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Elda E Sánchez, Roschman González, Sara Lucena, Stefanie García, Héctor J Finol, Montamas Suntravat, María E Girón, Irma Fernández, Alexis Rodríguez-Acosta
Crotamine is a cationic, non-enzymatic, protein integrating a minor family of myotoxins, composed of 42 amino acid residues, described in Viperidae and Crotalidae snake's families that has been used in neuroscience research, drug progressing and molecular diversity reports. Crotamine-like protein (CLP) from C.o.helleri venom was isolated in fraction 5 from 7 peaks obtained by sulfopropyl waters protein pak cationic exchange column. In tricine-SDS-PAGE under non-reduced conditions this CLP showed a single band of ~8 kDa molecular weight...
March 2018: Ultrastructural Pathology
Uwe Schlattner, Laurence Kay, Malgorzata Tokarska-Schlattner
Isoforms of creatine kinase (CK) generate and use phosphocreatine, a concentrated and highly diffusible cellular "high energy" intermediate, for the main purpose of energy buffering and transfer in order to maintain cellular energy homeostasis. The mitochondrial CK isoform (mtCK) localizes to the mitochondrial intermembrane and cristae space, where it assembles into peripherally membrane-bound, large cuboidal homooctamers. These are part of proteolipid complexes wherein mtCK directly interacts with cardiolipin and other anionic phospholipids, as well as with the VDAC channel in the outer membrane...
2018: Sub-cellular Biochemistry
Joana S Sousa, Edoardo D'Imprima, Janet Vonck
Mitochondria are the power stations of the eukaryotic cell, using the energy released by the oxidation of glucose and other sugars to produce ATP. Electrons are transferred from NADH, produced in the citric acid cycle in the mitochondrial matrix, to oxygen by a series of large protein complexes in the inner mitochondrial membrane, which create a transmembrane electrochemical gradient by pumping protons across the membrane. The flow of protons back into the matrix via a proton channel in the ATP synthase leads to conformational changes in the nucleotide binding pockets and the formation of ATP...
2018: Sub-cellular Biochemistry
Philip Böhler, Fabian Stuhldreier, Ruchika Anand, Arun Kumar Kondadi, David Schlütermann, Niklas Berleth, Jana Deitersen, Nora Wallot-Hieke, Wenxian Wu, Marian Frank, Hendrik Niemann, Elisabeth Wesbuer, Andreas Barbian, Tomas Luyten, Jan B Parys, Stefanie Weidtkamp-Peters, Andrea Borchardt, Andreas S Reichert, Aida Peña-Blanco, Ana J García-Sáez, Samuel Itskanov, Alexander M van der Bliek, Peter Proksch, Sebastian Wesselborg, Björn Stork
Mitochondria are cellular organelles with crucial functions in the generation and distribution of ATP, the buffering of cytosolic Ca2+ and the initiation of apoptosis. Compounds that interfere with these functions are termed mitochondrial toxins, many of which are derived from microbes, such as antimycin A, oligomycin A, and ionomycin. Here, we identify the mycotoxin phomoxanthone A (PXA), derived from the endophytic fungus Phomopsis longicolla, as a mitochondrial toxin. We show that PXA elicits a strong release of Ca2+ from the mitochondria but not from the ER...
February 19, 2018: Cell Death & Disease
Pei-I Tsai, Chin-Hsien Lin, Chung-Han Hsieh, Amanda M Papakyrikos, Min Joo Kim, Valerio Napolioni, Carmen Schoor, Julien Couthouis, Ruey-Meei Wu, Zbigniew K Wszolek, Dominic Winter, Michael D Greicius, Owen A Ross, Xinnan Wang
Mitochondrial crista structure partitions vital cellular reactions and is precisely regulated by diverse cellular signals. Here, we show that, in Drosophila, mitochondrial cristae undergo dynamic remodeling among distinct subcellular regions and the Parkinson's disease (PD)-linked Ser/Thr kinase PINK1 participates in their regulation. Mitochondria increase crista junctions and numbers in selective subcellular areas, and this remodeling requires PINK1 to phosphorylate the inner mitochondrial membrane protein MIC60/mitofilin, which stabilizes MIC60 oligomerization...
February 14, 2018: Molecular Cell
Valentina Del Dotto, Mario Fogazza, Guy Lenaers, Michela Rugolo, Valerio Carelli, Claudia Zanna
OPA1 is a GTPase that controls several functions, such as mitochondrial dynamics and energetics, mtDNA maintenance and cristae integrity. In the last years, there have been described other cellular pathways and mechanisms involving OPA1 directly or through its interaction. All this new information, by implementing our knowledge on OPA1 is instrumental to elucidating the pathogenic mechanisms of OPA1 mutations. Indeed, these are associated with dominant optic atrophy (DOA), one of the most common inherited optic neuropathies, and with an increasing number of heterogeneous neurodegenerative disorders...
February 15, 2018: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
Daniel H Coelho, Taylor S Pence, Mostafa Abdel-Hamid, Richard M Costanzo
OBJECTIVE: All successful endonasal surgery, including functional endoscopic sinus surgery (FESS), depends on knowledge of both anatomy and the specific variations that can occur between and within patients. Familiarity with these structures is a critical component in preventing complications from these procedures, and failure to understand subtle variation can have disastrous results. The aim of this study was to characterize the anatomical variations (if any) of the cribriform plate using a large cadaveric sample set...
February 13, 2018: Auris, Nasus, Larynx
B Debashree, Manish Kumar, T S Keshava Prasad, Archana Natarajan, Rita Christopher, A Nalini, P S Bindu, N Gayathri, M M Srinivas Bharath
Mitochondria regulate the balance between lipid metabolism and storage in the skeletal muscle. Altered lipid transport, metabolism and storage influence the bioenergetics, redox status and insulin signalling contributing to cardiac and neurological diseases. Lipid storage disorders (LSDs) are neurological disorders which entail intramuscular lipid accumulation and impaired mitochondrial bioenergetics in the skeletal muscle causing progressive myopathy with muscle weakness. However, the mitochondrial changes including molecular events associated with impaired lipid storage have not been completely understood in the human skeletal muscle...
February 9, 2018: Journal of Neurochemistry
Sunil K Ravi, Balenahalli Narasingappa Ramesh, Ravi Mundugaru, Bruno Vincent
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common form of dementia and mainly affects cognitive function of the aged populations. Aluminium, a neurotoxic metal, has been suggested as a contributing factor of AD. Caesalpinia crista is a medicinal plant known for its anti-microbial, anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant properties. The present study was conducted in order to evaluate the neuroprotective effects of methanolic extracts of C. crista (MECC) on aluminium-induced neurodegeneration in rats. Co-administration with MECC significantly and dose dependently ameliorated the aluminium-dependent cognitive impairment, AChE hyperactivity and oxidative stress in the hippocampus and in the frontal cortex of rat brain...
January 31, 2018: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology
Karol Małota, Sebastian Student, Piotr Świątek
The male germ-line cysts that occur in annelids appear to be a very convenient model for spermatogenesis studies. Germ-line cysts in the studied earthworm are composed of two compartments: (1) germ cells, where each cell is connected via one intercellular bridge to (2) an anuclear central cytoplasmic mass, the cytophore. In the present paper, confocal and transmission electron microscopy were used to follow the changes in the mitochondrial activity and ultrastructure within the cysts during spermatogenesis...
February 1, 2018: Mitochondrion
Sirui Jiang, Priya Nandy, Wenzhang Wang, Xiaopin Ma, Jeffrey Hsia, Chunyu Wang, Zhenlian Wang, Mengyue Niu, Sandra L Siedlak, Sandy Torres, Hisashi Fujioka, Ying Xu, Hyoung-Gon Lee, George Perry, Jun Liu, Xiongwei Zhu
BACKGROUND: Mitochondria are the organelles responsible for energy metabolism and have a direct impact on neuronal function and survival. Mitochondrial abnormalities have been well characterized in Alzheimer Disease (AD). It is believed that mitochondrial fragmentation, due to impaired fission and fusion balance, likely causes mitochondrial dysfunction that underlies many aspects of neurodegenerative changes in AD. Mitochondrial fission and fusion proteins play a major role in maintaining the health and function of these important organelles...
February 1, 2018: Molecular Neurodegeneration
Jason Misher, Jonah Zeitlin, Mohammed Khan, Stuart Beldner, Apoor Patel
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2017: HeartRhythm Case Reports
Valentina Del Dotto, Mario Fogazza, Valerio Carelli, Michela Rugolo, Claudia Zanna
OPA1 is a dynamin-related GTPase that controls mitochondrial dynamics, cristae integrity, energetics and mtDNA maintenance. The exceptional complexity of this protein is determined by the presence, in humans, of eight different isoforms that, in turn, are proteolytically cleaved into combinations of membrane-anchored long forms and soluble short forms. Recent advances highlight how each OPA1 isoform is able to fulfill "essential" mitochondrial functions, whereas only some variants carry out "specialized" features...
January 27, 2018: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
Zhenqi Zhou, Vicent Ribas, Prashant Rajbhandari, Brian G Drew, Timothy M Moore, Amy H Fluitt, Britany R Reddish, Kate A Whitney, Senta Georgia, Laurent Vergnes, Karen Reue, Marc Liesa, Orian Shirihai, Alexander M van der Bliek, Nai-Wen Chi, Sushil K Mahata, Joseph P Tiano, Sylvia C Hewitt, Peter Tontonoz, Kenneth S Korach, Franck Mauvais-Jarvis, Andrea L Hevener
Estrogen receptoralpha (ERalpha) action plays an important role in pancreatic β-cell function and survival; thus, it is considered a potential therapeutic target for the treatment of type 2 diabetes in women. However, the mechanisms underlying the protective effects of ERalpha remain unclear. Because ERalpha regulates mitochondrial metabolism in other cell types, we hypothesized that ERalpha may act to preserve insulin secretion and promote beta-cell survival by regulating mitochondrial-endoplasmic reticulum (EndoRetic) function...
January 29, 2018: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Hamid Borghei-Razavi, Huy Q Truong, David T Fernandes-Cabral, Emrah Celtikci, Joseph D Chabot, S Tonya Stefko, Eric W Wang, Carl H Snyderman, Aaron Cohen-Gadol, Paul A Gardner, Juan C Fernández-Miranda
BACKGROUND: Minimally invasive accesses to the anterior skull base include endoscopic endonasal approach (EEA) and supraorbital eyebrow approach. The two are often seen as competing and not alternative or combinatory approaches. In this study, we evaluated the anatomical limitations of each approach and the combined approach for accessing the anterior skull base. METHODS: Ten neurovascular injected cadaver heads were used for the study. Supraorbital approach to the anterior skull base was performed on five heads, and EEA was done on the other five...
January 25, 2018: World Neurosurgery
Aliz Szabo, Katalin Sumegi, Katalin Fekete, Eniko Hocsak, Balazs Debreceni, Gyorgy Setalo, Krisztina Kovacs, Laszlo Deres, Andras Kengyel, Dominika Kovacs, Jozsef Mandl, Miklos Nyitrai, Mark A Febbraio, Ferenc Gallyas, Balazs Sumegi
Mitochondria fragmentation destabilizes mitochondrial membranes, promotes oxidative stress and facilitates cell death, thereby contributing to the development and the progression of several mitochondria-related diseases. Accordingly, compounds that reverse mitochondrial fragmentation could have therapeutic potential in treating such diseases. BGP-15, a hydroxylamine derivative, prevents insulin resistance in humans and protects against several oxidative stress-related diseases in animal models. Here we show that BGP-15 promotes mitochondrial fusion by activating optic atrophy 1 (OPA1), a GTPase dynamin protein that assist fusion of the inner mitochondrial membranes...
January 26, 2018: Biochemical Pharmacology
Jing Feng, Li Luo, Yong Liu, Shaozhi Fu, Jie Chen, Xiaoxia Duan, Li Xiang, Yanling Zhang, Jinbo Wu, Juan Fan, Qinglian Wen, Ye Zhang, Jingpin Yang, Jinxia Peng, Ming Zhao, Linglin Yang
Mitochondria have been described as 'the powerhouse of the cell' as the organelle generates the majority of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) in cells to support life. Mitochondria can be damaged due to stress, for example by reactive oxygen species (ROS). TP53-induced glycolysis and apoptosis regulator (TIGAR) serves a role in suppressing ROS damage and may protect mitochondria integrity. In the present study, the localization of TIGAR on mitochondria in 5-8F cells was demonstrated. Furthermore, it was indicated that the knockdown of TIGAR using lentivirus-short hairpin RNA induces the loss of mitochondrial membrane potential and cytochrome c leakage...
January 2018: Oncology Letters
Crista E Horton, Mohamed Kamal, Macall Leslie, Roy Zhang, Takemi Tanaka, Mohammad Razaq
Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related deaths worldwide. Most patients present with advanced inoperable disease. Traditionally, responses to treatments are evaluated using different imaging modalities, which can sometimes be confusing. This is particularly more relevant in stage 3 disease where, after radiation therapy, persistent tumors on scans can represent active disease or scar tissue. We have been evaluating role of circulating tumor cells (CTCs) in that setting. Here we present the case of a 68-year-old male with stage 3 disease whose primary tumor responded to chemoradiotherapy on imaging, but whose CTC count was higher than the pre-treatment value...
February 2018: Anticancer Research
Yueqiang Wen, Lingling Liu, Qingdong Xu, Peilan Zhou, Huiyuan Li, Zebin Wang, Jianbo Liang
BACKGROUND: Podocyte damage exerts a key role in proteinuria. We have demonstrated that calcineurin-binding protein 1 (Cabin1) upregulated during podocyte injury, yet its function in podocyte is still unclear. METHODS: We established 5/6 nephrectomized rats and angiotensin II (AngII)-injured podocyte, as well as knocked down Cabin1 with siRNA in cultured podocytes. Rats were killed at 4 or 8 weeks after 5/6 nephrectomy. The localization of podocyte cytoskeleton was detected after immunofluorescence staining...
January 24, 2018: International Urology and Nephrology
Kenji Ikeda, Pema Maretich, Shingo Kajimura
Two types of thermogenic fat cells, brown adipocytes and beige adipocytes, play a key role in the regulation of systemic energy homeostasis in mammals. Both brown fat and beige fat possess thermogenic properties in addition to common morphological and biochemical characteristics, including multilocular lipid droplets and cristae-dense mitochondria. Recent studies also identify features that are distinct between the two types of thermogenic fat cells, such as their developmental regulation and function. Of particular interest is the role of beige fat in the regulation of glucose homeostasis via uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1)-independent mechanisms...
January 20, 2018: Trends in Endocrinology and Metabolism: TEM
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