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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28217967/mitochondrial-cristae-density-a-dynamic-entity-that-is-critical-for-energy-production-and-metabolic-power-in-skeletal-muscle
#1
Cameron F Leveille, John S Mikhaeil, Kelli Turner, Sebastian Silvera, Jennifer Wilkinson, Val A Fajardo
The mitochondrion is a double membrane organelle, consisting of an inner and an outer membrane. This topological organization contributes to its function of energy production, via the electron transport chain (ETC) This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
February 20, 2017: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28216144/patient-ipsc-derived-neurons-for-disease-modeling-of-frontotemporal-dementia-with-mutation-in-chmp2b
#2
Yu Zhang, Benjamin Schmid, Nanett K Nikolaisen, Mikkel A Rasmussen, Blanca I Aldana, Mikkel Agger, Kirstine Calloe, Tina C Stummann, Hjalte M Larsen, Troels T Nielsen, Jinrong Huang, Fengping Xu, Xin Liu, Lars Bolund, Morten Meyer, Lasse K Bak, Helle S Waagepetersen, Yonglun Luo, Jørgen E Nielsen, Bjørn Holst, Christian Clausen, Poul Hyttel, Kristine K Freude
The truncated mutant form of the charged multivesicular body protein 2B (CHMP2B) is causative for frontotemporal dementia linked to chromosome 3 (FTD3). CHMP2B is a constituent of the endosomal sorting complex required for transport (ESCRT) and, when mutated, disrupts endosome-to-lysosome trafficking and substrate degradation. To understand the underlying molecular pathology, FTD3 patient induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) were differentiated into forebrain-type cortical neurons. FTD3 neurons exhibited abnormal endosomes, as previously shown in patients...
February 6, 2017: Stem Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212053/transthoracic-echocardiography-pitfalls-and-limitations-as-delineated-at-cardiac-ct-and-mr-imaging
#3
Sachin B Malik, Natalie Chen, Rex A Parker, Joe Y Hsu
Transthoracic echocardiography ( TTE transthoracic echocardiography ) is a critical tool in the field of clinical cardiology. It often serves as one of the first-line imaging modalities in the evaluation of cardiac disease owing to its low cost, portability, widespread availability, lack of ionizing radiation, and ability to evaluate both anatomy and function of the heart. Consequently, a large majority of patients undergoing a cardiac computed tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance (MR) imaging examination will have a TTE transthoracic echocardiography available for review...
February 17, 2017: Radiographics: a Review Publication of the Radiological Society of North America, Inc
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28197987/effects-of-frutalin-on-early-follicle-morphology-ultrastructure-and-gene-expression-in-cultured-goat-ovarian-cortical-tissue
#4
Maria A A Soares, José J N Costa, Gisvani L Vasconcelos, Regislane P Ribeiro, José C Souza, André L C Silva, Robert Van den Hurk, José R V Silva
Frutalin is a galactose-binding lectin that has an irreversible cytotoxic effect on HeLa cervical cancer cells, by inducing apoptosis and inhibiting cell proliferation. It was previously shown that after in vitro incubation, frutalin is internalized into HeLa cells nucleus, which indicates that frutalin apoptosis-inducing activity might be linked with its nuclear localization. Considering that drugs commonly used for cancer treatment have a deleterious effect on germ cells, the aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of frutalin on the activation, survival, ultrastructure and gene expression in follicles cultured within ovarian tissue...
February 15, 2017: Histology and Histopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28197790/surgical-treatment-of-anterior-cranial-fossa-dural-arterio-venous-fistulas-davfs-a-two-centre-experience
#5
Pietro Meneghelli, Alberto Pasqualin, Luigi Andrea Lanterna, Claudio Bernucci, Roberto Spinelli, Gianluigi Dorelli, Piergiuseppe Zampieri
BACKGROUND: Anterior cranial fossa dural arterio-venous fistulas (DAVFs) represent 6% of all intracranial DAVFs; characteristically they show an aggressive behaviour with high risk of intracranial haemorrhage. Peculiar anatomical features, such as feeding by the ethmoidal arteries and the pattern of venous drainage (frequently with varices that mimic aneurysmal dilatation), can be evaluated in detail only by digital subtraction angiography (DSA), which represents the "gold standard" in the diagnosis of such cranial fistulas...
February 14, 2017: Acta Neurochirurgica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28174208/l-opa1-regulates-mitoflash-biogenesis-independently-from-membrane-fusion
#6
Manon Rosselin, Jaime Santo-Domingo, Flavien Bermont, Marta Giacomello, Nicolas Demaurex
Mitochondrial flashes mediated by optic atrophy 1 (OPA1) fusion protein are bioenergetic responses to stochastic drops in mitochondrial membrane potential (Δψm) whose origin is unclear. Using structurally distinct genetically encoded pH-sensitive probes, we confirm that flashes are matrix alkalinization transients, thereby establishing the pH nature of these events, which we renamed "mitopHlashes". Probes located in cristae or intermembrane space as verified by electron microscopy do not report pH changes during Δψm drops or respiratory chain inhibition...
February 7, 2017: EMBO Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28168617/an-anatomical-study-of-pneumatized-crista-galli
#7
Ranko Mladina, Romano Antunović, Cemal Cingi, Nuray Bayar Muluk, Neven Skitarelić, Mislav Malić
The literature data on the incidence of pneumatization of the crista galli based on patients' computed tomography (CT) scans ranges from 3 to 37.5%. This study investigated for the first time the incidence of crista galli pneumatization based on CT scans of human skulls. The study examined 102 randomly selected human skulls (≥20 years of age; 76 males, 26 females). Skulls were scanned in a fixed position using cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) with a field of view of 145 × 130 mm and an isotropic voxel size of 0...
February 6, 2017: Neurosurgical Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28167429/the-relationship-between-the-distal-metatarsal-articular-angle-and-intersesamoidal-crista-an-osteological-study
#8
Megan Maddocks, Shahed Nalla, Bernhard Zipfel
BACKGROUND: As hallux valgus (HV) progresses, the first metatarsal drifts medially and the subsequent lateral drift of the sesamoids results in intersesamoidal crista erosion. This study aimed to provide a novel method of assessing crista erosion and determine if there is a relationship between that erosion and an increase in the distal metatarsal articular angle (DMAA). METHODS: The DMAA and size of the intersesamoidal crista was measured on the first metatarsals of 120 adult modern human individuals...
January 17, 2017: Foot
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28166906/the-morphology-of-the-enamel-dentine-junction-in-neanderthal-molars-gross-morphology-non-metric-traits-and-temporal-trends
#9
Robert M G Martin, Jean-Jacques Hublin, Philipp Gunz, Matthew M Skinner
This study explores the morphological differences between the enamel-dentine junction (EDJ) of maxillary and mandibular molars of Neanderthals (n = 150) and recent modern humans (n = 106), and between an earlier Neanderthal sample (consisting of Pre-Eemian and Eemian Neanderthals dating to before 115 ka) and a later Neanderthal sample (consisting of Post-Eemian Neanderthals dating to after 115 ka). The EDJ was visualised by segmenting microtomographic scans of each molar. A geometric morphometric methodology compared the positioning of the dentine horns, the shape of the marginal ridge between the dentine horns, and the shape of the cervix...
February 2017: Journal of Human Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28161373/post-onset-oral-rapamycin-treatment-delays-development-of-mitochondrial-encephalopathy-only-at-supramaximal-doses
#10
Roberta Felici, Daniela Buonvicino, Mirko Muzzi, Leonardo Cavone, Daniele Guasti, Andrea Lapucci, Sara Pratesi, Francesco De Cesaris, Francesca Luceri, Alberto Chiarugi
Mitochondrial encephalopathies are fatal, infantile neurodegenerative disorders caused by a deficit of mitochondrial functioning, for which there is urgent need to identify efficacious pharmacological treatments. Recent evidence shows that rapamycin administered both intraperitoneally or in the diet delays disease onset and enhances survival in the Ndufs4 null mouse model of mitochondrial encephalopathy. To delineate the clinical translatability of rapamycin in treatment of mitochondrial encephalopathy, we evaluated the drug's effects on disease evolution and mitochondrial parameters adopting treatment paradigms with fixed daily, oral doses starting at symptom onset in Ndufs4 knockout mice...
February 1, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28159525/celsr1-coordinates-the-planar-polarity-of-vestibular-hair-cells-during-inner-ear-development
#11
Jeremy S Duncan, Michelle L Stoller, Andrew F Francl, Fadel Tissir, Danelle Devenport, Michael R Deans
Vestibular hair cells of the inner ear are specialized receptors that detect mechanical stimuli from gravity and motion via the deflection of a polarized bundle of stereocilia located on their apical cell surfaces. The orientation of stereociliary bundles is coordinated between neighboring cells by core PCP proteins including the large adhesive G-protein coupled receptor Celsr1. We show that mice lacking Celsr1 have vestibular behavioral phenotypes including circling. In addition, we show that Celsr1 is asymmetrically distributed at cell boundaries between hair cells and neighboring supporting cells in the developing vestibular and auditory sensory epithelia...
February 1, 2017: Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28158949/methionine-sulfoxide-reductase-a-deficiency-exacerbates-cisplatin-induced-nephrotoxicity-via-increased-mitochondrial-damage-and-renal-cell-death
#12
Mi Ra Noh, Ki Young Kim, Sang Jun Han, Jee In Kim, Hwa-Young Kim, Kwon Moo Park
AIMS: Methionine sulfoxide reductase A (MsrA), which is abundantly localized in the mitochondria, reduces methionine-S-sulfoxide scavenging reactive oxygen species (ROS). Cisplatin, an anticancer drug, accumulates at high levels in the mitochondria of renal cells, causing mitochondrial impairment that ultimately leads to nephrotoxicity. Here, we investigated the role of MsrA in cisplatin-induced mitochondrial damage and kidney cell death using MsrA gene-deleted (MsrA-/-) mice. RESULTS: Cisplatin injection resulted in increases of ROS production, methionine oxidation, and oxidative damage in the kidneys...
February 3, 2017: Antioxidants & Redox Signaling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28146064/pm2-5-induced-oxidative-stress-and-mitochondrial-damage-in-the-nasal-mucosa-of-rats
#13
Zhiqiang Guo, Zhicong Hong, Weiyang Dong, Congrui Deng, Renwu Zhao, Jian Xu, Guoshun Zhuang, Ruxin Zhang
Exposure to PM2.5 (particulate matter ≤2.5 μm) increases the risk of nasal lesions, but the underlying mechanisms, especially the mechanisms leading to mitochondrial damage, are still unclear. Thus, we investigated the in vivo effects of PM2.5 exposure on the inflammatory response, oxidative stress, the enzyme activities of Na⁺K⁺-ATPase and Ca(2+)-ATPase, and the morphology and function of mitochondria in the nasal mucosa of rats. Exposure to PM2.5 occurred through inhalation of a PM2.5 solution aerosol...
January 29, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28141898/a-combination-of-sexual-and-ecological-divergence-contributes-to-rearrangement-spread-during-initial-stages-of-speciation
#14
Genevieve M Kozak, Crista B Wadsworth, Shoshanna C Kahne, Steven M Bogdanowicz, Richard G Harrison, Brad S Coates, Erik B Dopman
Chromosomal rearrangements between sympatric species often contain multiple loci contributing to assortative mating, local adaptation, and hybrid sterility. When and how these associations arise during the process of speciation remains a subject of debate. Here, we address the relative roles of local adaptation and assortative mating on the dynamics of rearrangement evolution by studying how a rearrangement co-varies with sexual and ecological trait divergence within a species. Previously, a chromosomal rearrangement that suppresses recombination on the Z (sex) chromosome was identified in European corn borer moths (Ostrinia nubilalis)...
January 31, 2017: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28141648/conchae-bullosis-in-a-pediatric-patient
#15
Omer Erdur, Kayhan Ozturk, Ceren Aksoy
Pneumatization of the turbinates called concha bullosa is one of the most frequent anatomic variations of the nasal cavity. We report the first case of computed tomography findings of bilateral middle and inferior concha bullosa in a 13-year-old child with nasal obstruction. Here we describe a patient with extreme bilateral bullosa of inferior and middle conchas, as well as crista galli. The patient was treated successfully with endoscopic surgery of conchas. Nasal obstruction secondary to a bilateral turbinate bullosis in a child has not been described before...
January 30, 2017: Journal of Craniofacial Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28131770/dopamine-d3-receptor-modulated-neuroprotective-effects-of-lisuride
#16
Munki Kim, Sijoon Lee, Jeahyeon Cho, Gonsup Kim, Chungkil Won
Dopamine (DA) contributes to the regulation of voluntary movement, and a deficiency in DAergic neurons leads to movement disorders. The objective of this study was to examine the neuroprotective effect of DA D2-like receptor agonist, lisuride, and the role of DA receptors in this protection. Treatment with lisuride alleviated loss of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) both direct and intraperitoneal injection in 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) mouse model. Similar results were obtained in primary neuronal cultures treated with lisuride...
January 25, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28130547/mitochondrial-protein-interactome-elucidated-by-chemical-cross-linking-mass-spectrometry
#17
Devin K Schweppe, Juan D Chavez, Chi Fung Lee, Arianne Caudal, Shane E Kruse, Rudy Stuppard, David J Marcinek, Gerald S Shadel, Rong Tian, James E Bruce
Mitochondrial protein interactions and complexes facilitate mitochondrial function. These complexes range from simple dimers to the respirasome supercomplex consisting of oxidative phosphorylation complexes I, III, and IV. To improve understanding of mitochondrial function, we used chemical cross-linking mass spectrometry to identify 2,427 cross-linked peptide pairs from 327 mitochondrial proteins in whole, respiring murine mitochondria. In situ interactions were observed in proteins throughout the electron transport chain membrane complexes, ATP synthase, and the mitochondrial contact site and cristae organizing system (MICOS) complex...
January 27, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28121438/rna-seq-analysis-of-developing-pecan-carya-illinoinensis-embryos-reveals-parallel-expression-patterns-among-allergen-and-lipid-metabolism-genes
#18
Christopher P Mattison, Ruhi Rai, Robert E Settlage, Doug J Hinchliffe, Crista Madison, John M Bland, Suzanne Brashear, Charles J Graham, Matthew R Tarver, Christopher Florane, Peter J Bechtel
The pecan nut is a nutrient-rich part of a healthy diet full of beneficial fatty acids and antioxidants, but can also cause allergic reactions in people suffering from food allergy to the nuts. The transcriptome of a developing pecan nut was characterized to identify the gene expression occurring during the process of nut development and to highlight those genes involved in fatty acid metabolism and those that commonly act as food allergens. Pecan samples were collected at several time points during the embryo development process including the water, gel, dough, and mature nut stages...
February 13, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28110471/depletion-of-mitofusin-2-causes-mitochondrial-damage-in-cisplatin-induced-neuropathy
#19
Ilja Bobylev, Abhijeet R Joshi, Mohammed Barham, Wolfram F Neiss, Helmar C Lehmann
Sensory neuropathy is a relevant side effect of the antineoplastic agent cisplatin. Mitochondrial damage is assumed to play a critical role in cisplatin-induced peripheral neuropathy, but the pathomechanisms underlying cisplatin-induced mitotoxicity and neurodegeneration are incompletely understood. In an animal model of cisplatin-induced neuropathy, we determined in detail the extent and spatial distribution of mitochondrial damage during cisplatin treatment. Changes in the total number of axonal mitochondria during cisplatin treatment were assessed in intercostal nerves from transgenic mice that express cyan fluorescent protein...
January 21, 2017: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096865/cardiac-hydatid-cyst-without-liver-involvement-a-case-report
#20
Maryam Shojaeifard, Saeid Hosseini, Sarah Hosseini, Hamidreza Pouraliakbar, Hossein Dehghani, Feridoun Noohi
Hydatid disease is a rare parasitic disease, which mainly involves liver then lung tissues. Cardiac involvement is very rare, especially when there is not hepatic involvement. We describe a 47-year-old woman with a history of a lung hydatid cyst who was referred to Rajaei Heart Center, Tehran, Iran in 2012. Her chest computed tomographic scan showed a cardiac mass. Echocardiographic examination illustrated a large, well-defined heterogeneous mass (4.5 × 2.5 cm) in the roof of the right atrium with attachment to the crista terminalis without compressive effect on the inferior and superior venae cavae...
April 2016: Iranian Journal of Parasitology
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