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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28799364/overview-homogeneous-nucleation-from-the-vapor-phase-the-experimental-science
#1
Barbara E Wyslouzil, Judith Wölk
Homogeneous nucleation from the vapor phase has been a well-defined area of research for ∼120 yr. In this paper, we present an overview of the key experimental and theoretical developments that have made it possible to address some of the fundamental questions first delineated and investigated in C. T. R. Wilson's pioneering paper of 1897 [C. T. R. Wilson, Philos. Trans. R. Soc., A 189, 265-307 (1897)]. We review the principles behind the standard experimental techniques currently used to measure isothermal nucleation rates, and discuss the molecular level information that can be extracted from these measurements...
December 7, 2016: Journal of Chemical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28738797/tibiotalocalcaneal-ttc-arthrodesis-with-reverse-philos-plate-and-medial-cannulated-screws-with-lateral-approach
#2
Jian Fan, X Zhang, Y Luo, G W You, W K Ng, Y F Yang
BACKGROUND: Tibiotalocalcaneal arthrodesis is most common and effective surgical treatment for severe hindfoot pathology, but the fusion rate is often lower than the ordinary tibiotalar arthrodesis because of the more serious joint disease associated with obvious deformity and osteoporosis. Recent literature describe tibiotalocalcaneal arthrodesis with reverse PHILOS plate with good clinical outcome result, though some patients non-union, due to eccentric force of the plate may be hidden...
July 24, 2017: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716078/cognate-comparative-gene-annotation-characterizer
#3
Jeanne Wilbrandt, Bernhard Misof, Oliver Niehuis
BACKGROUND: The comparison of gene and genome structures across species has the potential to reveal major trends of genome evolution. However, such a comparative approach is currently hampered by a lack of standardization (e.g., Elliott TA, Gregory TR, Philos Trans Royal Soc B: Biol Sci 370:20140331, 2015). For example, testing the hypothesis that the total amount of coding sequences is a reliable measure of potential proteome diversity (Wang M, Kurland CG, Caetano-Anollés G, PNAS 108:11954, 2011) requires the application of standardized definitions of coding sequence and genes to create both comparable and comprehensive data sets and corresponding summary statistics...
July 17, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28696762/composite-dislocations-in-smectic-liquid-crystals
#4
Hillel Aharoni, Thomas Machon, Randall D Kamien
Smectic liquid crystals are characterized by layers that have a preferred uniform spacing and vanishing curvature in their ground state. Dislocations in smectics play an important role in phase nucleation, layer reorientation, and dynamics. Typically modeled as possessing one line singularity, the layer structure of a dislocation leads to a diverging compression strain as one approaches the defect center, suggesting a large, elastically determined melted core. However, it has been observed that for large charge dislocations, the defect breaks up into two disclinations [C...
June 23, 2017: Physical Review Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643131/strong-comma-free-codes-in-genetic-information
#5
Elena Fimmel, Christian J Michel, Lutz Strüngmann
Comma-free codes constitute a class of circular codes, which has been widely studied, in particular by Golomb et al. (Biologiske Meddelelser, Kongelige Danske Videnskabernes Selskab 23:1-34, 1958a, Can J Math 10:202-209, 1958b), Michel et al. (Comput Math Appl 55:989-996, 2008a, Theor Comput Sci 401:17-26, 2008b, Inf Comput 212:55-63, 2012), Michel and Pirillo (Int J Comb 2011:659567, 2011), and Fimmel and Strüngmann (J Theor Biol 389:206-213, 2016). Based on a recent approach using graph theory to study circular codes Fimmel et al...
June 22, 2017: Bulletin of Mathematical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28618529/completeness-of-inertial-modes-of-an-incompressible-inviscid-fluid-in-a-corotating-ellipsoid
#6
George Backus, Michel Rieutord
Inertial modes are the eigenmodes of contained rotating fluids restored by the Coriolis force. When the fluid is incompressible, inviscid, and contained in a rigid container, these modes satisfy Poincaré's equation that has the peculiarity of being hyperbolic with boundary conditions. Inertial modes are, therefore, solutions of an ill-posed boundary-value problem. In this paper, we investigate the mathematical side of this problem. We first show that the Poincaré problem can be formulated in the Hilbert space of square-integrable functions, with no hypothesis on the continuity or the differentiability of velocity fields...
May 2017: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28585834/acute-consumption-of-flavan-3-ol-enriched-dark-chocolate-affects-human-endogenous-metabolism
#7
Luisa Martha Ostertag, Mark Philo, Ian J Colquhoun, Henri S Tapp, Shikha Saha, Garry G Duthie, E Kate Kemsley, Baukje de Roos, Paul A Kroon, Gwénaëlle Le Gall
Flavan-3-ols and methylxanthines have potential beneficial effects on human health including reducing cardiovascular risk. We performed a randomized controlled cross-over intervention trial to assess the acute effects of consumption of flavan-3-ol-enriched dark chocolate, compared with standard dark chocolate and white chocolate, on the human metabolome. We assessed the metabolome in urine and blood plasma samples collected before and at 2 h and 6 h after consumption of chocolates in 42 healthy volunteers using a non-targeted metabolomics approach...
June 6, 2017: Journal of Proteome Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28567159/humeral-tip-apex-distance-as-a-prognostic-marker-for-proximal-humeral-fractures-in-203-patients
#8
Dominik Saul, Tobias Himmelmann, Klaus Dresing
BACKGROUND: Humeral head fractures and their postoperative outcome remain a challenging problem in surgical daily routine. Predictive factors for loss of fixation are rare. OBJECTIVE: Determination of predictive factors for the failure of osteosynthesis with the loss of fixation or migration of screws in humeral head fractures. METHOD: From 1995 to 2011, 408 patients with proximal humeral fractures [mean age 66.6 years, 50.9-82.3 years] and osteosynthesis were analyzed...
2017: Open Orthopaedics Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523552/epigenetics-of-huntington-s-disease
#9
Silvia Bassi, Takshashila Tripathi, Alan Monziani, Francesca Di Leva, Marta Biagioli
Huntington's disease (HD) is a genetic, fatal autosomal dominant neurodegenerative disorder typically occurring in midlife with symptoms ranging from chorea, to dementia, to personality disturbances (Philos Trans R Soc Lond Ser B Biol Sci 354:957-961, 1999). HD is inherited in a dominant fashion, and the underlying mutation in all cases is a CAG trinucleotide repeat expansion within exon 1 of the HD gene (Cell 72:971-983, 1993). The expanded CAG repeat, translated into a lengthened glutamine tract at the amino terminus of the huntingtin protein, affects its structural properties and functional activities...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432516/the-tower-of-london-tol-in-italy-standardization-of-the-tol-test-in-an-italian-population
#10
Maddalena Boccia, Dario Marin, Giovanni D'Antuono, Paola Ciurli, Chiara Incoccia, Gabriella Antonucci, Cecilia Guariglia, Laura Piccardi
Deficit in planning and problem-solving, affecting a wide range of neuropsychological patients, has been widely investigated using the Tower of London (ToL) test, as developed by Shallice (Philos Trans R Soc Lond Ser B Biol Sci 298:199-209, 1). The ToL taps on several executive functions (EF), such as planning, time for planning or rule breaks, which may be usefully indexed by different ToL measurements. However, in its original version, the different aspects involved in ToL are not evaluated in a specific way...
April 21, 2017: Neurological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28388152/how-closely-do-many-body-potentials-describe-the-structure-and-dynamics-of-cu-zr-glass-forming-alloy
#11
K N Lad, N Jakse, A Pasturel
Molecular dynamics investigations of the structure and dynamics of Cu64.5Zr35.5 metallic glass-forming alloy have been carried out using five different semi-empirical, many-body interaction potentials based on the Finnis-Sinclair model [M. I. Mendelev et al., J. Appl. Phys. 102, 043501 (2007) (MSK); M. I. Mendelev et al., Philos. Mag. 89, 967 (2009) (MKOSYP); L. Ward et al., e-print arXiv:1209.0619 (2012) (WAFW)] and the embedded-atom model [Y. Q. Cheng et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 245501 (2009) (CMS) and N...
March 28, 2017: Journal of Chemical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28190904/which-early-works-are-cited-most-frequently-in-climate-change-research-literature-a-bibliometric-approach-based-on-reference-publication-year-spectroscopy
#12
Werner Marx, Robin Haunschild, Andreas Thor, Lutz Bornmann
This bibliometric analysis focuses on the general history of climate change research and, more specifically, on the discovery of the greenhouse effect. First, the Reference Publication Year Spectroscopy (RPYS) is applied to a large publication set on climate change of 222,060 papers published between 1980 and 2014. The references cited therein were extracted and analyzed with regard to publications, which are cited most frequently. Second, a new method for establishing a more subject-specific publication set for applying RPYS (based on the co-citations of a marker reference) is proposed (RPYS-CO)...
2017: Scientometrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28166919/a-lengthy-primary-intramedullary-tuberculoma-of-the-spinal-cord-extending-from-c4-to-d8-a-case-report
#13
V Chandramouleeswaran, Hazeena P Philo, D Balasubramaniam, Rajeswari Ramachandran
Spinal intramedullary tuberculoma is a rare cause of spinal cord compression. We report a case that had an intramedullary spinal cord tuberculomas where the diagnosis was made by MRI and biopsy. The clinical presentation was that of a cord compression in a 30-year-old male febrile patient. This case of intramedullary spinal tuberculoma with a longitudinally extending lesion of the cervicothoracic spine from C4 to D8 is presented for the rarity of its presentation.
January 2017: Indian Journal of Tuberculosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28156149/james-frame-s-the-philosophy-of-insanity-1860
#14
Jonathan Andrews, Chris Philo
Our aim in presenting this Classic Text is to foster wider analytical attention to a fascinating commentary on insanity by a former inmate of Glasgow Royal Asylum, Gartnavel, James Frame. Despite limited coverage in existing literature, his text (and other writings) have been surprisingly neglected by modern scholars. Frame's Philosophy presents a vivid, affecting, often destigmatizing account of the insane and their institutional provision in Scotland. Derived from extensive first-hand experience, Frame's chronicle eloquently and graphically delineates his own illness and the roles and perspectives of many other actors, from clinicians and managers to patients and relations...
March 2017: History of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27994554/effect-of-environmental-and-feedback-interventions-on-pacing-profiles-in-cycling-a-meta-analysis
#15
REVIEW
Michael J Davies, Bradley Clark, Marijke Welvaert, Sabrina Skorski, Laura A Garvican-Lewis, Philo Saunders, Kevin G Thompson
In search of their optimal performance athletes will alter their pacing strategy according to intrinsic and extrinsic physiological, psychological and environmental factors. However, the effect of some of these variables on pacing and exercise performance remains somewhat unclear. Therefore, the aim of this meta-analysis was to provide an overview as to how manipulation of different extrinsic factors affects pacing strategy and exercise performance. Only self-paced exercise studies that provided control and intervention group(s), reported trial variance for power output, disclosed the type of feedback received or withheld, and where time-trial power output data could be segmented into start, middle and end sections; were included in the meta-analysis...
2016: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27956649/introduction-histories-of-asylums-insanity-and-psychiatry-in-scotland
#16
Chris Philo, Jonathan Andrews
This paper introduces a special issue on 'Histories of asylums, insanity and psychiatry in Scotland', situating the papers that follow in an outline historiography of work in this field. Using Allan Beveridge's claims in 1993 about the relative lack of research on the history of psychiatry in Scotland, the paper reviews a range of contributions that have emerged since then, loosely distinguishing between 'overviews' - work addressing longer-term trends and broader periods and systems - and more detailed studies of particular 'individuals and institutions'...
March 2017: History of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914660/radiographic-and-clinical-results-of-tension-suture-fixation-using-two-washers-with-philos-plate-for-proximal-humeral-fractures
#17
Chul-Hyun Cho, Du Han Kim, Beom-Soo Kim
INTRODUCTION: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the radiographic and clinical results of tension suture fixation using two washers with PHILOS plate (Synthes, West Chester, PA, USA) for proximal humeral fractures. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Consecutive 39 patients were included and divided into two groups of adequate and inadequate medial support (MS (+) group vs MS (-) group). The mean follow-up period was 45months (range: 26-69 months). The mean age at the time of surgery was 59 years (range: 17-86 years) and there were 12 men and 27 women...
February 2017: Injury
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27866913/minimally-invasive-plate-osteosynthesis-with-philos-plate-for-proximal-humerus-fractures
#18
Uğur Gönç, Mesut Atabek, Kürşat Teker, Altuğ Tanrıöver
OBJECTIVES: The aim of the present study was to evaluate results, including clinical and radiological outcomes and number of complications, following minimally invasive plate osteosynthesis (MIPO) of proximal humerus fractures, using the PHILOS® proximal humerus internal locking system (Synthes Holding AG, Solothurn, Switzerland). METHODS: Retrospectively evaluated were 31 patients treated with MIPO (12 male, 19 female; average age: 58.4 years). Four patients had 2-part fractures, 14 patients had 3-part fractures, and 13 patients had 4-part fractures, according to Neer classification...
January 2017: Acta Orthopaedica et Traumatologica Turcica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27861483/-on-roman-philonium
#19
Guillermo Delgado-García, Carolina Rodríguez-Návarez, Bruno Estañol
The roman philonium (Philonium Romanum) is an example of pharmacological poetry. This opiate was conceived by Philo of Tarsus, who was active during the first century of the Common Era. His antidote was written in elegiac couplets. The conservation of these couplets is owed to Galen, who reproduced them in the ninth book of On the Composition of Medicines according to the Places. Most of this Galenic treatise has not been translated into Spanish. For the first time, we offer this prescription in our language from a French version of the fin de siècle...
November 2016: Gaceta Médica de México
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27807647/epigenetic-transcriptional-memory
#20
REVIEW
Agustina D'Urso, Jason H Brickner
Organisms alter gene expression to adapt to changes in environmental conditions such as temperature, nutrients, inflammatory signals, and stress (Gialitakis et al. in Mol Cell Biol 30:2046-2056, 2010; Conrath in Trends Plant Sci 16:524-531, 2011; Avramova in Plant J 83:149-159, 2015; Solé et al. in Curr Genet 61:299-308, 2015; Ho and Gasch in Curr Genet 61:503-511, 2015; Bevington et al. in EMBO J 35:515-535, 2016; Hilker et al. in Biol Rev Camb Philos Soc 91:1118-1133, 2016). In some cases, organisms can "remember" a previous environmental condition and adapt to that condition more rapidly in the future (Gems and Partridge 2008)...
June 2017: Current Genetics
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