keyword
MENU ▼
Read by QxMD icon Read
search

Philo

keyword
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29761300/natural-selection-and-drift-as-individual-level-causes-of-evolution
#1
Pierrick Bourrat
In this paper I critically evaluate Reisman and Forber's (Philos Sci 72(5):1113-1123, 2005) arguments that drift and natural selection are population-level causes of evolution based on what they call the manipulation condition. Although I agree that this condition is an important step for identifying causes for evolutionary change, it is insufficient. Following Woodward, I argue that the invariance of a relationship is another crucial parameter to take into consideration for causal explanations. Starting from Reisman and Forber's example on drift and after having briefly presented the criterion of invariance, I show that once both the manipulation condition and the criterion of invariance are taken into account, drift, in this example, should better be understood as an individual-level rather than a population-level cause...
May 14, 2018: Acta Biotheoretica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29713921/health-economic-analysis-of-antiplatelet-therapy-for-acute-coronary-syndromes-in-the-context-of-five-eastern-asian-countries
#2
Bin Wu, Ruoyan Gai Tobe, Yuchen Liu, Ben He
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: The economic outcomes of dual antiplatelet therapy in East Asian patients are still unclear. We aimed to evaluate the economic outcomes of ticagrelor versus clopidogrel for patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS) in China, Japan, Korea, Taiwan and Hong Kong. METHODS: A two-phase model consisting of a 1-year decision tree and a lifetime Markov model was used to estimate the economic outcomes. The data from the East Asian subgroup of Platelet Inhibition and Patient Outcomes (PLATO) and PHILO studies were used for the calculation of the events rate for ticagrelor and clopidogrel in the first 12 months, whereas the costs were obtained from East Asian sources and utility from the published literature...
April 30, 2018: Clinical Drug Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29703261/biomechanical-analysis-of-plate-systems-for-proximal-humerus-fractures-a-systematic-literature-review
#3
REVIEW
Ali Jabran, Chris Peach, Lei Ren
BACKGROUND: Proximal humerus fractures are the third most common in the human body but their management remains controversial. Open reduction and internal fixation with plates is one of the leading modes of operative treatment for these fractures. The development of technologies and techniques for these plates, during the recent decades, promise a bright future for their clinical use. A comprehensive review of in vitro biomechanical studies is needed for the comparison of plates' mechanical performance and the testing methodologies...
April 27, 2018: Biomedical Engineering Online
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29606783/a-cladist-is-a-systematist-who-seeks-a-natural-classification-some-comments-on-quinn-2017
#4
David M Williams, Malte C Ebach
In response to Quinn (Biol Philos, 2017. 10.1007/s10539-017-9577-z) we identify cladistics to be about natural classifications and their discovery and thereby propose to add an eighth cladistic definition to Quinn's list, namely the systematist who seeks to discover natural classifications, regardless of their affiliation, theoretical or methodological justifications.
2018: Biology & Philosophy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29532441/self-complementary-circular-codes-in-coding-theory
#5
Elena Fimmel, Christian J Michel, Martin Starman, Lutz Strüngmann
Self-complementary circular codes are involved in pairing genetic processes. A maximal [Formula: see text] self-complementary circular code X of trinucleotides was identified in genes of bacteria, archaea, eukaryotes, plasmids and viruses (Michel in Life 7(20):1-16 2017, J Theor Biol 380:156-177, 2015; Arquès and Michel in J Theor Biol 182:45-58 1996). In this paper, self-complementary circular codes are investigated using the graph theory approach recently formulated in Fimmel et al. (Philos Trans R Soc A 374:20150058, 2016)...
April 2018: Theory in Biosciences, Theorie in Den Biowissenschaften
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29500554/titanium-mini-locking-plate-with-trans-osseous-sutures-for-the-treatment-of-humeral-greater-tuberosity-fracture-osteosynthesis-versus-philos-a-retrospective-view
#6
Gang Xue, Kapil Chahal, Thou Lim, Siyuan Hu, Shaohua Li, Jie Liu
PURPOSE: Greater tuberosity fractures (GTFs) account for 17 to 21% of proximal humerus fractures, most of these fractures are treated conservatively, but treatment for displaced fractures is still controversial. The aim of this study is to compare intra-operative clinical conditions and post-operative outcomes when displaced GTFs are treated with either proximal humeral internal locking system (PHILOS) or mini locking plate with trans-osseous sutures. METHODS: This is a retrospective study conducted in Shanghai Tenth People's Hospital...
March 3, 2018: International Orthopaedics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29478073/assessment-of-screw-length-of-proximal-humerus-internal-locking-system-philos-plate-for-proximal-humeral-fractures-using-three-dimensional-computed-tomography-scan
#7
Minfei Qiang, Xiaoyang Jia, Yanxi Chen, Kun Zhang, Haobo Li, Yuchen Jiang, Yijie Zhang
BACKGROUND Screw perforation and varus collapse are common complications of treatment with a PHILOS (proximal humerus internal locking system) plate for proximal humerus fractures, which are associated with improper screw length selection and lack of medial column support. The purposes of this study were: (1) to measure the proper length of periarticular screws of the PHILOS plate in the humeral head, and (2) to determine what factors influence the screw length and implantation of the inferomedial support screw...
February 25, 2018: Medical Science Monitor: International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29370867/hybrid-blade-and-locking-plate-fixation-for-proximal-humerus-fractures-a-comparative-biomechanical-analysis
#8
Ali Jabran, Chris Peach, Zhenmin Zou, Lei Ren
BACKGROUND: Open reduction and internal fixation of proximal humerus fractures can be difficult to achieve adequate, complication free results due to osteopenia of the proximal humerus and unstable fracture patterns. This study aimed to compare the biomechanical properties of a novel hybrid fixed angle blade plate (Fx plate) with an established fixed angle locking plate (PHILOS plate). METHODS: A two-part fracture was simulated in synthetic composite humeri by creating a transverse osteotomy and 10 mm fracture gap at the surgical neck...
January 25, 2018: Biomedical Engineering Online
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329870/16-o-methylcafestol-is-present-in-ground-roast-arabica-coffees-implications-for-authenticity-testing
#9
Yvonne Gunning, Marianne Defernez, Andrew D Watson, Niles Beadman, Ian J Colquhoun, Gwénaëlle Le Gall, Mark Philo, Hollie Garwood, David Williamson, Aaron P Davis, E Kate Kemsley
High-field and low-field proton NMR spectroscopy were used to analyse lipophilic extracts from ground roast coffees. Using a sample preparation method that produced concentrated extracts, a small marker peak at 3.16 ppm was observed in 30 Arabica coffees of assured origin. This signal has previously been believed absent from Arabicas, and has been used as a marker for detecting adulteration with robusta. Via 2D 600 MHz NMR and LC-MS, 16-O-methylcafestol and 16-O-methylkahweol were detected for the first time in Arabica roast coffee and shown to be responsible for the marker peak...
May 15, 2018: Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29251174/reliability-and-validity-of-a-modified-3-minute-all-out-swimming-test-in-elite-swimmers
#10
Lachlan J G Mitchell, David B Pyne, Philo U Saunders, Ben Rattray
Critical speed (CS) testing is useful in monitoring training in swimmers, however, completing a series of time trials (TTs) regularly is time-consuming. The 3-minute test may be a solution with positive initial findings. This investigation examined whether a modified 3-minute test (12 × 25 m) could assess CS and supra-CS distance capacity (D') in swimmers. A series of 12 × 25 m intervals were completed unpaced at maximal effort, interspersed with 5 s rest periods. The model speed = a eb t  + c was fitted to the data and integrated to calculate D'...
April 2018: European Journal of Sport Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29229803/stokes-drift
#11
REVIEW
T S van den Bremer, Ø Breivik
During its periodic motion, a particle floating at the free surface of a water wave experiences a net drift velocity in the direction of wave propagation, known as the Stokes drift (Stokes 1847 Trans. Camb. Philos. Soc. 8 , 441-455). More generally, the Stokes drift velocity is the difference between the average Lagrangian flow velocity of a fluid parcel and the average Eulerian flow velocity of the fluid. This paper reviews progress in fundamental and applied research on the induced mean flow associated with surface gravity waves since the first description of the Stokes drift, now 170 years ago...
January 28, 2018: Philosophical Transactions. Series A, Mathematical, Physical, and Engineering Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29094012/managing-extremely-distal-periprosthetic-femoral-supracondylar-fractures-of-total-knee-replacements-a-new-philos-ophy
#12
Kevin J Donnelly, Adam Tucker, Angel Ruiz, Neville W Thompson
We report two cases where a proximal humeral locking plate was used for the fixation of an extremely distal, type III peri-prosthetic femoral fractures in relation to a total knee replacement (TKR). In each case there was concern regarding the fixation that could be achieved using the available anatomic distal femoral plates due to the size and bone quality of distal fragment. The design of the Proximal Humeral Internal Locking System (PHILOS) allows nine 3.5-mm locking screws to be placed over a small area in multiple directions...
October 18, 2017: World Journal of Orthopedics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28970985/fluoroscopic-technique-for-open-reduction-and-internal-fixation-of-proximal-humeral-fracture-using-the-proximal-humeral-locking-plate-proposal-of-plate-and-screw-views
#13
Wichan Kanchanatawan, Sunikom Suppauksorn, Worawit Densiri-Aksorn, Piyabuth Kittithamvongs, Warongporn Pongpinyopap
Proximal humeral fractures are common injuries with increasing incidence, particularly in the aging population. Nondisplaced or minimally displaced fractures can be treated conservatively whereas surgical fixation is usually indicated in the cases of displaced fractures. Various surgical options have been used for treatment of these fractures. Good outcomes have been reported with use of the Proximal Humeral Internal Locking System (PHILOS plate; Synthes, Zuchwil, Switzerland) as the implant of choice. However many complications have been reported, including varus malalignment, excessive retroversion of the articular part of the humerus, penetration of screws, and avascular necrosis of the humeral head...
August 2017: Arthroscopy Techniques
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28939999/our-genes-our-selves-hereditary-breast-cancer-and-biological-citizenship-in-norway
#14
Pål Møller, Eivind Hovig
The concept 'hereditary breast cancer' is commonly used to delineate a group of people genetically at risk for breast cancer-all of whom also having risk for other cancers. People carrying pathogenic variants of the BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes are often referred to as those having predisposition for 'hereditary breast cancer'. The two genes, however, are when altered, associated with different risks for and dying from breast cancer. The main risk for dying for carriers of both genes is from ovarian cancer. These biological facts are of philosophical interest, because they are the facts underlying the public debate on BRCA1/2 genetic testing as a model for the discussion of how to implement genetic knowledge and technologies in personalized medicine...
June 2018: Medicine, Health Care, and Philosophy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918309/health-and-wellbeing-during-transition-to-adulthood-for-young-people-with-intellectual-disabilities-a-qualitative-study
#15
Genevieve Young-Southward, Sally-Ann Cooper, Christopher Philo
BACKGROUND: Transition to adulthood may have negative consequences for health and wellbeing in individuals with intellectual disabilities (ID), but this aspect of transition has received little investigation. This qualitative study aimed to explore the transition experiences of individuals with ID from their own perspectives, and from that of their parents, in order to identify health or wellbeing implications of transition. METHOD: Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 17 young people with mild, moderate and severe ID aged 16-27 years and with 23 parents of young people with mild, moderate, severe and profound ID aged 16-26 years...
September 14, 2017: Research in Developmental Disabilities
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28895262/physical-and-mental-health-of-young-people-with-and-without-intellectual-disabilities-cross-sectional-analysis-of-a-whole-country-population
#16
G Young-Southward, E Rydzewska, C Philo, S-A Cooper
BACKGROUND: Transition to adulthood may be a period of vulnerability for health for individuals with intellectual disabilities. No large-scale studies have compared the health of individuals with and without intellectual disabilities undergoing transition. The aims of this study were (1) to compare health during transition for individuals with and without intellectual disabilities across a whole country population and (2) to establish whether transition is associated with health in the population with intellectual disabilities...
October 2017: Journal of Intellectual Disability Research: JIDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28892988/treatment-of-proximal-humerus-fractures-using-philos-plate
#17
Chintan Doshi, Gaurav Mahesh Sharma, Lokesh Gudda Naik, Krishna Sudhakar Badgire, Faisal Qureshi
INTRODUCTION: Treatment of proximal humerus fractures always holds a dilemma for the treating surgeon. AIM: To assess the functional outcome of proximal humerus fractures treated with Proximal Humerus Internal Locking System (PHILOS) plating. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Fifty three consecutive patients were treated with PHILOS plating between August 2013 and August 2014. The inclusion criteria were skeletally matured patients with closed fracture proximal humerus with displacement >1 cm and varus angulation of >45(0)...
July 2017: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28845833/early-stage-radiological-critical-analysis-of-unsuccessful-cases-following-a-four-part-fracture-osteosynthesis-of-the-proximal-humerus-focus-on-the-p-sign
#18
Georgios Touloupakis, Wilfried Stuflesser, Fabrizio Ferrara, Alessio Maione, Guido Antonini, Cornelio Crippa
Radiological evaluation of complex intra-articular fractures of the proximal humerus is still challenging. Here, we describe the post-operative "P" sign as a reproducible radiographical mark of a varus reduction, performed by assembling a head-shaft angulation of less than 130 degrees. Our retrospective study was conducted in a group of subjects who previously suffered from proximal humerus four-part fractures. We evaluated the post-operative evolution of specific radiographical parameters that are of crucial prognostic significance: Cervix-diaphysis angle (HHSA), quality level of the orthopaedic reduction (insufficient, sufficient and good) based on a radiological generalized subjective overview, presence of calcar screws through the Philos plate...
August 23, 2017: Acta Bio-medica: Atenei Parmensis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28842863/an-analysis-of-waves-underlying-grid-cell-firing-in-the-medial-enthorinal-cortex
#19
Mayte Bonilla-Quintana, Kyle C A Wedgwood, Reuben D O'Dea, Stephen Coombes
Layer II stellate cells in the medial enthorinal cortex (MEC) express hyperpolarisation-activated cyclic-nucleotide-gated (HCN) channels that allow for rebound spiking via an [Formula: see text] current in response to hyperpolarising synaptic input. A computational modelling study by Hasselmo (Philos. Trans. R. Soc. Lond. B, Biol. Sci. 369:20120523, 2013) showed that an inhibitory network of such cells can support periodic travelling waves with a period that is controlled by the dynamics of the [Formula: see text] current...
August 25, 2017: Journal of Mathematical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28840517/ultimate-and-proximate-explanations-of-strong-reciprocity
#20
Jack Vromen
Strong reciprocity (SR) has recently been subject to heated debate. In this debate, the "West camp" (West et al. in Evol Hum Behav 32(4):231-262, 2011), which is critical of the case for SR, and the "Laland camp" (Laland et al. in Science, 334(6062):1512-1516, 2011, Biol Philos 28(5):719-745, 2013), which is sympathetic to the case of SR, seem to take diametrically opposed positions. The West camp criticizes advocates of SR for conflating proximate and ultimate causation. SR is said to be a proximate mechanism that is put forward by its advocates as an ultimate explanation of human cooperation...
August 23, 2017: History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences
keyword
keyword
113809
1
2
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read
×

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"