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erythropoiesis review

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230720/role-of-vitamin-a-retinoic-acid-in-regulation-of-embryonic-and-adult-hematopoiesis
#1
REVIEW
Ana Cañete, Elena Cano, Ramón Muñoz-Chápuli, Rita Carmona
Vitamin A is an essential micronutrient throughout life. Its physiologically active metabolite retinoic acid (RA), acting through nuclear retinoic acid receptors (RARs), is a potent regulator of patterning during embryonic development, as well as being necessary for adult tissue homeostasis. Vitamin A deficiency during pregnancy increases risk of maternal night blindness and anemia and may be a cause of congenital malformations. Childhood Vitamin A deficiency can cause xerophthalmia, lower resistance to infection and increased risk of mortality...
February 20, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28223232/the-versatility-and-paradox-of-gdf-11
#2
REVIEW
A Jamaiyar, W Wan, D M Janota, M K Enrick, W M Chilian, L Yin
In addition to its roles in embryonic development, Growth and Differentiation Factor 11 (GDF 11) has recently drawn much interest about its roles in other processes, such as aging. GDF 11 has been shown to play pivotal roles in the rescue of the proliferative and regenerative capabilities of skeletal muscle, neural stem cells and cardiomyocytes. We would be remiss not to point that some controversy exists regarding the role of GDF 11 in biological processes and whether it will serve as a therapeutic agent. The latest studies have shown that the level of circulating GDF 11 correlates with the outcomes of patients with cardiovascular diseases, cancer and uremia...
February 13, 2017: Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212192/genetic-control-of-erythropoiesis
#3
Laxminath Tumburu, Swee Lay Thein
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The discovery of several genetic variants associated with erythroid traits and subsequent elucidation of their functional mechanisms are exemplars of the power of the new genetic and genomic technology. The present review highlights findings from recent genetic studies related to the control of erythropoiesis and dyserythropoiesis, and fetal hemoglobin, an erythroid-related trait. RECENT FINDINGS: Identification of the genetic modulators of erythropoiesis involved two approaches: genome-wide association studies (GWASs) using single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) arrays that revealed the common genetic variants associated with erythroid phenotypes (hemoglobin, red cell count, MCV, MCH) and fetal hemoglobin; and massive parallel sequencing such as whole genome sequencing (WGS) and whole exome sequencing (WES) that led to the discovery of the rarer variants (GFI1B, SBDS, RPS19, PKLR, EPO, EPOR, KLF1, GATA1)...
February 15, 2017: Current Opinion in Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28210260/from-the-cradle-to-the-grave-the-role-of-macrophages-in-erythropoiesis-and-erythrophagocytosis
#4
REVIEW
Thomas R L Klei, Sanne M Meinderts, Timo K van den Berg, Robin van Bruggen
Erythropoiesis is a highly regulated process where sequential events ensure the proper differentiation of hematopoietic stem cells into, ultimately, red blood cells (RBCs). Macrophages in the bone marrow play an important role in hematopoiesis by providing signals that induce differentiation and proliferation of the earliest committed erythroid progenitors. Subsequent differentiation toward the erythroblast stage is accompanied by the formation of so-called erythroblastic islands where a central macrophage provides further cues to induce erythroblast differentiation, expansion, and hemoglobinization...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28167947/the-heme-connection-linking-erythrocytes-and-macrophage-biology
#5
REVIEW
Md Zahidul Alam, Samir Devalaraja, Malay Haldar
Erythroid function and development is intimately linked to macrophages. The primary function of erythrocytes is oxygen delivery, which is mediated by iron-containing hemoglobin. The major source of this iron is a recycling pathway where macrophages scavenge old and damaged erythrocytes to release iron contained within the heme moiety. Macrophages also promote erythropoiesis by providing a supportive niche in the bone marrow as an integral component of "erythorblastic islands." Importantly, inflammation leads to alterations in iron handling by macrophages with significant impact on iron homeostasis and erythropoiesis...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28157724/orchestration-of-late-events-in-erythropoiesis-by-klf1-eklf
#6
Merlin Nithya Gnanapragasam, James J Bieker
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Transcriptional regulators provide the molecular and biochemical basis for the cell specific properties and characteristics that follow from their central role in establishing tissue-restricted expression. Precise and sequential control of terminal cell divisions, nuclear condensation, and enucleation are defining characteristics within erythropoietic differentiation. This review is focused on KLF1, a central global regulator of this process. RECENT FINDINGS: Studies in the past year have brought a number of proteins that are targets of KLF1 regulation into focus with respect to their roles in terminal erythroid differentiation...
February 2, 2017: Current Opinion in Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28137221/methoxy-polyethylene-glycol-epoetin-beta-as-a-novel-erythropoiesis-stimulating-agent-with-possible-nephroprotective-and-cardiovascular-protective-effects-in-non-dialysis-chronic-kidney-disease-patients
#7
Bartnicki Piotr, Stępień Mariusz, Rysz Jacek
Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is an important health problem, because of unsuccessful outcomes such as CKD progression to end stage renal disease and high risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Anemia, associated with CKD, is considered a non-traditional risk factor for CVD which may contribute to faster CKD progression. Anemia treatment with erythropoiesis-stimulating agents (ESAs) seems to exert non-hematopoietic effects on different tissues and organs, including cardiovascular system and kidneys. On the other hand, clinical use of high doses of short-acting ESAs and higher target hemoglobin level were associated with higher risk of CVD...
January 26, 2017: Current Pharmaceutical Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28119134/erythropoietin-as-a-performance-enhancing-drug-its-mechanistic-basis-detection-and-potential-adverse-effects
#8
Olivier Salamin, Tiia Kuuranne, Martial Saugy, Nicolas Leuenberger
Erythropoietin (EPO) is the main hormone regulating red blood cell (RBC) production. The large-scale production of a recombinant human erythropoietin (rHuEPO) by biotechnological methods has made possible its widespread therapeutic use as well as its misuse in sports. Since the marketing of the first epoetin in 1989, the development has progressed to the third-generation analogs. However, the production of rHuEPO is costly, and the frequent administration of an injectable formula is not optimal for compliance of therapeutic patients...
January 21, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28118622/targeting-hypoxia-inducible-factors-for-the-treatment-of-anemia-in-chronic-kidney-disease-patients
#9
Francesco Locatelli, Steven Fishbane, Geoffrey A Block, Iain C Macdougall
BACKGROUND: Anemia, a common complication of chronic kidney disease (CKD), has previously been attributed primarily to decreased production of erythropoietin. More recently, it has become apparent that the etiology of anemia involves several other factors, most notably dysfunctional iron metabolism, mediated via increased hepcidin activity and reduced clearance. Current management of anemia in patients with advanced CKD is based on erythropoiesis-stimulating agents and iron supplementation, along with red blood cell transfusions when necessary; however, safety considerations associated with these therapies highlight the need to pursue alternative treatment options targeting other mechanisms such as hypoxia-inducible factors (HIFs) that act as central regulators of erythropoiesis by coordinating a series of graded hypoxic responses...
January 25, 2017: American Journal of Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28118223/rna-splicing-during-terminal-erythropoiesis
#10
John G Conboy
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Erythroid progenitors must accurately and efficiently splice thousands of pre-mRNAs as the cells undergo extensive changes in gene expression and cellular remodeling during terminal erythropoiesis. Alternative splicing choices are governed by interactions between RNA binding proteins and cis-regulatory binding motifs in the RNA. This review will focus on recent studies that define the genome-wide scope of splicing in erythroblasts and discuss what is known about its regulation...
January 21, 2017: Current Opinion in Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28110585/anemia-in-the-elderly-a-consequence-of-aging
#11
Racha Halawi, Hassan Moukhadder, Ali Taher
Anemia in the elderly is a common finding that is associated with a poorer quality of life, worse outcomes, and increased mortality. While this entity is frequently overlooked, there is often an underlying cause that is correctable. Areas covered: In this review, we shed light on the prevalence of anemia in the elderly population, review the most common causes, particularly iron deficiency anemia and anemia of chronic disease, and describe the available treatment modalities. When a clear etiology for the anemia is ruled-out, the term unexplained anemia may be utilized; while still an under-explored field, one of the underlying pathophysiological mechanisms appears to be associated with an age-related inflammatory process...
January 21, 2017: Expert Review of Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28099275/characterization-regulation-and-targeting-of-erythroid-progenitors-in-normal-and-disordered-human-erythropoiesis
#12
Brian M Dulmovits, Jimmy Hom, Anupama Narla, Narla Mohandas, Lionel Blanc
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The erythroid progenitors burst-forming unit-erythroid and colony-forming unit-erythroid have a critical role in erythropoiesis. These cells represent a heterogeneous and poorly characterized population with modifiable self-renewal, proliferation and differentiation capabilities. This review focuses on the current state of erythroid progenitor biology with regard to immunophenotypic identification and regulatory programs. In addition, we will discuss the therapeutic implications of using these erythroid progenitors as pharmacologic targets...
January 21, 2017: Current Opinion in Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096133/regulation-of-the-iron-homeostatic-hormone-hepcidin
#13
REVIEW
Veena Sangkhae, Elizabeta Nemeth
Iron is required for many biological processes but is also toxic in excess; thus, body iron balance is maintained through sophisticated regulatory mechanisms. The lack of a regulated iron excretory mechanism means that body iron balance is controlled at the level of absorption from the diet. Iron absorption is regulated by the hepatic peptide hormone hepcidin. Hepcidin also controls iron release from cells that recycle or store iron, thus regulating plasma iron concentrations. Hepcidin exerts its effects through its receptor, the cellular iron exporter ferroportin...
January 2017: Advances in Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28094487/blood-doping-at-the-olympic-games
#14
Kenneth D Fitch
BACKGROUND: The objective of this paper was to review our knowledge of athletes who have, are believed to have or have attempted to engage in blood doping to enhance their performance at an Olympic Games. METHOD: The paper focused on the Games from Munich 1972 to London 2012 and the author had a medical role at each of the Olympics that is discussed. RESULTS: The study revealed that Olympic athletes have benefitted from manipulating their blood by re--infusion of autologous or infusion of homologous blood and by administering erythropoiesis stimulating agents, notably the three generations of erythropoietins...
January 17, 2017: Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28072603/dyserythropoiesis-of-myelodysplastic-syndromes
#15
Carine Lefèvre, Sabrina Bondu, Salomé Le Goff, Olivier Kosmider, Michaela Fontenay
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) are heterogeneous diseases of the hematopoietic stem cell in the elderly. Anemia is the main symptom that mostly correlates with dysplastic erythropoiesis in the bone marrow. We will review the recent advances in understanding the diverse mechanisms of dyserythropoiesis. RECENT FINDINGS: Dyserythropoiesis defined as 10% dysplastic erythroid cells in the bone marrow is found in more than 80% of early MDS. Immature erythroblasts accumulate at the expense of mature erythroblasts due to differentiation arrest and apoptosis...
January 7, 2017: Current Opinion in Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28066881/short-acting-erythropoiesis-stimulating-agents-for-anaemia-in-predialysis-patients
#16
REVIEW
Deirdre Hahn, Christopher I Esezobor, Noha Elserafy, Angela C Webster, Elisabeth M Hodson
BACKGROUND: The benefits of erythropoiesis-stimulating agents (ESA) for chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients have been previously demonstrated. However, the efficacy and safety of short-acting epoetins administered at larger doses and reduced frequency as well as of new epoetins and biosimilars remains uncertain. OBJECTIVES: This review aimed to evaluate the benefits and harms of different routes, frequencies and doses of epoetins (epoetin alpha, epoetin beta and other short-acting epoetins) for anaemia in adults and children with CKD not receiving dialysis...
January 9, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27999949/anemia-in-nephrotic-syndrome-approach-to-evaluation-and-treatment
#17
Franca Iorember, Diego Aviles
Nephrotic syndrome is one of the most common glomerular diseases that affect in children. Complications may occur in nephrotic syndrome as a result of the disease itself as well as its treatment. Most of these complications result from excessive urinary protein losses, and control of proteinuria is the most effective treatment strategy. Anemia is one of the many complications seen in patients with persistent nephrotic syndrome and may occur as a result of excessive urinary losses of iron, transferrin, erythropoietin, transcobalamin and/or metals...
December 21, 2016: Pediatric Nephrology: Journal of the International Pediatric Nephrology Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27991479/gulf-cooperation-council-dialysis-outcomes-and-practice-patterns-study-an-overview-of-anemia-management-trends-at-the-regional-and-country-specific-levels-in-the-gulf-cooperation-council-countries
#18
Samra Abouchacra, Ali Obaidli, Saeed M G Al-Ghamdi, Jamal Al Wakeel, Issa Al Salmi, Sumaya Al Ghareeb, Mohammad Al Azmi, Mohammed Elsayed, Brian A Bieber, Ronald L Pisoni
The Gulf Cooperation Council-Dialysis Outcomes and Practice Patterns Study (GCC-DOPPS) marks the joining of the six Gulf region countries including Bahrain, Kuwait, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, and the United Arab Emirates to the main DOPPS study in 2012. The current review is a descriptive reporting on results related to the management of anemia from these countries. Our data demonstrate consistent anemia management patterns across the GCC countries allowing the achievement of international treatment levels...
November 2016: Saudi Journal of Kidney Diseases and Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27967292/the-role-of-p53-in-myelodysplastic-syndromes-and-acute-myeloid-leukemia-molecular-aspects-and-clinical-implications
#19
Ling Zhang, Kathy L McGraw, David A Sallman, Alan F List
TP53 gene mutations occurring in patients with myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) and acute myeloid leukemia (AML) are associated with high-risk karyotypes including 17p abnormalities, monosomal and complex cytogenetics. TP53 mutations in these disorders portend rapid disease progression and resistance to conventional therapeutics. Notably, the size of the TP53 mutant clone as measured by mutation allele burden is directly linked to overall survival (OS) confirming the importance of p53 as a negative prognostic variable...
December 14, 2016: Leukemia & Lymphoma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27965103/biological-databases-for-hematology-research
#20
REVIEW
Qian Zhang, Nan Ding, Lu Zhang, Xuetong Zhao, Yadong Yang, Hongzhu Qu, Xiangdong Fang
With the advances of genome-wide sequencing technologies and bioinformatics approaches, a large number of datasets of normal and malignant erythropoiesis have been generated and made public to researchers around the world. Collection and integration of these datasets greatly facilitate basic research and clinical diagnosis and treatment of blood disorders. Here we provide a brief introduction of the most popular omics data resources of normal and malignant hematopoiesis, including some integrated web tools, to help users get better equipped to perform common analyses...
December 2016: Genomics, Proteomics & Bioinformatics
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