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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434803/genetic-dissection-of-the-planarian-reproductive-system-through-characterization-of-schmidtea-mediterranea-cpeb-homologs
#1
Labib Rouhana, Junichi Tasaki, Amir Saberi, Phillip A Newmark
Cytoplasmic polyadenylation is a mechanism of mRNA regulation prevalent in metazoan germ cells; it is largely dependent on Cytoplasmic Polyadenylation Element Binding proteins (CPEBs). Two CPEB homologs were identified in the planarian Schmidtea mediterranea. Smed-CPEB1 is expressed in ovaries and yolk glands of sexually mature planarians, and required for oocyte and yolk gland development. In contrast, Smed-CPEB2 is expressed in the testes and the central nervous system; its function is required for spermatogenesis as well as non-autonomously for development of ovaries and accessory reproductive organs...
April 20, 2017: Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424614/relationship-between-cognitive-and-sleep-wake-variables-in-asymptomatic-offspring-of-patients-with-late-onset-alzheimer-s-disease
#2
Carolina Abulafia, Bárbara Duarte-Abritta, Mirta F Villarreal, María S Ladrón-de-Guevara, Celeste García, Geraldine Sequeyra, Gustavo Sevlever, Leticia Fiorentini, Karl-Jürgen Bär, Deborah R Gustafson, Daniel E Vigo, Salvador M Guinjoan
Early neuropathological changes characteristic of late-onset Alzheimer's disease (LOAD) involve brain stem and limbic structures that regulate neurovegetative functions, including sleep-wake rhythm. Indeed, sleep pattern is an emerging biomarker and a potential pathophysiological mechanism in LOAD. We hypothesized that cognitively asymptomatic, middle-aged offspring of patients with LOAD (O-LOAD) would display a series of circadian rhythm abnormalities prior to the onset of objective cognitive alterations. We tested 31 children of patients with LOAD (O-LOAD) and 19 healthy individuals without family history of Alzheimer's disease (control subjects, CS) with basic tests of cognitive function, as well as actigraphy measures of sleep-wake rhythm, cardiac autonomic function, and bodily temperature...
2017: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28389218/walking-training-at-the-heart-rate-of-pain-threshold-improves-cardiovascular-function-and-autonomic-regulation-in-intermittent-claudication-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#3
Marcel Chehuen, Gabriel G Cucato, Celso Ricardo F Carvalho, Raphael M Ritti-Dias, Nelson Wolosker, Anthony S Leicht, Cláudia Lúcia M Forjaz
OBJECTIVES: This study investigated the effects of walking training (WT) on cardiovascular function and autonomic regulation in patents with intermittent claudication (IC). DESIGN: Randomized controlled trial. METHODS: Forty-two male patients with IC (≥50years) were randomly allocated into two groups: control (CG, n=20, 30min of stretching exercises) and WT (WTG, n=22, 15 bouts of 2min of walking interpolated by 2min of upright rest-walking intensity was set at the heart rate of pain threshold)...
March 21, 2017: Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28387133/altered-pupillary-light-response-scales-with-disease-severity-in-migrainous-photophobia
#4
Melissa M Cortez, Natalie A Rea, Lindsay A Hunter, Kathleen B Digre, K C Brennan
Background Autonomic dysfunction and light sensitivity are core features of the migraine attack. Growing evidence also suggests changes in these parameters between attacks. Though sensory and autonomic responses likely interact, they have not been studied together across the spectrum of disease in migraine. Methods We performed digital infrared pupillometry while collecting interictal photophobia thresholds (PPT) in 36 migraineurs (14 episodic; 12 chronic; 10 probable) and 24 age and sex-matched non-headache controls...
January 1, 2017: Cephalalgia: An International Journal of Headache
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28384912/assessment-of-autonomic-dysfunction-in-acute-stroke-patients-at-a-tertiary-care-hospital
#5
Hemachandrika Chidambaram, Kothai Gnanamoorthy, Prasanna Karthik Suthakaran, Kannan Rajendran, Chitrambalam Pavadai
INTRODUCTION: In patients who present with acute cerebro-vascular disease, autonomic function testing is usually not given its due importance. This is because of the complex nature of the autonomic function tests and the relative technical difficulty faced in administering the tests to the patients. A simple and non-invasive method to assess the autonomic dysfunction is measurement of resting Heart Rate Variability (HRV). AIM: To study the pattern of autonomic dysfunction among patients admitted with acute stroke and to study the relationship between autonomic dysfunction and the morbidity and mortality associated with acute stroke...
February 2017: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28384857/assessment-of-musculoskeletal-strength-and-levels-of-fatigue-during-different-phases-of-menstrual-cycle-in-young-adults
#6
L C Pallavi, Urban John D Souza, G Shivaprakash
INTRODUCTION: Some of the physiological factors and athletic performance might show variation along the phases of menstrual cycle. The alterations seen in these physiological parameters of various systems relating to oscillations in hormonal levels do affect the autonomic nervous system and metabolic functions. Former studies heave inconclusively about the influence of hormones on exercise performance, predominantly muscle strength and rate of fatigue during different phases of the menstrual cycle...
February 2017: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28379880/immunoresponsive-autonomic-neuropathy-in-sj%C3%A3-gren-syndrome-case-series-and-literature-review
#7
Brent P Goodman
BACKGROUND: Sjögren syndrome (SS) is one of the most common autoimmune disorders that classically affects exocrine glands, resulting in keratoconjunctivitis sicca and xerostomia, and frequently is associated with other systemic symptoms. SS appears to have a particular predilection for involving the autonomic nervous system. STUDY QUESTION: Does immunotherapy improve signs and symptoms of autonomic nervous system impairment in SS? STUDY DESIGN: This is a retrospective review of patients seen in the autonomic clinic at our institution who underwent an evaluation for a suspected autonomic disorder that ultimately was attributed to SS...
March 31, 2017: American Journal of Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28377150/developmental-changes-in-autonomic-responses-are-associated-with-future-reward-punishment-expectations-a-study-of-sympathetic-skin-responses-in-the-markov-decision-task
#8
Hiromi Hosaka, Kakuro Aoyagi, Yoshimi Kaga, Hideaki Kanemura, Kanji Sugita, Masao Aihara
OBJECTIVE: Autonomic nervous system activity is recognized as a major component of emotional responses. Future reward/punishment expectations depend upon the process of decision making in the frontal lobe, which is considered to play an important role in executive function. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between autonomic responses and decision making during reinforcement tasks using sympathetic skin responses (SSR). METHODS: Nine adult and 9 juvenile (mean age, 10...
April 1, 2017: Brain & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28376642/cardiovascular-sequel-of-neck-irradiation-in-head-and-neck-cancer-patients
#9
Manish Goyal, Pragya Shukla, Deepak Gupta, Shyam Bisht, Nar Singh Verma, Sunita Tiwari, Madan Lal Bhatt
PURPOSE: Introduction: The baroreflex is an important afferent mechanism controlling autonomic functions. As afferent nerves course through the neck, they are susceptible to damage by neck irradiation in the head and neck cancer patients. With increased survival of head and neck cancer patients because of improved therapy, the cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in them have become apparent and is of clinical concern. There are few case reports of baroreflex failure as a chronic sequel to neck irradiation...
April 5, 2017: International Journal of Radiation Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28376495/postural-orthostatic-tachycardia-predicts-early-conversion-to-multiple-sclerosis-after-clinically-isolated-syndrome
#10
Mario Habek, Magdalena Krbot Skorić, Luka Crnošija, Tereza Gabelić, Barbara Barun, Ivan Adamec
BACKGROUND/AIMS: There have been suggestions that interactions exist between the autonomic nervous system (ANS) and the immune system functions in multiple sclerosis (MS). We aimed to evaluate the ANS dysfunction, more specifically postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome (POTS), as a possible predictor of conversion to MS in patients with clinically isolated syndrome (CIS). METHODS: In this observational, prospective, longitudinal study, 84 patients were enrolled (56 females, mean age 32...
April 5, 2017: European Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28375677/cardiopulmonary-exercise-testing-in-adult-congenital-heart-disease
#11
Valentina Mantegazza, Anna Apostolo, Alfred Hager
Recently, the number of patients with congenital heart diseases reaching adulthood has been progressively increasing in developed countries and new issues are emerging regarding them: the evaluation of their capacity to cope with physical activity, and whether this knowledge can be used to optimize medical management. A symptom-limited cardiopulmonary exercise test has proven to be an essential tool because it can objectively evaluate the functional cardiovascular capacity of these patients, identify the pathological mechanisms of the defect (circulatory failure, shunts, pulmonary hypertension) and help prescribe an individualized rehabilitation program when needed...
April 4, 2017: Annals of the American Thoracic Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28374068/light-at-night-acutely-impairs-glucose-tolerance-in-a-time-intensity-and-wavelength-dependent-manner-in-rats
#12
Anne-Loes Opperhuizen, Dirk J Stenvers, Remi D Jansen, Ewout Foppen, Eric Fliers, Andries Kalsbeek
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Exposure to light at night (LAN) has increased dramatically in recent decades. Animal studies have shown that chronic dim LAN induced obesity and glucose intolerance. Furthermore, several studies in humans have demonstrated that chronic exposure to artificial LAN may have adverse health effects with an increased risk of metabolic disorders, including type 2 diabetes. It is well-known that acute exposure to LAN affects biological clock function, hormone secretion and the activity of the autonomic nervous system, but data on the effects of LAN on glucose homeostasis are lacking...
April 3, 2017: Diabetologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28371199/nonsense-pathogenic-variants-in-exon-1-of-phox2b-lead-to-translational-reinitiation-in-congenital-central-hypoventilation-syndrome
#13
Jacob T Cain, Dae I Kim, Megan Quast, Winnie G Shivega, Ryan J Patrick, Chuanpit Moser, Suzanne Reuter, Myrza Perez, Angela Myers, Jill M Weimer, Kyle J Roux, Megan Landsverk
Pathogenic variants in PHOX2B lead to congenital central hypoventilation syndrome (CCHS), a rare disorder of the nervous system characterized by autonomic dysregulation and hypoventilation typically presenting in the neonatal period, although a milder late-onset (LO) presentation has been reported. More than 90% of cases are caused by polyalanine repeat mutations (PARMs) in the C-terminus of the protein; however non-polyalanine repeat mutations (NPARMs) have been reported. Most NPARMs are located in exon 3 of PHOX2B and result in a more severe clinical presentation including Hirschsprung disease (HSCR) and/or peripheral neuroblastic tumors (PNTs)...
May 2017: American Journal of Medical Genetics. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28350766/cardiac-autonomic-system-response-to-submaximal-test-in-children-with-cerebral-palsy
#14
Taly Amichai, Sharon Eylon, Horesh Dor-Haim, Itai Berger, Michal Katz-Leurer
AIM: To describe the heart rate (HR) and heart rate variability at rest, during a submaximal treadmill test and at rest posttreadmill in children with cerebral palsy (CP). METHODS: Twenty children (6-11 years) with CP participated, who had Gross Motor Function Classification System levels I to III. The HR was monitored for 5 minutes seated, during a submaximal treadmill test, and after 5 minutes rest posttreadmill. Outcome variables were HR and the square root of the mean squared differences of successive differences between adjacent heart beats (RMSSD)...
April 2017: Pediatric Physical Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346013/the-physiology-of-blood-loss-and-shock-new-insights-from-a-human-laboratory-model-of-hemorrhage
#15
Alicia M Schiller, Jeffrey T Howard, Victor A Convertino
The ability to quickly diagnose hemorrhagic shock is critical for favorable patient outcomes. Therefore, it is important to understand the time course and involvement of the various physiological mechanisms that are active during volume loss and that have the ability to stave off hemodynamic collapse. This review provides new insights about the physiology that underlies blood loss and shock in humans through the development of a simulated model of hemorrhage using lower body negative pressure. In this review, we present controlled experimental results through utilization of the lower body negative pressure human hemorrhage model that provide novel insights on the integration of physiological mechanisms critical to the compensation for volume loss...
April 2017: Experimental Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343277/pancreatic-alpha-cell-selective-deletion-of-tcf7l2-impairs-glucagon-secretion-and-counter-regulatory-responses-to-hypoglycaemia-in-mice
#16
Gabriela da Silva Xavier, Angeles Mondragon, Vishnou Mourougavelou, Céline Cruciani-Guglielmacci, Jessica Denom, Pedro Luis Herrera, Christophe Magnan, Guy A Rutter
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Transcription factor 7-like 2 (TCF7L2) is a high mobility group (HMG) box-containing transcription factor and downstream effector of the Wnt signalling pathway. SNPs in the TCF7L2 gene have previously been associated with an increased risk of type 2 diabetes in genome-wide association studies. In animal studies, loss of Tcf7l2 function is associated with defective islet beta cell function and survival. Here, we explore the role of TCF7L2 in the control of the counter-regulatory response to hypoglycaemia by generating mice with selective deletion of the Tcf7l2 gene in pancreatic alpha cells...
March 25, 2017: Diabetologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339438/the-role-of-autonomic-function-in-exercise-induced-endogenous-analgesia-a-case-control-study-in-myalgic-encephalomyelitis-chronic-fatigue-syndrome-and-healthy-people
#17
Jessica Van Oosterwijck, Uros Marusic, Inge De Wandele, Lorna Paul, Mira Meeus, Greta Moorkens, Luc Lambrecht, Lieven Danneels, Jo Nijs
BACKGROUND: Patients with myalgic encephalomyelitis / chronic fatigue syndrome (ME/CFS) are unable to activate brain-orchestrated endogenous analgesia (or descending inhibition) in response to exercise. This physiological impairment is currently regarded as one factor explaining post-exertional malaise in these patients. Autonomic dysfunction is also a feature of ME/CFS. OBJECTIVES: This study aims to examine the role of the autonomic nervous system in exercise-induced analgesia in healthy people and those with ME/CFS, by studying the recovery of autonomic parameters following aerobic exercise and the relation to changes in self-reported pain intensity...
March 2017: Pain Physician
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334035/early-inner-retinal-thinning-and-cardiovascular-autonomic-dysfunction-in-type-2-diabetes
#18
Jin A Choi, Hyo Won Kim, Jin-Woo Kwon, Yun-Sub Shim, Dong Hyun Jee, Jae-Seung Yun, Yu-Bae Ahn, Chan Kee Park, Seung-Hyun Ko
BACKGROUND: To investigate changes in the neural retina according to the presence of retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) defects in type 2 diabetes, and to determine the association between inner retina thickness and the severity of diabetic complications. METHODS: We studied non-glaucomatous patients with type 2 diabetes and control subjects Circumpapillary RNFL and macula ganglion cell-inner plexiform layer (GCIPL) thicknesses were measured by spectral-domain optical coherence tomography...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28331988/point-of-care-testing-of-cardiac-autonomic-function-for-risk-assessment-in-patients-with-suspected-acute-coronary-syndromes
#19
C Eick, M Duckheim, P Groga-Bada, N Klumpp, S Mannes, C S Zuern, M Gawaz, K D Rizas, Axel Bauer
BACKGROUND: Impaired cardiac autonomic function has been linked to adverse outcomes in patients with acute coronary syndromes (ACS) but is not included in clinical risk models. This is the first study to investigate whether point-of-care testing of cardiac autonomic function by means of short-term deceleration capacity (DC) of heart rate improves risk assessment in patients with suspected ACS. METHODS: 1821 patients with suspected ACS were prospectively enrolled if they were older than 17 years and in sinus rhythm...
March 22, 2017: Clinical Research in Cardiology: Official Journal of the German Cardiac Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325598/sudomotor-dysfunction-as-a-measure-of-small-fiber-neuropathy-in-type-1-diabetes
#20
Lynn Ang, Mamta Jaiswal, Brian Callaghan, David Raffel, Morton B Brown, Rodica Pop-Busui
BACKGROUND: This study evaluated whether measuring the electrochemical skin conductance (ESC), as an indirect measure of sudomotor function, may be also a reliable surrogate for early cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy (CAN). METHODS: Longitudinal study included 37 type 1 diabetes (T1D) subjects (mean age 38±13years, duration 15±7years, HbA1c 7.9±1.1%, no known complications at baseline), and 40 age-matched healthy control (HC) subjects. Mean hands ESC (ESChands) and feet (ESCfeet) were measured with the SUDOSCAN (Impeto Medical, France)...
March 10, 2017: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic & Clinical
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