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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822679/spatial-and-temporal-control-of-senescence
#1
REVIEW
Yoko Ito, Matthew Hoare, Masashi Narita
Cellular senescence is an autonomous tumor suppressor mechanism leading to stable cell cycle arrest. Senescent cells are highly secretory, driving a range of different functions through the senescence-associated secretory phenotype (SASP). Recent findings have suggested that the composition of the SASP is dynamically and spatially regulated and that the changing composition of the SASP can determine the beneficial and detrimental aspects of the senescence program, tipping the balance to either an immunosuppressive/profibrotic environment or proinflammatory/fibrolytic state...
August 16, 2017: Trends in Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821645/mutant-huntingtin-is-secreted-via-a-late-endosomal-lysosomal-unconventional-secretory-pathway
#2
Katarina Trajkovic, Hyunkyong Jeong, Dimitri Krainc
Huntington's disease (HD) is an autosomal dominant neurodegenerative disorder caused by the expansion of a CAG triplet in the gene encoding for huntingtin. The resulting mutant protein huntingtin (mHtt) with extended polyglutamine (polyQ) sequence at the N-terminus leads to neuronal degeneration both in cell-autonomous and non-cell-autonomous manners. Recent studies identified mHtt in the extracellular environment and suggested that its spreading contributes to toxicity, but the mechanism of mHtt release from the cell of origin remains unknown...
August 16, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821614/multiple-circadian-transcriptional-elements-cooperatively-regulate-cell-autonomous-transcriptional-oscillation-of-period3-a-mammalian-clock-gene
#3
Ritsuko Matsumura, Makoto Akashi
Cell-autonomous oscillation in clock gene expression drives circadian rhythms. The development of comprehensive analytical techniques, such as bioinformatics and ChIP-sequencing, has enabled the genome-wide identification of potential circadian transcriptional elements that regulate the transcriptional oscillation of clock genes. However, detailed analyses using traditional biochemical and molecular-biological approaches, such as binding and reporter assays, are still necessary to determine whether these potential circadian transcriptional elements are actually functional and how significantly they contribute to driving transcriptional oscillation...
August 15, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821574/mosaic-loss-of-non-muscle-myosin-iia-and-iib-is-sufficient-to-induce-mammary-epithelial-proliferation
#4
Kim-Vy Nguyen-Ngoc, Vanesa L Silvestri, Dan Georgess, Amanda N Fairchild, Andrew J Ewald
The mammary epithelium elaborates through hormonally-regulated changes in proliferation, migration, and differentiation. Non-muscle myosin II (NMII) functions at the interface between contractility, adhesion, and signal transduction. It was therefore a plausible regulator of mammary morphogenesis. We tested the genetic requirement for NMIIA and NMIIB through deletion of the myosin heavy chains (NMHC) that confer specificity to the complex. Surprisingly, mosaic loss, but not ubiquitous loss, of NMHCIIA and IIB induced high levels of proliferation in 3D culture...
August 18, 2017: Journal of Cell Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819210/zeb2-is-a-negative-regulator-of-midbrain-dopaminergic-axon-growth-and-target-innervation
#5
Shane V Hegarty, Sean L Wyatt, Laura Howard, Elke Stappers, Danny Huylebroeck, Aideen M Sullivan, Gerard W O'Keeffe
Neural connectivity requires neuronal differentiation, axon growth, and precise target innervation. Midbrain dopaminergic neurons project via the nigrostriatal pathway to the striatum to regulate voluntary movement. While the specification and differentiation of these neurons have been extensively studied, the molecular mechanisms that regulate midbrain dopaminergic axon growth and target innervation are less clear. Here we show that the transcription factor Zeb2 cell-autonomously represses Smad signalling to limit midbrain dopaminergic axon growth and target innervation...
August 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819055/temperature-effects-on-the-cardiorespiratory-control-of-american-bullfrog-tadpoles-based-on-a-non-invasive-methodology
#6
Leonardo S Longhini, Lucas A Zena, Glauber S F da Silva, Kênia C Bícego, Luciane H Gargaglioni
Temperature effects on cardiac autonomic tonus in amphibian larval stages have never been investigated. Therefore, we evaluated the effect of different temperatures (15°C, 25°C, and 30°C) on the cardiorespiratory rates and cardiac autonomic tonus of premetamorphic bullfrog tadpoles, Lithobates catesbeianus To this end, a non-invasive method was developed to permit measurements of electrocardiogram (ECG) and buccal movements (fB ; surface electromyography of the buccal floor). For evaluation of autonomic regulation, intraperitoneal injections of Ringer's solution (control), atropine (cholinergic muscarinic antagonist), and sotalol (β-adrenergic antagonist) were performed...
August 17, 2017: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818141/autonomic-cardiovascular-responses-to-orthostatic-stress-after-a-short-artificial-gravity-exposure
#7
Qingguang Zhang, Joyce M Evans, Michael B Stenger, Fritz B Moore, Charles F Knapp
BACKGROUND: Intermittent artificial gravity (AG) training over days and weeks has been shown to improve the human orthostatic tolerance limit (OTL) and improve cardiovascular regulation in response to orthostatic stress. Effects of a single AG exposure are currently unknown. METHODS: We tested cardiovascular responses to orthostatic stress in 16 hypovolemic subjects (9 men and 7 women), once following a single, short (∼90 min) bout of AG and once following a similar period of head-down bed rest (HDBR)...
September 1, 2017: Aerospace Medicine and Human Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817784/hydrogen-peroxide-regulates-angiogenesis-related-factors-in-tumor-cells
#8
Ana Jerónimo, Gonçalo Rodrigues, Filipe Vilas-Boas, Gabriel G Martins, Ana Bagulho, Carla Real
Tumor angiogenesis is required for tumor development and growth and is regulated by several factors including reactive oxygen species (ROS). Hydrogen peroxide (H<sub>2</sub>O<sub>2</sub>) is a ROS with an important role in cell signaling but how H<sub>2</sub>O<sub>2</sub> regulates tumor angiogenesis is still poorly understood. We have xenografted tumor cells with altered levels of H<sub>2</sub>O<sub>2</sub> by catalase overexpression into zebrafish embryos to study redox-induced tumor neovascularization...
August 17, 2017: Biochemistry and Cell Biology, Biochimie et Biologie Cellulaire
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817691/rac2-is-required-for-alternative-macrophage-activation-and-bleomycin-induced-pulmonary-fibrosis-a-macrophage-autonomous-phenotype
#9
Shweta Joshi, Alok R Singh, Simon S Wong, Muamera Zulcic, Min Jiang, Annie Pardo, Moises Selman, James S Hagood, Donald L Durden
Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a chronic lung disease characterized by cellular phenotype alterations and deposition of extracellular matrix proteins. The alternative activation of macrophages in the lungs has been associated as a major factor promoting pulmonary fibrosis, however the mechanisms underlying this phenomenon are poorly understood. In the present study, we have defined a molecular mechanism by which signals transmitted from the extracellular matrix via the α4β1 integrin lead to the activation of Rac2 which regulates alternative macrophage differentiation, a signaling axis within the pulmonary macrophage compartment required for bleomycin induced pulmonary fibrosis...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817114/trauma-informed-care-in-the-newborn-intensive-care-unit-promoting-safety-security-and-connectedness
#10
M R Sanders, S L Hall
Both babies and their parents may experience a stay in the newborn intensive care unit (NICU) as a traumatic or a 'toxic stress,' which can lead to dysregulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and ultimately to poorly controlled cortisol secretion. Toxic stresses in childhood or adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) are strongly linked to poor health outcomes across the lifespan and trauma-informed care is an approach to caregiving based on the recognition of this relationship. Practitioners of trauma-informed care seek to understand clients' or patients' behaviors in light of previous traumas they have experienced, including ACEs...
August 17, 2017: Journal of Perinatology: Official Journal of the California Perinatal Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815936/combinatorial-effect-of-nicotine-and-black-tea-on-heart-rate-variability-useful-or-harmful
#11
S Joukar, M Sheibani
The effect of nicotine on heart rate variability (HRV) is controversial. Autonomic nervous system is the main regulator of heart rhythm, and heart rate variability is an appropriate index to assessment of the effects of the autonomic system on heart. In this study, the combination effect of nicotine and black tea consumption on sympatho-vagal balance and heart rate variability was investigated in rats. Male Wistar rats were randomized into four groups as control, tea (2.5 g/100 cc, daily), nicotine (2 mg/kg/d) and tea plus nicotine groups which treated for 28 days, and in the 29th day, their electrocardiograms (lead II) were recorded...
June 2017: Autonomic & Autacoid Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814067/neuro-immune-interactions-in-allergic-diseases-novel-targets-for-therapeutics
#12
Tiphaine Voisin, Amélie Bouvier, Isaac M Chiu
Recent studies have highlighted an emerging role for neuro-immune interactions in mediating allergic diseases. Allergies are caused by an overactive immune response to a foreign antigen. The peripheral sensory and autonomic nervous system densely innervates mucosal barrier tissues including the skin, respiratory tract and gastrointestinal (GI) tract that are exposed to allergens. It is increasingly clear that neurons actively communicate with and regulate the function of mast cells, dendritic cells, eosinophils, Th2 cells and type 2 innate lymphoid cells in allergic inflammation...
June 1, 2017: International Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811350/defining-the-dna-binding-site-recognized-by-the-fission-yeast-zn2cys6-transcription-factor-pho7-and-its-role-in-phosphate-homeostasis
#13
Beate Schwer, Ana M Sanchez, Angad Garg, Debashree Chatterjee, Stewart Shuman
Fission yeast phosphate homeostasis entails transcriptional induction of genes encoding phosphate-mobilizing proteins under conditions of phosphate starvation. Transcription factor Pho7, a member of the Zn2Cys6 family of fungal transcription regulators, is the central player in the starvation response. The DNA binding sites in the promoters of phosphate-responsive genes have not been defined, nor have any structure-function relationships been established for the Pho7 protein. Here we narrow this knowledge gap by (i) delineating an autonomous DNA-binding domain (DBD) within Pho7 that includes the Zn2Cys6 module, (ii) deploying recombinant Pho7 DBD in DNase I footprinting and electrophoretic mobility shift assays (EMSAs) to map the Pho7 recognition sites in the promoters of the phosphate-regulated pho1 and tgp1 genes to a 12-nucleotide sequence motif [5'-TCG(G/C)(A/T)xxTTxAA], (iii) independently identifying the same motif as a Pho7 recognition element via in silico analysis of available genome-wide ChIP-seq data, (iv) affirming that mutations in the two Pho7 recognition sites in the pho1 promoter efface pho1 expression in vivo, and (v) establishing that the zinc-binding cysteines and a pair of conserved arginines in the DBD are essential for Pho7 activity in vivoIMPORTANCE Fungi respond to phosphate starvation by inducing the transcription of a set of phosphate acquisition genes that comprise a phosphate regulon...
August 15, 2017: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810359/the-role-of-motivation-in-predicting-antiretroviral-therapy-adherence-in-china
#14
Taryn Vian, Mary Bachman DeSilva, Howard J Cabral, Geoffrey C Williams, Allen L Gifford, Li Zhong, Wubin Xie, Christopher J Gill, Lora L Sabin
Patient motivation is important in managing medication regimens such as antiretroviral treatment for HIV/AIDS. We tested whether self-determination theory could predict adherence behavior among 115 HIV-positive patients in the China Adherence through Technology Study, a randomized controlled trial of an intervention using text reminders and supportive counseling to increase adherence. Being in the treatment group had a significant effect on improving adherence; however, we did not find evidence that self-determination theory predicts adherence in this population of HIV-positive patients...
October 1, 2016: Journal of Health Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807718/autonomic-regulation-of-systemic-inflammation-in-humans-a-multi-center-blinded-observational-cohort-study
#15
Gareth L Ackland, Gary Minto, Martin Clark, John Whittle, Robert Cm Stephens, Thomas Owen, Pradeep Prabhu, Ana Gutierrez Del Arroyo
OBJECTIVE: Experimental animal models demonstrate that autonomic activity regulates systemic inflammation. By contrast, human studies are limited in number and exclusively use heart rate variability (HRV) as an index of cardiac autonomic regulation. HRV measures are primarily dependent on, and need to be corrected for, heart rate. Thus, independent autonomic measures are required to confirm HRV-based findings. Here, the authors sought to replicate the findings of preceding HRV-based studies by using HRV-independent, exercise-evoked sympathetic and parasympathetic measures of cardiac autonomic regulation to examine the relationship between autonomic function and systemic inflammation...
August 11, 2017: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802636/cardiac-neuroanatomy-imaging-nerves-to-define-functional-control
#16
REVIEW
Peter Hanna, Pradeep S Rajendran, Olujimi A Ajijola, Marmar Vaseghi, J Andrew Armour, Jefrrey L Ardell, Kalyanam Shivkumar
The autonomic nervous system regulates normal cardiovascular function and plays a critical role in the pathophysiology of cardiovascular disease. Further understanding of the interplay between the autonomic nervous system and cardiovascular system holds promise for the development of neuroscience-based cardiovascular therapeutics. To this end, techniques to image myocardial innervation will help provide a basis for understanding the fundamental underpinnings of cardiac neural control. In this review, we detail the evolution of gross and microscopic anatomical studies for functional mapping of cardiac neuroanatomy...
July 29, 2017: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic & Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28800884/ionic-mechanisms-of-the-action-of-anaesthetics-on-sinoatrial-node-automaticity
#17
REVIEW
Akiko Kojima, Hiroshi Matsuura
Although various general anaesthetics affect the heart rate in clinical settings, their precise mechanisms remain to be fully elucidated. Because the heart rate is determined by automaticity of the cardiac pacemaker sinoatrial node and its regulation by autonomic nervous system, it is important to clarify the effect of anaesthetics on sinoatrial node automaticity. The spontaneous electrical activity of sinoatrial node is generated by a complex but coordinated interaction of multiple ionic currents, such as the hyperpolarisation-activated cation current (If), T-type and L-type Ca(2+) currents (ICa,T and ICa,L), Na(+)/Ca(2+) exchange current (INCX), and rapidly and slowly activating delayed rectifier K(+) currents (IKr and IKs)...
August 8, 2017: European Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28800289/viral-master-circuits-from-discovery-to-new-therapy-targets
#18
Anand Pai, Leor S Weinberger
Current antivirals effectively target diverse viruses at various stages of their life cycles. Nevertheless, curative therapy has remained elusive for important pathogens, such as human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) and herpesviruses, in large part due to viral latency and the evolution of resistance to existing therapies. Here, we review the discovery of viral master circuits: virus-encoded autoregulatory gene networks that autonomously control viral expression programs (i.e., between active, latent, and abortive fates)...
August 11, 2017: Annual Review of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28799502/mitochondrial-dynamics-and-proteins-related-to-neurodegenerative-diseases
#19
Athanasios Alexiou, Bilal Nizami, Faez Iqbal Khan, Georgia Soursou, Charalampos Vairaktarakis, Stylianos Chatzichronis, Vasilis Tsiamis, Vasileios Manztavinos, Nagendra Sastry Yarla, Ghulam Md Ashraf
Disruptions in the regulation of mitochondrial dynamics and the occurrence of proteins misfolding lead to neuronal death, resulting in Age-related Dementia and Neurodegenerative diseases as well as Frailty. Functional, neurophysiologic and biochemical alterations within the mitochondrial populations can reveal deficits in brain energy metabolism resulting in Mild Cognitive Impairment, abnormal neural development, autonomic dysfunction and other mitochondrial disorders. Additionally, in cases of Alzheimer's disease or Parkinson's disease, a significant number of proteins seems to form unordered and problematic structures, leading through unknown mechanisms to pathological conditions...
August 10, 2017: Current Protein & Peptide Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28799254/sex-specific-factors-regulating-pressure-and-flow
#20
Jill N Barnes
Over the last decade, there have been many published reports on sex differences in blood pressure regulation between young men and young women. The autonomic nervous system is a primary contributor to both acute and long-term blood pressure regulation. Sex differences in blood pressure regulation likely have effects that extend beyond mean arterial pressure, and which can affect blood flow and tissue function. This short review will include recent literature from our laboratory focusing on autonomic control of the circulation, specifically age and sex hormone related differences in central hemodynamics and cerebral blood flow, and discuss potential clinical implications...
August 11, 2017: Experimental Physiology
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