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Habiba O Usman, Carey D Balaban
BACKGROUND: Evidence of serotonergic involvement in vestibular pathway contributions to migraine and balance disorders is compelling. Serotonergic 5-HT1B and 5-HT1D receptors are expressed extensively in inner ear ganglia of monkeys and rats. The serotonergic 5-HT1F receptor is also a target of triptans. This study describes its distribution in vestibular and trigeminal ganglia of monkeys. METHODS: Using primary polyclonal antibodies raised against oligopeptides specific for the human 5-HT1F receptor, neuronal somatic area and intensity of immunoreactive vestibular and trigeminal ganglia were quantified...
2016: Frontiers in Neurology
Marwa A A Ibrahim, Ebtsam F Okasha
Genetically modified (GM) plants expressing insecticidal traits offer a new strategy for crop protection. GM-corn contains Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) genes producing delta endotoxins in the whole plant. Diet can influence the characteristics of the gastrointestinal tract altering its function and structure. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of GM-corn on the histological structure of jejunal mucosa of adult male albino rat using different histological, immunohistochemical and morphometrical methods...
October 18, 2016: Experimental and Toxicologic Pathology: Official Journal of the Gesellschaft Für Toxikologische Pathologie
David S Thylur, Russell E Jacobs, John L Go, Arthur W Toga, John K Niparko
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the ability of ultra-high-field magnetic resonance imaging (UHF-MRI) at 11.7 T to visualize membranous structures of the human inner ear. SPECIMENS: Three temporal bones were extracted from cadaveric human heads for use with small-bore UHF-MRI. INTERVENTION: Ex vivo cadaveric temporal bone specimens were imaged using an 11.7 T magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scanner via T1- and T2-weighted-imaging with and without contrast...
October 12, 2016: Otology & Neurotology
Nursel Gül, Nuri Yiğit, Fulya Saygılı, Ebru Demirel, Ceren Geniş
We used transmission electron microscopy to examine the cytotoxic effects of the second-generation anticoagulant rodenticides difenacoum and brodifacoum on rat liver. A single dose of difenacoum or brodifacoum was administered to rats by gastric gavage and liver samples were taken after 24 h, four days or seven days. In the livers of rats treated with difenacoum for 24 h, hepatocytes typically showed increased numbers of lysosomes, as well as enlargement of both the perinuclear space and the cisternae of the rough endoplasmic reticulum (RER), while sinusoids were irregularly shaped and contained Kupffer cells...
September 1, 2016: Arhiv za Higijenu Rada i Toksikologiju
Huan-Yuan Chen, Dapi Meng-Lin Chiang, Zi-Jing Lin, Chia-Chun Hsieh, Gung-Chian Yin, I-Chun Weng, Peter Guttermann, Stephan Werner, Katja Henzler, Gerd Schneider, Lee-Jene Lai, Fu-Tong Liu
Mast cells play an important role in allergic responses. During activation, these cells undergo degranulation, a process by which various kinds of mediators stored in the granules are released. Granule homeostasis in mast cells has mainly been studied by electron microscopy (EM), where the fine structures of subcellular organelles are partially destroyed during sample preparation. Migration and fusion of granules have not been studied in detail in three dimensions (3D) in unmodified samples. Here, we utilized soft X-ray tomography (SXT) coupled with fluorescence microscopy to study the detailed structures of organelles during mast cell activation...
October 17, 2016: Scientific Reports
Nick Lawson, Chung-Han Hsieh, Dana March, Xinnan Wang
Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (CFS) is a debilitating disease characterized by physical and mental exhaustion. The underlying pathogenesis is unknown, but impairments in certain mitochondrial functions have been found in some CFS patients. To thoroughly reveal mitochondrial deficiencies in CFS patients, here we examine the key aspects of mitochondrial function in blood cells from a paired CFS patient-control series. Surprisingly, we discover that in patients the ATP levels are higher and mitochondrial cristae are more condensed compared to their paired controls, while the mitochondrial crista length, mitochondrial size, shape, density, membrane potential, and enzymatic activities of the complexes in the electron transport chain remain intact...
2016: Journal of Nature and Science
Joseph M DeSimone, Sue J Mecham, Crista L Farrell
This article was written to shed light on a series of what some have stated are not so obvious connections that link polymer synthesis in supercritical CO2 to cancer treatment and vaccines, nonflammable polymer electrolytes for lithium ion batteries, and 3D printing. In telling this story, we also attempt to show the value of versatility in applying one's primary area of expertise to address pertinent questions in science and in society. In this Outlook, we attempted to identify key factors to enable a versatile and nimble research effort to take shape in an effort to influence diverse fields and have a tangible impact in the private sector through the translation of discoveries into the marketplace...
September 28, 2016: ACS Central Science
K Y Tian, Q Q Li, X J Liu, X X Wang, Z L Li, X Wang
Objective: To establish a computer-aided surgical simulation procedure based on the natural head position(NHP) for orthognathic surgery and to access the effect for correcting facial asymmetry for skeletal Class Ⅲ deformity. Methods: Thirty-five patients(male: 14 and female: 21, mean age: [21.5±2.3] years) of skeletal Class Ⅲ deformity with facial asymmetry were included and divided into virtual group (16 patients) and control group(19 patients). The computer-aided surgical simulation procedure was used in the virtual group and the intermediate and final splints were fabricated using the rapid protyping technique...
October 9, 2016: Zhonghua Kou Qiang Yi Xue za Zhi, Zhonghua Kouqiang Yixue Zazhi, Chinese Journal of Stomatology
Crista A Hopp, Ida Sue Baron
OBJECTIVE: Children delivered at the edge of viability are at greatest risk of medical and neuropsychological disability, their adverse outcomes overshadowing extremely preterm survivors with more optimal outcomes. We aimed to describe an exceptionally early-born extremely preterm (EEEP) preschooler whose neurobiological, familial, and socioeconomic factors likely influenced her unexpected cognitive resilience. METHOD: Baby G was a 3-years 10-months-old, English-speaking, Caucasian, singleton girl born weighing 435 g at 22(5/7) weeks' gestation to well-educated married parents...
October 5, 2016: Clinical Neuropsychologist
Xinhua Wang, Zheng Li, Jialiang Mao, Ben He
AIMS: Frequent premature atrial contractions (PACs) are associated with increased risk of atrial fibrillation (AF), stroke, and death. This study aimed to explore the electrophysiological features of PACs with and without inducing AF and to evaluate the effectiveness of catheter ablation for PACs. METHODS AND RESULTS: Thirty-five consecutive patients with symptomatic, frequent, and drug-refractory PACs in the absence of AF (group A) and 35 patients with PACs-induced AF (group B) were enrolled...
October 4, 2016: Europace: European Pacing, Arrhythmias, and Cardiac Electrophysiology
Joachim Nielsen, Kasper D Gejl, Martin Hey-Mogensen, Hans-Christer Holmberg, Charlotte Suetta, Peter Krustrup, Coen P H Elemans, Niels Ørtenblad
Mitochondrial energy production involves the movement of protons down a large electrochemical gradient through ATP synthase located on the folded inner membrane, known as cristae. In mammalian skeletal muscle, the density of cristae in mitochondria is thought to be constant. However, recent experimental studies have shown that respiration per mitochondria varies.Modelling studies have hypothesised that this variation in respiration per mitochondria depends on plasticity in cristae density, but currently evidence for such a mechanism is lacking...
October 3, 2016: Journal of Physiology
Yasuhiro Horibata, Hiromi Ando, Peixiang Zhang, Laurent Vergnes, Chieko Aoyama, Masahiko Itoh, Karen Reue, Hiroyuki Sugimoto
Phosphatidylcholine (PC) is a major phospholipid of mitochondria, composing 40-50% of both the outer and the inner membranes. However, PC must be imported from its production organelles because mitochondria lack the enzymes essential for PC biosynthesis. In a previous study, we found that StarD7 mediates the intracellular transfer of PC to mitochondria. Therefore, in this study, we analyzed the contribution of StarD7 to the maintenance of mitochondrial phospholipid content and function using siRNA-mediated knockdown (KD) and knockout (KO) of the StarD7 gene in HEPA-1 cells...
September 30, 2016: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Fakhri Al-Bagdadi, Matthew J Young, James P Geaghan, Shaomian Yao, Humberto M Barona, Eduardo Martinez-Ceballos, Masami Yoshimura
It is estimated that 5.9% of all human deaths are attributable to alcohol consumption and that the harmful use of ethanol ranks among the top five risk factors for causing disease, disability, and death worldwide. Ethanol is known to disrupt phospholipid packing and promote membrane hemifusion at lipid bilayers. With the exception of mitochondria involved in hormone synthesis, the sterol content of mitochondrial membranes is low. As membranes that are low in cholesterol have increased membrane fluidity and are the most easily disordered by ethanol, we hypothesize that mitochondria are sensitive targets for ethanol damage...
September 28, 2016: Ultrastructural Pathology
Vincenzo Giordano, José Sérgio Franco, Hilton Augusto Koch, Pedro José Labronici, Robinson Esteves S Pires, Ney Pecegueiro DO Amaral
OBJECTIVE: : to evaluate the histologic and morphometric characteristics of bone biopsies of the anterior iliac crest of patients of different age groups. METHODS: : we studied 30 bone samples from the iliac crest, using brightfield optical microscopy. We divided the samples by donors' age groups in three groups: Group 1 (n = 10), subjects aged between 25 and 39 years; Group 2 (n = 10), subjects aged between 40 and 64 years; Group 3 (n = 10), individuals aged 65 years and over...
July 2016: Revista do Colégio Brasileiro de Cirurgiões
Randy Hunter, Uttam Ojha, Sunil Bhurtel, Guoying Bing, Dong-Young Choi
Accumulating evidence suggests that chronic inflammation plays a role in the progressive dopaminergic neurodegeneration that occurs in Parkinson's disease. It has been hypothesized that inflammation mediates neuronal damage via exacerbation of a vicious cycle of oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction. The bacterial endotoxin, lipopolysaccharide (LPS), induces microglial activation and inflammation driven dopaminergic neurodegeneration. In order to test the hypothesis that LPS-induced inflammatory response might damage mitochondrial structure and function leading to nigral dopaminergic neuron loss, we injected LPS or saline into the striatum of rats...
September 22, 2016: Neuroscience Research
Ryan M R Gawryluk, Ryoma Kamikawa, Courtney W Stairs, Jeffrey D Silberman, Matthew W Brown, Andrew J Roger
Mitochondria exist on a functional and evolutionary continuum that includes anaerobic mitochondrion-related organelles (MROs), such as hydrogenosomes. Hydrogenosomes lack many classical mitochondrial features, including conspicuous cristae, mtDNA, the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle, and ATP synthesis powered by an electron transport chain (ETC); instead, they produce ATP anaerobically, liberating H2 and CO2 gas in the process. However, our understanding of the evolutionary transformation from aerobic mitochondria to various MRO types remains incomplete...
September 13, 2016: Current Biology: CB
Haitham Odat, Mohannad Al-Qudah
The effect of altitude on the paranasal sinus pneumatization is not well understood. This study aims to evaluate the effect of altitude on the surface area and type of the concha bullosa (CB) as well as the number of aerated ethmoid structures, and to study the correlation between CB, age, gender, and Lund-Mackay score (LMS).Sixty-five randomly collected paranasal sinus computed tomography scans of adult patients with sinonasal symptoms who had CB were reviewed for the type and surface area of CB, ethmoid structures pnumatization including crista galli, nasal septum, superior turbinate, and uncinate process, as well as the LMS...
October 2016: Journal of Craniofacial Surgery
Taras Kotyk
: The objective of study is to study the peculiarities of morphological changes in different subdivisions of the intralobular duct of the submandibular gland (SMG) in rats in case of experimental diabetes mellitus (DM). The study included sexually mature male Wistar rats. Experimental DM was induced by streptozotocin. Electron microscopic study of subdivisions of the intralobular duct of the SMG was carried out on the 14th, 28th, 42nd, 56th, and 70th days of the experiment. In early stages of experimental DM the intercalated ducts are characterized by a relatively unchanged structure, and in late stages vacuolization of the cytoplasm of their epithelial cells is observed...
September 20, 2016: Microscopy Research and Technique
Lydie Plecitá-Hlavatá, Petr Ježek
The mitochondrial network provides the central cell's energetic and regulatory unit, which besides ATP and metabolite production participates in cellular signaling through regulated reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and various protein/ion fluxes. The inner membrane forms extensive folds, called cristae, i.e. cavities enfolded from and situated perpendicularly to its inner boundary membrane portion, which encompasses an inner cylinder within the outer membrane tubule. Mitochondrial cristae ultramorphology reflects various metabolic, physiological or pathological states...
September 15, 2016: International Journal of Biochemistry & Cell Biology
Sergio De La Fuente, Celia Fernandez-Sanz, Caitlin Vail, Elorm J Agra, Kira Holmstrom, Junhui Sun, Jyotsna Mishra, Dewight Williams, Toren Finkel, Elizabeth Murphy, Suresh K Joseph, Shey-Shing Sheu, György Csordás
Control of myocardial energetics by Ca2+ signal propagation to the mitochondrial matrix includes local Ca2+ delivery from sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) ryanodine receptors (RyR2) to the inner mitochondrial membrane (IMM) Ca2+ uniporter (mtCU). mtCU activity in cardiac mitochondria is relatively low, while the IMM surface is large, due to extensive cristae folding. Hence, stochastically distributed mtCU may not suffice to support local Ca2+ transfer. We hypothesized that mtCU concentrated at mitochondria-SR associations would promote the effective Ca2+ transfer...
September 16, 2016: Journal of Biological Chemistry
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