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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29035359/acute-myeloid-leukaemia-disrupts-endogenous-myelo-erythropoiesis-by-compromising-the-adipocyte-bone-marrow-niche
#1
Allison L Boyd, Jennifer C Reid, Kyle R Salci, Lili Aslostovar, Yannick D Benoit, Zoya Shapovalova, Mio Nakanishi, Deanna P Porras, Mohammed Almakadi, Clinton J V Campbell, Michael F Jackson, Catherine A Ross, Ronan Foley, Brian Leber, David S Allan, Mitchell Sabloff, Anargyros Xenocostas, Tony J Collins, Mickie Bhatia
Acute myeloid leukaemia (AML) is distinguished by the generation of dysfunctional leukaemic blasts, and patients characteristically suffer from fatal infections and anaemia due to insufficient normal myelo-erythropoiesis. Direct physical crowding of bone marrow (BM) by accumulating leukaemic cells does not fully account for this haematopoietic failure. Here, analyses from AML patients were applied to both in vitro co-culture platforms and in vivo xenograft modelling, revealing that human AML disease specifically disrupts the adipocytic niche in BM...
October 16, 2017: Nature Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29033968/dancing-with-hormones-a-current-perspective-of-nitrate-signaling-and-regulation-in-arabidopsis
#2
REVIEW
Peizhu Guan
In nature and agriculture, nitrate availability is a main environmental cue for plant growth, development and stress responses. Nitrate signaling and regulation are hence at the center of communications between plant intrinsic programs and the environment. It is also well known that endogenous phytohormones play numerous critical roles in integrating extrinsic cues and intrinsic responses, regulating and refining almost all aspects of plant growth, development and stress responses. Therefore, interaction between nitrate and phytohormones, such as auxins, cytokinins, abscisic acid, gibberellins, and ethylene, is prevalent...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29033786/wnt5a-promotes-cortical-neuron-survival-by-inhibiting-cell-cycle-activation
#3
Li Zhou, Di Chen, Xu-Ming Huang, Fei Long, Hua Cai, Wen-Xia Yao, Zhong-Cheng Chen, Zhi-Jian Liao, Zhe-Zhi Deng, Sha Tan, Yi-Long Shan, Wei Cai, Yu-Ge Wang, Ri-Hong Yang, Nan Jiang, Tao Peng, Ming-Fan Hong, Zheng-Qi Lu
β-Amyloid protein (Aβ) is thought to cause neuronal loss in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Aβ treatment promotes the re-activation of a mitotic cycle and induces rapid apoptotic death of neurons. However, the signaling pathways mediating cell-cycle activation during neuron apoptosis have not been determined. We find that Wnt5a acts as a mediator of cortical neuron survival, and Aβ42 promotes cortical neuron apoptosis by downregulating the expression of Wnt5a. Cell-cycle activation is mediated by the reduced inhibitory effect of Wnt5a in Aβ42 treated cortical neurons...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29030434/cadherin-10-maintains-excitatory-inhibitory-ratio-through-interactions-with-synaptic-proteins
#4
Katharine R Smith, Kelly A Jones, Katherine J Kopeikina, Alain C Burette, Bryan A Copits, Sehyoun Yoon, Marc Forrest, Jessica M Fawcett-Patel, Jonathan G Hanley, Richard J Weinberg, Geoffrey T Swanson, Peter Penzes
Appropriate excitatory-inhibitory (E/I) balance is essential for normal cortical function and is altered in some psychiatric disorders, including autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). Cell-autonomous molecular mechanisms that control the balance of excitatory and inhibitory synapse function remain poorly understood; no proteins that regulate excitatory and inhibitory synapse strength in a coordinated reciprocal manner have been identified. Using super-resolution imaging, electrophysiology, and molecular manipulations we show that cadherin-10, encoded by CDH10 within the ASD risk locus 5p14...
October 13, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29030433/dysregulation-of-the-mitochondrial-unfolded-protein-response-induces-non-apoptotic-dopaminergic-neurodegeneration-in-c-elegans-models-of-parkinson-s-disease
#5
Bryan A Martinez, Daniel A Petersen, Anthony L Gaeta, Samuel P Stanley, Guy A Caldwell, Kim A Caldwell
Due to environmental insult or innate genetic deficiency, protein folding environments of the mitochondrial matrix are prone to dysregulation, prompting the activation of a specific organellar stress-response mechanism the mitochondrial unfolded protein response (UPR(MT)). In Caenorhabditis elegans, mitochondrial damage leads to nuclear translocation of the ATFS-1 transcription factor to activate the UPR(MT) After short-term acute stress has been mitigated, the UPR(MT) is eventually suppressed to restore homeostasis to C...
October 13, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29028946/mouse-cntnap2-and-human-cntnap2-asd-alleles-cell-autonomously-regulate-pv-cortical-interneurons
#6
Daniel Vogt, Kathleen K A Cho, Samantha M Shelton, Anirban Paul, Z Josh Huang, Vikaas S Sohal, John L R Rubenstein
Human mutations in CNTNAP2 are associated with an array of neuropsychiatric and neurological syndromes, including speech and language disorders, epilepsy, and autism spectrum disorder (ASD). We examined Cntnap2's expression and function in GABAergic cortical interneurons (CINs), where its RNA is present at highest levels in chandelier neurons, PV+ neurons and VIP+ neurons. In vivo functions were studied using both constitutive Cntnap2 null mice and a transplantation assay, the latter to assess cell autonomous phenotypes of medial ganglionic eminence (MGE)-derived CINs...
September 28, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29028801/docrl-maintains-immune-cell-quiescence-by-regulating-endosomal-traffic
#7
Steven J Del Signore, Sarah A Biber, Katherine S Lehmann, Stephanie R Heimler, Benjamin H Rosenfeld, Tania L Eskin, Sean T Sweeney, Avital A Rodal
Lowe Syndrome is a developmental disorder characterized by eye, kidney, and neurological pathologies, and is caused by mutations in the phosphatidylinositol-5-phosphatase OCRL. OCRL plays diverse roles in endocytic and endolysosomal trafficking, cytokinesis, and ciliogenesis, but it is unclear which of these cellular functions underlie specific patient symptoms. Here, we show that mutation of Drosophila OCRL causes cell-autonomous activation of hemocytes, which are macrophage-like cells of the innate immune system...
October 13, 2017: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29027663/the-role-of-cardiac-vagal-tone-and-inhibitory-control-in-pre-schoolers-listening-comprehension
#8
Sara Scrimin, Elisabetta Patron, Elena Florit, Daniela Palomba, Lucia Mason
This study investigated the role of basal cardiac activity and inhibitory control at the beginning of the school year in predicting oral comprehension at the end of the year in pre-schoolers. Forty-three, 4-year-olds participated in the study. At the beginning of the school year children's electrocardiogram at rest was registered followed by the assessment of inhibitory control as well as verbal working memory and verbal ability. At the end of the year all children were administered a listening comprehension ability measure...
October 13, 2017: Developmental Psychobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29026083/chemical-signal-activation-of-an-organocatalyst-enables-control-over-soft-material-formation
#9
Fanny Trausel, Chandan Maity, Jos M Poolman, D S J Kouwenberg, Frank Versluis, Jan H van Esch, Rienk Eelkema
Cells can react to their environment by changing the activity of enzymes in response to specific chemical signals. Artificial catalysts capable of being activated by chemical signals are rare, but of interest for creating autonomously responsive materials. We present an organocatalyst that is activated by a chemical signal, enabling temporal control over reaction rates and the formation of materials. Using self-immolative chemistry, we design a deactivated aniline organocatalyst that is activated by the chemical signal hydrogen peroxide and catalyses hydrazone formation...
October 12, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29025914/dendritic-cytoskeletal-architecture-is-modulated-by-combinatorial-transcriptional-regulation-in-drosophila-melanogaster
#10
Ravi Das, Shatabdi Bhattacharjee, Atit A Patel, Jenna M Harris, Surajit Bhattacharya, Jamin M Letcher, Sarah G Clark, Sumit Nanda, Eswar Prasad R Iyer, Giorgio A Ascoli, Daniel N Cox
Transcription factors (TFs) have emerged as essential cell autonomous mediators of sub-type specific dendritogenesis, however, the downstream effectors of these TFs remain largely unknown, as are the cellular events that TFs control to direct morphological change. As dendritic morphology is largely dictated by the organization of the actin and microtubule (MT) cytoskeletons, elucidating TF-mediated cytoskeletal regulatory programs is key to understanding molecular control of diverse dendritic morphologies. Previous studies in Drosophila melanogaster have demonstrated that the conserved TFs Cut and Knot exert combinatorial control over aspects of dendritic cytoskeleton development, promoting actin- and MT-based arbor morphology, respectively...
October 12, 2017: Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29025730/apelin-13-inhibits-gastric-motility-through-vagal-cholinergic-pathway-in-rats
#11
Mehmet Bülbül, Osman Sinen, Melahat Gök, R Alberto Travagli
The expression of apelin and its receptors (APJ) in central autonomic networks suggests that apelin may regulate gastrointestinal motor functions. In rodents, central administration of apelin-13 has been shown to inhibit gastric emptying, however, the mechanisms involved remain to be determined. Using male adult Sprague-Dawley rats, the aims of the present study were i) to determine the expression of APJ receptor in DVC, ii) to assess the effects central application of apelin-13 into the dorsal vagal complex (DVC) on gastric tone and motility and iii) to investigate the neuronal pathways responsible for apelin-induced alterations...
October 12, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29023738/klf2-mediates-enhanced-chemoreflex-sensitivity-disordered-breathing-and-autonomic-dysregulation-in-heart-failure
#12
Noah J Marcus, Rodrigo Del Rio, Yanfeng Ding, Harold D Schultz
KEY POINTS: Enhanced carotid body chemoreflex activity contributes to development of disordered breathing patterns, autonomic dysregulation and increases in incidence of arrhythmia in animal models of reduced ejection fraction heart failure. Chronic reductions in carotid artery blood flow are associated with increased carotid body chemoreceptor activity. Krüppel-like Factor 2 (KLF2) is a shear stress-sensitive transcription factor that regulates the expression of enzymes which have previously been shown to play a role in increased chemoreflex sensitivity...
September 6, 2017: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29020717/ulnar-nerve-injury-on-removal-of-a-contraceptive-implant
#13
Eva E O'Grady, Dominic M Power
The close proximity of contraceptive implant placement to the course of the ulnar nerve can result in injury. Several factors have been implicated in this complication including: low BMI, erroneous placement of the implant, implantation over the brachial groove, and migration of the implant from its original insertion. Clinicians should familiarise themselves with the vulnerable neurovascular structures in the area and refer promptly to a specialist if any neurological symptoms develop during placement or removal of these devices...
December 2016: Practitioner
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29018378/contextualized-contribution-of-kindness-to-favorable-goal-and-circumstantial-driven-neuropsychological-regulation
#14
Nayara Mota, Elenilda Chaves, Marina Antunes, Rudi Borges, Andressa Paiva, Vanessa Santos
Kindness involves care and non-judgmental understanding toward someone. As a prosocial inclination, kindness would increase the possibility of favorable interaction with the environment, with a successful adjustment of one's response in novel or challenging circumstances, taking into account rules or goals. This adjustment ability is commonly referred to as executive functions, dependent on the prefrontal and parietal functioning, still under development during late adolescence. This study aimed to investigate if kindness would relate with the executive functions...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29016359/age-related-gene-expression-in-luminal-epithelial-cells-is-driven-by-a-microenvironment-made-from-myoepithelial-cells
#15
Masaru Miyano, Rosalyn W Sayaman, Marcus H Stoiber, Chun-Han Lin, Martha R Stampfer, James B Brown, Mark A LaBarge
Luminal epithelial cells in the breast gradually alter gene and protein expression with age, appearing to lose lineage-specificity by acquiring myoepithelial-like characteristics. We hypothesize that the luminal lineage is particularly sensitive to microenvironment changes, and age-related microenvironment changes cause altered luminal cell phenotypes. To evaluate the effects of different microenvironments on the fidelity of epigenetically regulated luminal and myoepithelial gene expression, we generated a set of lineage-specific probes for genes that are controlled through DNA methylation...
October 9, 2017: Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28993416/regulation-of-axon-guidance-by-the-wnt-receptor-ror-cam-1-in-the-pvt-guidepost-cell-in%C3%A2-caenorhabditis-elegans
#16
Jason Chien, Ranjan Devkota, Nebeyu Yosef, Catarina Mörck
The Caenorhabditis elegans ventral nerve cord (VNC) consists of two asymmetric bundles of neurons and axons that are separated by the midline. How the axons are guided to stay on the correct sides of the midline remains poorly understood. Here we provide evidence that the conserved Wnt signaling pathway along with the Netrin and Robo pathways constitute a combinatorial code for midline guidance of PVP and PVQ axons that extend into the VNC. Combined loss of the Wnts CWN-1, CWN-2 and EGL-20 or loss of the Wnt receptor CAM-1 caused more than 70 % of PVP and PVQ axons to inappropriately cross over from the left side to the right side...
October 9, 2017: Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28991754/temporal-analysis-of-cardiovascular-and-respiratory-complexity-by-multiscale-entropy-based-on-symbolic-dynamics
#17
Sina Reulecke, Sonia Charleston Villalobos, Andreas Voss, Ramon Gonzalez-Camarena, Jesus Antonio Gonzalez-Hermosillo, Jatziri Gaitan, Guadalupe Hernandez-Pacheco, Rico Schroeder, Tomas Aljama-Corrales
The effect of an orthostatic stress on cardiovascular and respiratory complexity was investigated to detect impaired autonomic regulation in patients with vasovagal syncope (VVS). Sixteen female patients and 12 age-matched healthy female subjects were enrolled in a passive 70° head-up tilt test. Also, 12 age-matched healthy male subjects were enrolled to study gender differences. Analysis was performed dynamically using various short-term (5 min) windows shifted by 1 min as well as by 20 min of orthostatic phase (OP) to evaluate local and global complexity...
October 9, 2017: IEEE Journal of Biomedical and Health Informatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28991702/cerebral-autoregulation-is-preserved-in-multiple-sclerosis-patients
#18
Daniel Ferreira, Pedro Castro, Gonçalo Videira, João Pedro Filipe, Rosa Santos, Maria José Sá, Elsa Azevedo, Pedro Abreu
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an inflammatory disease that may also be associated with vascular dysfunction. One master component of vascular regulation is cerebral autoregulation (CA). We aimed to investigate the integrity of CA in MS patients and study its relationship with autonomic dysfunction (AD), magnetic-resonance-imaging (MRI) lesion load and hemodynamic parameters. We enrolled 20 relapsing-remitting MS and 20 healthy subjects. CA was assessed by transfer function analysis parameters (coherence, gain and phase), as obtained in the very low, low and high-frequency domains (VLF, LF, HF, respectively)...
October 15, 2017: Journal of the Neurological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28991265/a-structural-model-for-microtubule-minus-end-recognition-and-protection-by-camsap-proteins
#19
Joseph Atherton, Kai Jiang, Marcel M Stangier, Yanzhang Luo, Shasha Hua, Klaartje Houben, Jolien J E van Hooff, Agnel-Praveen Joseph, Guido Scarabelli, Barry J Grant, Anthony J Roberts, Maya Topf, Michel O Steinmetz, Marc Baldus, Carolyn A Moores, Anna Akhmanova
CAMSAP and Patronin family members regulate microtubule minus-end stability and localization and thus organize noncentrosomal microtubule networks, which are essential for cell division, polarization and differentiation. Here, we found that the CAMSAP C-terminal CKK domain is widely present among eukaryotes and autonomously recognizes microtubule minus ends. Through a combination of structural approaches, we uncovered how mammalian CKK binds between two tubulin dimers at the interprotofilament interface on the outer microtubule surface...
October 9, 2017: Nature Structural & Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28990566/-some-insulins-to-orchestrate-growth
#20
Emilie Boone, Laura Boulan, Ditte S Andersen, Nuria Romero, Pierre Léopold, Julien Colombani
Body size is an intrinsic property of living organisms that is intimately linked to the developmental program to produce fit individuals with proper proportions. Final size is the result of both genetic determinants and sophisticated mechanisms adapting size to available resources. Even though organs grow according to autonomous programs, some coordination mechanisms ensure that the different body parts adjust their growth with the rest of the body. In Drosophila, Dilp8, a hormone of the Insulin/Relaxin family is a key player in this inter-organs coordination and is required together with its receptor Lgr3 to limit developmental variability...
June 2017: Médecine Sciences: M/S
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