie Li
Conventional models of motor control exploit the spatial representation of the controlled system to generate control commands. Typically, the control command is gained with the feedback state of a specific instant in time, which behaves like an optimal regulator or spatial filter to the feedback state. Yet, recent neuroscience studies found that the motor network may constitute an autonomous dynamical system and the temporal patterns of the control command can be contained in the dynamics of the motor network, that is, the dynamical system hypothesis (DSH)...
2018: Computational Intelligence and Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29666442/matrix-stiffness-controls-lymphatic-vessel-formation-through-regulation-of-a-gata2-dependent-transcriptional-program
#13
Maike Frye, Andrea Taddei, Cathrin Dierkes, Ines Martinez-Corral, Matthew Fielden, Henrik Ortsäter, Jan Kazenwadel, Dinis P Calado, Pia Ostergaard, Marjo Salminen, Liqun He, Natasha L Harvey, Friedemann Kiefer, Taija Mäkinen
Tissue and vessel wall stiffening alters endothelial cell properties and contributes to vascular dysfunction. However, whether extracellular matrix (ECM) stiffness impacts vascular development is not known. Here we show that matrix stiffness controls lymphatic vascular morphogenesis. Atomic force microscopy measurements in mouse embryos reveal that venous lymphatic endothelial cell (LEC) progenitors experience a decrease in substrate stiffness upon migration out of the cardinal vein, which induces a GATA2-dependent transcriptional program required to form the first lymphatic vessels...
April 17, 2018: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29666389/attenuated-dna-damage-responses-and-increased-apoptosis-characterize-human-hematopoietic-stem-cells-exposed-to-irradiation
#14
Shahar Biechonski, Leonid Olender, Adi Zipin-Roitman, Muhammad Yassin, Nasma Aqaqe, Victoria Marcu-Malina, Melanie Rall-Scharpf, Magan Trottier, M Stephen Meyn, Lisa Wiesmüller, Katia Beider, Yael Raz, Dan Grisaru, Arnon Nagler, Michael Milyavsky
Failure to precisely repair DNA damage in self-renewing Hematopoietic Stem and early Progenitor Cells (HSPCs) can disrupt normal hematopoiesis and promote leukemogenesis. Although HSPCs are widely considered a target of ionizing radiation (IR)-induced hematopoietic injury, definitive data regarding cell death, DNA repair, and genomic stability in these rare quiescent cells are scarce. We found that irradiated HSPCs, but not lineage-committed progenitors (CPs), undergo rapid ATM-dependent apoptosis, which is suppressed upon interaction with bone-marrow stroma cells...
April 17, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29656298/high-expression-of-peroxiredoxin-1-is-associated-with-epithelial-mesenchymal-transition-marker-and-poor-prognosis-in-gastric-cancer
#15
Wei Yu, Jing Wu, Zhong-Liang Ning, Qiao-Yu Liu, Rui-Liang Quan
BACKGROUND Recent studies show that peroxiredoxin 1 (Prdx1) contributes to the progression and poor prognosis of carcinoma through multiple mechanisms. However, there is little information on its expression and prognostic value in gastric cancer. This study investigated the expression of Prdx1 in gastric cancer, along with evaluating its clinical-pathological and prognostic importance. MATERIAL AND METHODS A total of 189 pairs of gastric cancer and paracarcinomatous tissues were assessed for Prdx1 expression and its association with clinical characteristics...
April 15, 2018: Medical Science Monitor: International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29653378/possible-origins-of-consciousness-in-simple-control-over-involuntary-neuroimmunological-action
#16
REVIEW
Kevin B Clark
The origin(s) and purpose(s) of consciousness continue to be fervently debated by neuroscientists. A recent unconventional hypothesis put forth by Morsella et al. suggests the primary function of consciousness is the integration, selection, and execution of advantageous lower-level voluntary skeletal muscle behavior on surrounding external environments. However, at main issue is whether more precise, adaptable voluntary skeletal motor action, and therefore the corresponding workings of consciousness, first emerged and evolved in animals to exert control over external environments or internal ones regulated by less flexible autonomic function...
April 10, 2018: Consciousness and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29653111/a-brain-within-the-heart-a-review-on-the-intracardiac-nervous-system
#17
REVIEW
Isabel Durães Campos, Vitor Pinto, Nuno Sousa, Vitor H Pereira
Cardiac function is under the control of the autonomic nervous system, composed by the parasympathetic and sympathetic divisions, which are finely tuned at different hierarchical levels. While a complex regulation occurs in the central nervous system involving the insular cortex, the amygdala and the hypothalamus, a local cardiac regulation also takes place within the heart, driven by an intracardiac nervous system. This complex system consists of a network of ganglionic plexuses and interconnecting ganglions and axons...
April 10, 2018: Journal of Molecular and Cellular Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29653101/%C3%AE-1-integrin-is-a-cell-autonomous-factor-mediating-the-numb-pathway-for-cardiac-progenitor-maintenance
#18
Brian Gibbs, Lincoln Shenje, Peter Andersen, Matthew Miyamoto, Chulan Kwon
Proper control of multipotent/stem cell number and fate is essential for ensuing organ formation during development. β1-integrin, a subfamily of cell surface receptors, has a conserved role in maintenance of multipotent/stem cells, including renal progenitor cells, follicle stem cells, epidermal stem cells and neural stem cells. However, it remains unclear whether β1-integrin has a role in cardiac progenitor cell (CPC) development. Here we show that a mesodermal deletion of β1-integrin decreases Isl1+ cell number in the second pharyngeal arch (PA2), where CPCs undergo renewal and expansion...
April 10, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29652832/sympathetic-nerve-hyperactivity-in-the-spleen-causal-for-nonpathogenic-driven-chronic-immune-mediated-inflammatory-diseases-imids
#19
REVIEW
Denise L Bellinger, Dianne Lorton
Immune-Mediated Inflammatory Diseases (IMIDs) is a descriptive term coined for an eclectic group of diseases or conditions that share common inflammatory pathways, and for which there is no definitive etiology. IMIDs affect the elderly most severely, with many older individuals having two or more IMIDs. These diseases include, but are not limited to, type-1 diabetes, obesity, hypertension, chronic pulmonary disease, coronary heart disease, inflammatory bowel disease, and autoimmunity, such as rheumatoid arthritis (RA), Sjőgren's syndrome, systemic lupus erythematosus, psoriasis, psoriatic arthritis, and multiple sclerosis...
April 13, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29652036/clinical-effects-of-selective-drug-regulating-vagus-nerve-signal-pathway-in-vagally-mediated-atrial-fibrillation
#20
Xue Lou, Yanmei Lu, Baopeng Tang, Xianhui Zhou
BACKGROUND The cardiac autonomic nervous system plays a crucial role in genesis and development of atrial fibrillation (AF) through the G protein signal transduction pathway. Therefore, intervening in the G protein signal transduction pathway may be a new "selective drug" method to regulate autonomic nerve activity to prevent vagally-mediated AF. MATERIAL AND METHODS Seventeen adult beagles were randomized into 3 groups: shame-operation control group (group A, n=5), empty vector gene control group (group B, n=6), and Gαi2ctp gene experimental group (group C, n=6)...
April 13, 2018: Medical Science Monitor: International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research
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