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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339254/efficient-vortex-generation-in-subwavelength-epsilon-near-zero-slabs
#1
Alessandro Ciattoni, Andrea Marini, Carlo Rizza
We show that a homogeneous and isotropic slab, illuminated by a circularly polarized beam with no topological charge, produces vortices of order 2 in the opposite circularly polarized components of the reflected and transmitted fields, as a consequence of the transverse magnetic and transverse electric asymmetric response of the rotationally invariant system. In addition, in the epsilon-near-zero regime, we find that vortex generation is remarkably efficient in subwavelength thick slabs up to the paraxial regime...
March 10, 2017: Physical Review Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335296/controlled-mechanical-cracking-of-metal-films-deposited-on-polydimethylsiloxane-pdms
#2
Andreas Polywka, Luca Stegers, Oliver Krauledat, Thomas Riedl, Timo Jakob, Patrick Görrn
Stretchable large area electronics conform to arbitrarily-shaped 3D surfaces and enables comfortable contact to the human skin and other biological tissue. There are approaches allowing for large area thin films to be stretched by tens of percent without cracking. The approach presented here does not prevent cracking, rather it aims to precisely control the crack positions and their orientation. For this purpose, the polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) is hardened by exposure to ultraviolet radiation (172 nm) through an exposure mask...
September 9, 2016: Nanomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335255/a-gallium-oxide-graphene-oxide-hybrid-composite-for-enhanced-photocatalytic-reaction
#3
Seungdu Kim, Kook In Han, In Gyu Lee, Won Kyu Park, Yeojoon Yoon, Chan Sei Yoo, Woo Seok Yang, Wan Sik Hwang
Hybrid composites (HCs) made up of gallium oxide (GaO) and graphene oxide (GO) were investigated with the intent of enhancing a photocatalytic reaction under ultraviolet (UV) radiation. The material properties of both GaO and GO were preserved, even after the formation of the HCs. The incorporation of the GO into the GaO significantly enhanced the photocatalytic reaction, as indicated by the amount of methylene blue (MB) degradation. The improvements in the reaction were discussed in terms of increased surface area and the retarded recombination of generated charged carriers...
July 1, 2016: Nanomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28332621/evolution-analysis-of-euv-radiation-from-laser-produced-tin-plasmas-based-on-a-radiation-hydrodynamics-model
#4
M G Su, Q Min, S Q Cao, D X Sun, P Hayden, G O'Sullivan, C Z Dong
One of fundamental aims of extreme ultraviolet (EUV) lithography is to maximize brightness or conversion efficiency of laser energy to radiation at specific wavelengths from laser produced plasmas (LPPs) of specific elements for matching to available multilayer optical systems. Tin LPPs have been chosen for operation at a wavelength of 13.5 nm. For an investigation of EUV radiation of laser-produced tin plasmas, it is crucial to study the related atomic processes and their evolution so as to reliably predict the optimum plasma and experimental conditions...
March 23, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330720/attenuation-of-uvr-induced-vitamin-d3-synthesis-in-a-mouse-model-deleted-for-keratinocyte-lathosterol-5-desaturase
#5
Anastasia M Makarova, Saloni Pasta, Gordon Watson, Cedric Shackleton, Ervin H Epstein
The lower risk of some internal cancers at lower latitudes has been linked to greater sun exposure and consequent higher levels of ultraviolet radiation (UVR)-produced vitamin D3 (D3). To separate the experimental effects of sunlight and of all forms of D3, a mouse in which UVR does not produce D3 would be useful. To this end we have generated mice carrying a modified allele of sterol C5-desaturase (Sc5d), the gene encoding the enzyme that converts lathosterol to 7-dehydrocholesterol (7-DHC), such that Sc5d expression can be inactivated using the Cre/lox site-specific recombination system...
March 19, 2017: Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28329669/sun-protection-behavior-and-sunburns-among-arizona-adults
#6
Stephanie M Koch, Robin B Harris, Elizabeth T Jacobs, Kacey C Ernst, Leslie K Dennis
ObjectiveTo examine the prevalence of sun protection behaviors and sunburn history among adults in a region of the United States with high ultraviolet radiation exposure.Design and SettingData on self-reported sun protection and sunburns were obtained using supplemental questions added to the 2013 Arizona Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System survey. 3,370 Arizona adults over the age of 18 years completed questions about use sunscreen and protective clothing and reported sunburns within past 12 months...
September 15, 2016: Dermatology Online Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28329630/body-mass-index-height-and-early-onset-basal-cell-carcinoma-in-a-case-control-study
#7
Yanchang Zhang, Brenda Cartmel, Courtney C Choy, Annette M Molinaro, David J Leffell, Allen E Bale, Susan T Mayne, Leah M Ferucci
BackgroundBasal cell carcinoma (BCC) is the most common malignancy in the US. Body mass index (BMI) and height have been associated with a variety of cancer types, yet the evidence regarding BCC is limited. Therefore, we evaluated BMI and height in relation to early- onset BCC and explored the potential role of ultraviolet (UV) radiation exposure as well as estrogen-related exposures in the BMI-BCC relationship.MethodsBCC cases (n=377) diagnosed under age 40 were identified through a central dermatopathology facility in Connecticut...
September 15, 2016: Dermatology Online Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28321507/the-relationship-between-cumulative-lifetime-ultraviolet-radiation-exposure-bone-mineral-density-falls-risk-and-fractures-in-older-adults
#8
M J W Thompson, D A Aitken, P Otahal, J Cicolini, T M Winzenberg, G Jones
Data linking cumulative lifetime vitamin D status with skeletal outcomes are lacking. We show that increasing cumulative sun exposure was associated with higher bone mineral density in younger males and protective against fractures in females independent of current vitamin D. This supports the concept that cumulative sun exposure is an important contributor to skeletal health. INTRODUCTION: While low 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels are associated with increased fracture risk, this reflects only recent sun exposure...
March 20, 2017: Osteoporosis International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28320702/actinic-cheilosis-early-intervention-prevents-malignant-transformation
#9
Arvind Muthukrishnan, Laliytha Bijai Kumar
Potentially malignant disorders (PMD) have a high risk of malignant transformation. Habits such as tobacco and alcohol use predispose to PMD and subsequently to an oral carcinoma. Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) can occur even without the usage of tobacco. Occupational exposure to actinic rays may predispose to the development of OSCC in the lip. People who are involved in farming or those exposed to an environmental background radiation, such as ultraviolet rays, develop a PMD called actinic cheilosis...
March 20, 2017: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28320313/retention-of-duplicated-long-wavelength-opsins-in-mosquito-lineages-by-positive-selection-and-differential-expression
#10
Gloria I Giraldo-Calderón, Michael J Zanis, Catherine A Hill
BACKGROUND: Opsins are light sensitive receptors associated with visual processes. Insects typically possess opsins that are stimulated by ultraviolet, short and long wavelength (LW) radiation. Six putative LW-sensitive opsins predicted in the yellow fever mosquito, Aedes aegypti and malaria mosquito, Anopheles gambiae, and eight in the southern house mosquito, Culex quinquefasciatus, suggest gene expansion in the Family Culicidae (mosquitoes) relative to other insects. Here we report the first detailed molecular and evolutionary analyses of LW opsins in three mosquito vectors, with a goal to understanding the molecular basis of opsin-mediated visual processes that could be exploited for mosquito control...
March 21, 2017: BMC Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318054/efficacy-and-safety-of-targeted-high-intensity-medium-band-304-312-nm-ultraviolet-b-light-in-pediatric-vitiligo
#11
Da-Ke Dong, Zhan-Yan Pan, Juan Zhang, Xue-Fen Lu, Cheng Jin, Shi-Qin Tao, Li-Jia Yang
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Phototherapy is a commonly used treatment for vitiligo that has demonstrated safety and efficacy. High-intensity targeted ultraviolet B (UVB) light (304-312 nm) delivered using a phototherapy device is a useful therapeutic option because it can induce repigmentation in a short time without global exposure to radiation, but information regarding this device in children is limited. METHODS: We performed a retrospective analysis of 95 patches of vitiligo in 27 children treated using a targeted phototherapy device...
March 20, 2017: Pediatric Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28301979/short-time-uva-exposure-to-human-keratinocytes-instigated-polyunsaturated-fatty-acid-without-inducing-lipid-peroxidation
#12
Kin Sum Leung, Hok Fung Chan, Ho Hang Leung, Jean-Marie Galano, Camille Oger, Thierry Durand, Jetty Chung-Yung Lee
Short-term exposure to ultraviolet A (UVA) radiation can directly injure our skin through inflammatory response and indirectly through oxidative stress, triggering polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) peroxidation in skin cell membrane and formation of DNA adduct, 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG). It is known that UVA exposure leads to photoaging, immunosuppression and skin cancer. However, the changes in PUFA and its oxidized metabolites, and cell cycle after short UVA exposure, are debatable. In this study, human keratinocytes (HaCaT) were exposed to low dose (5 J/cm(2)) and high dose (20 J/cm(2)) of UVA and assessed immediately, 8 h, 12 h, and 24 h post-treatment...
March 17, 2017: Free Radical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28301324/response-of-alternative-splice-isoforms-of-osrad9-gene-from-oryza-sativa-to-environmental-stress
#13
Rui Li, Wenguo Wang, Fosheng Li, Qingwei Wang, Shenghua Wang, Ying Xu, Fang Chen
Rad9 protein plays an important role in cell-cycle checkpoint signal transduction in human and yeast cells, but knowledge about Rad9 in plants is limited. This study reports that the Rad9 gene of rice can generate the transcript products OsRad9.1 and OsRad9.2 through alternative splicing. OsRad9.1, with all nine exons, is the main cell-cycle checkpoint protein involved in the response of rice to genotoxic stresses (ultraviolet radiation and antibiotic stress), environmental stresses (drought, salt, and heavy metal stress), and auxin stimuli (2,4-D, IAA, and IBA)...
March 16, 2017: Zeitschrift Für Naturforschung. C, A Journal of Biosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28299721/pro-np%C3%A2-protect-against-tio2-nanoparticle-induced-phototoxicity-in-zebrafish-model-exploring-potential-application-for-skin-care
#14
Min-Sik Kim, Melinda Stees, Bala Vamsi K Karuturi, Sivakumar Vijayaraghavalu, Richard E Peterson, Gary L Madsen, Vinod Labhasetwar
Titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO2NPs) are used in sunscreen products to protect the skin from the sun's ultraviolet rays. However, following exposure to sunlight, the photocatalytic activity of TiO2NPs can produce an excess of reactive oxygen species (ROS), causing skin cell damage, triggering an inflammatory response. In zebrafish model, we evaluated how well Pro-NP™ (biodegradable NPs containing superoxide dismutase and catalase) could protect them from TiO2NP-induced photo-oxidative stress. We hypothesized that the antioxidant properties of Pro-NP™ would protect zebrafish embryos from the phototoxic effects of TiO2NPs, improving overall survival and growth...
March 15, 2017: Drug Delivery and Translational Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28295364/melanoma-chemoprevention-current-status-and-future-prospects
#15
Gagan Chhabra, Mary Ann Ndiaye, Liz Mariely Garcia-Peterson, Nihal Ahmad
The incidence of skin cancers, both non-melanoma as well as melanoma, are increasing in the United States. The ultraviolet radiation, mainly from sun, is considered the major cause for these neoplasms. While non-melanoma skin cancers are far more numerous, melanoma remains the most challenging. This is because melanoma can become extremely aggressive and its incidence is increasing worldwide due to lack of effective early detection, as well as disease recurrence, following both surgery and chemotherapy. Therefore, in addition to better treatment options, newer means are required to prevent melanomas from developing...
March 15, 2017: Photochemistry and Photobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28294346/skin-erythema-pigmentation-and-hydration-kinetics-after-ultraviolet-radiation-induced-photodamage-in-southern-chinese-women
#16
MiaoJian Wan, Rong Hu, Xiaoyuan Xie, Zijian Gong, Jinling Yi, Haiyan Chen, Lin Xie, Xiaomin Guan, Lei Guan, Wei Lai
Although there have been some studies about changes of skin erythema and pigmentation following ultraviolet radiation in other races, the relevant data in Chinese have never been achieved. Thus we evaluated the long-time course of skin erythema, pigmentation and hydration changes after different doses of solar-simulated ultraviolet (SSUV) irradiation in 26 Chinese women for 168 days. The erythema index increased abruptly and peaked during 3 days of SSUV exposure, then slowly returned to the baseline level starting at day 7 and completely recovered during 168-day course of this study only in one minimal erythema doses (MED) SSUV irradiation...
March 15, 2017: Photochemistry and Photobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28293428/photocatalytic-degradation-of-atrazine-herbicide-with-illuminated-fe-3-tio2-nanoparticles
#17
Narges Shamsedini, Mansooreh Dehghani, Simin Nasseri, Mohammad Ali Baghapour
BACKGROUND: Atrazine is a herbicide that is widely used to control broadleaf and grassy weeds for growing many crops especially in maize production. It is a frequently detected herbicide in many groundwater resources. This study aimed to assess the feasibility of using ultraviolet radiation UV and fortified nanoparticles of titanium dioxide (TiO2) doped with trivalent iron to remove atrazine from aqueous phase and determin the removal efficiency under the optimal conditions. RESULTS: The results of this study demonstrated that the maximum atrazine removal rate was at pH = 11 in the presence of Fe(+ 3)-TiO2 catalyst =25 mg/L and the initial concentration of atrazine equal to 10 mg/L...
2017: Journal of Environmental Health Science & Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28290611/effect-of-increased-uv-b-radiation-on-carotenoid-accumulation-and-total-antioxidant-capacity-in-tobacco-nicotiana-tabacum-l-leaves
#18
J Shen, C Q Jiang, Y F Yan, B R Liu, C L Zu
Carotenoids are important components of plant antioxidant systems, which protect photosystems from photooxidative destruction during ultraviolet-B (UV-B) exposure. The influence of carotenoids on total antioxidant capacity (TAC) of plants has rarely been studied. In this study, tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L., 'K326') seedlings exposed to UV-B radiation were used in order to evaluate the effects of ambient levels of UV-B radiation on carotenoid accumulation. The aim was to investigate whether carotenoids could enhance TAC as a means of UV protection...
March 8, 2017: Genetics and Molecular Research: GMR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28290090/evaluation-of-atrazine-degradation-applied-to-different-energy-systems
#19
EDITORIAL
Ailton J Moreira, Bianca S Pinheiro, André F Araújo, Gian P G Freschi
Atrazine is an herbicide widely used in crops and has drawn attention due to potential pollution present in soil, sediment, water, and food. Since conventional methods are not potentially efficient to persistent degradation of organic compounds, new technology has been developed to remove them, especially practices utilizing advanced oxidation processes (AOPs). This work aims to evaluate the use of different energies (ultraviolet (UV), microwaves (MW), and radiations (MW-UV)) to the herbicide atrazine through the process of photo-oxidation...
March 14, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28289050/knowledge-and-attitudes-of-uk-university-students-in-relation-to-ultraviolet-radiation-uvr-exposure-and-their-sun-related-behaviours-a-qualitative-study
#20
Lucy Kirk, Sheila Greenfield
OBJECTIVES: To explore whether knowledge about the harms of ultraviolet radiation (UVR) influences UK university students' sun-related behaviours and examine in depth their attitudes towards: sun protection, natural and artificial tanning behaviours. DESIGN: Qualitative methodology with 15 semistructured, individual interviews. Thematic analysis using the Framework Method with analyst triangulation and member validation. SETTING: One university in the West Midlands, UK...
March 13, 2017: BMJ Open
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