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H G Ularamu, J O Ibu, B A Wood, J N Abenga, D D Lazarus, Y S Wungak, N J Knowles, J Wadsworth, V Mioulet, D P King, D Shamaki, M I Adah
This study describes the molecular characterization of 47 foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) viruses recovered from field outbreaks in Nigeria between 2007 and 2014. Antigen ELISA of viral isolates was used to identify FMD virus serotypes O, A and SAT 2. Phylogenetic analyses of VP1 nucleotide sequences provide evidence for the presence of multiple sublineages of serotype SAT 2, and O/EAST AFRICA 3 (EA-3) and O/WEST AFRICA topotypes in the country. In contrast, for serotype A, a single monophyletic cluster of viruses has persisted within Nigeria (2009-2013)...
October 7, 2016: Transboundary and Emerging Diseases
Noah J J Johnson, Sha He, Viet Anh Nguyen Huu, Adah Almutairi
Paramagnetic gadolinium (Gd(3+))-based nanocrystals (NCs) with a large number of confined gadolinium ions can be expected to heavily enhance the longitudinal (T1) relaxation of water protons compared to clinical gadolinium complexes with only a single paramagnetic center. However, paramagnetic Gd(3+)-NCs reported to date show only a modest T1 relaxivity of ∼10 mM(-1) s(-1) per Gd(3+) at 1.5 T, only about 3-times higher than clinical Gd(3+) complexes. Here we demonstrate a strategy that achieves ultrahigh T1 relaxivity that is about 25-times higher than clinical Gd(3+) complexes by controlling the proximity of water protons to a paramagnetic NC surface...
September 27, 2016: ACS Nano
Ahmed El Halawany, Sha He, Hossein Hodaei, Ahmed Bakry, Mir A N Razvi, Ahmed Alshahrie, Noah J J Johnson, Demetrios N Christodoulides, Adah Almutairi, Mercedeh Khajavikhan
Upconversion of near infrared (NIR) into ultraviolet (UV) radiation could lead to a number of applications in bio-imaging, diagnostics and drug delivery. However, for bare nanoparticles, the conversion efficiency is extremely low. In this work, we experimentally demonstrate strongly enhanced upconversion emission from an ensemble of β-NaYF<sub>4</sub>:Gd<sup>3+</sup>/Yb<sup>3+</sup>/Tm<sup>3+</sup> @NaLuF<sub>4</sub> core-shell nanoparticles trapped in judiciously designed plasmonic nanocavities...
June 27, 2016: Optics Express
Minnie Chan, Adah Almutairi
In the past few decades, advances in imaging equipment and protocols have expanded the role of imaging in in vivo diagnosis and disease management, especially in cancer. Traditional imaging agents have rapid clearance and low specificity for disease detection. To improve accuracy in disease identification, localization and assessment, novel nanomaterials are frequently explored as imaging agents to achieve high detection specificity and sensitivity. A promising material for this purpose are hydrogel nanoparticles, whose high hydrophilicity, biocompatibility, and tunable size in the nanometer range make them ideal for imaging...
January 21, 2016: Materials Horizons
Satoshi Komoto, Mohammed Ignatius Adah, Tomihiko Ide, Tetsushi Yoshikawa, Koki Taniguchi
Bovine group A rotavirus (RVA) G8P[1] strains have been rarely detected in humans. Two Nigerian G8P[1] strains, HMG035 (RVA/Human-tc/NGA/HMG035/1999/G8P[1]) and NGRBg8 (RVA/Cow-tc/NGA/NGRBg8/1998/G8P[1]), were previously suggested to have the VP7, VP4, and NSP1 genes of bovine origin. In order to obtain precise information on the origin and evolution of these G8P[1] strains, the complete nucleotide sequences of the whole genomes of strains HMG035 and NGRBg8 were determined and analyzed in the present study...
September 2016: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
Dickson Adah, Muzammal Hussain, Limei Qin, Li Qin, Jiancun Zhang, Xiaoping Chen
Despite advances in chemotherapy and immunotherapy, advanced lung cancer remains an incurable disease. Novel trends in anticancer therapeutics focus on harnessing the therapeutically-targeted tumor-related immune suppression. In this respect, myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) have captured considerable attention in the last few years, as they are vividly implicated in tumor immune escape mechanisms. In this review, we specifically discuss the multifaceted roles of MDSCs in lung tumor microenvironment, encompassing lung tumor growth and progression via suppression of anti-tumor immunity, association with worse prognosis, and hampering the efficacy of lung cancer chemotherapy and immunotherapy...
August 2016: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
Carl-Johan Carling, Jason Olejniczak, Alexandra Foucault-Collet, Guillaume Collet, Mathieu L Viger, Viet Anh Nguyen Huu, Brendan M Duggan, Adah Almutairi
We introduce a means of efficiently photo-uncaging active compounds from amino-1,4-benzoquinone in aqueous environments. Aqueous photochemistry of this photocage with one-photon red light is typically not efficient unless the photocaged molecules are allowed to assemble into nanoparticles. A variety of biologically active molecules were functionalized with the photocage and subsequently formulated into water-dispersible nanoparticles. Red light irradiation through various mammalian tissues achieved efficient photo-uncaging...
March 2016: Chemical Science
Zhen-Ning Zhang, Beatriz C Freitas, Hao Qian, Jacques Lux, Allan Acab, Cleber A Trujillo, Roberto H Herai, Viet Anh Nguyen Huu, Jessica H Wen, Shivanjali Joshi-Barr, Jerome V Karpiak, Adam J Engler, Xiang-Dong Fu, Alysson R Muotri, Adah Almutairi
Probing a wide range of cellular phenotypes in neurodevelopmental disorders using patient-derived neural progenitor cells (NPCs) can be facilitated by 3D assays, as 2D systems cannot entirely recapitulate the arrangement of cells in the brain. Here, we developed a previously unidentified 3D migration and differentiation assay in layered hydrogels to examine how these processes are affected in neurodevelopmental disorders, such as Rett syndrome. Our soft 3D system mimics the brain environment and accelerates maturation of neurons from human induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC)-derived NPCs, yielding electrophysiologically active neurons within just 3 wk...
March 22, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Jessica H Wen, Onkiu Choi, Hermes Taylor-Weiner, Alexander Fuhrmann, Jerome V Karpiak, Adah Almutairi, Adam J Engler
Motile cells navigate through tissue by relying on tactile cues from gradients provided by extracellular matrix (ECM) such as ligand density or stiffness. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) and fibroblasts encounter adhesive or 'haptotactic' gradients at the interface between healthy and fibrotic tissue as they migrate towards an injury site. Mimicking this phenomenon, we developed tunable RGD and collagen gradients in polyacrylamide hydrogels of physiologically relevant stiffness using density gradient multilayer polymerization (DGMP) to better understand how such ligand gradients regulate migratory behaviors...
December 1, 2015: Cellular and Molecular Bioengineering
Jason Olejniczak, Viet Anh Nguyen Huu, Jacques Lux, Madeleine Grossman, Sha He, Adah Almutairi
We describe a means of chemical amplification to accelerate triggered degradation of a polymer and particles composed thereof. We designed a light-degradable copolymer containing carboxylic acids masked by photolabile groups and ketals. Photolysis allows the unmasked acidic groups in the polymer backbone to accelerate ketal hydrolysis even at neutral pH.
December 11, 2015: Chemical Communications: Chem Comm
Jason Olejniczak, Carl-Johan Carling, Adah Almutairi
Light is an excellent means to externally control the properties of materials and small molecules for many applications. Light's ability to initiate chemistries largely independent of a material's local environment makes it particularly useful as a bio-orthogonal and on-demand trigger in living systems. Materials responsive to UV light are widely reported in the literature; however, UV light has substantial limitations for in vitro and in vivo applications. Many biological molecules absorb these energetic wavelengths directly, not only preventing substantial tissue penetration but also causing detrimental photochemical reactions...
December 10, 2015: Journal of Controlled Release: Official Journal of the Controlled Release Society
Caroline de Gracia Lux, Jacques Lux, Guillaume Collet, Sha He, Minnie Chan, Jason Olejniczak, Alexandra Foucault-Collet, Adah Almutairi
Materials that degrade or dissociate in response to low power light promise to enable on-demand, precisely localized delivery of drugs or bioactive molecules in living systems. Such applications remain elusive because few materials respond to wavelengths that appreciably penetrate tissues. The photocage bromohydroxycoumarin (Bhc) is efficiently cleaved upon low-power ultraviolet (UV) and near-infrared (NIR) irradiation through one- or two-photon excitation, respectively. We have designed and synthesized a short Bhc-bearing crosslinker to create light-degradable hydrogels and nanogels...
October 12, 2015: Biomacromolecules
Minnie Chan, Jacques Lux, Tomoki Nishimura, Kazunari Akiyoshi, Adah Almutairi
Clinically approved small-molecule magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) contrast agents are all rapidly cleared from the body and offer weak signal enhancement. To avoid repeated administration of contrast agent and improve signal-to-noise ratios, agents with stronger signal enhancement and better retention in tumors are needed. Therefore, we focused on hydrogels because of their excellent water accessibility and biodegradability. Gadolinium (Gd)-chelating cross-linkers were incorporated into self-assembled pullulan nanogels to both impart magnetic properties and to stabilize this material that has been extensively studied for medical applications...
September 14, 2015: Biomacromolecules
Sophia L Suarez, Aboli A Rane, Adam Muñoz, Adam T Wright, Shirley X Zhang, Rebecca L Braden, Adah Almutairi, Andrew D McCulloch, Karen L Christman
UNLABELLED: Injectable biomaterials have been evaluated as potential new therapies for myocardial infarction (MI) and heart failure. These materials have improved left ventricular (LV) geometry and ejection fraction, yet there remain concerns that biomaterial injection may create a substrate for arrhythmia. Since studies of this risk are lacking, we utilized optical mapping to assess the effects of biomaterial injection and interstitial spread on cardiac electrophysiology. Healthy and infarcted rat hearts were injected with a model poly(ethylene glycol) hydrogel with varying degrees of interstitial spread...
October 2015: Acta Biomaterialia
Carl-Johan Carling, Mathieu L Viger, Viet Anh Nguyen Huu, Arnold V Garcia, Adah Almutairi
Controlling chemistry in space and time has offered scientists and engineers powerful tools for research and technology. For example, on-demand photo-triggered activation of neurotransmitters has revolutionized neuroscience. Non-invasive control of the availability of bioactive molecules in living organisms will undoubtedly lead to major advances; however, this requires the development of photosystems that efficiently respond to regions of the electromagnetic spectrum that innocuously penetrate tissue. To this end, we have developed a polymer that photochemically degrades upon absorption of one photon of visible light and demonstrated its potential for medical applications...
January 1, 2015: Chemical Science
Wangzhong Sheng, Ali H Alhasan, Gabriella DiBernardo, Khalid M Almutairi, J Peter Rubin, Barry E DiBernardo, Adah Almutairi
BACKGROUND: Conventional suction-assisted lipectomy (SAL) often results in contour irregularity. Selective photothermal heating of adipose tissue by polymer-coated gold nanorods energized by an external near-infrared exposure at 800 nm is introduced in this work to facilitate fat removal. METHODS: The effects of NanoLipo were examined in food-grade porcine abdominal tissue (skin, fat, and fascia) by histology. The efficacy of NanoLipo was compared with that of conventional SAL in vivo in Yucatan mini pigs by quantification of removed subcutaneous tissue and fatty acids and ultrasound measurement of adipose layer thickness...
December 2014: Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery. Global Open
Viet Anh Nguyen Huu, Jing Luo, Jie Zhu, Jing Zhu, Sherrina Patel, Alexander Boone, Enas Mahmoud, Cathryn McFearin, Jason Olejniczak, Caroline de Gracia Lux, Jacques Lux, Nadezda Fomina, Michelle Huynh, Kang Zhang, Adah Almutairi
Therapies for macular degeneration and diabetic retinopathy require intravitreal injections every 4-8 weeks. Injections are uncomfortable, time-consuming, and carry risks of infection and retinal damage. However, drug delivery via noninvasive methods to the posterior segment of the eye has been a major challenge due to the eye's unique anatomy and physiology. Here we present a novel nanoparticle depot platform for on-demand drug delivery using a far ultraviolet (UV) light-degradable polymer, which allows noninvasively triggered drug release using brief, low-power light exposure...
February 28, 2015: Journal of Controlled Release: Official Journal of the Controlled Release Society
Jacques Lux, Alexander G White, Minnie Chan, Carolyn J Anderson, Adah Almutairi
Metals are essential in medicine for both therapy and diagnosis. We recently created the first metal-chelating nanogel imaging agent, which employed versatile, reproducible chemistry that maximizes chelation stability. Here we demonstrate that our metal chelating crosslinked nanogel technology is a powerful platform by incorporating (64)Cu to obtain PET radiotracers. Polyacrylamide-based nanogels were crosslinked with three different polydentate ligands (DTPA, DOTA, NOTA). NOTA-based nanogels stably retained (64)Cu in mouse serum and accumulated in tumors in vivo as detected by PET/CT imaging...
2015: Theranostics
Felix Adah, Hamed A Benghuzzi, Michelle A Tucci
This study investigated the effects of dual delivery of statin and vancomycin on angiogenesis during the healing process of a femoral defect injury using tricalcium phosphate lysine (TCPL) delivery system in an animal model. The experimental design consisted of 14 rats divided into the following three groups: Group I animals (n=5) served as the intact control without treatment. Group II animals (n=5) were subjected to a surgically induced defect (2 mm, midshaft of the right femur) and implanted (IM) with TCPL capsules loaded with vancomycin (20mg) (TCPL-AB)...
2014: Biomedical Sciences Instrumentation
Ameze Adah, Kelley Hill, Julie Wyatt, Lisa Didion
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2014: Journal of Pediatrics
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