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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150285/a-review-of-prevalence-studies-of-autism-spectrum-disorder-by-latitude-and-solar-irradiance-impact
#1
Somayya Syed, Kathleen A Moore, Evita March
Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is a lifelong disability with no known cause or cure. Among the suggested etiologies, is Cannell's hypothesis of a deficiency in Vitamin D the main natural source of which is Solar Ultraviolet-B (UVB) radiation. The aim in this paper is to build on this hypothesis and explore the relationship of solar irradiance of which UVB is a component, by latitude with the prevalence rates of ASD. Twenty-five reports published between 2011 and 2016 using comparable diagnostic criteria were reviewed...
November 2017: Medical Hypotheses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29148618/interest-in-tanning-beds-and-sunscreen-in-german-speaking-countries
#2
Michael C Kirchberger, Laura F Kirchberger, Thomas K Eigentler, Raphael Reinhard, Carola Berking, Gerold Schuler, Lucie Heinzerling, Markus V Heppt
BACKGROUND: The growing incidence of nearly all types of skin cancer can be attributed to increased exposure to natural or artificial ultraviolet (UV) radiation. However, there is a scarcity of statistical data on risk behavior or sunscreen use, which would be important for any prevention efforts. METHODS: Using the search engine Google(®) , we analyzed search patterns for the terms Solarium (tanning bed), Sonnencreme (sunscreen), and Sonnenschutz (sun protection) in Germany, Austria, and Switzerland between 2004 and 2016, and compared it to search patterns worldwide...
November 17, 2017: Journal der Deutschen Dermatologischen Gesellschaft, Journal of the German Society of Dermatology: JDDG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29147715/the-impact-of-ultraviolet-b-uv-b-radiation-in-combination-with-different-temperatures-in-the-early-life-stage-of-zebrafish-danio-rerio
#3
Feyza Icoglu Aksakal, Abdulkadir Ciltas
Ultraviolet B (UV-B) radiation is an environmental stressor with detrimental effects on many aquatic organisms including fish. In addition, UV-B exposure combined with other environmental factors could have even more negative effects. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of UV-B radiation exposure on zebrafish embryos/larvae in terms of survival, developmental toxicity and the mRNA levels of the genes related to oxidative stress and innate immune response at different temperatures (24 °C, 28 °C and 30 °C)...
November 17, 2017: Photochemical & Photobiological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29144817/seasonal-variation-of-vitamin-d-and-serum-thyrotropin-levels-and-its-relationship-in-a-euthyroid-caucasian-population
#4
Gautam Das, Peter N Taylor, Heather Javaid, Brian P Tennant, John Geen, Andrew Aldridge, Onyebuchi Okosieme
OBJECTIVES: It is unclear whether seasonal variations in vitamin D concentrations affect the hypothalamo-pituitary-thyroid (HPT) axis. We investigated the seasonal variability of vitamin D and serum thyrotropin (TSH) levels and their inter-relationship. METHODS: Analysis of 401 patients referred with non-specific symptoms of tiredness who had simultaneous measurements of 25(OH)D3 and thyroid function. Patients were categorised according to the season of blood sampling and their vitamin D status...
November 16, 2017: Endocrine Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143326/lncrna-rp11-670e13-6-regulates-cell-cycle-progression-in-uvb-damaged-human-dermal-fibroblasts
#5
Mengna Li, Li Li, Xiaofeng Zhang, Yan Yan, Baoxi Wang
Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) have gained extensive attention in recent years, however, their effects on ultraviolet (UV) radiation-induced skin photodamage remain to be elucidated. In this study, we performed high-throughput RNA sequencing and comprehensive bioinformatics analyses to characterize the transcriptome profiles including lncRNAs and mRNAs in UVB-irradiated primary human dermal fibroblasts (HDFs) and to explore the roles of lncRNAs in photoaging. Quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction amplification was performed to verify the differentially expressed genes...
November 16, 2017: Photochemistry and Photobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141058/disparity-in-cutaneous-pigmentary-response-to-led-vs-halogen-incandescent-visible-light-results-from-a-single-center-investigational-clinical-trial-determining-a-minimal-pigmentary-visible-light-dose
#6
Teo Soleymani, David E Cohen, Lorcan M Folan, Uchenna R Okereke, Nada Elbuluk, Nicholas A Soter
<p>Background: While most of the attention regarding skin pigmentation has focused on the effects of ultraviolet radiation, the cutaneous effects of visible light (400 to 700nm) are rarely reported. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to investigate the cutaneous pigmentary response to pure visible light irradiation, examine the difference in response to different sources of visible light irradiation, and determine a minimal pigmentary dose of visible light irradiation in melanocompetent subjects with Fitzpatrick skin type III - VI...
November 1, 2017: Journal of Drugs in Dermatology: JDD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140367/compact-bolometric-radiometer-for-free-electron-lasers-in-a-wavelength-range-from-extreme-ultraviolet-to-x-rays
#7
Takahiro Tanaka, Masahiro Kato, Norio Saito, Shigeki Owada, Kensuke Tono, Makina Yabashi, Tetsuya Ishikawa
A reliable diagnostic device for free-electron lasers (FELs) is essential for both users and the evaluation of FEL sources and beamline optics. Here, we propose a compact bolometric radiometer (CBR) that can operate at room temperature. The CBR is mainly designed for FELs in the wavelength range from the extreme-ultraviolet (EUV) to x-rays; moreover, we confirmed that the proposed device can also be applied to synchrotron radiation. As an application of the CBR, we evaluated an FEL beamline transmission by means of bolometric technique in the EUV range for the first time, to the best of our knowledge...
November 15, 2017: Optics Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29136080/ultraviolet-radiation-induced-immunosuppression-and-its-relevance-for-skin-carcinogenesis
#8
Prue H Hart, Mary Norval
The realisation that UV radiation (UVR) exposure could induce a suppressed immune environment for the initiation of carcinogenesis in the skin was first described more than 40 years ago. Van der Leun and his colleagues contributed to this area in the 1980s and 90s by experiments in mice involving UV wavelength and dose-dependency in the formation of such tumours, in addition to illustrating both the local and systemic effect of the UVR on the immune system. Since these early days, many aspects of the complex pathways of UV-induced immunosuppression have been studied and are outlined in this review...
November 14, 2017: Photochemical & Photobiological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133667/methoxsalen-induced-macular-toxicity
#9
Aditya Maitray, Pukhraj Rishi
Psoralen compounds such as methoxsalen are photosensitizer agents used in conjunction with ultraviolet A (UVA) radiation exposure as photochemotherapy (Psoralens and ultraviolet-A therapy [PUVA therapy]) for certain epidermal skin disorders such as psoriasis and vitiligo. Methoxsalen has been shown to be associated with premature cataract formation by forming adducts with lens proteins following oral administration and subsequent UVA exposure. Hence, the use of UV-filtering glasses is recommended during PUVA therapy sessions...
November 2017: Indian Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29132722/trajectories-of-premalignancy-during-the-journey-from-melanocyte-to-melanoma
#10
REVIEW
Andrew J Colebatch, Richard A Scolyer
A stepwise progression from melanocytic precursors to cutaneous melanoma is a well-established model, based on decades of careful observation and morphological analysis. The steps identified are benign melanocytic naevus, dysplastic naevus, 'radial growth phase' melanoma (including melanoma in situ) and 'vertical growth phase' melanoma (also termed tumourigenic melanoma). Recent genomic data have refined the understanding of the steps of melanoma development and their relationship to one another. These data support the existence of dysplastic naevi as distinct lesions; suggest the importance of clonal dynamics in the precursor steps of melanoma; and confirm the carcinogenic role of ultraviolet radiation throughout early melanoma development and progression...
November 10, 2017: Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29131317/molecular-photoprotection-of-human-keratinocytes-in-vitro-by-the-naturally-occurring-mycosporine-like-amino-acid-maa-palythine
#11
K P Lawrence, R Gacesa, P F Long, A R Young
BACKGROUND: Solar ultraviolet radiation (UVR) induces molecular and genetic changes in the skin, which result in skin cancer, photoageing and photosensitivity disorders. The use of sunscreens is advocated to prevent such photodamage, however most formulations contain synthetic UVR filters that are non-biodegradable and can damage fragile marine ecosystems. Mycosporine-like amino acids (MAA) are natural UVR-absorbing compounds that have evolved in marine species for protection against chronic UVR exposure in shallow-water habitats...
November 13, 2017: British Journal of Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29129928/self-probing-spectroscopy-of-xuv-photo-ionization-dynamics-in-atoms-subjected-to-a-strong-field-environment
#12
Doron Azoury, Michael Krüger, Gal Orenstein, Henrik R Larsson, Sebastian Bauch, Barry D Bruner, Nirit Dudovich
Single-photon ionization is one of the most fundamental light matter interactions in nature, serving as a universal probe of the quantum state of matter. By probing the emitted electron, one can decode the full dynamics of the interaction. When photo-ionization is evolving in the presence of a strong laser field, the fundamental properties of the mechanism can be signicantly altered. Here we demonstrate how the liberated electron can perform a self-probing measurement of such interaction with attosecond precision...
November 13, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128803/the-effect-of-dehydroglyasperin-c-on-uvb-mediated-mmps-expression-in-human-hacat-cells
#13
Song Hua Xuan, Young Min Park, Ji Hoon Ha, Yoon Ju Jeong, Soo Nam Park
BACKGROUND: The ultraviolet B (UVB) from solar radiation increases the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), which mediate the production of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), and acts mainly on the epidermis layer of the skin. This study was aimed at assessing the anti-photoaging effects of dehydroglyasperin C isolated from Glycyrrhiza uralensis Fisch on MMPs levels in HaCaT human keratinocytes and to elucidate the underlying mechanism. METHODS: The cell viability was measured by MTT assay...
May 31, 2017: Pharmacological Reports: PR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29126940/adsorption-of-mercury-ions-from-wastewater-aqueous-solution-by-amide-functionalized-cellulose-from-sugarcane-bagasse
#14
Na Sun, Xue Wen, Chunjie Yan
A novel effective cellulose-based adsorbent was prepared through two common reactions, which included the esterification of sugarcane bagasse cellulose with excess stearic acid and the reaction of grafting polyacrylamide brush by ultraviolet radiation initiation. The adsorbent can effectively adsorb Hg(II) ion from wastewater. The characterization of the adsorbents was conducted by optical microscope (OM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM-EDS) and infrared spectrometry (FTIR). Full kinetic and thermodynamic investigations as well as isotherm analysis were also undertaken...
November 7, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29125984/ultraviolet-germicidal-efficacy-as-a-function-of-pulsed-radiation-parameters-studied-by-spore-film-dosimetry
#15
Stefan Bauer, Hans Holtschmidt, Günter Ott
Disinfection by pulsed ultraviolet (UV) radiation is a commonly used method, e.g. in industry or medicine and can be carried out either with lasers or broadband UV radiation sources. Detrimental effects to biological materials depending on parameters such as pulse duration τ or pulse repetition frequency fp are well-understood for pulsed coherent UV radiation, however, relatively little is known for its incoherent variant. Therefore, within this work, it is the first time that disinfection rates of pulsed and continuous (cw) incoherent UV radiation studied by means of spore film dosimetry are presented, compared with each other, and in a second step further investigated regarding two pulse parameters...
October 28, 2017: Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology. B, Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29125162/controlled-optical-characteristics-of-lanthanide-doped-upconversion-nanoparticles-for-emerging-applications
#16
Xiaoqian Ge, Jinliang Liu, Lining Sun
Lanthanide-doped upconversion nanoparticles (UCNPs) can convert long wavelength excitation radiation in the near-infrared region to higher energy emission radiation from ultraviolet to near-infrared. The anti-Stokes luminescence process will result in high tissue penetration depth, low background noise and low photo-damage in bioimaging applications. Considering these excellent optical performances, UCNPs have been considered as the next generation of fluorescent probes for sensing and bioimaging based on near-infrared light stimulation...
November 10, 2017: Dalton Transactions: An International Journal of Inorganic Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29124714/dose-quantification-in-uv-phototherapy
#17
David Robert Grimes
Ultraviolet light has long been used to alleviate a number of skin conditions, and its efficacy is well known. However, over-exposure to ultraviolet radiation has a number of detrimental effects and thus it is vital to maintain a dose to skin within the therapeutic window. To maximise treatment gain whilst circumventing potential side-effects of over-exposure requires accurate determination of irradiance and skin-dose. This is complicated by the fact that ultraviolet radiation is essentially absorbed at the skin surface, which means that changing orientation of the patient and source can modulate dose received...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29124712/safety-and-efficacy-of-phototherapy-in-the-management-of-eczema
#18
Annalisa Patrizi, Beatrice Raone, Giulia Maria Ravaioli
Atopic Dermatitis (AD), a common skin disease, can occur in patients of all age, gender and ethnicity. It is an inflammatory affection, characterized by chronic and highly debilitating behavior. First-line interventions against AD include environmental measures and topical emollients, corticosteroids or calcineurin inhibitors. When these measures are not sufficient, phototherapy represents an efficient second-line option of treatment; it can be administered on its own, or in the most severe cases combined with systemic medicaments such as corticosteroids...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29124709/phototherapy-of-psoriasis-a-chronic-inflammatory-skin-disease
#19
Emőke Rácz, Errol P Prens
Phototherapy is an effective treatment modality for several skin diseases which has been in use from the era of the Egyptians. Insight into its mode of action has gradually accumulated over the past decades. A crucial biological effect of ultraviolet radiation is the induction of apoptosis in T lymphocytes and in keratinocytes in the epidermis. Via this mechanism inflammation-induced pathological changes characteristic of psoriasis are counteracted.Phototherapy remains the only therapeutic option for certain patient groups where modification of the systemic immune reactions is contraindicated, such as by HIV, internal malignancy or pregnancy...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29124704/biofilms-microbial-strategies-for-surviving-uv-exposure
#20
Carla C C R de Carvalho
Biofilm communities are an ingenious form of protection of microbial cells which have been evolving for billion of years. In general, ultraviolet (UV) radiation presents poor penetration in the matrix of biofilms and only the first few top layers of microbial cells are exposed to its deleterious effects. For further protection against UV radiation, exposed cells can produce specialized compounds such as mycosporine-like amino acids and carotenoid pigments. In this chapter, the adaptation mechanisms presented by biofilms against UV radiation are presented, as well as the application of UV light to monitor and destroy biofilms in man made surfaces...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
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