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Excretion fraction urea

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202885/tolvaptan-reduces-the-risk-of-worsening-renal-function-in-patients-with-acute-decompensated-heart-failure-and-preserved-left-ventricular-ejection-fraction%C3%A3-prospective-randomized-controlled-study
#1
Shunsuke Tamaki, Yoshihiro Sato, Takahisa Yamada, Takashi Morita, Yoshio Furukawa, Yusuke Iwasaki, Masato Kawasaki, Atsushi Kikuchi, Takumi Kondo, Tatsuhisa Ozaki, Masahiro Seo, Iyo Ikeda, Eiji Fukuhara, Makoto Abe, Jun Nakamura, Masatake Fukunami
BACKGROUND: Although the mainstay of treatment for acute decompensated heart failure (ADHF) is decongestion by diuretic therapy, it is often associated with worsening renal function (WRF). The effect of tolvaptan, a selective V2 receptor antagonist, on WRF in ADHF patients with preserved left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) is unknown.Methods and Results:We enrolled 50 consecutive ADHF patients whose LVEF on admission was ≥45%. Patients were randomly assigned to either tolvaptan add-on (n=26) or conventional diuretic therapy (n=24)...
February 16, 2017: Circulation Journal: Official Journal of the Japanese Circulation Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28174217/diagnosis-and-treatment-of-hyponatremia-compilation-of-the-guidelines
#2
Ewout J Hoorn, Robert Zietse
Hyponatremia is a common water balance disorder that often poses a diagnostic or therapeutic challenge. Therefore, guidelines were developed by professional organizations, one from within the United States (2013) and one from within Europe (2014). This review discusses the diagnosis and treatment of hyponatremia, comparing the two guidelines and highlighting recent developments. Diagnostically, the initial step is to differentiate hypotonic from nonhypotonic hyponatremia. Hypotonic hyponatremia is further differentiated on the basis of urine osmolality, urine sodium level, and volume status...
February 7, 2017: Journal of the American Society of Nephrology: JASN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078852/cell-based-therapies-for-experimental-diabetic-nephropathy-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#3
H J Tang, Z G Tian, X Yang, Y Cao, W G Li
Study has shown that stem cell–based therapies are promising strategies in the treatment of several chronic diseases, but their overall benefit in the treatment of diabetic nephropathy (DN) remains controversial. The purpose of this study is to summarize the evidence of the effect of cell-based therapy in the treatment of DN to guide future clinical trials. We searched PubMed, EmBase, and the Cochrane Library for studies from the inception of cell-based therapies up to July 2015. We included animal trials that reported the effects of cell-based therapy on kidney function, cardiovascular risk factors, and body factors...
October 2016: Journal of Biological Regulators and Homeostatic Agents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069102/the-effect-of-cp-concentration-in-the-diet-on-urea-kinetics-and-microbial-usage-of-recycled-urea-in-cattle-a-meta-analysis
#4
E D Batista, E Detmann, S C Valadares Filho, E C Titgemeyer, R F D Valadares
In ruminants, urea recycling is considered an evolutionary advantage. The amount of urea recycled mainly depends of the nitrogen (N) intake and the amount of organic matter (OM) digested in the rumen. Because recycled N contributes to meeting microbial N requirements, accurate estimates of urea recycling can improve the understanding of efficiency of N utilization and N losses to the environment. The objective of this study was to evaluate urea kinetics and microbial usage of recycled urea N in ruminants using a meta-analytical approach...
January 10, 2017: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28040487/a-waterborne-chemical-cue-from-gulf-toadfish-opsanus-beta-prompts-pulsatile-urea-excretion-in-conspecifics
#5
Jeremy Fulton, Christophe M R LeMoine, Carol Bucking, Kevin V Brix, Patrick J Walsh, M Danielle McDonald
The Gulf toadfish (Opsanus beta) has a fully functional ornithine urea cycle (O-UC) that allows it to excrete nitrogenous waste in the form of urea. Interestingly, urea is excreted in a pulse across the gill that lasts 1-3h and occurs once or twice a day. Both the stress hormone, cortisol, and the neurotransmitter, serotonin (5-HT) are involved in the control of pulsatile urea excretion. This and other evidence suggests that urea pulsing may be linked to toadfish social behavior. The hypothesis of the present study was that toadfish urea pulses can be triggered by waterborne chemical cues from conspecifics...
December 28, 2016: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28013356/diuretic-effect-of-extracts-fractions-and-two-compounds-2%C3%AE-3%C3%AE-19%C3%AE-trihydroxy-urs-12-en-28-oic-acid-and-5-hydroxy-3-6-7-8-4-pentamethoxyflavone-from-rubus-rosaefolius-sm-rosaceae-leaves-in-rats
#6
Priscila de Souza, Thaise Boeing, Lincon Bordignon Somensi, Camile Cecconi Cechinel-Zanchett, Jairo Kenupp Bastos, Marcel Petreanu, Rivaldo Niero, Valdir Cechinel-Filho, Luisa Mota da Silva, Sérgio Faloni de Andrade
Although diuretics have been widely used to treat hypertension along with others cardiovascular and renal disorders, no scientific data have been recorded to support the diuretic properties of Rubus rosaefolius Sm. (Rosaceae), a plant popularly used in Brazil to treat hypertension. Male Wistar rats were orally treated with: vehicle; hydrochlorothiazide; aqueous (AERR) and methanolic (MERR) extracts; dichloromethane (DCM), hexane (HEX) and ethyl acetate (EA) fractions; and the isolated compounds 2α,3β,19α-trihydroxy-urs-12-en-28-oic acid (TUA) and 5-hydroxy-3,6,7,8,4'-pentamethoxyflavone (PMF)...
December 24, 2016: Naunyn-Schmiedeberg's Archives of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27751996/fractional-excretion-of-magnesium-a-marker-of-aminoglycoside-induced-nephrotoxicity-in-neonates
#7
Sheikh Farjana Sonia, Mohammad S Hassan, Ferdous Ara, Mohammed Hanif
Aminoglycoside is a widely used antibiotic in neonatal age group at hospital setting in Bangladesh. It has underlying side effect and toxicity which is mostly unseen and ignored. The aim of the study was to evaluate the nephrotoxic effect of aminoglycoside in neonates. This study was conducted in fifty hospital admitted neonates of Dhaka Shishu Hospital from January 2012 to December 2013. Serum creatinine, blood urea nitrogen, and fractional excretion of magnesium (FEMg) were measured before starting and after seven days of aminoglycoside treatment...
September 2016: Saudi Journal of Kidney Diseases and Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27624603/the-effect-of-tolvaptan-on-renal-excretion-of-electrolytes-and-urea-nitrogen-in-patients-undergoing-coronary-artery-bypass-surgery
#8
Tomoko S Kato, Hiroshi Nakamura, Mai Murata, Kishio Kuroda, Hitoshi Suzuki, Yasutaka Yokoyama, Akie Shimada, Satoshi Matsushita, Taira Yamamoto, Atsushi Amano
BACKGROUND: Adequate fluid management is an important component of patient care following cardiac surgery. Our aim in this study was to determine the benefits of tolvaptan, an oral selective vasopressin-2 receptor antagonist that causes electrolyte-free water diuresis, in postoperative fluid management. We prospectively examined the effect of tolvaptan on renal excretion of electrolytes and urea nitrogen in cardiac surgery patients. METHODS: Patients undergoing coronary artery bypass surgery were randomized to receive conventional loop diuretics (Group C, n = 30) or conventional loop diuretic therapy plus tolvaptan (Group T, n = 27)...
2016: BMC Cardiovascular Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27585605/renal-effects-of-dpp-4-inhibitor-sitagliptin-or-glp-1-receptor-agonist-liraglutide-in-overweight-patients-with-type-2-diabetes-a-12-week-randomized-double-blind-placebo-controlled-trial
#9
Lennart Tonneijck, Mark M Smits, Marcel H A Muskiet, Trynke Hoekstra, Mark H H Kramer, A H Jan Danser, Piet M Ter Wee, Michaela Diamant, Jaap A Joles, Daniël H van Raalte
OBJECTIVE: To investigate effects of dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitor (DPP-4I) sitagliptin or glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) receptor agonist liraglutide treatment on renal hemodynamics, tubular functions, and markers of renal damage in overweight patients with type 2 diabetes without chronic kidney disease (CKD). RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: In this 12-week, randomized, double-blind trial, 55 insulin-naïve patients with type 2 diabetes (mean ± SEM: age 63 ± 7 years, BMI 31...
November 2016: Diabetes Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27522260/astilbin-improves-potassium-oxonate-induced-hyperuricemia-and-kidney-injury-through-regulating-oxidative-stress-and-inflammation-response-in-mice
#10
Ming Wang, Jing Zhao, Nan Zhang, Jianghua Chen
Astilbin is a flavonoid compound derived from the rhizome of Smilax china L. The effects and possible molecular mechanisms of astilbin on potassium oxonate-induced hyperuricemia mice were investigated in this study. Different dosages of astilbin (5, 10, and 20mg/kg) were administered to induce hyperuricemic mice. The results demonstrated that the serum uric acid (Sur) level was significantly decreased by increasing the urinary uric acid (Uur) level and fractional excretion of urate (FEUA) with astilbin, related with suppressing role in meditation of Glucose transporter 9 (GLUT9), Human urate transporter 1 (URAT1) expression and up-regulation of ABCG2, Organic anion transporter 1/3 (OAT1/3) and Organic cation transporter 1 (OCT1)...
October 2016: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27484883/curcumin-alleviates-ischemia-reperfusion-induced-acute-kidney-injury-through-nmda-receptor-antagonism-in-rats
#11
Anudeep Kaur, Tajpreet Kaur, Balbir Singh, Devendra Pathak, Harpal Singh Buttar, Amrit Pal Singh
OBJECTIVE: The present study investigated the role of N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptors in curcumin-mediated renoprotection against ischemia reperfusion (I/R)-induced acute kidney injury (AKI) in rats. METHODS: Rats were subjected to bilateral renal I/R (40 min I, 24 hours R) to induce AKI. Kidney injury was assessed by measuring creatinine clearance, blood urea nitrogen, plasma uric acid, potassium level, fractional excretion of sodium, and macroproteinuria...
October 2016: Renal Failure
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27466783/conjugated-linoleic-acid-rat-pretreatment-reduces-renal-damage-in-ischemia-reperfusion-injury-unraveling-antiapoptotic-mechanisms-and-regulation-of-phosphorylated-mammalian-target-of-rapamycin
#12
Gholamali Javedan, Farzad Shidfar, Sayed Hossein Davoodi, Marjan Ajami, Fazel Gorjipour, Antoni Sureda, Seyed Mohammad Nabavi, Maria Daglia, Hamidreza Pazoki-Toroudi
SCOPE: Conjugated linoleic acids (CLAs) are dietary components with beneficial effects on human health. The aim of this study was to evaluate the potential benefits of CLA pretreatment in a rat model of renal ischemia/reperfusion injury (IRI). METHODS AND RESULTS: Animals were treated with CLAs (200 mg/kg/day) or water for two weeks prior to sham surgery or to surgery to induce IRI. Renal function, oxidative stress, apoptosis, and cell proliferation markers, were evaluated...
December 2016: Molecular Nutrition & Food Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27101843/simple-blood-and-urinary-parameters-measured-at-icu-admission-may-sign-for-aki-development-in-the-early-postoperative-period-a-retrospective-exploratory-study
#13
Alexandre Toledo Maciel, Lia Delphino Salles, Daniel Vitorio
Recent studies have suggested that some blood physicochemical and urinary biochemical parameters have a standardized behavior during acute kidney injury (AKI) development. The changes in these parameters frequently begin to occur before significant rises in serum creatinine (sCr) and may help in identifying patients with more subtle decreases in glomerular filtration rate (GFR). Surgical patients have an increased risk of AKI but renal impairment is usually not evident at ICU admission. We hypothesized that the surgical patients who have AKI diagnosed in the early postoperative period have an impaired GFR since ICU admission, indirectly inferred by alterations in these blood physicochemical and urinary biochemical parameters even in the presence of a still normal sCr...
November 2016: Renal Failure
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27038451/acute-renal-effects-of-the-glp-1-receptor-agonist-exenatide-in-overweight-type-2-diabetes-patients-a-randomised-double-blind-placebo-controlled-trial
#14
Lennart Tonneijck, Mark M Smits, Marcel H A Muskiet, Trynke Hoekstra, Mark H H Kramer, A H Jan Danser, Michaela Diamant, Jaap A Joles, Daniël H van Raalte
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: This study aimed to investigate the acute renal effects of the glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonist (GLP-1RA) exenatide in type 2 diabetes patients. METHODS: We included overweight (BMI 25-40 kg/m(2)) men and postmenopausal women, aged 35-75 years with type 2 diabetes (HbA1c 48-75 mmol/mol; 6.5-9.0%) and estimated GFR ≥ 60 ml min(-1) 1.73 m(-2). Exenatide or placebo (NaCl solution, 154 mmol/l) was administrated intravenously in an acute, randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial conducted at the Diabetes Center VU University Medical Center (VUMC)...
July 2016: Diabetologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27021008/angiotensin-ii-type-2-receptor-agonist-c21-reduces-proteinuria-and-oxidative-stress-in-kidney-of-high-salt-fed-obese-zucker-rats
#15
COMPARATIVE STUDY
Sanket N Patel, Quaisar Ali, Tahir Hussain
Oxidative and nitrosative stress have been implicated in high-sodium diet (HSD)-related hypertensive renal injury. In this study, we investigated angiotensin II type 2-receptor-mediated renoprotection in obese Zucker rats fed HSD. Obese Zucker rats were fed normal sodium diet or HSD 4%, for 14 days, with/without angiotensin II type 2-receptor agonist C21, delivered subcutaneously via osmotic pump, 1 mg/kg per day. Compared with normal sodium diet controls, HSD rats exhibited increase in cortical nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase activity, urinary H2O2, and 8-isoprostanes, which were associated with severe glomerulosclerosis, interstitial fibrosis, decline in estimated glomerular filtration rate, and an increase in urinary leak and activity of N-acetyl-β-D-glucosaminidase, a lysosomal enzyme and a marker of tubular damage...
May 2016: Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27001938/-development-and-basics-of-metabolic-monitoring-in-dairy-cows-focus-on-research-in-eastern-germany-and-at-the-university-of-leipzig-germany
#16
M Fürll
UNLABELLED: Systematic metabolic monitoring began in German-speaking countries in the late 1960s, early 1970s, due to an increase in metabolic disorders as a cause of infertility and mastitis and aimed at their prevention through early diagnosis. Development of a unified monitoring standard: Initiated by Rossow, Gürtler, Ehrentraut, Seidel and Furcht a standard "metabolic monitoring in cattle production" was developed in the 1970s. It included farm analysis, clinical and biochemical controls, prophylaxis and follow-up controls...
2016: Tierärztliche Praxis. Ausgabe G, Grosstiere/Nutztiere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26993815/utility-of-fractional-excretion-of-urea-in-the-differential-diagnosis-of-acute-kidney-injury-in-children
#17
Hisayo Fujita, Masayoshi Shinjoh, Tomohiro Ishii, Midori Awazu
INTRODUCTION: The fractional excretion of sodium (FENa) has been used as an index for the differential diagnosis of acute tubular necrosis (ATN) and prerenal acute kidney injury (AKI). The reliability of this index, however, decreases with the use of the diuretic agent furosemide. The fractional excretion of urea nitrogen (FEUN) has been shown to be useful in such settings in adults. The objective of this study was to examine whether FEUN is also useful in these settings in children. METHODS: We assessed 102 episodes of AKI in 74 children, classifying these into three groups based on history, physical examination, urine examination and subsequent clinical course: (1) prerenal AKI without furosemide (N = 37), (2) prerenal AKI with furosemide (N = 32) and (3) ATN (N = 33)...
August 2016: Pediatric Nephrology: Journal of the International Pediatric Nephrology Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26947294/influence-of-milk-urea-concentration-on-fractional-urea-disappearance-rate-from-milk-to-blood-plasma-in-dairy-cows
#18
J W Spek, J Dijkstra, A Bannink
The relationship between milk urea nitrogen (MUN; mg of N/dL) and urinary N excretion is affected, among others, by diurnal dynamics in MUN, which in turn is largely influenced by feed intake pattern and characteristics of urea transfer from blood plasma to milk and vice versa. This study aimed to obtain insight in urea transfer characteristics within the mammary gland and from the mammary gland to blood plasma in dairy cows at various concentrations of plasma urea nitrogen (PUN; mg of N/dL) and MUN. Urea transfer from milk to blood plasma and urea transfer within the mammary gland itself was evaluated in a 4×4 Latin square design using 4 lactating multiparous Holstein-Friesian cows (milk production of 39...
May 2016: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26859933/-markers-of-kidney-damage-and-nephroprotective-therapy-in-radical-cystectomy
#19
COMPARATIVE STUDY
V N Pavlov, A M Pushkarev, Ya V Kondratenko, R I Safiullin, A V Alekseev
The comparative analysis of changes of the functional (osmolar clearance and fractional excretion of urea) and structural (NGAL, β2-microglobulin in the blood plasma, and NGAL, β2-microglobulin, microalbumin in the urine) biomarkers of kidney damage before and at various stages after radical cystectomy was performed. The study included patients with T2N0M0 stage bladder cancer. The main group consisted of 37 patients receiving nephroprotective treatment (N-acetylcysteine), the comparison group--31 patients receiving background therapy...
September 2015: Urologii︠a︡
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26728617/dipyridamole-attenuates-ischemia-reperfusion-induced-acute-kidney-injury-through-adenosinergic-a1-and-a2a-receptor-agonism-in-rats
#20
Nikkita Puri, Vinita Mohey, Manjinder Singh, Tajpreet Kaur, Devendra Pathak, Harpal Singh Buttar, Amrit Pal Singh
Dipyridamole (DYP) is an anti-platelet agent with marked vasodilator, anti-oxidant, and anti-inflammatory activity. The present study investigated the role of adenosine receptors in DYP-mediated protection against ischemia reperfusion-induced acute kidney injury (AKI) in rats. The rats were subjected to bilateral renal ischemia for 40 min followed by reperfusion for 24 h. The renal damage induced by ischemia reperfusion injury (IRI) was assessed by measuring creatinine clearance, blood urea nitrogen, uric acid, plasma potassium, fractional excretion of sodium, and microproteinuria in rats...
April 2016: Naunyn-Schmiedeberg's Archives of Pharmacology
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