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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28105785/micromotors-spontaneously-neutralize-gastric-acid-for-ph-responsive-payload-release
#1
Jinxing Li, Pavimol Angsantikul, Wenjuan Liu, Berta Esteban-Fernández de Ávila, Soracha Thamphiwatana, Mingli Xu, Elodie Sandraz, Xiaolei Wang, Jorge Delezuk, Weiwei Gao, Liangfang Zhang, Joseph Wang
The highly acidic gastric environment creates a physiological barrier for using therapeutic drugs in the stomach. While proton pump inhibitors have been widely used for blocking acid-producing enzymes, this approach can cause various adverse effects. Reported herein is a new microdevice, consisting of magnesium-based micromotors which can autonomously and temporally neutralize gastric acid through efficient chemical propulsion in the gastric fluid by rapidly depleting the localized protons. Coating these micromotors with a cargo-containing pH-responsive polymer layer leads to autonomous release of the encapsulated payload upon gastric-acid neutralization by the motors...
January 20, 2017: Angewandte Chemie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28105568/koumine-exhibits-anxiolytic-properties-without-inducing-adverse-neurological-effects-on-functional-observation-battery-open-field-and-vogel-conflict-tests-in-rodents
#2
Chao-Jie Chen, Zhi-Feng Zhong, Zhi-Ming Xin, Long-Hui Hong, Yan-Ping Su, Chang-Xi Yu
Koumine, an active alkaloid of neurotoxic plant Gelsemium, has been focused on its therapeutic uses, especially in central nervous system. Nevertheless, less is known about the neurological effects of koumine, which hampers its potential therapeutic exploitation. Moreover, as the anxiolytic potential of Gelsemium has raised many critical issues, its active principles on the anxiolytic and other neurological effects need to be further investigated. Here, we used functional observation battery (FOB) of mice to systematically measure the neurological effects of koumine at the effective doses, and then further confirmed its anxiolytic properties in open-field test (OFT) of mice and Vogel conflict test (VCT) of rats...
January 19, 2017: Journal of Natural Medicines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103812/can-coefficient-of-variation-of-time-domain-analysis-be-valuable-for-detecting-cardiovascular-autonomic-neuropathy-in-young-patients-with-type-1-diabetes-a-case-control-study
#3
Dovile Razanskaite-Virbickiene, Evalda Danyte, Giedre Mockeviciene, Rimante Dobrovolskiene, Rasa Verkauskiene, Rimantas Zalinkevicius
BACKGROUND: Cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy (CAN) increases morbidity and mortality in diabetes through association with a high risk of cardiac arrhythmias and sudden death, possibly related to silent myocardial ischemia. During the sub-clinical stage, CAN can be detected through reduction in heart rate variability (HRV). The aim of our study was to estimate if the time and frequency-domain analysis can be valuable for detecting CAN in young patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM)...
January 19, 2017: BMC Cardiovascular Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093795/the-natural-history-of-pure-autonomic-failure-a-u-s-prospective-cohort
#4
Horacio Kaufmann, Lucy Norcliffe-Kaufmann, Jose-Alberto Palma, Italo Biaggioni, Phillip A Low, Wolfgang Singer, David S Goldstein, Amanda C Peltier, Cyndia A Shibao, Christopher H Gibbons, Roy Freeman, David Robertson
OBJECTIVE: To define the clinical features and biomarkers that predict which patients with pure autonomic failure will develop Parkinson disease, dementia with Lewy bodies, or multiple system atrophy. METHODS: One hundred patients who presented with pure autonomic failure were recruited at 5 medical centers in the U.S. Seventy-four patients agreed to be followed prospectively. Patients underwent clinical evaluations including neurological rating scales, sleep questionnaires, smell test, and sympathetic and parasympathetic cardiovascular autonomic function tests...
January 17, 2017: Annals of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089226/-coping-and-subjective-burden-in-primary-caregivers-of-dependent-elderly-relatives-in-andalusia-spain
#5
Margarita Pérez-Cruz, M Ángeles Muñoz-Martínez, Laura Parra-Anguita, Rafael Del-Pino-Casado
PURPOSE: To analyse the relationship between the type of coping and subjective burden in caregivers of dependent elderly relatives in Andalusia (Spain). DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. LOCATION: Primary Health Care (autonomous community of Andalusia, Spain). PARTICIPANTS: A convenience sample of 198 primary caregivers of dependent elderly relatives. KEY MEASUREMENTS: Coping (Brief COPE), subjective burden (caregiver stress index), objective burden (functional capacity [Barthel Index], cognitive impairment [Pfeiffer Test], behavioural problems of the care recipient [Neuropsychiatric Inventory], and caregivers' dedication to caring), gender and kinship...
January 11, 2017: Atencion Primaria
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28076297/dynamics-of-the-cardiovascular-autonomic-regulation-during-orthostatic-challenge-is-more-relaxed-in-women
#6
Sina Reulecke, Sonia Charleston-Villalobos, Andreas Voss, Ramón González-Camarena, Jesús González-Hermosillo, Mercedes Gaitán-González, Guadalupe Hernández-Pacheco, Rico Schroeder, Tomás Aljama-Corrales
Linear dynamic analysis of cardiovascular and respiratory time series was performed in healthy subjects with respect to gender by shifted short-term segments throughout a head-up tilt (HUT) test. Beat-to-beat intervals (BBI), systolic (SYS) and diastolic (DIA) blood pressure and respiratory interval (RESP) time series were acquired in 14 men and 15 women. In time domain (TD), the descending slope of the auto-correlation function (ACF) (BBI_a31cor) was more pronounced in women than in men (p<0.05) during the HUT test and considerably steeper (p<0...
January 11, 2017: Biomedizinische Technik. Biomedical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28075199/an-epigenome-wide-association-analysis-of-cardiac-autonomic-responses-among-a-population-of-welders
#7
Jinming Zhang, Zhonghua Liu, Peter E Umukoro, Jennifer M Cavallari, Shona C Fang, Marc G Weisskopf, Xihong Lin, Murray A Mittleman, David C Christiani
DNA methylation is one of the potential epigenetic mechanisms associated with various adverse cardiovascular effects; however, its association with cardiac autonomic dysfunction, in particular, is unknown. In the current study, we aimed to identify epigenetic variants associated with alterations in cardiac autonomic responses. Cardiac autonomic responses were measured with two novel markers: acceleration capacity (AC) and deceleration capacity (DC). We examined DNA methylation levels at more than 472,506 CpG probes through the Illumina Infinium HumanMethylation450 BeadChip assay...
January 11, 2017: Epigenetics: Official Journal of the DNA Methylation Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28072962/-relationship-between-blood-routine-test-parameters-and-syncopal-recurrence-of-vasovagal-syncope-in-children
#8
J Y Song, H X Li, X Y Li, Y L Wang, H F Jin, J B Du
Objective: To explore the relationship between venous blood routine test parameters and syncopal recurrence of children with vasovagal syncope (VVS). Method: Sixty-three children (male 32, female 31) diagnosed as VVS in Department of Pediatrics, Peking University First Hospital from November 2010 to October 2015 were included in a case observational study.Their mean age was (11.2±2.7) years and basic treatment such as predisposing causes avoiding, standing training, autonomic nervous function exercise and oral rehydration salts were advised to them...
January 2, 2017: Zhonghua Er Ke za Zhi. Chinese Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28063957/initial-development-and-validation-of-a-patient-reported-symptom-survey-for-small-fiber-polyneuropathy
#9
Roi Treister, Mette Lodahl, Magdalena Lang, Shelley S Tworoger, Shlomo Sawilowsky, Anne Louise Oaklander
: Small-fiber polyneuropathy SFPN affects unmyelinated and thinly myelinated peripheral axons. Several questionnaires have been developed to assess polyneuropathy from diabeties or chemotherapy, but none for SFPN from other or unknown causes. A comprehensive survey could help clinicians diagnose and assess treatment responses, define prevalence natural history and cures, and identify research subjects. Thus, we developed the one-page Small-fiber Symptom Survey (SSS), using input from patients and 21 medical/scientific experts...
January 4, 2017: Journal of Pain: Official Journal of the American Pain Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28063396/cold-pressor-pain-in-skin-picking-disorder
#10
Jon E Grant, Sarah A Redden, Samuel R Chamberlain
Excoriation (skin-picking) disorder (SPD) is a disabling, under-recognized condition in which individuals repeatedly pick at their skin, leading to noticeable tissue damage. There has been no examination as to whether individuals with SPD have different pain thresholds or pain tolerances compared to healthy counterparts. Adults with SPD were examined on a variety of clinical measures including symptom severity and functioning. All participants underwent the cold pressor test. Heart rate, blood pressure, and self-reported pain were compared between SPD participants (n=14) and healthy controls (n=14)...
December 31, 2016: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28062871/-chronic-diarrhea-in-the-diabetic-a-review-of-the-literature
#11
Juan Sebastián Frías Ordoñez, William Otero Regino
The association of diarrhea with diabetes mellitus has been known for more than 70 years. In diabetic patients its prevalence is around 20%.Its clinical manifestations are diverse, and represents a diagnostic and therapeutic challenge.There are certain diagnoses of higher prevalence in diabetic patients than in the general population.The different related etiologies can be adequately diagnosed through the clinical history and complementary diagnostic tests.The medications used by the diabetic patient to manage their disease often cause chronic diarrhea, so the pharmacological background should be studied at the time of the study of diarrhea...
October 2016: Revista de Gastroenterología del Perú: órgano Oficial de la Sociedad de Gastroenterología del Perú
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28055996/-syncope-electrocardiogram-and-autonomic-function-tests
#12
William Uribe, Adrián Baranchuk, Federico Botero
Syncope represents one of the most frequent reasons for consultation in the emergency department. A proper identification will allow a precise etiologic approach and the optimization of delivery of health resources.
Once knowing the classification of syncope; it is the clinical interrogatory what enables to discriminate which of these patients present with a neurogenic mediated syncope or a cardiac mediated syncope. The use of diagnostic methods such as the tilt test, will clarify what type of neurally mediated syncope predominates in the patient...
December 23, 2016: Medwave
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28045562/parasympathetic-baroreflexes-and-heart-rate-variability-during-acute-stage-of-sport-concussion-recovery
#13
Scott Bishop, Ryan Dech, Taylor Baker, Matthew Butz, Kaishan Aravinthan, J Patrick Neary
PRIMARY OBJECTIVE: To assess and compare the parasympathetic state of individuals in healthy vs concussion groups, by measuring cardiovascular metrics under resting and baroreflex conditions using a squat-stand manoeuvre. RESEARCH DESIGN: This was a retrospective mixed-method study, with participants who sustained a medically diagnosed sport concussion (n = 12), being tested within 72-hours post-injury. METHODS AND PROCEDURES: Participant's heart rate (Electrocardiogram, ECG) and blood pressure (finger plethysmography) data was collected during rest and during 10-second squat-stands (10SS, 0...
January 3, 2017: Brain Injury: [BI]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28042190/respiratory-sinus-arrhythmia-and-heart-period-in-infancy-as-correlates-of-later-oppositional-defiant-and-callous-unemotional-behaviors
#14
Nicholas J Wagner, W Roger Mills-Koonce, Michael T Willoughby, Cathi B Propper, Peter D Rehder, Noa Gueron-Sela
Extant literature suggests that oppositional defiant (ODD) and callous-unemotional (CU) behaviors in childhood and adolescence are associated with distinct patterns of psychophysiological functioning and that individual differences in these patterns have implications for developmental pathways to disorder. Very little is known about the associations between psychophysiological functioning in infancy and later ODD and CU behaviors. This study examined associations between basal autonomic nervous system (ANS) functioning in infancy and ODD and CU behaviors in later childhood...
January 2017: International Journal of Behavioral Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28029639/sleep-disordered-breathing-exacerbates-muscle-vasoconstriction-and-sympathetic-neural-activation-in-patients-with-systolic-heart-failure
#15
Denise M L Lobo, Patricia F Trevizan, Edgar Toschi-Dias, Patricia A Oliveira, Rafael B Piveta, Dirceu R Almeida, Charles Mady, Edimar A Bocchi, Geraldo Lorenzi-Filho, Holly R Middlekauff, Carlos E Negrão
BACKGROUND: Sleep-disordered breathing (SDB) is common in patients with heart failure (HF), and hypoxia and hypercapnia episodes activate chemoreceptors stimulating autonomic reflex responses. We tested the hypothesis that muscle vasoconstriction and muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA) in response to hypoxia and hypercapnia would be more pronounced in patients with HF and SDB than in patients with HF without SDB (NoSBD). METHODS AND RESULTS: Ninety consecutive patients with HF, New York Heart Association functional class II-III, and left ventricular ejection fraction ≤40% were screened for the study...
November 2016: Circulation. Heart Failure
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28024941/orthostatic-hypotension-after-continuous-flow-left-ventricular-assist-device-implantation-in-a-patient-with-longstanding-diabetes-mellitus
#16
Derek S Chew, Brett H Shaw, Debra L Isaac, Jonathan G Howlett, Satish R Raj
A continuous-flow left ventricular assist device (CF-LVAD) benefits patients with advanced heart failure as a bridge to cardiac transplantation. However, unanticipated complications may occur. We report a patient with end-stage heart failure and longstanding diabetes who experienced functionally debilitating orthostatic hypotension from autonomic insufficiency after CF-LVAD implantation. This case demonstrates a role for comprehensive autonomic function testing in the workup of orthostatic hypotension after LVAD implantation...
October 28, 2016: Canadian Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27992961/concomitant-alterations-of-metabolic-parameters-cardiovascular-risk-factors-and-altered-cortisol-secretion-in-patients-with-adrenal-incidentalomas-during-prolonged-follow-up
#17
Labrini Papanastasiou, Krystallenia Ι Alexandraki, Ioannis I Androulakis, Stelios Fountoulakis, Theodora Kounadi, Athina Markou, Vaios Tsiavos, Christianna Samara, Theodoros G Papaioannou, George Piaditis, Gregory Kaltsas
OBJECTIVE: Adrenal incidentalomas (AI) are associated with metabolic and hormonal abnormalities, most commonly autonomous cortisol secretion (ACS). Data regarding alterations of insulin resistance (IR), and ACS after prolonged follow-up are limited. We investigated the evolution of IR, cortisol secretion and ACS development in patients with AI during prolonged follow-up. DESIGN: Prospective study in a tertiary hospital. PATIENTS AND MEASUREMENTS: Seventy-one patients with AI, (51 non-functioning [NFAI], 20 ACS), and 5...
December 19, 2016: Clinical Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27987340/ethnic-analogies-and-differences-in-fetal-heart-rate-variability-signal-a-retrospective-study
#18
Salvatore Tagliaferri, Francesca Giovanna Esposito, Rosa Fagioli, Marco Di Cresce, Lucia Sacchi, Maria Gabriella Signorini, Marta Campanile, Pasquale Martinelli, Giovanni Magenes
AIM: We aimed to analyze computerized cardiotocographic (cCTG) parameters (including fetal heart rate baseline, short-term variability, Delta, long-term irregularity [LTI], interval index [II], low frequency [LF], movement frequency [MF], high frequency [HF], and approximate entropy [ApEn]) in physiological term pregnancies in order to correlate them with ethnic differences. The clinical meaning of numerical parameters may explain physiological or paraphysiological phenomena that occur in fetuses of different ethnic origins...
December 17, 2016: Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27984428/%C3%AE-adrenergic-responsiveness-in-the-type-2-diabetic-heart-effects-on-cardiac-reserve
#19
Genevieve A Wilson, Luke C Wilson, Regis R Lamberts, Kamran Majeed, Sudish Lal, Gerard T Wilkins, James C Baldi
: Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is associated with reduced cardiac reserve and aerobic capacity. Altered myocardial autonomic nervous regulation has been demonstrated in humans with diabetes (indirectly) and animal models (directly). PURPOSE: To determine the chronotopic and inotropic response of the type 2 diabetic heart to β-adrenergic stimulation. METHODS: 8 people with uncomplicated type 2 diabetes and 7 matched controls performed a DEXA scan and V[Combining Dot Above]O2peak test...
December 14, 2016: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27984099/recovery-of-sensorimotor-function-following-sciatic-nerve-injury-across-multiple-rat-strains
#20
Anindita Ganguly, Corissa McEwen, Erika L Troy, Raymond W Colburn, Anthony O Caggiano, Timothy J Schallert, Tom J Parry
BACKGROUND: Peripheral nerve injury (PNI) can result in neurodegenerative changes leading to motor, sensory and autonomic dysfunction. Injury to the rat sciatic nerve is used to model pathophysiologic processes following PNI and assess the efficacy of therapeutic interventions. Frequently, temporal changes in the sciatic functional index (SFI), a measure of sensorimotor integration are measured in rats to assess functional recovery following sciatic nerve injury. However, multiple rat strains and behavioral endpoints have been employed to investigate pathophysiology of PNI and impact of therapeutic intervention on recovery, raising the possibility that rat strain may influence the outcome of such studies...
October 29, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience Methods
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