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Liya Hu, Peijun Li, Chao Chang, Shan Liu, Yanqiu Song, Fumei Zhao, Ting Liu
OBJECTIVE: Mouse models of sepsis-induced myocardial injury by intraperitoneal injection of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) was established in order to provide a reliable method for the research of pathogenesis of sepsis-induced myocardial injury. METHODS: According to the method of random number table, a total of 150 male C57BL/6 mice were divided into five groups: NC group, sham group, and LPS 10, 12, 15 mg/kg groups, with 30 in each group. Septic myocardial injury was induced by intraperitoneal injection LPS in mice; sham group was injected with equal 0...
April 2018: Zhonghua Wei Zhong Bing Ji Jiu Yi Xue
Angel Peña-Melian, Juan Pablo Cabello-de la Rosa, Maria Jose Gallardo-Alcañiz, Julia Vaamonde-Gamo, Fernanda Relea-Calatayud, Lucia Gonzalez-Lopez, Patricia Villanueva-Anguita, Alicia Flores-Cuadrado, Daniel Saiz-Sanchez, Alino Martinez-Marcos
Originally discovered in elasmobranchs by Fritsh in 1878, the nervus terminalis has been found in virtually all species, including humans. After more than one-century debate on its nomenclature, it is nowadays recognized as cranial pair zero. The nerve mostly originates in the olfactory placode, although neural crest contribution has been also proposed. Developmentally, the nervus terminalis is clearly observed in human embryos; subsequently, during the fetal period loses some of its ganglion cells, and it is less recognizable in adults...
April 16, 2018: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
Stefan Stoldt, Dirk Wenzel, Kirsten Kehrein, Dietmar Riedel, Martin Ott, Stefan Jakobs
Oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) is vital for the regeneration of the vast majority of ATP in eukaryotic cells 1 . OXPHOS is carried out by large multi-subunit protein complexes in the cristae membranes, which are invaginations of the mitochondrial inner membrane. The OXPHOS complexes are a mix of subunits encoded in the nuclear and mitochondrial genomes. Thus, the assembly of these dual-origin complexes is an enormous logistical challenge for the cell. Using super-resolution microscopy (nanoscopy) and quantitative cryo-immunogold electron microscopy, we determined where specific transcripts are translated and where distinct assembly steps of the dual-origin complexes in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae occur...
April 16, 2018: Nature Cell Biology
Xiaoshuai Huang, Junchao Fan, Liuju Li, Haosen Liu, Runlong Wu, Yi Wu, Lisi Wei, Heng Mao, Amit Lal, Peng Xi, Liqiang Tang, Yunfeng Zhang, Yanmei Liu, Shan Tan, Liangyi Chen
To increase the temporal resolution and maximal imaging time of super-resolution (SR) microscopy, we have developed a deconvolution algorithm for structured illumination microscopy based on Hessian matrixes (Hessian-SIM). It uses the continuity of biological structures in multiple dimensions as a priori knowledge to guide image reconstruction and attains artifact-minimized SR images with less than 10% of the photon dose used by conventional SIM while substantially outperforming current algorithms at low signal intensities...
April 11, 2018: Nature Biotechnology
Claudio Anselmi, Karen M Davies, José D Faraldo-Gómez
Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) synthases populate the inner membranes of mitochondria, where they produce the majority of the ATP required by the cell. From yeast to vertebrates, cryoelectron tomograms of these membranes have consistently revealed a very precise organization of these enzymes. Rather than being scattered throughout the membrane, the ATP synthases form dimers, and these dimers are organized into rows that extend for hundreds of nanometers. The rows are only observed in the membrane invaginations known as cristae, specifically along their sharply curved edges...
April 11, 2018: Journal of General Physiology
Priscila Peña-Diaz, Julius Lukeš
The majority of established model organisms belong to the supergroup Opisthokonta, which includes yeasts and animals. While enlightening, this focus has neglected protists,  organisms that represent the bulk of eukaryotic diversity and are often regarded as primitive eukaryotes. One of these is the "supergroup" Excavata, which comprises unicellular flagellates of diverse lifestyles and contains species of medical importance, such as Trichomonas, Giardia, Naegleria, Trypanosoma and Leishmania. Excavata exhibits a continuum in mitochondrial forms, ranging from classical aerobic, cristae-bearing mitochondria to mitochondria-related organelles, such as hydrogenosomes and mitosomes, to the extreme case of a complete absence of the organelle...
April 5, 2018: Journal of Biological Inorganic Chemistry: JBIC
Crista N Crittenden, Michael L M Murphy, Sheldon Cohen
OBJECTIVES: We tested the hypothesis that social integration, measured as number of social roles, is associated with less age-related loss of lung function, an important marker of health and longevity. We also investigated possible psychological factors through which social integration might influence lung health. METHODS: Data were analyzed from the Health and Retirement Study (ages 52-94, n = 4,224). RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: Each additional social role reported at baseline was associated with less of a decline in lung function between baseline and the follow-up assessment four years later...
April 5, 2018: Health Psychology: Official Journal of the Division of Health Psychology, American Psychological Association
J Gödiker, M Grüneberg, I DuChesne, J Reunert, S Rust, C Westermann, Y Wada, G Classen, C D Langhans, K P Schlingmann, R J Rodenburg, R Pohlmann, T Marquardt
Seven subunits of the mitochondrial contact site and cristae junction (CJ) organizing system (MICOS) in humans have been recently described in function and structure. QIL1 (also named MIC13) is a small complex that is crucial for the maintenance and assembling of MICOS. A novel mutation of an essential splice site in the C19orf70 gene encoding QIL1 induces severe mitochondrial encephalopathy, hepatopathy and lactate acidosis consistent with psychomotor retardation. In addition, bilateral kidney stones were observed...
April 4, 2018: Journal of Human Genetics
Gregor Oemer, Katharina Lackner, Katharina Muigg, Gerhard Krumschnabel, Katrin Watschinger, Sabrina Sailer, Herbert Lindner, Erich Gnaiger, Saskia B Wortmann, Ernst R Werner, Johannes Zschocke, Markus A Keller
Current strategies used to quantitatively describe the biological diversity of lipids by mass spectrometry are often limited in assessing the exact structural variability of individual molecular species in detail. A major challenge is represented by the extensive isobaric overlap present among lipids, hampering their accurate identification. This is especially true for cardiolipins, a mitochondria-specific class of phospholipids, which are functionally involved in many cellular functions, including energy metabolism, cristae structure, and apoptosis...
April 4, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Ilan Y Benador, Michaela Veliova, Kiana Mahdaviani, Anton Petcherski, Jakob D Wikstrom, Essam A Assali, Rebeca Acín-Pérez, Michaël Shum, Marcus F Oliveira, Saverio Cinti, Carole Sztalryd, William D Barshop, James A Wohlschlegel, Barbara E Corkey, Marc Liesa, Orian S Shirihai
Mitochondria associate with lipid droplets (LDs) in fat-oxidizing tissues, but the functional role of these peridroplet mitochondria (PDM) is unknown. Microscopic observation of interscapular brown adipose tissue reveals that PDM have unique protein composition and cristae structure and remain adherent to the LD in the tissue homogenate. We developed an approach to isolate PDM based on their adherence to LDs. Comparison of purified PDM to cytoplasmic mitochondria reveals that (1) PDM have increased pyruvate oxidation, electron transport, and ATP synthesis capacities; (2) PDM have reduced β-oxidation capacity and depart from LDs upon activation of brown adipose tissue thermogenesis and β-oxidation; (3) PDM support LD expansion as Perilipin5-induced recruitment of mitochondria to LDs increases ATP synthase-dependent triacylglyceride synthesis; and (4) PDM maintain a distinct protein composition due to uniquely low fusion-fission dynamics...
April 3, 2018: Cell Metabolism
Yifei Yang, Ruihan Shi, Majid H Soomro, Fengjiao Hu, Fang Du, Ruiping She
Previous studies demonstrated that Mongolian gerbils can be infected by hepatitis E virus (HEV), which induces the hepatic injury. Here, the mitochondria in hepatocytes from HEV-infected gerbils were considerably swollen, thin cristae. After HEV infection, the activity of superoxide dismutase significantly decreased ( p < 0.01), while malondialdehyde concentrations significantly increased, compared with those in the control group ( p < 0.01). Adenosine triphosphatase levels decreased significantly in the hepatocyte of the inoculated groups, compared with those in control group ( p < 0...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Sherif Mohamed Zaki, Fayza Abdelraouf Abdelgawad, Ehab Abdel Aziz El-Shaarawy, Rasha Abdel Khalek Radwan, Basma Emad Aboul-Hoda
BACKGROUND: Stress exposure exerts direct effects on the morphology and functionality of the adrenal cortex. In addition, aging effects growth, differentiation, apoptosis and cellularity of the cortex. The missing data is the combined effect of stress and aging on the adrenal cortex. The aim of this study was to demonstrate the structural changes in the adrenal cortex following the exposure to stress in the adult and aged albino rats. MATERIAL AND METHODS: 40 rats were divided into groups I, II (adult and senile)...
April 3, 2018: Folia Morphologica (Warsz)
Nadia G Rampello, Maria Stenger, Benedikt Westermann, Heinz D Osiewacz
In aerobic organisms, mitochondrial F1 Fo -ATP-synthase is the major site of ATP production. Beside this fundamental role, the protein complex is involved in shaping and maintenance of cristae. Previous electron microscopic studies identified the dissociation of F1 Fo -ATP-synthase dimers and oligomers during organismic aging correlating with a massive remodeling of the mitochondrial inner membrane. Here we report results aimed to experimentally proof this impact and to obtain further insights into the control of these processes...
January 30, 2018: Microbial Cell
Daria Tashyreva, Galina Prokopchuk, Akinori Yabuki, Binnypreet Kaur, Drahomíra Faktorová, Jan Votýpka, Chiho Kusaka, Katsunori Fujikura, Takashi Shiratori, Ken-Ichiro Ishida, Aleš Horák, Julius Lukeš
Diplonemids were recently found to be the most species-rich group of marine planktonic protists. Based on phylogenetic analysis of 18S rRNA gene sequences and morphological observations, we report the description of new members of the genus Rhynchopus - R. humris sp. n. and R. serpens sp. n., and the establishment of two new genera - Lacrimia gen. n. and Sulcionema gen. n., represented by L. lanifica sp. n. and S. specki sp. n., respectively. In addition, we describe the organism formerly designated as Diplonema sp...
February 21, 2018: Protist
Martine Uittenbogaard, Christine A Brantner, ZiShui Fang, Lee-Jun C Wong, Andrea Gropman, Anne Chiaramello
In this study, we report a novel perpective of metabolic consequences for the m.8993T>G variant using fibroblasts from a proband with clinical symptoms compatible with Maternally Inherited Leigh Syndrome (MILS). Definitive diagnosis was corroborated by mitochondrial DNA testing for the pathogenic variant m.8993T>G in MT-ATP6 subunit by Sanger sequencing. The long-range PCR followed by massively parallel sequencing method detected the near homoplasmic m.8993T>G variant at 83% in the proband's fibroblasts and at 0...
March 27, 2018: Molecular Genetics and Metabolism
Crista L Briggs, Lisa D Murley, Pamela M Jukes
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 28, 2018: Nurse Educator
Rebeca Acin-Perez, Ana Victoria Lechuga-Vieco, Maria Del Mar Muñoz, Rocío Nieto-Arellano, Carlos Torroja, Fátima Sánchez-Cabo, Concepción Jiménez, Andrés González-Guerra, Isabel Carrascoso, Cristiane Benincá, Pedro M Quiros, Carlos López-Otín, José María Castellano, Jesús Ruíz-Cabello, Luis Jesús Jiménez-Borreguero, José Antonio Enríquez
Heart failure (HF) is a major health and economic burden in developed countries. It has been proposed that the pathogenesis of HF may involve the action of mitochondria. We evaluate three different mouse models of HF: tachycardiomyopathy, HF with preserved left ventricular (LV) ejection fraction (LVEF), and LV myocardial ischemia and hypertrophy. Regardless of whether LVEF is preserved, our results indicate that the three models share common features: an increase in mitochondrial reactive oxygen species followed by ultrastructural alterations in the mitochondrial cristae and loss of mitochondrial integrity that lead to cardiomyocyte death...
March 28, 2018: Science Translational Medicine
Ahmed Al-Emam, Mubarak Al-Shraim, Refaat Eid, Mohamed Alfaifi, Mohamed Al-Shehri, Mahmoud Fawzy Moustafa, Khaled Radad
Medicinal plants have recently gained increasing scientific interest as an important source of molecules with different therapeutic potentials. Accordingly, the present study was carried out to investigate ultrastructural changes induced by the aqueous extract of Solanum incanum (SI) fruit on human colorectal carcinoma cell line (HCT 116 cells). Examination of SI-treated HCT 116 cells with transmission electron microscopy (TEM) demonstrated numerous ultrastructural changes in the form of loss of the surface microvilli, mitochondrial damage and dilatation of cristae, and formation of autophagic vacuoles and increasing numbers of lipid droplets...
March 22, 2018: Ultrastructural Pathology
Ramy K A Sayed, Marisol Fernández-Ortiz, María E Diaz-Casado, Iryna Rusanova, Ibtissem Rahim, Germaine Escames, Luis C López, Doaa M Mokhtar, Darío Acuña-Castroviejo
To gain insight into the mechanism of sarcopenia and the protective effect of melatonin, the gastrocnemius muscles of young (3-4 months), early-aged (12 months), and old-aged (24 months) wild type C57BL/6J female mice, were examined by magnetic resonance and microscopy. Locomotor activity, lactate production and nuclear apoptosis were also assessed. The results support the early onset of sarcopenia at 12 months of age, with reduction of muscle fibers' number, muscle weight/body weight ratio, lactate, and locomotor activity...
March 19, 2018: Journals of Gerontology. Series A, Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences
Fengyuan Wang, Zhicai Zuo, Kejie Chen, Caixia Gao, Zhuangzhi Yang, Song Zhao, Jianzhen Li, Hetao Song, Xi Peng, Jing Fang, Hengmin Cui, Ping Ouyang, Yi Zhou, Gang Shu, Bo Jing
To explore AFB₁-induced damage of the small intestine, the changes in structure and expression of TLRs (Toll-like Receptors) in the small intestine of chickens were systematically investigated. Ninety healthy neonatal Cobb chickens were randomized into a control group (0 mg/kg AFB₁) and an AFB₁ group (0.6 mg/kg AFB₁). The crypt depth of the small intestine in the AFB₁ group was significantly increased in comparison to the control chickens, while the villus height and area were evidently decreased, as well as the villus:crypt ratio and epithelial thickness...
March 21, 2018: Toxins
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