keyword
MENU ▼
Read by QxMD icon Read
search

Pneumonia and antimicrobial stewardship

keyword
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079629/duration-of-pneumonia-therapy-and-the-role-of-biomarkers
#1
Katerina Kaziani, Adamantia Sotiriou, George Dimopoulos
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Increasing antimicrobial resistance is a worldwide phenomenon that is threatening public health. Lower respiratory infections are one of the leading causes of morbidity that contribute to antibiotic consumption and thus the emergence of multidrug-resistant microbial strains. The goal of shortening antibiotic regimens' duration in common bacterial infections has been prioritized by antimicrobial stewardship programs as an action against this problem. RECENT FINDINGS: Data coming from randomized controlled trials, meta-analyses, and systematic reviews support the shortening of antimicrobial regimens in community-acquired, hospital-acquired, and ventilator-associated pneumonia...
January 12, 2017: Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28004323/rapid-mrsa-pcr-on-respiratory-specimens-from-ventilated-patients-with-suspected-pneumonia-a-tool-to-facilitate-antimicrobial-stewardship
#2
S E Trevino, M A Pence, J Marschall, M H Kollef, H M Babcock, C-A D Burnham
Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is an important cause of pneumonia in ventilated patients. Our objective was to evaluate the GeneXpert MRSA/SA SSTI Assay (Xpert MRSA/SA) (Cepheid, Sunnyvale, CA) for use in lower respiratory tract (LRT) specimens for rapid MRSA detection and to determine the potentially saved antibiotic-days if a culture-based identification method was replaced by this assay. Remnant LRT samples from ventilated patients submitted to the microbiology laboratory for routine culture were tested using conventional culture and Xpert MRSA/SA...
December 21, 2016: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28002979/antibiotic-stewardship-in-community-acquired-pneumonia
#3
Diego Viasus, Milly Vecino-Moreno, Juan M De La Hoz, Jordi Carratalà
Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) continues to be associated with significant mortality and morbidity. As with other infectious diseases, in recent years there has been a marked increase in resistance to the antibiotics commonly used against the pathogens that cause CAP. Antimicrobial stewardship denotes coordinated interventions to improve and measure the appropriate use of antibiotics by encouraging the selection of optimal drug regimens. Areas covered: Several elements can be applied to antibiotic stewardship strategies for CAP in order to maintain or improve patient outcomes...
December 27, 2016: Expert Review of Anti-infective Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27997332/delivering-on-antimicrobial-resistance-agenda-not-possible-without-improving-fungal-diagnostic-capabilities
#4
David W Denning, David S Perlin, Eavan G Muldoon, Arnaldo Lopes Colombo, Arunaloke Chakrabarti, Malcolm D Richardson, Tania C Sorrell
Antimicrobial resistance, a major public health concern, largely arises from excess use of antibacterial and antifungal drugs. Lack of routine diagnostic testing for fungal diseases exacerbates the problem of antimicrobial drug empiricism, both antibiotic and antifungal. In support of this contention, we cite 4 common clinical situations that illustrate this problem: 1) inaccurate diagnosis of fungal sepsis in hospitals and intensive care units, resulting in inappropriate use of broad-spectrum antibacterial drugs in patients with invasive candidiasis; 2) failure to diagnose chronic pulmonary aspergillosis in patients with smear-negative pulmonary tuberculosis; 3) misdiagnosis of fungal asthma, resulting in unnecessary treatment with antibacterial drugs instead of antifungal drugs and missed diagnoses of life-threatening invasive aspergillosis in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease; and 4) overtreatment and undertreatment of Pneumocystis pneumonia in HIV-positive patients...
February 15, 2017: Emerging Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27993295/viruses-are-prevalent-in-non-ventilated-hospital-acquired-pneumonia
#5
Andrew F Shorr, Marya D Zilberberg, Scott T Micek, Marin H Kollef
BACKGROUND: Hospital-acquired pneumonia arising in non-ventilated patients (NVHAP) is traditionally thought to be caused by bacteria, and little is known about viral etiologies in this syndrome. We sought to describe the prevalence of viruses causing NVHAP and to determine factors independently associated with the isolation of a virus. METHODS: We identified patients with NVHAP over one year and reviewed their cultures to determine etiologies. Patients with a viral process were compared to those with either negative cultures or a bacterial infection to determine variables independently associated with the recovery of a virus...
January 2017: Respiratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27964724/antimicrobial-resistance-pattern-a-report-of-microbiological-cultures-at-a-tertiary-hospital-in-tanzania
#6
Nyambura Moremi, Heike Claus, Stephen E Mshana
BACKGROUND: Antimicrobial resistance has been declared by the World Health Organization as a threat to the public health. The aim of this study was to analyze antimicrobial resistance patterns of the common pathogens occurring at the Bugando Medical Centre (BMC), Mwanza, Tanzania to provide data for antimicrobial stewardship programmes. METHODS: A total of 3330 microbiological culture results scripts representing non-repetitive specimens reported between June 2013 and May 2015 were retrieved and analyzed for pathogens and their susceptibility patterns using STATA-11 software...
December 13, 2016: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27960211/the-modern-diagnostic-approach-to-community-acquired-pneumonia-in-adults
#7
James D Chalmers
Respiratory tract infections, the majority of which are community acquired, are among the leading causes of death worldwide and a leading indication for hospital admission. The burden of disease demonstrates a "U"-shaped distribution, primarily affecting young children as the immune system matures, and older adults as the process of immunosenescence and accumulation of comorbidities leads to increased susceptibility to infection. Diagnosis of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is traditionally based on demonstration of a new infiltrate on a chest radiograph in a patient presenting with an acute respiratory illness or sepsis...
December 2016: Seminars in Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27955625/frequency-of-empiric-antibiotic-de-escalation-in-an-acute-care-hospital-with-an-established-antimicrobial-stewardship-program
#8
Peter Liu, Christopher Ohl, James Johnson, John Williamson, James Beardsley, Vera Luther
BACKGROUND: Expanding antimicrobial resistance patterns in the face of stagnant growth in novel antibiotic production underscores the importance of antibiotic stewardship in which de-escalation remains an integral component. We measured the frequency of antibiotic de-escalation in a tertiary care medical center with an established antimicrobial stewardship program to provide a plausible benchmark for de-escalation. METHODS: A retrospective, observational study was performed by review of randomly selected electronic medical records of 240 patients who received simultaneous piperacillin/tazobactam and vancomycin from January to December 2011 at an 885-bed tertiary care medical center...
December 12, 2016: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27924246/adenovirus-and-culture-negative-sepsis-in-a-preterm-neonate
#9
Mohannad Moallem, Eunkyung Song, Preeti Jaggi, Miriam R Conces, Adriana E Kajon, Pablo J Sánchez
Background Respiratory viral infections remain an underrecognized cause of morbidity and mortality among preterm infants in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). Case Report An eight day old, 650 gram birth weight, 23 weeks' gestational age female developed "culture-negative" sepsis manifested by respiratory deterioration, hypoxia, leukocytosis, and thrombocytopenia. She was diagnosed with pneumonia and hepatitis due to adenovirus HAdV-D (H29F9) by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) testing, but died at the age of 18 days despite treatment with cidofovir and immune globulin intravenous...
October 2016: American Journal of Perinatology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917707/management-of-pneumonia-in-the-pediatric-critical-care-unit-an-area-for-antimicrobial-stewardship
#10
Aimee M Dassner, David P Nicolau, Jennifer E Girotto
Pediatric pneumonia is one of the most common causes of childhood infection requiring hospitalization and is a substantial driver of antimicrobial use among hospitalized children. About 12-20% of pediatric patients hospitalized with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) require critical care. Additionally, nosocomial pneumonias (i.e. hospital-acquired and ventilator-associated pneumonias) are responsible for 15-53% of hospital-associated infections and are the most common indication for empiric antibiotics in the pediatric intensive care unit...
December 4, 2016: Current Pediatric Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27811579/a-comprehensive-approach-to-pediatric-pneumonia-relationship-between-standardization-antimicrobial-stewardship-clinical-testing-and-cost
#11
Lori Rutman, Davene R Wright, James OʼCallaghan, Suzanne Spencer, K Casey Lion, Matthew P Kronman, Chuan Zhou, Rita Mangione-Smith
OBJECTIVE: In September 2012, our institution implemented an emergency department (ED) and inpatient pathway for community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) based on national guideline recommendations. The objective of this study was to determine the relationship between standardizing ED and inpatient care for CAP and antimicrobial stewardship, clinical testing, and cost. METHODS: We used descriptive statistics, statistical process control, and interrupted time series analysis to analyze measures 12 months before and after implementation...
November 1, 2016: Journal for Healthcare Quality: Official Publication of the National Association for Healthcare Quality
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27767002/experience-with-rapid-microarray-based-diagnostic-technology-and-antimicrobial-stewardship-for-patients-with-gram-positive-bacteremia
#12
Elizabeth A Neuner, Andrea M Pallotta, Simon W Lam, David Stowe, Steven M Gordon, Gary W Procop, Sandra S Richter
OBJECTIVE To describe the impact of rapid diagnostic microarray technology and antimicrobial stewardship for patients with Gram-positive blood cultures. DESIGN Retrospective pre-intervention/post-intervention study. SETTING A 1,200-bed academic medical center. PATIENTS Inpatients with blood cultures positive for Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus faecalis, E. faecium, Streptococcus pneumoniae, S. pyogenes, S. agalactiae, S. anginosus, Streptococcus spp., and Listeria monocytogenes during the 6 months before and after implementation of Verigene Gram-positive blood culture microarray (BC-GP) with an antimicrobial stewardship intervention...
November 2016: Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27745559/an-antimicrobial-stewardship-program-based-on-systematic-infectious-disease-consultation-in-a-rehabilitation-facility
#13
Sara Tedeschi, Filippo Trapani, Maddalena Giannella, Francesco Cristini, Fabio Tumietto, Michele Bartoletti, Annalisa Liverani, Salvatore Pignanelli, Luisa Toni, Roberto Pederzini, Augusto Cavina, Pierluigi Viale
OBJECTIVE To assess the impact of an antimicrobial stewardship program (ASP) on antibiotic consumption, Clostridium difficile infections (CDI), and antimicrobial resistance patterns in a rehabilitation hospital. DESIGN Quasi-experimental study of the periods before (from January 2011 to June 2012) and after (from July 2012 to December 2014) ASP implementation. SETTING 150-bed rehabilitation hospital dedicated to patients with spinal-cord injuries. INTERVENTION Beginning in July 2012, an ASP was implemented based on systematic bedside infectious disease (ID) consultation and structural interventions (ie, revision of protocols for antibiotic prophylaxis and education focused on the appropriateness of antibiotic prescriptions)...
October 17, 2016: Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27733304/solid-organ-transplant-antibiograms-an-opportunity-for-antimicrobial-stewardship
#14
Rossana Rosa, Jacques Simkins, Jose F Camargo, Octavio Martinez, Lilian M Abbo
OBJECTIVES: We aimed to compare the antimicrobial susceptibility percentages in blood and urine bacterial isolates recovered from solid organ transplant (SOT) recipients with those reported in the hospital-wide antibiogram. METHODS: Retrospective review of the antimicrobial susceptibilities of bacterial isolates recovered from SOT recipients at a 1550-bed hospital over a 2-year period. Antibiograms were categorized by anatomic site (blood and urine). Percentage of bacterial susceptibilities to specific antibiotics were compared with the hospital-wide antibiogram...
December 2016: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27671220/acquired-resistance-to-chlorhexidine-is-it-time-to-establish-an-antiseptic-stewardship-initiative
#15
G Kampf
Chlorhexidine digluconate (CHG) is an antimicrobial agent used for different types of applications in hand hygiene, skin antisepsis, oral care, and patient washing. Increasing use raises concern regarding development of acquired bacterial resistance. Published data from clinical isolates with CHG minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) were reviewed and compared to epidemiological cut-off values to determine resistance. CHG resistance is rarely found in Escherichia coli, Salmonella spp., Staphylococcus aureus or coagulase-negative staphylococci...
August 26, 2016: Journal of Hospital Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27599077/-bacterial-resistance-from-urine-cultures-at-an-oncological-center-follow-up-to-10-years
#16
Consuelo Velázquez-Acosta, Patricia Cornejo-Juárez, Patricia Volkow-Fernández
OBJECTIVE: To describe the incidence and patterns of bacterial resistance in urine samples from a tertiary care oncology hospital in Mexico, from 2004 to 2013. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We included the strains obtained from urine cultures, describing separately multidrug-resistant (MDR) bacteria. We analyzed the susceptibility to different antibiotics. RESULTS: 51 202 urine cultures were processed during the study; 14 480 (28.3%) cultures were positive...
August 2016: Salud Pública de México
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27522002/trends-in-antibiotic-resistance-among-major-bacterial-pathogens-isolated-from-blood-cultures-tested-at-a-large-private-laboratory-network-in-india-2008-2014
#17
Sumanth Gandra, Nestor Mojica, Eili Y Klein, Ashvin Ashok, Vidya Nerurkar, Mamta Kumari, Uma Ramesh, Sunanda Dey, Viral Vadwai, Bibhu R Das, Ramanan Laxminarayan
OBJECTIVE: There have been no long-term studies on trends in antibiotic resistance (ABR) on a national scale in India. Using a private laboratory network, the ABR patterns of organisms most commonly associated with bacteremia, obtained from patients across India between 2008 and 2014, were examined. METHODS: A retrospective study of patient blood cultures collected over a 7-year period (January 1, 2008-December 31, 2014) was conducted. Data on the microorganism(s) identified and their antimicrobial susceptibility were obtained from SRL Diagnostics (Mumbai, India)...
September 2016: International Journal of Infectious Diseases: IJID
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27456952/relation-of-diagnostic-accuracy-of-viral-respiratory-polymerase-chain-reaction-to-specimen-number-and-source-in-severe-adenovirus-pneumonia-antimicrobial-stewardship-implications
#18
Cheston B Cunha
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2016: Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27422026/effectiveness-of-biomarker-based-exclusion-of-ventilator-acquired-pneumonia-to-reduce-antibiotic-use-vaprapid-2-study-protocol-for-a-randomised-controlled-trial
#19
Thomas P Hellyer, Niall H Anderson, Jennie Parker, Paul Dark, Tina Van Den Broeck, Suveer Singh, Ronan McMullan, Ashley M Agus, Lydia M Emerson, Bronagh Blackwood, Savita Gossain, Tim S Walsh, Gavin D Perkins, Andrew Conway Morris, Daniel F McAuley, A John Simpson
BACKGROUND: Ventilator-acquired pneumonia (VAP) is a common reason for antimicrobial therapy in the intensive care unit (ICU). Biomarker-based diagnostics could improve antimicrobial stewardship through rapid exclusion of VAP. Bronchoalveloar lavage (BAL) fluid biomarkers have previously been shown to allow the exclusion of VAP with high confidence. METHODS/DESIGN: This is a prospective, multi-centre, randomised, controlled trial to determine whether a rapid biomarker-based exclusion of VAP results in fewer antibiotics and improved antimicrobial management...
July 16, 2016: Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27377444/community-acquired-pneumonia-and-positive-urinary-antigen-tests-factors-associated-with-targeted-antibiotic-therapy
#20
A Mothes, S Léotard, I Nicolle, A Smets, D Chirio, C Rotomondo, F Tiger, P Del Giudice, C Perrin, D Néri, C Foucault, M Della Guardia, H Hyvernat, P-M Roger
BACKGROUND: The use of rapid microbiological tests is supported by antimicrobial stewardship policies. Targeted antibiotic therapy (TAT) for community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) with positive urinary antigen test (UAT) has been associated with a favorable impact on outcome. We aimed to determine the factors associated with TAT prescription. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We conducted a retrospective multicenter study including all patients presenting with CAP and positive UAT for Streptococcus pneumoniae or Legionella pneumophila from January 2010 to December 2013...
October 2016: Médecine et Maladies Infectieuses
keyword
keyword
113837
1
2
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read
×

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"