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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430271/theoretical-modulation-of-singlet-triplet-chemiexcitation-of-chemiluminescent-imidazopyrazinone-dioxetanone-via-c8-substitution
#1
L Pinto da Silva, C M Magalhães, D M A Crista, J C G Esteves da Silva
Coelenterazine, a member of the imidazopyrazinone class of chemiluminescent substrates, presents significant potential as a dynamic probe of reactive oxygen species in a biological environment, such as a superoxide anion, in which these species are important in cellular biology and pathology. The objective of the current study was to understand in what way the efficiency of singlet and triplet chemiexcitation could be modulated, towards a more efficient use of imidazopyrazinone-based compounds as dynamic chemiluminescent probes...
April 21, 2017: Photochemical & Photobiological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429074/ultrastructure-of-pheochromocytoma-undescribed-morphologic-features
#2
A Beiras Fernandez, A Kornberger, M Fraga, C F Vahl, A Beiras
We examined samples of human pheochromocytoma from 11 patients aged 30-70 years including one case of malignant pheochromocytoma with a view to identifying previously unreported ultrastructural details.We identified two types of nuclear inclusions consisting of irregularly shaped singular or multiple granulofibrillar formations with a typical concentric halo, on the one hand, and accumulations of egg-shaped structures consisting of granules and microfilaments, on the other. In some of the tumor cells, membrane-covered inclusions containing parallel laminar elements arranged in a paracrystalline, periodic fashion, or mega-mitrochondriae characterized by increased electrodensity of their matrix, and fibrillary material in the spaces between the cristae were present...
April 20, 2017: Virchows Archiv: An International Journal of Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28418357/-renal-morphological-changes-in-experimental-oxalate-nephrolithiasis
#3
Yu G Motin, A V Lepilov, P M Larionov
AIM: Тo evaluate renal morphological changes in the early stages of lithogenic processes and during urinary correction of urine with oxalate-chelating compounds (sodium citrate). MATERIAL AND METHODS: An experimental model of oxalate nephrolithiasis was performed on 80 male Wistar rats weighing 180 to 250 g. Rat kidneys were morphologically and ultrastructurally studied. Immunohistochemical techniques were applied to study the features of development of endoplasmic reticulum stress...
2017: Arkhiv Patologii
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28418073/evolved-changes-in-the-intracellular-distribution-and-physiology-of-muscle-mitochondria-in-high-altitude-native-deer-mice
#4
Sajeni Mahalingam, Grant B McClelland, Graham R Scott
High-altitude natives that have evolved to live in hypoxic environments provide a compelling system to understand how animals can overcome impairments in oxygen availability. We examined whether these include changes in mitochondrial physiology or intracellular distribution that contribute to hypoxia resistance in high-altitude deer mice (Peromyscus maniculatus). Mice from populations native to high- and low-altitudes were born and raised in captivity, and as adults were acclimated to normoxia or hypobaric hypoxia (equivalent to 4,300 m elevation)...
April 18, 2017: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28416382/isolation-pathogenicity-and-characterization-of-a-novel-bacterial-pathogen-streptococcus-uberis-from-diseased-mandarin-fish-siniperca-chuatsi
#5
Xia Luo, Xiaozhe Fu, Guoli Liao, Ouqin Chang, Zhibin Huang, Ningqiu Li
In recent years, mandarin fish had a high mortality rate associated with abnormal swimming, exophthalmia, corneal opacity and eye hemorrhage on a fish farm located at Foshan city, Guangdong province, China. Three isolates of Gram-positive, chain-forming cocci were recovered from moribund fish, and designated as SS131025-1, SS131025-2, and SS131025-3. These isolates were identified as Streptococcus uberis according to their morphologic and physio-biochemical characteristics as well as phylogenetic analysis based on their 16S rRNA and GapC gene sequences...
April 14, 2017: Microbial Pathogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28414270/human-biallelic-mfn2-mutations-induce-mitochondrial-dysfunction-upper-body-adipose-hyperplasia-and-suppression-of-leptin-expression
#6
Nuno M Rocha, David A Bulger, Andrea Frontini, Hannah Titheradge, Sigrid Bjerge Gribsholt, Rachel Knox, Matthew Page, Julie Harris, Felicity Payne, Claire Adams, Alison Sleigh, John Crawford, Anette Prior Gjesing, Jette Bork-Jensen, Oluf Pedersen, Inês Barroso, Torben Hansen, Helen Cox, Mary Reilly, Alex Rossor, Rebecca J Brown, Simeon I Taylor, Duncan McHale, Martin Armstrong, Elif A Oral, Vladimir Saudek, Stephen I O'Rahilly, Eamonn R Maher, Bjørn Richelsen, David B Savage, Robert K Semple
MFN2 encodes mitofusin 2, a membrane-bound mediator of mitochondrial membrane fusion and inter-organelle communication. MFN2 mutations cause axonal neuropathy, with associated lipodystrophy only occasionally noted, however homozygosity for the p.Arg707Trp mutation was recently associated with upper body adipose overgrowth. We describe similar massive adipose overgrowth with suppressed leptin expression in four further patients with biallelic MFN2 mutations and at least one p.Arg707Trp allele. Overgrown tissue was composed of normal-sized, UCP1-negative unilocular adipocytes, with mitochondrial network fragmentation, disorganised cristae, and increased autophagosomes...
April 17, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28391089/the-mitochondria-endoplasmic-reticulum-contact-sites-a-signalling-platform-for-cell-death
#7
REVIEW
Julien Prudent, Heidi M McBride
Mitochondria evolved as an endosymbiont providing the cell with a dizzying array of catabolic and anabolic processes essential for life. However, mitochondria have retained the ability to kill from within, and are widely considered the final executioners of programmed cell death. The groundbreaking discovery over 25 years ago that mitochondrial cytochrome c is released into the cytosol shone new and unexpected light onto this old organelle, revitalizing the field. The Bcl-2 family of proteins plays a central role in the maintenance of mitochondrial membrane integrity, but other factors are also involved in the cell death program...
April 5, 2017: Current Opinion in Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28388738/riboflavin-responsive-multiple-acyl-coa-dehydrogenase-deficiency-associated-with-hepatoencephalomyopathy-and-white-matter-signal-abnormalities-on-brain-mri
#8
Päivi Vieira, Päivi Myllynen, Marja Perhomaa, Hannu Tuominen, Riikka Keski-Filppula, Seppo Rytky, Leila Risteli, Johanna Uusimaa
Multiple acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency (MADD) is a rare inborn error of metabolism affecting both fatty acid and amino acid oxidation. It can manifest at any age, but riboflavin-responsiveness has mainly been described in less severely affected patients. We describe an infant with severe MADD presenting with profound hypotonia and hepatomegaly. Treatment with riboflavin improved his muscle strength, liver size, and biochemical markers. A homozygous mutation of electron transfer flavoprotein dehydrogenase (ETFDH) was found...
April 7, 2017: Neuropediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28386464/the-microscopic-and-ultramicroscopic-changes-in-the-skeletal-muscles-caused-by-heavy-metal-salts
#9
REVIEW
Alexey Tymoshenko, Gennadii Tkach, Vitalii Sikora, Valentina Bumeister, Ihor Shpetnyi, Mykola Lyndin, Olena Maksymova, Anna Maslenko
PURPOSE: The article is devoted to study the structural changes in the skeletal muscles caused by heavy metal salts. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study was conducted on 72 mature male rats. The experimental groups were given to drink water with combinations of heavy metal salts for one, two and three months. This type of water is typical for the water basins in the northern districts of the Sumy region. The study of morphological changes in the striated muscles was concluded using light and scanning electron microscopy...
June 1, 2016: Interventional Medicine & Applied Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28386126/mir-24-mediated-knockdown-of-h2ax-damages-mitochondria-and-the-insulin-signaling-pathway
#10
Jae Hoon Jeong, Young Cheol Kang, Ying Piao, Sora Kang, Youngmi Kim Pak
Mitochondrial deficits or altered expressions of microRNAs are associated with the pathogenesis of various diseases, and microRNA-operated control of mitochondrial activity has been reported. Using a retrovirus-mediated short-hairpin RNA (shRNA) system, we observed that miR-24-mediated H2AX knockdown (H2AX-KD) impaired both mitochondria and the insulin signaling pathway. The overexpression of miR-24 decreased mitochondrial H2AX and disrupted mitochondrial function, as indicated by the ATP content, membrane potential and oxygen consumption...
April 7, 2017: Experimental & Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28385377/the-effects-of-modification-to-lateral-tunnel-fontan-procedure-for-prophylactic-arrhythmia-surgery
#11
Hong-Gook Lim, Jeong Ryul Lee, Yong Jin Kim
BACKGROUND: Refractory atrial arrhythmias and hemodynamic abnormalities are responsible for significant morbidity and mortality after the Fontan operation. We evaluated the long-term feasibility, safety, and efficacy of prophylactic atrial arrhythmia surgery performed concomitantly with the lateral tunnel Fontan operation. METHODS: From 1997 August to 2003 December, 27 patients underwent a initial lateral tunnel Fontan with an interventional atrial incision and cryoablation from the atriotomy to the coronary sinus and right atrioventricular valve annulus...
April 3, 2017: Annals of Thoracic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28379594/pyrrolizidine-alkaloids-enhance-alcohol-induced-hepatocytotoxicity-in-vitro-in-normal-human-hepatocytes
#12
M G Neuman, L B Cohen, V Steenkamp
OBJECTIVE: Herbal remedies containing pyrrilidozine alkaloids (PA)s can induce liver damage, including hepato-sinusoidal obstruction syndrome (HSOS) or veno-occlusive liver disease (VOD). Some individuals misusing alcohol consume also teas and/or herbal remedies containing PA. The interaction or additive toxicity of alcohol to PA toxicity needs to be addressed. The objectives of this study are 1) to review the scientific literature on the PA-induced liver toxicity; 2) identify possible mechanism(s) involved in PA-induced hepatocytotoxicity in the presence or absence of ethanol (EtOH) in vitro in normal human hepatocytes (NHH) in primary culture...
March 2017: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28376086/novel-insights-into-slc25a46-related-pathologies-in-a-genetic-mouse-model
#13
Maria Eirini Terzenidou, Aikaterini Segklia, Toshimi Kano, Florentia Papastefanaki, Alexandros Karakostas, Maria Charalambous, Fotis Ioakeimidis, Maria Papadaki, Ismini Kloukina, Margarita Chrysanthou-Piterou, Martina Samiotaki, George Panayotou, Rebecca Matsas, Eleni Douni
The mitochondrial protein SLC25A46 has been recently identified as a novel pathogenic cause in a wide spectrum of neurological diseases, including inherited optic atrophy, Charcot-Marie-Tooth type 2, Leigh syndrome, progressive myoclonic ataxia and lethal congenital pontocerebellar hypoplasia. SLC25A46 is an outer membrane protein, member of the Solute Carrier 25 (SLC25) family of nuclear genes encoding mitochondrial carriers, with a role in mitochondrial dynamics and cristae maintenance. Here we identified a loss-of-function mutation in the Slc25a46 gene that causes lethal neuropathology in mice...
April 2017: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28358017/electron-tomographic-analysis-reveals-ultrastructural-features-of-mitochondrial-cristae-architecture-which-reflect-energetic-state-and-aging
#14
Yi-Fan Jiang, Shao-Syuan Lin, Jing-Min Chen, Han-Zen Tsai, Tao-Shih Hsieh, Chi-Yu Fu
Within mitochondria, the ability to produce energy relies upon the architectural hallmarks of double membranes and cristae invaginations. Herein, we describe novel features of mitochondrial cristae structure, which correspond to the energetic state of the organelle. In concordance with high-energy demand, mitochondria of Drosophila indirect flight muscle exhibited extensive intra-mitochondrial membrane switches between densely packed lamellar cristae that resulted in a spiral-like cristae network and allowed for bidirectional matrix confluency...
March 30, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346477/disruption-of-sorcs2-reveals-differences-in-the-regulation-of-stereociliary-bundle-formation-between-hair-cell-types-in-the-inner-ear
#15
Andrew Forge, Ruth R Taylor, Sally J Dawson, Michael Lovett, Daniel J Jagger
Behavioural anomalies suggesting an inner ear disorder were observed in a colony of transgenic mice. Affected animals were profoundly deaf. Severe hair bundle defects were identified in all outer and inner hair cells (OHC, IHC) in the cochlea and in hair cells of vestibular macular organs, but hair cells in cristae were essentially unaffected. Evidence suggested the disorder was likely due to gene disruption by a randomly inserted transgene construct. Whole-genome sequencing identified interruption of the SorCS2 (Sortilin-related VPS-10 domain containing protein) locus...
March 2017: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28336315/cardiolipin-and-mitochondrial-cristae-organization
#16
REVIEW
Nikita Ikon, Robert O Ryan
A fundamental question in cell biology, under investigation for over six decades, is the structural organization of mitochondrial cristae. Long known to harbor electron transport chain proteins, crista membrane integrity is key to establishment of the proton gradient that drives oxidative phosphorylation. Visualization of cristae morphology by electron microscopy/tomography has provided evidence that cristae are tube-like extensions of the mitochondrial inner membrane (IM) that project into the matrix space...
March 20, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28327586/cellular-preservation-of-musculoskeletal-specializations-in-the-cretaceous-bird-confuciusornis
#17
Baoyu Jiang, Tao Zhao, Sophie Regnault, Nicholas P Edwards, Simon C Kohn, Zhiheng Li, Roy A Wogelius, Michael J Benton, John R Hutchinson
The hindlimb of theropod dinosaurs changed appreciably in the lineage leading to extant birds, becoming more 'crouched' in association with changes to body shape and gait dynamics. This postural evolution included anatomical changes of the foot and ankle, altering the moment arms and control of the muscles that manipulated the tarsometatarsus and digits, but the timing of these changes is unknown. Here, we report cellular-level preservation of tendon- and cartilage-like tissues from the lower hindlimb of Early Cretaceous Confuciusornis...
March 22, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324645/three-dimensional-analysis-of-somatic-mitochondrial-dynamics-in-fission-deficient-injured-motor-neurons-using-fib-sem
#18
Hiromi Tamada, Sumiko Kiryu-Seo, Hiroki Hosokawa, Keisuke Ohta, Naotada Ishihara, Masatoshi Nomura, Katsuyoshi Mihara, Kei-Ichiro Nakamura, Hiroshi Kiyama
Mitochondria undergo morphological changes through fusion and fission for their quality control, which are vital for neuronal function. In this study, we examined three-dimensional morphologies of mitochondria in motor neurons under normal, nerve injured, and nerve injured plus fission-impaired conditions using the focused ion beam/scanning electron microscopy (FIB/SEM), because the FIB/SEM technology is a powerful tool to demonstrate both 3D images of whole organelle and the intra-organellar structure simultaneously...
March 21, 2017: Journal of Comparative Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315355/mic10-a-core-subunit-of-the-mitochondrial-contact-site-and-cristae-organizing-system-interacts-with-the-dimeric-f1fo-atp-synthase
#19
Heike Rampelt, Maria Bohnert, Ralf M Zerbes, Susanne E Horvath, Bettina Warscheid, Nikolaus Pfanner, Martin van der Laan
The mitochondrial contact site and cristae organizing system (MICOS) is crucial for maintaining the architecture of the mitochondrial inner membrane. MICOS is enriched at crista junctions that connect the two inner membrane domains: inner boundary membrane and cristae membrane. MICOS promotes the formation of crista junctions, whereas the oligomeric F1Fo-ATP synthase is crucial for shaping cristae rims, indicating antagonistic functions of these machineries in organizing inner membrane architecture. We report that the MICOS core subunit Mic10, but not Mic60, binds to the F1Fo-ATP synthase...
March 15, 2017: Journal of Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28298442/the-short-variant-of-the-mitochondrial-dynamin-opa1-maintains-mitochondrial-energetics-and-cristae-structure
#20
Hakjoo Lee, Sylvia B Smith, Yisang Yoon
The protein optic atrophy 1 (OPA1) is a dynamin-related protein associated with the inner mitochondrial membrane, and functions in mitochondrial inner membrane fusion and cristae maintenance. Inner membrane-anchored long OPA1 (L-OPA1) undergoes proteolytic cleavage resulting in short OPA1 (S-OPA1). It is often thought that S-OPA1 is a functionally insignificant proteolytic product of L-OPA1 because the accumulation of S-OPA1 due to L-OPA1 cleavage is observed in mitochondrial fragmentation and dysfunction. However, cells contain a mixture of both L- and S-OPA1 in normal conditions, suggesting the functional significance of maintaining both OPA1 forms, but the differential roles of L- and S-OPA1 in mitochondrial fusion and energetics are ill-defined...
March 15, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
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