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Ultraviolet radiation

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822308/the-acute-effects-of-ultraviolet-radiation-on-the-blood-transcriptome-are-independent-of-plasma-25ohd3
#1
Mariona Bustamante, Carles Hernandez-Ferrer, Yaris Sarria, Graham I Harrison, Lara Nonell, Wenjing Kang, Marc R Friedländer, Xavier Estivill, Juan R González, Mark Nieuwenhuijsen, Antony R Young
The molecular basis of many health outcomes attributed to solar ultraviolet radiation (UVR) is unknown. We tested the hypothesis that they may originate from transcriptional changes in blood cells. This was determined by assessing the effect of fluorescent solar simulated radiation (FSSR) on the transcriptional profile of peripheral blood pre- and 6h, 24h and 48h post-exposure in nine healthy volunteers. Expression of 20 genes was down-regulated and one was up-regulated at 6h after FSSR. All recovered to baseline expression at 24h or 48h...
August 16, 2017: Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818778/potential-effect-of-compounds-isolated-from-coffea-arabica-against-uv-b-induced-skin-damage-by-protecting-fibroblast-cells
#2
Yong-Hun Cho, Ashutosh Bahuguna, Han-Hyuk Kim, Dong-In Kim, Hyeon-Jeong Kim, Jae-Myo Yu, Hyun-Gug Jung, Jae-Yoon Jang, Jae-Hoon Kwak, Geun-Hye Park, O-Jun Kwon, Young Je Cho, Jeong Yeon An, Cheorun Jo, Sun Chul Kang, Bong-Jeun An
Ultraviolet (UV) radiation has adverse effects on extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins, leading to formation of wrinkles a hallmark of premature skin aging. The adverse effects of UV radiation are associated with induction of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) expression and degradation of collagen and elastin. The present study investigated anti-wrinkle effects of chlorogenic acid (CGA), pyrocatechol (PC) and 3,4,5-tricaffeoyl quinic acid (TCQ), isolated from beans of Coffea arabica, against UV-B stimulated mouse fibroblast cells (CCRF) by measuring expression levels of MMP-1, 3, 9, and type-I procollagen...
August 9, 2017: Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology. B, Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818643/combined-effects-of-oil-exposure-temperature-and-ultraviolet-radiation-on-buoyancy-and-oxygen-consumption-of-embryonic-mahi-mahi-coryphaena-hippurus
#3
Christina Pasparakis, Lauren E Sweet, John D Stieglitz, Daniel Benetti, Conrad T Casente, Aaron P Roberts, Martin Grosell
The Deepwater Horizon oil spill occurred in the summer of 2010 and coincided with the spawning window of the ecologically and economically important pelagic fish mahi-mahi (Coryphaena hippurus). During summer months, early life stage mahi-mahi were likely also exposed to other naturally occurring stressors such as increased temperature and ultraviolet radiation (UV). Previous research has shown that co-exposure to oil and additional natural stressors can affect the timing and duration of negative buoyancy in mahi-mahi embryos...
August 5, 2017: Aquatic Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814448/carcinogen-susceptibility-is-regulated-by-genome-architecture-and-predicts-cancer-mutagenesis
#4
Pablo E García-Nieto, Erin K Schwartz, Devin A King, Jonas Paulsen, Philippe Collas, Rafael E Herrera, Ashby J Morrison
The development of many sporadic cancers is directly initiated by carcinogen exposure. Carcinogens induce malignancies by creating DNA lesions (i.e., adducts) that can result in mutations if left unrepaired. Despite this knowledge, there has been remarkably little investigation into the regulation of susceptibility to acquire DNA lesions. In this study, we present the first quantitative human genome-wide map of DNA lesions induced by ultraviolet (UV) radiation, the ubiquitous carcinogen in sunlight that causes skin cancer...
August 16, 2017: EMBO Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814301/incidence-of-cancer-among-licenced-commercial-pilots-flying-north-atlantic-routes
#5
Eva Maria Gudmundsdottir, Jon Hrafnkelsson, Vilhjalmur Rafnsson
BACKGROUND: To evaluate cancer incidence among licenced commercial pilots in association with cosmic radiation. METHODS: Cohort study where ionizing radiation dose of cosmic radiation was estimated from airline data and software program and cancer incidence was obtained by record linkage with nation-wide cancer registry. All licenced commercial male airline pilots were followed from 1955 to 2015, ever or never employed at airline with international routes. Standardized incidence ratios were calculated and relative risk by Poisson regression, to examine exposure-response relation...
August 16, 2017: Environmental Health: a Global Access Science Source
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811301/topically-applied-carvedilol-attenuates-solar-ultraviolet-radiation-induced-skin-carcinogenesis
#6
Kevin M Huang, Sherry Liang, Steven Yeung, Etuajie Oiyemhonlan, Kristan H Cleveland, Cyrus Parsa, Robert Orlando, Frank L Meyskens, Bradley Andresen, Ying Huang
In previous studies, the β-blocker carvedilol inhibited EGF-induced epidermal cell transformation and chemical carcinogen-induced mouse skin hyperplasia. As exposure to ultraviolet (UV) radiation leads to skin cancer, the present study examined whether carvedilol can prevent UV-induced carcinogenesis. Carvedilol absorbs UV like a sunscreen; thus, to separate pharmacological from sunscreen effects, 4-hydroxycarbazole (4-OHC), which absorbs UV to the same degree as carvedilol, served as control. JB6 P+ cells, an established epidermal model for studying tumor promotion, were used for evaluating the effect of carvedilol on UV-induced neoplastic transformation...
August 15, 2017: Cancer Prevention Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808403/the-possible-pre-and-post-uva-radiation-protective-effect-of-amaranth-oil-on-human-skin-fibroblast-cells
#7
Katarzyna Wolosik, Ilona Zareba, Arkadiusz Surazynski, Agnieszka Markowska
BACKGROUND: The health effects of Amaranth Oil (AO) are attributed to its specific chemical composition. That makes it an outstanding natural product for the prevention and treatment of ultraviolet (UV) irradiation-related pathologies such as sunburn, photoaging, photoimmunosuppression, and photocarcinogenesis. Most of the studies are taken on animal model, and there is a lack of research on the endogenous effect of AO on fibroblast level, where UVA takes it harmful place. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was evaluation if AO can protect or abolish UVA exposure effect on human skin fibroblast...
July 2017: Pharmacognosy Magazine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808206/the-effect-of-sunblock-against-oxidative-stress-in-farmers-a-pilot-study
#8
Yong-Dae Kim, Dong-Hyuk Yim, Sang-Yong Eom, Ji Yeoun Lee, Heon Kim
Farmers are frequently exposed to ultraviolet (UV) radiation which causes various diseases by inducing oxidative stress. This study aimed to assess the effects of sunblock on oxidative stress in the body. Eighty-seven farmers were divided into two groups: those who wore sunblock for five days and those who did not. The total antioxidant capacity (TAC) in urine, which is an antioxidant indicator, and 8-hydroxy-2-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) levels in urine, an oxidative stress indicator, were measured. The urinary TAC of sunblock users was significantly higher than that of non-users, but urinary 8-OHdG levels were not significantly different...
July 13, 2017: Journal of Biomedical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806739/combined-effects-of-o3-and-uv-radiation-on-secondary-metabolites-and-endogenous-hormones-of-soybean-leaves
#9
Bing Mao, Hong Yin, Yan Wang, Tian-Hong Zhao, Rong-Rong Tian, Wei Wang, Jia-Shu Ye
Enhanced ultraviolet radiation (UV) and elevated tropospheric ozone (O3) may individually cause reductions in the growth and productivity of important agricultural crops. However, research regarding their combined effects on important agricultural crops is still scarce, especially on changes in secondary metabolites and endogenous hormones, which are important protective substances and signal components that control plant responses to environment stresses. In this study, using an experimental setup of open top chambers, we monitored the responses of seed yield per plant, leaf secondary metabolites and leaf endogenous hormones under the stress of elevated O3 and enhanced UV radiation individually, as well as their combined stress...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805940/new-and-current-preventive-treatment-options-in-actinic-keratosis
#10
REVIEW
P Arenberger, M Arenbergerova
Actinic keratosis (AK) is a characteristic skin lesion on skin areas of subjects with mainly phototype I and phototype II, or with specific genetic factors and who are exposed to prolonged ultraviolet radiation. AK may be considered a precursor of in situ squamous cell carcinoma (SCC), a type of non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC). However, it is still not possible to predict which AK lesions will develop into SCC. Early treatment of AK is therefore recommended. Despite the increasing number of patients with AK developing into SCC, to date, there is still no clear suggestion of therapeutic strategy for AK...
September 2017: Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology: JEADV
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803347/melatonin-mitochondria-and-the-skin
#11
REVIEW
Andrzej T Slominski, Michal A Zmijewski, Igor Semak, Tae-Kang Kim, Zorica Janjetovic, Radomir M Slominski, Jaroslaw W Zmijewski
The skin being a protective barrier between external and internal (body) environments has the sensory and adaptive capacity to maintain local and global body homeostasis in response to noxious factors. An important part of the skin response to stress is its ability for melatonin synthesis and subsequent metabolism through the indolic and kynuric pathways. Indeed, melatonin and its metabolites have emerged as indispensable for physiological skin functions and for effective protection of a cutaneous homeostasis from hostile environmental factors...
August 12, 2017: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences: CMLS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28800961/functional-consequences-of-inducible-genetic-elements-from-the-p53-sos-response-in-a-mammalian-organ-system
#12
O'neil W Guthrie
In response to DNA damage from ultraviolet (UV) radiation, bacteria deploy the SOS response in order to limit cell death. This bacterial SOS response is characterized by an increase in the recA gene that transactivates expression of multiple DNA repair genes. The current series of experiments demonstrate that a mammalian organ system (the cochlea) that is not evolutionarily conditioned to UV radiation can elicit SOS responses that are reminiscent of that of bacteria. This mammalian SOS response is characterized by an increase in the p53 gene with activation of multiple DNA repair genes that harbor p53 response elements in their promoters...
August 8, 2017: Experimental Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28795608/focus-small-to-find-big-the-microbeam-story
#13
Jinhua Wu, Tom K Hei
PURPOSE: Even though the first ultraviolet microbeam was described by S. Tschachotin back in 1912, the development of sophisticated micro-irradiation facilities only began to flourish in the late 1980s. In this article, we highlight significant microbeam experiments, describe the latest microbeam irradiator configurations and critical discoveries made by using the microbeam apparatus. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Modern radiological microbeams facilities are capable of producing a beam size of a few micrometers, or even tens of nanometers in size, and can deposit radiation with high precision within a cellular target...
August 10, 2017: International Journal of Radiation Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28795516/the-potential-of-liquid-marbles-for-biomedical-applications-a-critical-review
#14
REVIEW
Nuno M Oliveira, Rui L Reis, João F Mano
Liquid marbles (LM) are freestanding droplets covered by micro/nanoparticles with hydrophobic/hydrophilic properties, which can be manipulated as a soft solid. The phenomenon that generates these soft structures is regarded as a different method to generate a superhydrophobic behavior in the liquid/solid interface without modifying the surface. Several applications for the LM have been reported in very different fields, however the developments for biomedical applications are very recent. At first, the LM properties are reviewed, namely shell structure, LM shape, evaporation, floatability and robustness...
August 10, 2017: Advanced Healthcare Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28794481/a-pooled-mutational-analysis-identifies-ionizing-radiation-associated-mutational-signatures-conserved-between-mouse-and-human-malignancies
#15
Philip R Davidson, Amy L Sherborne, Barry Taylor, Alice O Nakamura, Jean L Nakamura
Single nucleotide variants (SNVs) identified in cancer genomes can be de-convolved using non-negative matrix factorization (NMF) into discrete trinucleotide-based mutational signatures indicative of specific cancer-causing processes. The stability of NMF-generated mutational signatures depends upon the numbers of variants available for analysis. In this work, we sought to assess whether data from well-controlled mouse models can compensate for scarce human data for some cancer types. High quality sequencing data from radiotherapy-induced cancers is particularly scarce and the mutational processes defining ionizing radiation (IR)-induced mutagenesis in vivo are poorly defined...
August 9, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28783339/antarctic-moss-biflavonoids-show-high-antioxidant-and-ultraviolet-screening-activity
#16
Melinda J Waterman, Ari S Nugraha, Rudi Hendra, Graham E Ball, Sharon A Robinson, Paul A Keller
Ceratodon purpureus is a cosmopolitan moss that survives some of the harshest places on Earth: from frozen Antarctica to hot South Australian deserts. In a study on the survival mechanisms of the species, nine compounds were isolated from Australian and Antarctic C. purpureus. This included five biflavonoids, with complete structural elucidation of 1 and 2 reported here for the first time, as well as an additional four known phenolic compounds. Dispersion-corrected DFT calculations suggested a rotational barrier, leading to atropisomerism, resulting in the presence of diastereomers for compound 2...
August 7, 2017: Journal of Natural Products
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28780296/effect-of-uvb-radiation-exposure-in-the-expression-of-genes-and-proteins-related-to-apoptosis-in-freshwater-prawn-embryos
#17
Heloísa Schramm, Michael L Jaramillo, Thaline de Quadros, Eliane C Zeni, Yara M R Müller, Dib Ammar, Evelise M Nazari
Our previous studies showed that embryos of the freshwater prawn Macrobrachium olfersii exposed to ultraviolet B (UVB) radiation exhibited DNA damage, excessive ROS production, mitochondrial dysfunction and increased hsp70 expression, which are able, independently or together, to induce apoptosis. Thus, we attempted to elucidate some key apoptosis-related genes (ARG) and apoptosis-related proteins (ARP) and their expression during different stages of embryonic development, as well as to characterize the chronology of ARG expression and ARP contents after UVB radiation insult...
July 26, 2017: Aquatic Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28778034/human-papillomaviruses-and-carcinogenesis-well-established-and-novel-models
#18
REVIEW
Daniele Viarisio, Lutz Gissmann, Massimo Tommasino
Human papillomaviruses (HPVs) infect the cutaneous or mucosal epithelia and are classified phylogenetically as genera and species. Persistent infections by the mucosal high-risk (HR) HPV types from genus alpha are associated with cancer development of the genital and upper respiratory tracts. The products of two early genes, E6 and E7, are the major HR HPV oncoproteins, being essential in all steps of the carcinogenic process. Cutaneous beta HPV types are proposed, together with ultraviolet (UV) radiation, to promote non-melanoma skin cancer development...
August 1, 2017: Current Opinion in Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28775267/ectoine-can-enhance-structural-changes-in-dna-in-vitro
#19
S Meyer, M-A Schröter, M B Hahn, T Solomun, H Sturm, H J Kunte
Strand breaks and conformational changes of DNA have consequences for the physiological role of DNA. The natural protecting molecule ectoine is beneficial to entire bacterial cells and biomolecules such as proteins by mitigating detrimental effects of environmental stresses. It was postulated that ectoine-like molecules bind to negatively charged spheres that mimic DNA surfaces. We investigated the effect of ectoine on DNA and whether ectoine is able to protect DNA from damages caused by ultraviolet radiation (UV-A)...
August 3, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28774592/vitamin-d3-produced-by-skin-exposure-to-uvr-inhibits-murine-basal-cell-carcinoma-carcinogenesis
#20
Anastasia Makarova, Grace Wang, John A Dolorito, Subheksha Kc, Eileen Libove, Ervin H Epstein
The effect of ultraviolet radiation (UVR) on human basal cell carcinoma (BCC) epidemiology is complex - the incidence rises until approximately 30,000 hours of lifetime sunlight exposure and then plateaus. We hypothesize that UVR has opposing effects on BCC carcinogenesis - stimulatory via mutagenesis, etc. and inhibitory via production of hedgehog-inhibiting vitamin D3 (D3). We find that UVR exposure of ionizing radiation (IR)-treated Ptch1(+/-) mice accelerates BCC carcinogenesis in male mice, in which UVR does not produce D3...
July 31, 2017: Journal of Investigative Dermatology
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