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thrombopoiesis review

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27775788/local-bone-marrow-renin-angiotensin-system-in-the-genesis-of-leukemia-and-other-malignancies
#1
I C Haznedaroglu, U Y Malkan
The existence of a local renin-angiotensin system (RAS) specific to the hematopoietic bone marrow (BM) microenvironment had been proposed two decades ago. Most of the RAS molecules including ACE, ACE2, AGT, AGTR1, AGTR2, AKR1C4, AKR1D1, ANPEP, ATP6AP2, CMA1, CPA3, CTSA, CTSD, CTSG, CYP11A1, CYP11B1, CYP11B2, CYP17A1, CYP21A2, DPP3, EGFR, ENPEP, GPER, HSD11B1, HSD11B2, IGF2R, KLK1, LNPEP, MAS1, MME, NR3C1, NR3C2, PREP, REN, RNPEP, and THOP1 are locally present in the BM microenvironment. Local BM RAS peptides control the hematopoietic niche, myelopoiesis, erythropoiesis, thrombopoiesis and the development of other cellular lineages...
October 2016: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27766065/thrombopoietin-and-its-receptor-in-normal-and-neoplastic-hematopoiesis
#2
Kenneth Kaushansky
Thrombopoietin was posited to exist in 1958 and cloned in 1994, and in the ensuing two decades we have learned a great deal about the physiology and pathology of the primary regulator of thrombopoiesis. This paper will review the role of the hormone and its receptor, the product of the c-Mpl proto-oncogene, in health and disease, including many unexpected effects in both normal and neoplastic hematopoiesis. Amongst these unexpected properties are a non-redundant effect on hematopoietic stem cells, a critical role in all three of the acquired, chronic myeloproliferative neoplasms, as well as both gain-of-function and loss-of-function mutations in congenital and acquired states of thrombocytopenia and thrombocythemia...
2016: Thrombosis Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27639913/-interleukin-1-inflammasome-and-autoinflammatory-diseases
#3
Y Jamilloux, E Bourdonnay, M Gerfaud-Valentin, B F Py, L Lefeuvre, T Barba, C Broussolle, T Henry, P Sève
Interleukin-1 is a major cytokine of innate immunity and inflammation. It exerts various systemic effects during the inflammatory response, such as fever induction, thrombopoiesis and granulopoiesis, or leukocyte recruitment. Its involvement has been demonstrated in many inflammatory-mediated diseases, such as diabetes or gout. Moreover, interleukin-1 plays a pivotal role in some autoinflammatory diseases, such as cryopyrinopathies or familial Mediterranean fever. In these diseases, a constitutional defect of the inflammasome, a protein complex responsible for the activation of interleukin-1, explains the hypersecretion of interleukin-1...
September 14, 2016: La Revue de Médecine Interne
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27456576/thrombopoiesis-and-structural-rearrangements-of-the-long-arm-of-chromosome-3-review-arid-analysis-of-data-on-64-published-patients
#4
B Pedersen
During the least 10 years a growing number of case reports arid small patient series have demonstrated an association between certain structural changes of the q arm of chromosom'e no. 3 (insertion, inversion, translocation (3; 3) or translocation with other chromosomes) and signs of increased platelet production and morphologic megakaryocyte abnormalitieis. Analysis of published data on 64 such patients now demonstrate that rearrangements between the two chromosomes 3 are associated with significantly higher platelet counts and higher frequencies of megakaryocytes in the marrow than are translocations between no...
1990: Leukemia & Lymphoma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27390629/platelet-generation-in-vivo-and-in-vitro
#5
REVIEW
Biao Wang, Jiansheng Zheng
Platelet (PLT) transfusion, which is the primary cell therapy for thrombocytopenia, has been a source of concern in recent years due to its limitations of donor-dependent supply and soaring costs. In vitro platelet generation on an industrial scale is a possible solution requiring exploration. The technology of platelet generation ex vivo has been widely studied across the world, though the mechanisms of physiological thrombopoiesis and platelet biology function in vivo still remain elusive today. Various culture systems have been studied, most of which proved quite inefficient in generating functional platelets ex vivo, so there is still a long way to reach our ultimate goal of generating a fully functional platelet in vitro on an industrial scale...
2016: SpringerPlus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27186320/role-of-autophagy-in-megakaryocyte-differentiation-and-platelet-formation
#6
REVIEW
Tao You, Qi Wang, Li Zhu
Autophagy is a conserved biological process for digestion and recycling of cytoplasmic constituents in eukaryotic cells. Autophagy may trigger cell death or promote cell survival following various forms of stress. The emerging roles of autophagy in megakaryopoiesis, thrombopoiesis, and platelet function have been uncovered using not only in vitro and in vivo genetic models, but also in clinical observations of autophagic structure in patients with thrombocytopenic disorders. Inhibition of autophagy in early stage of megakaryocyte differentiation appears to impede megakaryocyte maturation, reduce platelet formation, and affect platelet function, whereas autophagic deficiency in mature megakaryocytes gives rise to abnormal platelet activation and function without changing platelet size and number...
2016: International Journal of Physiology, Pathophysiology and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27186144/the-pathophysiology-of-thrombocytopenia-in-chronic-liver-disease
#7
REVIEW
Oscar Mitchell, David M Feldman, Marla Diakow, Samuel H Sigal
Thrombocytopenia is the most common hematological abnormality encountered in patients with chronic liver disease (CLD). In addition to being an indicator of advanced disease and poor prognosis, it frequently prevents crucial interventions. Historically, thrombocytopenia has been attributed to hypersplenism, which is the increased pooling of platelets in a spleen enlarged by congestive splenomegaly secondary to portal hypertension. Over the past decade, however, there have been significant advances in the understanding of thrombopoiesis, which, in turn, has led to an improved understanding of thrombocytopenia in cirrhosis...
2016: Hepatic Medicine: Evidence and Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27025194/inherited-thrombocytopenia-novel-insights-into-megakaryocyte-maturation-proplatelet-formation-and-platelet-lifespan
#8
Ben Johnson, Sarah J Fletcher, Neil V Morgan
The study of patients with inherited bleeding problems is a powerful approach in determining the function and regulation of important proteins in human platelets and their precursor, the megakaryocyte. The normal range of platelet counts in the bloodstream ranges from 150 000 to 400 000 platelets per microliter and is normally maintained within a narrow range for each individual. This requires a constant balance between thrombopoiesis, which is primarily controlled by the cytokine thrombopoietin (TPO), and platelet senescence and consumption...
September 2016: Platelets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26965524/emerging-roles-of-nudc-family-from-molecular-regulation-to-clinical-implications
#9
REVIEW
Qiqin Fu, Wei Wang, Tianhua Zhou, Yuehong Yang
Nuclear distribution gene C (NudC) was first found in Aspergillus nidulans as an upstream regulator of NudF, whose mammalian homolog is Lissencephaly 1 (Lis1). NudC is conserved from fungi to mammals. Vertebrate NudC has three homologs: NudC, NudC-like protein (NudCL), and NudC-like protein 2 (NudCL2). All members of the NudC family share a conserved p23 domain, which possesses chaperone activity both in conjunction with and independently of heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90). Our group and the others found that NudC homologs were involved in cell cycle regulation by stabilizing the components of the LIS1/dynein complex...
May 2016: Science China. Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26787733/genomic-landscape-of-megakaryopoiesis-and-platelet-function-defects
#10
REVIEW
Elisa Bianchi, Ruggiero Norfo, Valentina Pennucci, Roberta Zini, Rossella Manfredini
Megakaryopoiesis is a complex, stepwise process that takes place largely in the bone marrow. At the apex of the hierarchy, hematopoietic stem cells undergo a number of lineage commitment decisions that ultimately lead to the production of polyploid megakaryocytes. On average, megakaryocytes release 10(11) platelets per day into the blood that repair vascular injuries and prevent excessive bleeding. This differentiation process is tightly controlled by exogenous and endogenous factors, which have been the topics of intense research in the hematopoietic field...
March 10, 2016: Blood
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26708916/-research-progress-on-role-of-abnormal-tryptophan-metabolism-in-immune-thrombocytopenia
#11
REVIEW
Zhao-Jian Li, Xiao-Qian Liu, Jun-Qing Xu, Xiao-Xia Chu
Immune thrombocytopenia (ITP) is a common acquired autoimmune hematological disorders. Platelet autoantibodies lead to the decrease of platelet production and (or) increase of its destruction. The latest researches showed that the abnormal tryptophan metabolism mediated by indoleamine-2, 3-dioxygenase(IDO) is related with the pathogenesis of ITP. The patients with ITP show less expression of IDO, reduction of Treg cells and increase of autoreactive T cells and autoantibodies. CTLA-4-Ig can improve the expression of IDO in the patients with ITP, which also can inhibit the proliferation and activation of self-reactive T cells...
December 2015: Zhongguo Shi Yan Xue Ye Xue za Zhi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26622857/normal-platelet-counts-mask-abnormal-thrombopoiesis-in-patients-with-chronic-myeloid-leukemia
#12
Kaili Yan, Bangsheng Ding, Jianyao Huang, Yuanyuan Dai, Shudao Xiong, Zhimin Zhai
Increased platelet heterogeneity has been reported in myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPN) with thrombocytosis. However, whether abnormal thrombopoiesis occurs in patients with chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) who have normal platelet counts, remains unclear. In order to explore this question, 25 patients with CML with normal platelet counts (CML-N), 40 patients with CML with elevated platelet counts (CML-E) and 33 healthy adults were recruited. The association of platelet count with mean platelet volume (MPV), platelet large cell ratio (P-LCR) and platelet distribution width (PDW) was examined...
October 2015: Oncology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26557683/origins-of-the-vertebrate-erythro-megakaryocytic-system
#13
REVIEW
Ondrej Svoboda, Petr Bartunek
Vertebrate erythrocytes and thrombocytes arise from the common bipotent thrombocytic-erythroid progenitors (TEPs). Even though nonmammalian erythrocytes and thrombocytes are phenotypically very similar to each other, mammalian species have developed some key evolutionary improvements in the process of erythroid and thrombocytic differentiation, such as erythroid enucleation, megakaryocyte endoreduplication, and platelet formation. This brings up a few questions that we try to address in this review. Specifically, we describe the ontology of erythro-thrombopoiesis during adult hematopoiesis with focus on the phylogenetic origin of mammalian erythrocytes and thrombocytes (also termed platelets)...
2015: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26546240/goldfish-carassius-auratus-l-as-a-model-system-to-study-the-growth-factors-receptors-and-transcription-factors-that-govern-myelopoiesis-in-fish
#14
Barbara A Katzenback, Fumihiko Katakura, Miodrag Belosevic
The process of myeloid cell development (myelopoiesis) in fish has mainly been studied in three cyprinid species: zebrafish (Danio rerio), ginbuna carp (Carassius auratus langsdorfii) and goldfish (C. auratus, L.). Our studies on goldfish myelopoiesis have utilized in vitro generated primary kidney macrophage (PKM) cultures and isolated primary kidney neutrophils (PKNs) cultured overnight to study the process of macrophage (monopoiesis) and neutrophil (granulopoiesis) development and the key growth factors, receptors, and transcription factors that govern this process in vitro...
May 2016: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26330242/regulating-billions-of-blood-platelets-glycans-and-beyond
#15
REVIEW
Renata Grozovsky, Silvia Giannini, Hervé Falet, Karin M Hoffmeister
The human body produces and removes 10(11) platelets daily to maintain a normal steady state platelet count. Platelet production must be regulated to avoid spontaneous bleeding or arterial occlusion and organ damage. Multifaceted and complex mechanisms control platelet production and removal in physiological and pathological conditions. This review will focus on different mechanisms of platelet senescence and clearance with specific emphasis on the role of posttranslational modifications. It will also briefly address platelet transfusion and the role of glycans in the clearance of stored platelets...
October 15, 2015: Blood
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26210823/cytoskeletal-regulation-of-platelet-formation-coordination-of-f-actin-and-microtubules
#16
REVIEW
Natalie S Poulter, Steven G Thomas
Platelets are small, anucleate blood cells which play an important role in haemostasis. Thrombocytopenia is a condition where the platelet count falls below 150×10(9)/l and patients suffering from severe forms of this condition can experience life-threatening bleeds requiring platelet transfusions. Platelets are produced from large progenitor cells called megakaryocytes which are found in the bone marrow. The process of megakaryocyte maturation and the formation of proplatelets are essential steps in the production of mature platelets and both depend heavily on the actin and microtubule cytoskeletons...
September 2015: International Journal of Biochemistry & Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26154508/novel-mechanisms-of-platelet-clearance-and-thrombopoietin-regulation
#17
REVIEW
Renata Grozovsky, Silvia Giannini, Hervé Falet, Karin M Hoffmeister
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The human body produces and removes 10 platelets daily to maintain a normal steady-state platelet count. Platelet production must be tightly regulated to avoid spontaneous bleeding or arterial occlusion and organ damage. Multifaceted and complex mechanisms control platelet removal and production in physiological and pathological conditions. This review will focus on different mechanisms of platelet clearance, with focus on the biological significance of platelet glycans...
September 2015: Current Opinion in Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26149034/regulation-of-the-genetic-code-in-megakaryocytes-and-platelets
#18
REVIEW
M T Rondina, A S Weyrich
Platelets are generated from nucleated precursors referred to as megakaryocytes. The formation of platelets is one of the most elegant and unique developmental processes in eukaryotes. Because they enter the circulation without nuclei, platelets are often considered simple, non-complex cells that have limited functions beyond halting blood flow. However, emerging evidence over the past decade demonstrates that platelets are more sophisticated than previously considered. Platelets carry a rich repertoire of messenger RNAs (mRNAs), microRNAs (miRNAs), and proteins that contribute to primary (adhesion, aggregation, secretion) and alternative (immune regulation, RNA transfer, translation) functions...
June 2015: Journal of Thrombosis and Haemostasis: JTH
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26017861/-frontiers-in-live-bone-imaging-researches-in-vivo-vascular-imaging-of-thrombosis-and-thrombopoiesis
#19
REVIEW
Satoshi Nishimura
In vivo imaging technique can elucidate dynamic molecular and cellular mechanisms in various fields. We applied two photon microscopy technique to living animals, and combined with light based cell manipulation system. We applied two photon microscopy technique to living animals, and combined with light based cell manipulation system. We elucidated the detailed cellular processes of thrombosis and thrombopoiesis in vivo. In this review, we introduce our recent findings of in vivo platelet activation, hemostasis and thrombopoiesis from bone marrow megakaryocytes...
June 2015: Clinical Calcium
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25864470/a-future-with-less-hla-potential-clinical-applications-of-hla-universal-cells
#20
REVIEW
C Figueiredo, R Blasczyk
The high variability of the human leukocyte antigen (HLA) remains a major obstacle to the application of allogeneic products in cell-based therapies. We have developed a strategy to decrease the immunogenicity of cell and tissues to improve their survival after allogeneic transplantation in the absence of immunosuppression. Using RNA interference technology, the expression of HLA class I and II was stably downregulated. HLA-silenced cells demonstrated to prevent a de novo and escape a pre-formed alloimmune response in vitro and in vivo...
June 2015: Tissue Antigens
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