Read by QxMD icon Read

pathological laughter

Dynela Garcia-Baran, Thomas M Johnson, Joyce Wagner, Joann Shen, Michelle Geers
Pathological laughing and crying, or pseudobulbar affect (PBA), has been described in patients with neurological disorders such as multiple sclerosis, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, Alzheimer's disease, stroke, and traumatic brain injury (TBI) since the 19th century (Schiffer 2005). The syndrome is characterized by inappropriate episodes of laughing or crying after minor stimuli. It was first coined a disinhibition of cortical control by Kinnier Wilson in 1924. It was observed in brain disease and seen with mild TBI...
March 2016: Medicine (Baltimore)
Elias D Granadillo, Mario F Mendez
Humor, or the perception or elicitation of mirth and funniness, is distinguishable from laughter and can be differentially disturbed by neuropsychiatric disease. The authors describe two patients with constant joking, or Witzelsucht, in the absence of pseudobulbar affect and review the literature on pathological humor. These patients had involvement of frontal structures, impaired appreciation of nonsimple humor, and a compulsion for disinhibited joking. Current neuroscience suggests that impaired humor integration from right lateral frontal injury and disinhibition from orbitofrontal damage results in disinhibited humor, preferentially activating limbic and subcortical reward centers...
2016: Journal of Neuropsychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences
Sarah Cosentino, Salvatore Sessa, Atsuo Takanishi
The study of human nonverbal social behaviors has taken a more quantitative and computational approach in recent years due to the development of smart interfaces and virtual agents or robots able to interact socially. One of the most interesting nonverbal social behaviors, producing a characteristic vocal signal, is laughing. Laughter is produced in several different situations: in response to external physical, cognitive, or emotional stimuli; to negotiate social interactions; and also, pathologically, as a consequence of neural damage...
2016: IEEE Reviews in Biomedical Engineering
Francisco de Assis Aquino Gondim, Florian P Thomas, Salvador Cruz-Flores, Henry A Nasrallah, John B Selhorst
BACKGROUND: Disorders of laughter and crying (DLC) are seen in several neuropsychiatric conditions. Their nomenclature remains under debate. METHODS: We present the clinical and imaging findings of 17 patients with DLC and introduce a new classification based on phenomenology and pathogenesis. According to intensity and frequency of laughter and crying (observed behavioral output), patients were divided into hypoactive or hyperactive DLC and subdivided into 5 subtypes: sensory (positive and negative), motor (positive and negative), and mixed...
February 2016: Annals of Clinical Psychiatry: Official Journal of the American Academy of Clinical Psychiatrists
M Grefer, K Flory, K Cornish, D Hatton, J Roberts
BACKGROUND: Children with fragile X syndrome (FXS) are at high risk for developing a range of behavioural disorders, including attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and autism spectrum disorders (ASD). However, very few studies have investigated the comorbid profile of FXS and ADHD and the possible dissociation from the FXS and ASD profile. The present study examined the relationship of childhood temperament characteristics of the Surgency facet (activity level, impulsivity, approach, shyness, and smiling and laughter) and the severity of ADHD and ASD features at two measurement time points in childhood, preschool (ages 3-4) and at school entry (ages 5-6)...
February 2016: Journal of Intellectual Disability Research: JIDR
Adriana O Dulamea, Costel Matei, Ioana Mindruta, Virgil Ionescu
BACKGROUND: Based on a case report, the authors reviewed the data about involuntary emotional expression disorder (IEED). IEED includes the syndromes of pathological laughing and crying (PLC) and emotional lability (EL). PLC is a rare disorder of emotional expression characterized by relatively uncontrollable episodes of laughter and crying or both that do not have an apparent motivating stimulus. CASE PRESENTATION: Authors report the case of a 59-year-old man who presented with recurrent episodes of PLC of approximately 2 min duration, consisting of accelerated breathing, emission of guttural, snoring sounds, frowning of the eyebrows, followed by laughter accompanied by motor restlessness of all four limbs...
2015: BMC Neurology
I Egea-Lucas, E Martinez-Mondejar, C F Piqueres-Vidal, M T Frutos-Alegria
INTRODUCTION: Gelastic seizures are infrequent epileptic seizures in which the main manifestation is inappropriate laughter. They have a variety of causations. A search of the literature did not reveal any cases of pathological laughter that was clearly related with strokes, although there a numerous reports of non-epileptic pathological laughter as a prodromal symptom in stroke patients (fou rire prodromique). We report the case of a patient with infarcted cingulate gyrus who progressed with gelastic seizures at onset and during the course of the clinical process...
September 1, 2015: Revista de Neurologia
Durga Roy, Una McCann, Dingfen Han, Vani Rao
There are limited data regarding the incidence of pathological laughter and crying (PLC) after traumatic brain injury (TBI). This study aimed to identify the occurrence of PLC in the first year after TBI and to determine whether there is a relationship between PLC and other clinical features or demographics. Subjects who sustained a first-time TBI were recruited from acute trauma units and were assessed at 3, 6, and 12 months after TBI. Rates of PLC at 3, 6, and 12 months after TBI were 21.4%, 17.5%, and 15...
2015: Journal of Neuropsychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences
David Morland, Valérie Wolff, Cyrille Blondet, Christian Marescaux, Izzie Jacques Namer
We present the case of a 40-year-old man consulting for uncontrollable episodes of laughing related to emotional lability and not systematically linked to feelings of happiness. Seven months earlier he had presented a pontine ischemic stroke related to an occlusion of the basilar and left vertebral arteries. No epileptic activity or new MRI brain lesions were found. Brain perfusion SPECT performed showed marked hypoperfusion in the right frontal inferior and temporoinsular regions, suggesting a diaschisis phenomenon caused by pontine lesions and highlighted laughing regulation pathways...
September 2015: Clinical Nuclear Medicine
Neera Chaudhry, Vinod Puri, Yogesh Patidar, Geeta A Khwaja
A 13-year-old boy presented with recurrent episodes of sudden brief posturing of the right upper and lower limbs accompanied by transient inability to speak and a tendency to smile which would sometimes break into laughter. Awareness was retained during the attack, and there was no associated emotional abnormality. The events were precipitated by walking and occurred several times in a day. The laughter was pathological in nature, and the abnormal posturing was akin to 'paroxysmal kinesigenic dyskinesia' (PKD)...
2013: Epilepsy & Behavior Case Reports
Tatjana Prokšelj, Aleš Jerin, Aleš Kogoj
OBJECTIVE: Behavioural symptoms are common in moderate to severe Alzheimer's disease (AD) and are improved by memantine with the most pronounced effect on agitation/aggression. Dextromethorphan in combination with quinidine is the only drug approved by US Food and Drug Administration for the treatment of pseudobulbar affect (PBA) on the basis of efficacy in patients with multiple sclerosis or amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. The aim of our study was to evaluate the efficacy of memantine on PBA in patients with AD...
December 2013: Acta Neuropsychiatrica
Hong-jun Zhou, Xiang-hua Li
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 2014: Zhongguo Zhen Jiu, Chinese Acupuncture & Moxibustion
Daniel Andrade Gripp, Antonio Aversa do Souto, Douglas Gonsales, Marcio de Miranda Chaves Christiani, Janio Nogueira, Helio Ferreira Lopes, Yasmine Coura Torres
BACKGROUND: Chordomas are rare slowly growing tumors that originate from remnants of the notochord. They have a malignant local behavior, causing symptoms due to bone infiltration and compression of neurovascular structures. Only a few cases of brain tumors associated with pathological laughter have been reported in the literature. CASE DESCRIPTION: We report a case of a 42-year-old male patient with this atypical clinical presentation treated at our institution, and discuss the concerning literature...
2014: Surgical Neurology International
J Navarro, R del Moral, M F Alonso, P Loste, J Garcia-Campayo, R Lahoz-Beltra, P C Marijuán
BACKGROUND: In the medical field, laughter has been studied for its beneficial effects on health and as a therapeutic method to prevent and treat major medical diseases. However, very few works, if any, have explored the predictive potential of laughter and its potential use as a diagnostic tool. METHOD: We registered laughs of depressed patients (n=30) and healthy controls (n=20), in total 934 laughs (517 from patients and 417 from controls). All patients were tested by the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS)...
May 2014: Journal of Affective Disorders
Edna Patatanian, Jessica Casselman
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the role of dextromethorphan/quinidine (DM/Q; Nuedexta™) in the treatment of pseudobulbar affect (PBA). DATA SOURCES: A literature search of MEDLINE/PubMed (January 1966-June 2013) was conducted using search terms pseudobulbar affect, pathological laughing and/or crying, emotional lability, dextromethorphan, and quinidine. STUDY SELECTION AND DATA EXTRACTION: English language clinical trials and case reports evaluating the safety and efficacy of DM/Q in PBA were included for review...
April 2014: Consultant Pharmacist: the Journal of the American Society of Consultant Pharmacists
David B Arciniegas, Hal S Wortzel
Emotional and behavioral dyscontrol are relatively common neuropsychiatric sequelae of traumatic brain injury and present substantial challenges to recovery and community participation. Among the most problematic and functionally disruptive of these types of behaviors are pathologic laughing and crying, affective lability, irritability, disinhibition, and aggression. Managing these problems effectively requires an understanding of their phenomenology, epidemiology, and clinical evaluation. This article reviews these issues and provides clinicians with brief and practical suggestions for the management of emotional and behavioral dyscontrol...
March 2014: Psychiatric Clinics of North America
R E Ferner, J K Aronson
OBJECTIVE: To review the beneficial and harmful effects of laughter. DESIGN: Narrative synthesis. DATA SOURCES AND REVIEW METHODS: We searched Medline (1946 to June 2013) and Embase (1974 to June 2013) for reports of benefits or harms from laughter in humans, and counted the number of papers in each category. RESULTS: Benefits of laughter include reduced anger, anxiety, depression, and stress; reduced tension (psychological and cardiovascular); increased pain threshold; reduced risk of myocardial infarction (presumably requiring hearty laughter); improved lung function; increased energy expenditure; and reduced blood glucose concentration...
2013: BMJ: British Medical Journal
Hayato Takeuchi, Kazuhide Iwamoto, Mao Mukai, Tomoaki Fujita, Hitoshi Tsujino, Yoshihiro Iwamoto
Pathological laughing, one subgroup of psuedobulbar affect, is known as laughter inappropriate to the patient's external circumstances and unrelated to the patient's internal emotional state. The authors present the case of a 76-year-old woman with no significant medical history who experienced pathological laughing after subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) due to rupture of an aneurysm, which was successfully treated with craniotomy for aneurysm clipping. In the acute stage after the operation she suffered from severe vasospasm and resulting middle cerebral artery territory infarction and conscious disturbance...
2014: Neurologia Medico-chirurgica
Sridhar Papaiah Susheela, Swaroop Revannasiddaiah, Govindarajan J Mallarajapatna, Ajaikumar Basavalingaiah
Gelastic seizures, characterised by paroxysms of pathological laughter, are most often associated with an underlying hypothalamic hamartoma. This report describes the definitive treatment using stereotactic-radiosurgery for a teenaged child whose gelastic epilepsy was found refractory to various antiepileptic drugs. Since surgery was not consented to, the child was referred to us for stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS), which was delivered with robotic-arm -SRS to a dose of 30 Gy in five fractions in five consecutive days...
2013: BMJ Case Reports
Nikola N Trajanovic, Colin M Shapiro, Srdjan Milovanovic
OBJECTIVE: To explain relatively common phenomenon of laughing during sleep and help to better define criteria for differentiating between physiological and pathological sleep-laughing. METHODS: Observational study of patients who underwent a sleep assessment in a referential tertiary health facility. RESULTS: A total of ten patients exhibited sleep laughing, nine of whom had episodes associated with rapid eye movement (REM) sleep. Also, in one of the patients sleep-laughing was one of the symptoms of REM sleep Behaviour Disorder, and in another patient sleep-laughing was associated with NREM sleep arousal parasomnia...
July 2013: Canadian Journal of Neurological Sciences. le Journal Canadien des Sciences Neurologiques
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"