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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29216217/the-emerging-role-of-asc-in-dendritic-cell-metabolism-during-chlamydia-infection
#1
Danielle N McKeithen, Yusuf O Omosun, Khamia Ryans, Jing Mu, Zhonglin Xie, Tankya Simoneaux, Uriel Blas-Machado, Francis O Eko, Carolyn M Black, Joseph U Igietseme, Qing He
Chlamydia trachomatis is a bacterial agent that causes sexually transmitted infections worldwide. The regulatory functions of dendritic cells (DCs) play a major role in protective immunity against Chlamydia infections. Here, we investigated the role of ASC in DCs metabolism and the regulation of DCs activation and function during Chlamydia infection. Following Chlamydia stimulation, maturation and antigen presenting functions were impaired in ASC-/- DCs compared to wild type (WT) DCs, in addition, ASC deficiency induced a tolerant phenotype in Chlamydia stimulated DCs...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29206172/melatonin-efficacy-in-obese-leptin-deficient-mice-heart
#2
Alessandra Stacchiotti, Gaia Favero, Lorena Giugno, Igor Golic, Aleksandra Korac, Rita Rezzani
Cardiomyocytes are particularly sensitive to oxidative damage due to the link between mitochondria and sarcoplasmic reticulum necessary for calcium flux and contraction. Melatonin, important indoleamine secreted by the pineal gland during darkness, also has important cardioprotective properties. We designed the present study to define morphological and ultrastructural changes in cardiomyocytes and mainly in mitochondria of an animal model of obesity (ob/ob mice), when treated orally or not with melatonin at 100 mg/kg/day for 8 weeks (from 5 up to 13 week of life)...
December 5, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29205465/gross-anatomy-of-the-heart-of-the-alpaca-vicugna-pacos-linnaeus-1758
#3
W Pérez, V Méndez, N Vazquez, M Navarrete, H E König
The available information about anatomical characteristics of the cardiovascular system of the alpaca (Vicugna pacos, Linnaeus 1758) is scarce. The general objective of this work was to describe its heart anatomy. We dissected six adult animals and five neonates. The heart of the alpaca was located in the middle mediastinum, with a craniocaudal extension from the third to the sixth rib. No ligament that connected the fibrous pericardium to the sternum or to the diaphragm was detected. In the right atrium, there was a developed crista terminalis and small pectinate muscles...
December 4, 2017: Anatomia, Histologia, Embryologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29200999/confirming-a-role-for-%C3%AE-9nachrs-and-sk-potassium-channels-in-type-ii-hair-cells-of-the-turtle-posterior-crista
#4
Xiaorong Xu Parks, Donatella Contini, Paivi M Jordan, Joseph C Holt
In turtle posterior cristae, cholinergic vestibular efferent neurons (VENs) synapse on type II hair cells, bouton afferents innervating type II hair cells, and afferent calyces innervating type I hair cells. Electrical stimulation of VENs releases acetylcholine (ACh) at these synapses to exert diverse effects on afferent background discharge including rapid inhibition of bouton afferents and excitation of calyx-bearing afferents. Efferent-mediated inhibition is most pronounced in bouton afferents innervating type II hair cells near the torus, but becomes progressively smaller and briefer when moving longitudinally through the crista toward afferents innervating the planum...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29198449/effects-of-flibanserin-on-the-pharmacokinetics-of-a-combined-ethinylestradiol-levonorgestrel-oral-contraceptive-in-healthy-premenopausal-women-a-randomized-crossover-study
#5
Crista Johnson-Agbakwu, Louise Brown, James Yuan, Robert Kissling, David J Greenblatt
PURPOSE: This study aimed to investigate the effect of steady-state exposure to flibanserin, a 5-HT1A agonist/5-HT2A antagonist approved for the treatment of hypoactive sexual desire disorder in premenopausal women, on the single-dose pharmacokinetics of the contraceptive steroids ethinylestradiol and levonorgestrel in healthy premenopausal women. METHODS: Healthy female volunteers (N = 24) received 2 single doses of a combined oral contraceptive containing ethinylestradiol 30 μg and levonorgestrel 150 μg, either alone (reference) or preceded by treatment with flibanserin 100 mg once daily for 14 days (test)...
November 30, 2017: Clinical Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29190603/upregulation-of-cabin1-during-injury-to-renal-tubular-epithelial-cells-in-rats
#6
Yueqiang Wen, Huiyuan Li, Peilan Zhou, Lingling Liu, Zebin Wang, Jianbo Liang
INTRODUCTION: Calcineurin-binding protein 1 (Cabin1) interacts with calcineurin and p53, but its function in renal tubular epithelial cell (RTEC) is unclear. We established 5/6 nephrectomized rats and angiotensin II-induced injury to the RTECs in vitro, to observe the expression of Cabin1 during RTEC injury. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Sprague-Dawley rats were sacrificed at 4 and 8 weeks after 5/6 nephrectomy. Renal pathology and mitochondrial damage were detected by light and electrical microscope...
November 2017: Iranian Journal of Kidney Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29169133/alterations-of-mitochondrial-antioxidant-indexes-and-apoptosis-in-duck-livers-caused-by-molybdenum-or-and-cadmium
#7
Xueyan Dai, Chenghong Xing, Huabin Cao, Junrong Luo, Tiancheng Wang, Ping Liu, Xiaoquan Guo, Guoliang Hu, Caiying Zhang
Cadmium (Cd) and high Molybdenum (Mo) can lead to adverse reactions on animals, but the co-induced toxicity of Mo and Cd to liver in ducks was not well understood. To investigate the co-induced toxic effects of Mo combined with Cd on mitochondrial oxidative stress and apoptosis in duck livers. 240 healthy 11-day-old ducks were randomly divided into 6 groups (control, LMo group, HMo group, Cd group, LMoCd group and HMoCd group). After being treated for 30, 60, 90 and 120 days, liver mitochondrial antioxidant indexes, ceruloplasmin (CP), metallothionein (MT), Bak-1 and Caspase-3 genes mRNA expression levels, and ultrastructural changes were evaluated...
November 14, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163044/partial-aminoglycoside-lesions-in-vestibular-epithelia-reveal-broad-sensory-dysfunction-associated-with-modest-hair-cell-loss-and-afferent-calyx-retraction
#8
David R Sultemeier, Larry F Hoffman
Although the effects of aminoglycoside antibiotics on hair cells have been investigated for decades, their influences on the dendrites of primary afferent neurons have not been widely studied. This is undoubtedly due to the difficulty in disassociating pathology to dendritic processes from that resulting from loss of the presynaptic hair cell. This was overcome in the present investigation through development of a preparation using Chinchilla laniger that enabled direct perilymphatic infusion. Through this strategy we unmasked gentamicin's potential effects on afferent calyces...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29160745/the-unveiling-of-the-warburg-effect-and-the-inscribed-innovative-approach-to-a-radical-non-toxic-anticancer-therapy
#9
Olivia Crociani, Ilaria Marzi, Maria Grazia Cipolleschi, Antonella Mannini, Massimo Contini, Massimo Olivotto
The purpose of this research has been deciphering the Warburg paradox, the biochemical enigma unsolved since 1923. This paradox consists of the aerobic pyruvate conversion to lactate brought about by anaplastic cancer, through the metabolic pathway known as aerobic glycolysis. This pathway implies a heavy energetic waste. We solved the enigma by demonstrating that its specific character, i.e. the forced aerobic lactate exportation, represents a crucial metabolic device to counteract the cytotoxic effect produced by an excess of pyruvate at the connection of glycolysis with the Krebs cycle...
November 21, 2017: Cell Cycle
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155784/correlative-super-resolution-and-electron-microscopy-to-resolve-protein-localization-in-zebrafish-retina
#10
José M Mateos, Gery Barmettler, Jana Doehner, Irene Ojeda Naharros, Bruno Guhl, Stephan C F Neuhauss, Andres Kaech, Ruxandra Bachmann-Gagescu, Urs Ziegler
We present a method to investigate the subcellular protein localization in the larval zebrafish retina by combining super-resolution light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. The sub-diffraction limit resolution capabilities of super-resolution light microscopes allow improving the accuracy of the correlated data. Briefly, 110 nanometer thick cryo-sections are transferred to a silicon wafer and, after immunofluorescence staining, are imaged by super-resolution light microscopy. Subsequently, the sections are preserved in methylcellulose and platinum shadowed prior to imaging in a scanning electron microscope (SEM)...
November 10, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29152773/categorization-of-the-pelvic-limb-standing-posture-in-nine-breeds-of-dogs
#11
S S Sabanci, M K Ocal
The objective of the study was to categorize objectively nine breeds of healthy dogs according to pelvic limb standing posture. A total of 135 dogs from different breeds were used and the standing angles of the hip, stifle, and tarsal joints, together with the percentages of the greater trochanter, patella and tuber calcanei heights, with respect to crista iliaca height, were used as discriminant variables for the categorization of pelvic limb posture. All included breeds were allocated to three groups of the standing pelvic limb posture...
November 19, 2017: Anatomia, Histologia, Embryologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138968/mitochondrial-dysfunctions-contribute-to-energy-deficits-in-rodent-model-of-hepatic-encephalopathy
#12
Saurabh Dhanda, Aditya Sunkaria, Avishek Halder, Rajat Sandhir
Perturbations in the cerebral energy metabolism are anticipated to be an important factor by which ammonia may exert its toxic effects on the central nervous system. The present study was designed to investigate the role of impaired mitochondrial functions and cerebral energy metabolism in the development hepatic encephalopathy (HE) induced by of bile duct ligation (BDL). After four weeks of BDL, a significant increase in hepatic hydroxyproline and collagen content was observed which confirmed biliary fibrosis...
November 14, 2017: Metabolic Brain Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138856/differentially-expressed-proteins-in-the-human-esophageal-cancer-cell-line-eca%C3%A2-109-in-the-presence-and-absence-of-gemcitabine
#13
Zenghuang Ma, Xiaojie Xue
The present study aimed to screen and study the roles of differentially expressed proteins in the human esophageal cancer cell line Eca‑109, in the presence and absence of gemcitabine (GEM). The 3‑(4,5)‑dimethylthiahiazo (-z-y1)-3,5-di-phenytetrazoliumromide (MTT) method was used to assay the vitality of the Eca‑109 cells following treatment with GEM (1‑16 µg/ml). The cell apoptosis was measured by using fluorescence activated cell sorting. The proteins in the treated Eca‑109 cells were extracted, validated, and assayed via two‑dimensional gel electrophoresis combined with matrix‑assisted laser desorption/ionization time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI‑TOF‑MS)...
November 14, 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29135523/targeting-nonpulmonary-vein-triggers-during-atrial-fibrillation-ablation-is-the-game-worth-the-candle
#14
Ahmed AlTurki, Howard J Marshall, Riccardo Proietti
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Triggers for atrial fibrillation are found outside the pulmonary veins in 12-20% of cases. The role of addressing these triggers during catheter ablations has not been well defined. Therefore, the aim of this review is to summarize the effect of ablation of nonpulmonary vein triggers in addition to pulmonary vein isolation across the spectrum of atrial fibrillation in patients receiving catheter ablation. RECENT FINDINGS: In paroxysmal atrial fibrillation, an inducible nonpulmonary vein trigger is an independent predictor of recurrence...
November 10, 2017: Current Opinion in Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29127660/exposure-to-a-sublethal-concentration-of-imidacloprid-and-the-side-effects-on-target-and-nontarget-organs-of-apis-mellifera-hymenoptera-apidae
#15
Aline Fernanda Catae, Thaisa Cristina Roat, Marcel Pratavieira, Anally Ribeiro da Silva Menegasso, Mario Sergio Palma, Osmar Malaspina
The use of insecticides has become increasingly frequent, and studies indicate that these compounds are involved in the intoxication of bees. Imidacloprid is a widely used neonicotinoid; thus, we have highlighted the importance of assessing its oral toxicity to Africanized bees and used transmission electron microscopy to investigate the sublethal effects in the brain, the target organ, and the midgut, responsible for the digestion/absorption of food. In addition, the distribution of proteins involved in important biological processes in the brain were evaluated on the 1st day of exposure by MALDI-imaging analysis...
November 10, 2017: Ecotoxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29115569/glioma-stem-cells-and-their-non-stem-differentiated-glioma-cells-exhibit-differences-in-mitochondrial-structure-and-function
#16
Eun-Jung Kim, Xiong Jin, Ock Ran Kim, Seok Won Ham, Sung-Hye Park, Hyunggee Kim
Although mitochondria play an important role in cell survival, their biological significance in differentiated and undifferentiated cells is not well known. In the present study, we compared the differences in the structure and function of mitochondria between undifferentiated cancer stem cells and differentiated cancer cells. Glioma stem cells (GSCs), when grown under serum culture conditions, demonstrated a decrease in stem cell marker expression and tumor sphere forming ability, while showing an increase in differentiated cell markers...
November 2, 2017: Oncology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29089072/-electron-microscopic-observation-of-cox-activity-in-pre-botc-of-brainstem-in-rats-application-of-histochemical-staining-and-immuno-electron-microscopic-double-labeling
#17
Junjun Kang, Weihua Liang, Xiaofeng Huang, Yingying Liu
Objective To explore the changes of cytochrome oxidase (COX) activity in the pre-Botzinger complex (pre-BotC) of the brainstem. Methods The double labeling of COX histochemistry and pre-BotC marker neurokinin-1 receptor (NK1R) nanogold-silver immunohistochemical staining was conducted to determine COX activity in the pre-BotC, especially within different subcellular structures of this nucleus. COX activity was semi-quantitatively analyzed. Results Under the light microscope, NK1R-immunoreactive (NK1R-ir) product was mainly distributed along the neuronal membrane, clearly outlining pre-BotC neurons...
September 2017: Xi Bao Yu Fen Zi Mian Yi Xue za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Cellular and Molecular Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29074581/atomic-model-for-the-dimeric-fo-region-of-mitochondrial-atp-synthase
#18
Hui Guo, Stephanie A Bueler, John L Rubinstein
Mitochondrial adenosine triphosphate (ATP) synthase produces the majority of ATP in eukaryotic cells, and its dimerization is necessary to create the inner membrane folds, or cristae, characteristic of mitochondria. Proton translocation through the membrane-embedded FO region turns the rotor that drives ATP synthesis in the soluble F1 region. Although crystal structures of the F1 region have illustrated how this rotation leads to ATP synthesis, understanding how proton translocation produces the rotation has been impeded by the lack of an experimental atomic model for the FO region...
November 17, 2017: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29074197/mitochondrial-dysfunction-perturbations-of-mitochondrial-dynamics-and-biogenesis-involved-in-endothelial-injury-induced-by-silica-nanoparticles
#19
Caixia Guo, Ji Wang, Li Jing, Ru Ma, Xiaoying Liu, Lifang Gao, Lige Cao, Junchao Duan, Xianqing Zhou, Yanbo Li, Zhiwei Sun
As silica nanoparticles (SiNPs) pervade the global economy, however, the followed emissions during the manufacturing, use, and disposal stages inevitably bring an environmental release, potentially result in harmful impacts. Endothelial dysfunction precedes cardiovascular disease, and is often accompanied by mitochondrial impairment and dysfunction. We had reported endothelial dysfunction induced by SiNPs, however, the related mechanisms by which SiNPs interact with mitochondria are not well understood. In the present study, we examined SiNPs-induced mitochondrial dysfunction, and further demonstrated their adverse effects on mitochondrial dynamics and biogenesis in endothelial cells (HUVECs)...
October 24, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29064821/senescence-associated-ultrastructural-features-of-long-term-cultures-of-induced-pluripotent-stem-cells-ipscs
#20
Fiorella Colasuonno, Rossella Borghi, Alessia Niceforo, Maurizio Muzzi, Enrico Bertini, Andrea Di Giulio, Sandra Moreno, Claudia Compagnucci
Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) hold great promise for developing personalized regenerative medicine, however characterization of their biological features is still incomplete. Moreover, changes occurring in long-term cultured iPSCs have been reported, suggesting these as a model of cellular aging. For this reason, we addressed the ultrastructural characterization of iPSCs, with a focus on possible time-dependent changes, involving specific cell compartments. To this aim, we comparatively analysed cultures at different timepoints, by an innovative electron microscopic technology (FIB/SEM)...
October 23, 2017: Aging
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