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erythropoiesis review

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629526/erythropoietin-receptor-signaling-and-lipid-rafts
#1
Kathy McGraw, Alan List
Erythropoiesis is tightly regulated by the growth factor erythropoietin (Epo). Signal activation begins when Epo engages its cognate receptor, Epo-R, triggering receptor homodimerization, and recruitment of signaling intermediates including Jak2 that phosphorylates both the receptor cytoplasmic tail and downstream effectors including the transcription factor, STAT5. Transcription factors subsequently activate transcription of prosurvival and prodifferentiation genes responsible for red blood cell production...
2017: Vitamins and Hormones
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629525/erythropoietin-regulation-by-angiotensin-ii
#2
Yong-Chul Kim, Ognoon Mungunsukh, Regina M Day
The renin-angiotensin system (RAS) is a key regulator of blood pressure and blood volume homeostasis. The RAS is primarily comprised of the precursor protein angiotensinogen and the two proteases, renin and angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE). Angiotensin I (Ang I) is derived from angiotensinogen by renin, but appears to have no biological activity. In contrast, angiotensin II (Ang II) that has a variety of biological functions in the cells is converted from Ang I through removal of two-C-terminal residues by ACE...
2017: Vitamins and Hormones
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28610806/heart-failure-in-patients-with-kidney-disease-and-iron-deficiency-the-role-of-iron-therapy
#3
Aleix Cases Amenós, Raquel Ojeda López, José María Portolés Pérez
Chronic kidney disease and anaemia are common in heart failure (HF) and are associated with a worse prognosis in these patients. Iron deficiency is also common in patients with HF and increases the risk of morbidity and mortality, regardless of the presence or absence of anaemia. While the treatment of anaemia with erythropoiesis-stimulating agents in patients with HF have failed to show a benefit in terms of morbidity and mortality, treatment with IV iron in patients with HF and reduced ejection fraction and iron deficiency is associated with clinical improvement...
June 10, 2017: Nefrología: Publicación Oficial de la Sociedad Española Nefrologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28582594/histologic-and-cytologic-bone-marrow-findings-in-dogs-with-suspected-precursor-targeted-immune-mediated-anemia-and-associated-phagocytosis-of-erythroid-precursors
#4
Cynthia de A Lucidi, Christian L E de Rezende, L Ari Jutkowitz, Michael A Scott
BACKGROUND: Precursor-targeted immune-mediated anemia (PIMA) has been suspected in dogs with nonregenerative anemia and bone marrow findings varying from erythroid hyperplasia to pure red cell aplasia. Phagocytosis of erythroid precursors/rubriphagocytosis (RP) reported in some affected dogs suggests a destructive component to the pathogenesis of PIMA. OBJECTIVES: The purpose of the study was to characterize laboratory and clinical findings in dogs with suspected PIMA and RP, with emphasis on cytologic and histologic bone marrow findings...
June 5, 2017: Veterinary Clinical Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28546302/considerations-and-controversies-in-managing-chronic-kidney-disease-an-update
#5
REVIEW
Lalita Prasad-Reddy, Diana Isaacs, Alexander Kantorovich
PURPOSE: Current considerations and controversies surrounding the management of chronic kidney disease (CKD) are reviewed. SUMMARY: Patients diagnosed with CKD require a unique clinical approach to prevent medication toxicities and ensure appropriate management of disease-progressing comorbidities, and they require attention to commonly occurring complications that may affect disease control and impact quality of life, including anemia and CKD-bone-mineral disorder (CKD-BMD)...
June 1, 2017: American Journal of Health-system Pharmacy: AJHP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526957/cytomorphology-review-of-100-newly-diagnosed-lower-risk-mds-patients-in-the-european-leukemianet-mds-eumds-registry-reveals-a-high-inter-observer-concordance
#6
Louise de Swart, Alex Smith, Marius MacKenzie, Argiris Symeonidis, Judith Neukirchen, Dana Mikulenková, Teresa Vallespí, Gina Zini, Malgorzata Paszkowska-Kowalewska, Anton Kruger, Leonie Saft, Pierre Fenaux, David Bowen, Eva Hellström-Lindberg, Jaroslav Čermák, Reinhard Stauder, Aurelia Tatic, Mette Skov Holm, Luca Malcovati, Krzysztof Mądry, Jackie Droste, Nicole Blijlevens, Theo de Witte, Ulrich Germing
The European LeukemiaNet MDS (EUMDS) registry is collecting data of myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) patients belonging to the IPSS low or intermediate-1 category, newly diagnosed by local cytologists. The diagnosis of MDS can be challenging, and some data report inter-observer variability with regard to the assessment of the MDS subtype. In order to ensure that correct diagnoses were made by the participating centres, blood and bone marrow slides of 10% of the first 1000 patients were reviewed by an 11-person panel of cytomorphologists...
July 2017: Annals of Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28491927/iron-supplements-for-infants-at-risk-for-iron-deficiency
#7
Brianna C MacQueen, Vickie L Baer, Danielle M Scott, Con Yee Ling, Elizabeth A O'Brien, Caitlin Boyer, Erick Henry, Robert E Fleming, Robert D Christensen
Professional societies have published recommendations for iron dosing of preterm neonates, but differences exist between guidelines. To help develop standardized guidelines, we performed a 10-year analysis of iron dosing in groups at risk for iron deficiency: IDM (infants of diabetic mothers), SGA (small for gestational age), and VLBW premature neonates (very low birth weight, <1500 g). We analyzed iron dosing after red cell transfusions and erythropoiesis-stimulating agents (ESA). Of IDM, 11.8% received iron in the hospital; 9...
2017: Global Pediatric Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28483447/therapeutic-targeting-of-the-hif-oxygen-sensing-pathway-lessons-learned-from-clinical-studies
#8
Volker H Haase
The oxygen-sensitive hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) pathway plays a central role in the control of erythropoiesis and iron metabolism. The discovery of prolyl hydroxylase domain (PHD) proteins as key regulators of HIF activity has led to the development of inhibitory compounds that are now in phase 3 clinical development for the treatment of renal anemia, a condition that is commonly found in patients with advanced chronic kidney disease. This review provides a concise overview of clinical effects associated with pharmacologic PHD inhibition and was written in memory of Professor Lorenz Poellinger...
May 5, 2017: Experimental Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28449418/hif-prolyl-hydroxylases-as-therapeutic-targets-in-erythropoiesis-and-iron-metabolism
#9
REVIEW
Volker H Haase
A classic response to systemic hypoxia is the increase in red blood cell production. This response is controlled by the prolyl hydroxylase domain/hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) pathway, which regulates a broad spectrum of cellular functions. The discovery of this pathway as a key regulator of erythropoiesis has led to the development of small molecules that stimulate the production of endogenous erythropoietin and enhance iron metabolism. This review provides a concise overview of the cellular and molecular mechanisms that govern HIF-induced erythropoietic responses and provides an update on clinical experience with compounds that target HIF-prolyl hydroxylases for anemia therapy...
June 2017: Hemodialysis International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448368/managing-chemotherapy-induced-anemia-with-erythropoiesis-stimulating-agents-plus-iron
#10
REVIEW
Lisa Whitehead
Editor's note: This is a summary of a nursing care-related systematic review from the Cochrane Library.
May 2017: American Journal of Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28443351/current-and-future-chemical-therapies-for-treating-anaemia-in-chronic-kidney-disease
#11
Francesco Locatelli, Lucia Del Vecchio, Maria Carmen Luise
Erythropoiesis-stimulating agents (ESAs) are not perfect, since they have potential side effects. Iron therapy is also receiving growing attention in recent years. Areas covered: We performed a literature search on PubMed using the following key words: anemia, chronic kidney disease, HIF stabilisers, sotatercept, actin traps, iron, iron-containing phosphate binders, iron dialysate. We reviewed new drugs that are under clinical development to obtain better safety and activity and/or easier and cheaper manufacturing processes in comparison to available ESAs...
June 2017: Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28410559/the-irony-of-iron-overload-and-iron-deficiency-in-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease
#12
Suzanne M Cloonan, Sharon Mumby, Ian M Adcock, Augustine M K Choi, Kian Fan Chung, Gregory J Quinlan
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a debilitating inflammatory lung disease associated with cigarette smoking and is third leading cause of death worldwide. With the recent emergence of genome wide association studies (GWAS), the identification of multiple COPD susceptibility genes has enhanced and expanded our understanding of the pathogenic mechanisms associated with this debilitating lung disease. An example of such a pathogenic mechanism is the role of iron metabolism in the onset and progression of COPD...
April 14, 2017: American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28408107/hydroxyurea-for-nontransfusion-dependent-%C3%AE-thalassemia-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#13
Ali H Algiraigri, Nicola A M Wright, Elizabeth Oddone Paolucci, Aliya Kassam
Nontransfusion-dependent β-thalassemia (NTDβT) syndromes consist of β-thalassemia intermedia and moderate hemoglobin E/β thalassemias. They are characterized by varying degrees of chronic anemia and a wide spectrum of complications due to ineffective erythropoiesis and iron overload from chronic transfusions. Hydroxyurea (HU), an oral chemotherapeutic drug, is anticipated to decrease disease severity. We performed a meta-analysis to evaluate the clinical efficacy and safety of HU in NTDβT patients of any age...
April 6, 2017: Hematology/oncology and Stem Cell Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28395559/management-of-myelofibrosis-jak-inhibition-and-beyond
#14
REVIEW
Maximilian Stahl, Amer M Zeidan
Myelofibrosis (MF) is characterized by bone marrow fibrosis with subsequent extramedullary hematopoiesis and abnormal cytokine expression leading to splenomegaly, constitutional symptoms and cytopenias. The discovery of the JAK2 V617F mutation in the majority of MF patients has been followed by significant progress in drug development for MF. Areas covered: In this article, we review advances in the understanding of the underlying disease biology, prognostic assessment and therapeutic modalities for MF. We provide clinical trial evidence behind using the JAK2 inhibitor ruxolitinib, erythropoiesis stimulating agents, androgens, immunomodulatory drugs, interferon, cytoreductive drugs and hypomethylating agents in MF...
May 2017: Expert Review of Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28387022/systemic-iron-homeostasis-and-erythropoiesis
#15
REVIEW
George Papanikolaou, Kostas Pantopoulos
Iron is an essential nutrient that is potentially toxic due to its redox reactivity. Insufficient iron supply to erythroid cells, the major iron consumers in the body, leads to various forms of anemia. On the other hand, iron overload (hemochromatosis) is associated with tissue damage and diseases of liver, pancreas, and heart. Physiological iron balance is tightly controlled at the cellular and systemic level by iron regulatory proteins (IRP1, IRP2) and the iron regulatory hormone hepcidin, respectively. Underlying mechanisms often intersect to achieve optimal iron utilization, to control immune responses, and to prevent iron toxicity...
April 6, 2017: IUBMB Life
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28371161/ferric-pyrophosphate-citrate-as-an-iron-replacement-agent-for-patients-receiving-hemodialysis
#16
REVIEW
Steven Fishbane, Hitesh H Shah
Treatment of anemia remains an integral component in the care of patients with end stage kidney disease receiving dialysis. Currently, both erythropoiesis stimulating agents and iron replacement agents remain important anemia management strategies for patients undergoing hemodialysis (HD). Ferric pyrophosphate citrate (FPC) was approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration in January 2015 as an iron replacement product in adult patients receiving long-term maintenance HD. FPC is administered to patients on HD through the dialysate...
June 2017: Hemodialysis International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28328181/role-of-hepcidin-ferroportin-axis-in-the-pathophysiology-diagnosis-and-treatment-of-anemia-of-chronic-inflammation
#17
REVIEW
Arielle L Langer, Yelena Z Ginzburg
Anemia of chronic inflammation (ACI) is a frequently diagnosed anemia and portends an independently increased morbidity and poor outcome associated with multiple underlying diseases. The pathophysiology of ACI is multifactorial, resulting from the effects of inflammatory cytokines which both directly and indirectly suppress erythropoiesis. Recent advances in molecular understanding of iron metabolism provide strong evidence that immune mediators, such as IL-6, lead to hepcidin-induced hypoferremia, iron sequestration, and decreased iron availability for erythropoiesis...
June 2017: Hemodialysis International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28328097/markers-of-iron-status-in-chronic-kidney-disease
#18
REVIEW
Adam E Gaweda
Anemia is one of the main comorbidities related to chronic kidney disease (CKD). Until the advent of erythropoiesis stimulating agents (ESA), endogenous erythropoietin deficiency has been thought to be the main culprit of anemia in CKD patients. The use of ESAs has shed new light on the physiology of CKD anemia, where iron homeostasis plays an increasingly important role. Disorders of iron homeostasis occurring in CKD turn the anemia management in those patients into a complex multifactorial therapeutic task, where ESA and Iron dose must be properly balanced to achieve the desired outcome without exposing the patients to the risk of serious adverse events...
June 2017: Hemodialysis International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28321324/choosing-wisely-the-canadian-society-of-nephrology-s-list-of-5-items-physicians-and-patients-should-question
#19
Emilie Chan, Brenda Hemmelgarn, Scott Klarenbach, Braden Manns, Reem Mustafa, Gihad Nesrallah, Rory McQuillan
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The purpose of this review is to contribute to the Choosing Wisely Canada campaign and develop a list of 5 items for nephrology health care professionals and patients to re-evaluate based on evidence that they are overused or misused. SOURCES OF INFORMATION: A working group was formed from the Canadian Society of Nephrology (CSN) Clinical Practice Guidelines Committee. This working group sequentially used a multistage Delphi method, a survey of CSN members, a modified Delphi process, and a comprehensive literature review to determine 10 candidate items representing potentially ineffective care in nephrology...
2017: Canadian Journal of Kidney Health and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28321079/shewanella-algae-bacteremia-in-an-end-stage-renal-disease-patient-a-case-report-and-review-of-the-literature
#20
Tomoaki Takata, Hiroki Chikumi, Shota Morishita, Shintaro Hamada, Shotaro Hoi, Takuji Iyama, Takeaki Fukui, Tomomitsu Matono, Satoko Fukuda, Chishio Munemura, Hajime Isomoto
A 71-year-old man was admitted because of nausea and abdominal pain. He was receiving an erythropoiesis-stimulating agent for anemia and dysregulated iron metabolism due to stage G5 chronic kidney disease. He had a history of raw fish intake and was diagnosed with infectious enterocolitis, which worsened and led to septic shock. Shewanella putrefaciens grew in the blood culture, but Shewanella algae was identified in a 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis. We herein report a case of S. algae bacteremia believed to have been transmitted orally...
2017: Internal Medicine
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