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Excretion fraction urea

Sheikh Farjana Sonia, Mohammad S Hassan, Ferdous Ara, Mohammed Hanif
Aminoglycoside is a widely used antibiotic in neonatal age group at hospital setting in Bangladesh. It has underlying side effect and toxicity which is mostly unseen and ignored. The aim of the study was to evaluate the nephrotoxic effect of aminoglycoside in neonates. This study was conducted in fifty hospital admitted neonates of Dhaka Shishu Hospital from January 2012 to December 2013. Serum creatinine, blood urea nitrogen, and fractional excretion of magnesium (FEMg) were measured before starting and after seven days of aminoglycoside treatment...
September 2016: Saudi Journal of Kidney Diseases and Transplantation
Tomoko S Kato, Hiroshi Nakamura, Mai Murata, Kishio Kuroda, Hitoshi Suzuki, Yasutaka Yokoyama, Akie Shimada, Satoshi Matsushita, Taira Yamamoto, Atsushi Amano
BACKGROUND: Adequate fluid management is an important component of patient care following cardiac surgery. Our aim in this study was to determine the benefits of tolvaptan, an oral selective vasopressin-2 receptor antagonist that causes electrolyte-free water diuresis, in postoperative fluid management. We prospectively examined the effect of tolvaptan on renal excretion of electrolytes and urea nitrogen in cardiac surgery patients. METHODS: Patients undergoing coronary artery bypass surgery were randomized to receive conventional loop diuretics (Group C, n = 30) or conventional loop diuretic therapy plus tolvaptan (Group T, n = 27)...
2016: BMC Cardiovascular Disorders
Lennart Tonneijck, Mark M Smits, Marcel H A Muskiet, Trynke Hoekstra, Mark H H Kramer, A H Jan Danser, Piet M Ter Wee, Michaela Diamant, Jaap A Joles, Daniël H van Raalte
OBJECTIVE: To investigate effects of dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitor (DPP-4I) sitagliptin or glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) receptor agonist liraglutide treatment on renal hemodynamics, tubular functions, and markers of renal damage in overweight patients with type 2 diabetes without chronic kidney disease (CKD). RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: In this 12-week, randomized, double-blind trial, 55 insulin-naïve patients with type 2 diabetes (mean ± SEM: age 63 ± 7 years, BMI 31...
September 1, 2016: Diabetes Care
Ming Wang, Jing Zhao, Nan Zhang, Jianghua Chen
Astilbin is a flavonoid compound derived from the rhizome of Smilax china L. The effects and possible molecular mechanisms of astilbin on potassium oxonate-induced hyperuricemia mice were investigated in this study. Different dosages of astilbin (5, 10, and 20mg/kg) were administered to induce hyperuricemic mice. The results demonstrated that the serum uric acid (Sur) level was significantly decreased by increasing the urinary uric acid (Uur) level and fractional excretion of urate (FEUA) with astilbin, related with suppressing role in meditation of Glucose transporter 9 (GLUT9), Human urate transporter 1 (URAT1) expression and up-regulation of ABCG2, Organic anion transporter 1/3 (OAT1/3) and Organic cation transporter 1 (OCT1)...
August 11, 2016: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
Anudeep Kaur, Tajpreet Kaur, Balbir Singh, Devendra Pathak, Harpal Singh Buttar, Amrit Pal Singh
OBJECTIVE: The present study investigated the role of N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptors in curcumin-mediated renoprotection against ischemia reperfusion (I/R)-induced acute kidney injury (AKI) in rats. METHODS: Rats were subjected to bilateral renal I/R (40 min I, 24 hours R) to induce AKI. Kidney injury was assessed by measuring creatinine clearance, blood urea nitrogen, plasma uric acid, potassium level, fractional excretion of sodium, and macroproteinuria...
August 3, 2016: Renal Failure
Gholamali Javedan, Farzad Shidfar, Sayed Hossein Davoodi, Marjan Ajami, Fazel Gorjipour, Antoni Sureda, Seyed Mohammad Nabavi, Maria Daglia, Hamidreza Pazoki Toroudi
SCOPE: Conjugated linoleic acids (CLAs) are dietary components with beneficial effects on human health. The aim of this study was to evaluate the potential benefits of CLA pretreatment in a rat model of renal ischemia/reperfusion injury (IRI). METHODS AND RESULTS: Animals were treated with CLAs (200mg/kg/day) or water for two weeks prior to sham surgery or to surgery to induce IRI. Renal function, oxidative stress, apoptosis, and cell proliferation markers, were evaluated...
July 28, 2016: Molecular Nutrition & Food Research
Alexandre Toledo Maciel, Lia Delphino Salles, Daniel Vitorio
Recent studies have suggested that some blood physicochemical and urinary biochemical parameters have a standardized behavior during acute kidney injury (AKI) development. The changes in these parameters frequently begin to occur before significant rises in serum creatinine (sCr) and may help in identifying patients with more subtle decreases in glomerular filtration rate (GFR). Surgical patients have an increased risk of AKI but renal impairment is usually not evident at ICU admission. We hypothesized that the surgical patients who have AKI diagnosed in the early postoperative period have an impaired GFR since ICU admission, indirectly inferred by alterations in these blood physicochemical and urinary biochemical parameters even in the presence of a still normal sCr...
April 21, 2016: Renal Failure
Lennart Tonneijck, Mark M Smits, Marcel H A Muskiet, Trynke Hoekstra, Mark H H Kramer, A H Jan Danser, Michaela Diamant, Jaap A Joles, Daniël H van Raalte
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: This study aimed to investigate the acute renal effects of the glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonist (GLP-1RA) exenatide in type 2 diabetes patients. METHODS: We included overweight (BMI 25-40 kg/m(2)) men and postmenopausal women, aged 35-75 years with type 2 diabetes (HbA1c 48-75 mmol/mol; 6.5-9.0%) and estimated GFR ≥ 60 ml min(-1) 1.73 m(-2). Exenatide or placebo (NaCl solution, 154 mmol/l) was administrated intravenously in an acute, randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial conducted at the Diabetes Center VU University Medical Center (VUMC)...
July 2016: Diabetologia
Sanket N Patel, Quaisar Ali, Tahir Hussain
Oxidative and nitrosative stress have been implicated in high-sodium diet (HSD)-related hypertensive renal injury. In this study, we investigated angiotensin II type 2-receptor-mediated renoprotection in obese Zucker rats fed HSD. Obese Zucker rats were fed normal sodium diet or HSD 4%, for 14 days, with/without angiotensin II type 2-receptor agonist C21, delivered subcutaneously via osmotic pump, 1 mg/kg per day. Compared with normal sodium diet controls, HSD rats exhibited increase in cortical nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase activity, urinary H2O2, and 8-isoprostanes, which were associated with severe glomerulosclerosis, interstitial fibrosis, decline in estimated glomerular filtration rate, and an increase in urinary leak and activity of N-acetyl-β-D-glucosaminidase, a lysosomal enzyme and a marker of tubular damage...
May 2016: Hypertension
M Fürll
UNLABELLED: Systematic metabolic monitoring began in German-speaking countries in the late 1960s, early 1970s, due to an increase in metabolic disorders as a cause of infertility and mastitis and aimed at their prevention through early diagnosis. Development of a unified monitoring standard: Initiated by Rossow, Gürtler, Ehrentraut, Seidel and Furcht a standard "metabolic monitoring in cattle production" was developed in the 1970s. It included farm analysis, clinical and biochemical controls, prophylaxis and follow-up controls...
2016: Tierärztliche Praxis. Ausgabe G, Grosstiere/Nutztiere
Hisayo Fujita, Masayoshi Shinjoh, Tomohiro Ishii, Midori Awazu
INTRODUCTION: The fractional excretion of sodium (FENa) has been used as an index for the differential diagnosis of acute tubular necrosis (ATN) and prerenal acute kidney injury (AKI). The reliability of this index, however, decreases with the use of the diuretic agent furosemide. The fractional excretion of urea nitrogen (FEUN) has been shown to be useful in such settings in adults. The objective of this study was to examine whether FEUN is also useful in these settings in children. METHODS: We assessed 102 episodes of AKI in 74 children, classifying these into three groups based on history, physical examination, urine examination and subsequent clinical course: (1) prerenal AKI without furosemide (N = 37), (2) prerenal AKI with furosemide (N = 32) and (3) ATN (N = 33)...
August 2016: Pediatric Nephrology: Journal of the International Pediatric Nephrology Association
J W Spek, J Dijkstra, A Bannink
The relationship between milk urea nitrogen (MUN; mg of N/dL) and urinary N excretion is affected, among others, by diurnal dynamics in MUN, which in turn is largely influenced by feed intake pattern and characteristics of urea transfer from blood plasma to milk and vice versa. This study aimed to obtain insight in urea transfer characteristics within the mammary gland and from the mammary gland to blood plasma in dairy cows at various concentrations of plasma urea nitrogen (PUN; mg of N/dL) and MUN. Urea transfer from milk to blood plasma and urea transfer within the mammary gland itself was evaluated in a 4×4 Latin square design using 4 lactating multiparous Holstein-Friesian cows (milk production of 39...
May 2016: Journal of Dairy Science
V N Pavlov, A M Pushkarev, Ya V Kondratenko, R I Safiullin, A V Alekseev
The comparative analysis of changes of the functional (osmolar clearance and fractional excretion of urea) and structural (NGAL, β2-microglobulin in the blood plasma, and NGAL, β2-microglobulin, microalbumin in the urine) biomarkers of kidney damage before and at various stages after radical cystectomy was performed. The study included patients with T2N0M0 stage bladder cancer. The main group consisted of 37 patients receiving nephroprotective treatment (N-acetylcysteine), the comparison group--31 patients receiving background therapy...
September 2015: Urologii︠a︡
Nikkita Puri, Vinita Mohey, Manjinder Singh, Tajpreet Kaur, Devendra Pathak, Harpal Singh Buttar, Amrit Pal Singh
Dipyridamole (DYP) is an anti-platelet agent with marked vasodilator, anti-oxidant, and anti-inflammatory activity. The present study investigated the role of adenosine receptors in DYP-mediated protection against ischemia reperfusion-induced acute kidney injury (AKI) in rats. The rats were subjected to bilateral renal ischemia for 40 min followed by reperfusion for 24 h. The renal damage induced by ischemia reperfusion injury (IRI) was assessed by measuring creatinine clearance, blood urea nitrogen, uric acid, plasma potassium, fractional excretion of sodium, and microproteinuria in rats...
April 2016: Naunyn-Schmiedeberg's Archives of Pharmacology
Astrid M Suchy-Dicey, Thomas Laha, Andrew Hoofnagle, Rick Newitt, Tammy L Sirich, Timothy W Meyer, Ken E Thummel, N David Yanez, Jonathan Himmelfarb, Noel S Weiss, Bryan R Kestenbaum
Renal function generally is assessed by measurement of GFR and urinary albumin excretion. Other intrinsic kidney functions, such as proximal tubular secretion, typically are not quantified. Tubular secretion of solutes is more efficient than glomerular filtration and a major mechanism for renal drug elimination, suggesting important clinical consequences of secretion dysfunction. Measuring tubular secretion as an independent marker of kidney function may provide insight into kidney disease etiology and improve prediction of adverse outcomes...
July 2016: Journal of the American Society of Nephrology: JASN
Wu Hui, Yuan Yongliang, Chen Yongde, Lu Guo, Lan Li, Yang Zhonglin, Ji Hui, Hu Qinghua
Emodinol, 1β,3β,23-trihydroxyolean-12-en-28-acid, as the main active ingredient firstly extracted from the rhizomes of Elaeagus pungens by our research group, has been demonstrated to exhibit uricosuric activity by our previous study. The aim of this study was to evaluate the uricosuric and nephroprotective effects of emodinol and explore its possible mechanisms in potassium oxonate-induced hyperuricemic mice with renal dysfunction. Mice were orally administrated 250 mg/kg of potassium oxonate once daily for 7 consecutive days to induce hyperuricemia with renal dysfunction...
March 2016: Planta Medica
Ahmed A Shokeir, Abdelaziz M Hussein, Amira Awadalla, Ahmed Samy, Azza Abdelaziz, Sheiri Khater, Nashwa Barakat
OBJECTIVE: To compare the effect of ischaemic preconditioning (Ipre) vs. ischaemic postconditioning (Ipost) on renal ischaemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury in rats. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In all, 120 male Sprague-Dawley rats were classified into four groups of 30 rats each, designated sham, control, Ipre and Ipost. Renal function, including serum creatinine, blood urea nitrogen (BUN), creatinine clearance (CrCl), fractional Na excretion (FENa) and renal histopathology were measured at 2, 24 and 48 h after ischaemia...
December 2012: Arab Journal of Urology
L Cheng, G R Edwards, R J Dewhurst, A M Nicol, D Pacheco
The objective of this study was to investigate the relationship between nitrogen (N) partitioning and isotopic fractionation in lactating goats consuming diets with a constant high concentration of N and increasing levels of water soluble carbohydrate (WSC). Eight lactating goats were offered four different ratios of WSC : N in the diet. A two-period incomplete cross-over design was used, with two goats assigned to each treatment in each period. N balance measurements were conducted, with measurement of feed N intake and total output of N in milk, faeces and urine...
May 2016: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
Xiao Qian, G Kenchappa Kumaraswamy, Shuyi Zhang, Colin Gates, Gennady M Ananyev, Donald A Bryant, G Charles Dismukes
To produce cellular energy, cyanobacteria reduce nitrate as the preferred pathway over proton reduction (H2 evolution) by catabolizing glycogen under dark anaerobic conditions. This competition lowers H2 production by consuming a large fraction of the reducing equivalents (NADPH and NADH). To eliminate this competition, we constructed a knockout mutant of nitrate reductase, encoded by narB, in Synechococcus sp. PCC 7002. As expected, ΔnarB was able to take up intracellular nitrate but was unable to reduce it to nitrite or ammonia, and was unable to grow photoautotrophically on nitrate...
May 2016: Biotechnology and Bioengineering
Luiza Herbene Macedo Soares Salviano, Maria Isabel Linhares, Klistenes Alves de Lima, Alana Gomes de Souza, Dânya Bandeira Lima, Antônio Rafael Coelho Jorge, Marcus Felipe Bezerra da Costa, Adriano José Maia Chaves Filho, Alice Maria Costa Martins, Helena Serra Azul Monteiro, Teresa Maria de Jesus Ponte Carvalho, Marta Maria de França Fonteles
AIMS: Methylphenidate (MPD) is increasingly prescribed for the treatment of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder and there are concerns about its appropriate use. Furthermore, little is known about the potential nephrotoxicity in patients using MPD. This study aimed to investigate the safety of MPD, with focus on the possible effects of this drug on renal function. MAIN METHODS: We investigated the effects of MPD on renal perfusion system and renal tubular cells through in vivo and in vitro experimental models...
November 15, 2015: Life Sciences
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