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Kevin kolahi

Hui-Wen Lue, Jennifer Podolak, Kevin Kolahi, Larry Cheng, Soumya Rao, Devin Garg, Chang-Hui Xue, Juha K Rantala, Jeffrey W Tyner, Kent L Thornburg, Ann Martinez-Acevedo, Jen-Jane Liu, Christopher L Amling, Charles Truillet, Sharon M Louie, Kimberly E Anderson, Michael J Evans, Valerie B O'Donnell, Daniel K Nomura, Justin M Drake, Anna Ritz, George V Thomas
There is limited knowledge about the metabolic reprogramming induced by cancer therapies and how this contributes to therapeutic resistance. Here we show that although inhibition of PI3K-AKT-mTOR signaling markedly decreased glycolysis and restrained tumor growth, these signaling and metabolic restrictions triggered autophagy, which supplied the metabolites required for the maintenance of mitochondrial respiration and redox homeostasis. Specifically, we found that survival of cancer cells was critically dependent on phospholipase A2 (PLA2) to mobilize lysophospholipids and free fatty acids to sustain fatty acid oxidation and oxidative phosphorylation...
October 15, 2017: Genes & Development
Kevin S Kolahi, Amy M Valent, Kent L Thornburg
The syncytiotrophoblast (SCT) at the maternal-fetal interface has been presumed to be the primary driver of placental metabolism, and the underlying progenitor cytotrophoblast cells (CTB) an insignificant contributor to placental metabolic activity. However, we now show that the metabolic rate of CTB is much greater than the SCT. The oxygen consumption and extracellular acidification rate, a measure of glycolysis, are both greater in CTB than in SCT in vitro (CTB: 96 ± 16 vs SCT: 46 ± 14 pmol O2 × min(-1) × 100 ng DNA(-1), p < 0...
February 23, 2017: Scientific Reports
Kent L Thornburg, Kevin Kolahi, Melinda Pierce, Amy Valent, Rachel Drake, Samantha Louey
The placenta is a key organ in programming the fetus for later disease. This review outlines nine of many structural and physiological features of the placenta which are associated with adult onset chronic disease. 1) Placental efficiency relates the placental mass to the fetal mass. Ratios at the extremes are related to cardiovascular disease risk later in life. 2) Placental shape predicts a large number of disease outcomes in adults but the regulators of placental shape are not known. 3) Non-human primate studies suggest that at about mid-gestation, the placenta becomes less plastic and less able to compensate for pathological stresses...
December 2016: Placenta
Kevin Kolahi, Samantha Louey, Oleg Varlamov, Kent Thornburg
While the human placenta must provide selected long-chain fatty acids to support the developing fetal brain, little is known about the mechanisms underlying the transport process. We tracked the movement of the fluorescently labeled long-chain fatty acid analogue, BODIPY-C12, across the cell layers of living explants of human term placenta. Although all layers took up the fatty acid, rapid esterification of long-chain fatty acids and incorporation into lipid droplets was exclusive to the inner layer cytotrophoblast cells rather than the expected outer syncytiotrophoblast layer...
2016: PloS One
Sky K Feuer, Xiaowei Liu, Annemarie Donjacour, Wingka Lin, Rhodel K Simbulan, Gnanaratnam Giritharan, Luisa Delle Piane, Kevin Kolahi, Kurosh Ameri, Emin Maltepe, Paolo F Rinaudo
The Developmental Origins of Health and Disease hypothesis holds that alterations to homeostasis during critical periods of development can predispose individuals to adult-onset chronic diseases such as diabetes and metabolic syndrome. It remains controversial whether preimplantation embryo manipulation, clinically used to treat patients with infertility, disturbs homeostasis and affects long-term growth and metabolism. To address this controversy, we have assessed the effects of in vitro fertilization (IVF) on postnatal physiology in mice...
May 2014: Endocrinology
Kevin S Kolahi, Annemarie Donjacour, Xiaowei Liu, Wingka Lin, Rhodel K Simbulan, Enrrico Bloise, Emin Maltepe, Paolo Rinaudo
It is becoming increasingly clear that cells are remarkably sensitive to the biophysical cues of their microenvironment and that these cues play a significant role in influencing their behaviors. In this study, we investigated whether the early pre-implantation embryo is sensitive to mechanical cues, i.e. the elasticity of the culture environment. To test this, we have developed a new embryo culture system where the mechanical properties of the embryonic environment can be precisely defined. The contemporary standard environment for embryo culture is the polystyrene petri dish (PD), which has a stiffness (1 GPa) that is six orders of magnitude greater than the uterine epithelium (1 kPa)...
2012: PloS One
Enrrico Bloise, Wingka Lin, Xiaowei Liu, Rhodel Simbulan, Kevin S Kolahi, Felice Petraglia, Emin Maltepe, Annemarie Donjacour, Paolo Rinaudo
More than 4.5 million children have been conceived by in vitro fertilization (IVF). Interestingly, singleton IVF offspring born at term have an increased incidence of low birth weight. The mechanism responsible for the lower birth weight is unknown, but alterations in placental function are possible. Hence, the goal of our study was to examine placental growth and function in mice generated in vivo or in vitro. To assess placental function, blastocysts were generated by IVF or produced by natural mating (control group); both IVF and control blastocysts were transferred to pseudopregnant recipients...
July 2012: Endocrinology
Kevin S Kolahi, Mohammad R K Mofrad
In nearly all aspects of biology, forces are a relevant regulator of life's form and function. More recently, science has established that cells are exquisitely sensitive to forces of varying magnitudes and time scales, and they convert mechanical stimuli into a chemical response. This phenomenon, termed mechanotransduction, is an integral part of cellular physiology and has a profound impact on the development of the organism. Furthermore, malfunctioning mechanical properties or mechanotransduction often leads to pathology of the organism...
November 2010: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Systems Biology and Medicine
Harvey S Chen, Kevin S Kolahi, Mohammad R K Mofrad
Filamins are actin binding proteins that contribute to cytoskeletal integrity and biochemical scaffolds during mechanochemical signal transductions. Structurally, human filamins are dimers composed of an actin-binding domain with 24 immunoglobulin (Ig)-like repeats. In this study, we focus on the recently solved high-resolution crystal structure of Ig-like repeats 19-21 of filamin-A (IgFLNa-R19-R21). IgFLNa-R19-21 is of marked importance because it contains the binding site for integrins and facilitates the dynamic ability of filamin-A to communicate with the extracellular environment...
December 16, 2009: Biophysical Journal
Kevin S Kolahi, Mohammad R K Mofrad
Rearrangement of the actin cytoskeleton is integral to cell shape and function. Actin-binding proteins, e.g., filamin, can naturally contribute to the mechanics and function of the actin cytoskeleton. The molecular mechanical bases for filamin's function in actin cytoskeletal reorganization are examined here using molecular dynamics simulations. Simulations are performed by applying forces ranging from 25 pN to 125 pN for 2.5 ns to the rod domain of filamin. Applying small loads ( approximately 25 pN) to filamin's rod domain supplies sufficient energy to alter the conformation of the N-terminal regions of the rod...
February 1, 2008: Biophysical Journal
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