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Sandra Schöniger, Hilke Gräfe, Franziska Richter, Heinz-Adolf Schoon
The enzyme indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase 1 (IDO1) acts immunomodulatory and restricts bacterial growth. In the uterus of women and mice, it likely contributes to tissue homeostasis and disease pathogenesis. Pregnancy failure in mares is often caused by endometritis and endometrosis. The pathogenesis of nonsuppurative endometritis and endometrosis is still uncertain. To the authors' knowledge, no information on IDO1 expression in the equine endometrium is published. Aim of this study was to examine the presence of IDO1 as transcripts and proteins in the healthy and diseased endometrium of 25 mares and to determine its cellular expression...
March 5, 2018: Research in Veterinary Science
Caroline Oakland, Jaymie R Meliker
BACKGROUND: Few studies have investigated the association between radon and thyroid cancer despite the sensitivity of the thyroid gland to radiation. Our goal is to investigate the association between county-level radon and incidence of female thyroid cancer in the US States of Iowa, New Jersey, and Wisconsin. METHODS: Thyroid cancer incidence data were provided by individual state cancer registries and span 1990-2013. Radon data come from a publicly available third-party database, AirChek, accessed in 2017...
March 16, 2018: Toxics
Elizabeth G Mosher, John A Butman, Les R Folio, Nadia M Biassou, Choonsik Lee
OBJECTIVE: Radiation exposure of the lens during neck CT may increase a patient's risk of developing cataracts. Radiologists at the National Institutes of Health worked with technicians to modify the neck CT scanning procedure to include a reduction in the scanning range, a reduction in the tube potential (kilovoltage), and a change in neck positioning using a head tilt. We objectively quantified the organ dose changes after this procedure modification using a computer simulation. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed CT images of 40 patients (20 men and 20 women) scanned before and after the procedure change...
March 16, 2018: AJR. American Journal of Roentgenology
Yi Pang, Yunfeng Guan, Xing Jin, Hongmei Shen, Lixiang Liu, Qingzhen Jia, Fangang Meng, Xiaoye Zhang
Thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) is secreted by the pituitary gland and promotes thyroid growth and function, with increased TSH levels typically associated with hypothyroidism. By consulting the literature, we found that the TSHR, PAX8, and PDE4B genes are associated with thyroid function. Recently, copy number variations (CNVs) have been used as genetic markers to investigate inter-individual variation. Therefore, we investigated the relationship between the TSHR, PAX8, and PDE4B gene CNVs and TSH abnormalities, by calculating variations in gene copy number...
March 15, 2018: Biological Trace Element Research
Peng Wang, San-Pin Wu, Kelsey E Brooks, Andrew M Kelleher, Jessica Milano-Foster, Francesco J DeMayo, Thomas E Spencer
Forkhead box A2 (FOXA2) is a pioneer transcription factor involved in organ development, function and cancer. In the uterus, FOXA2 is essential for pregnancy and expressed specifically in the glands of the endometrium loss of FOXA2 function occurs during development of endometrial cancer in humans. The present study describes the development of a mouse model for conditional expression of mouse FOXA2. Using a system consisting of a minigene located at the Rosa26 locus, a CAG-S-mFOXA2 allele was generated in embryonic stem cells and subsequently in mice; before activation, the minigene is silent due to a floxed stop cassette inserted between the promoter and the transgene...
March 13, 2018: Endocrinology
Harriet C Fitzgerald, Jemma Evans, Nicholas Johnson, Giuseppe Infusini, Andrew Webb, Luk J R Rombauts, Beverley J Vollenhoven, Lois A Salamonsen, Tracey A Edgell
The regenerative, proliferative phase of a woman's menstrual cycle is a critical period which lays the foundation for the subsequent, receptive secretory phase. Although endometrial glands and their secretions are essential for embryo implantation and survival, the proliferative phase, when these glands form, has been rarely examined. We hypothesized that alterations in the secreted proteome of the endometrium of idiopathic infertile women would reflect a disturbance in proliferative phase endometrial regeneration...
March 13, 2018: Biology of Reproduction
Nadia Sawicka-Gutaj, Mirosław Andrusiewicz, Agata Czarnywojtek, Joanna Waligórska-Stachura, Maciej Biczysko, Jerzy Skrobisz, Jerzy Sowiński, Marek Ruchała
Purpose: Our aim was to analyze NAMPT expression in thyroid tissue derived from patients with Graves' disease with (GD) and without (GO) orbitopathy, patients with toxic nodular goiters (TNG) and thyroid cancers (TC), and healthy controls. Methods: 153 thyroid tissue samples of consecutive patients who underwent thyroidectomy were collected. Previous therapy with steroids was an exclusion criterion. We collected clinicopathological data of all subjects and we assessed NAMPT expression using qPCR...
2018: BioMed Research International
Fatimah Alnafisah, Shaimaa K Dawa, Sherif Alalfy
Cutaneous endometriosis is one of the rare gynecological conditions. Endometriosis is defined as the presence of endometrial glands and stroma outside the endometrial cavity. It commonly occurs in pelvic sites, such as the ovaries, cul-de-sac, bowel, or pelvic peritoneum. Endometriosis at the incisional scar is difficult to diagnose because of nonspecific symptoms. Usually, patients complain of pain at the site of the incision during menstruation. The main causes in most of the reported cases are obstetrical and gynecological surgeries...
January 13, 2018: Curēus
Liting Jin, Ying Qu, Liliana J Gomez, Stacey Chung, Bingchen Han, Bowen Gao, Yong Yue, Yiping Gong, Xuefeng Liu, Farin Amersi, Catherine Dang, Armando E Giuliano, Xiaojiang Cui
Purpose: Conditional reprogramming methods allow for the inexhaustible in vitro proliferation of primary epithelial cells from human tissue specimens. This methodology has the potential to enhance the utility of primary cell culture as a model for mammary gland research. However, few studies have systematically characterized this method in generating in vitro normal human mammary epithelial cell models. Results: We show that cells derived from fresh normal breast tissues can be propagated and exhibit heterogeneous morphologic features...
February 20, 2018: Oncotarget
Xue Liang, Yanni Feng, Laixiang Lin, Iruni Roshanie Abeysekera, Umar Iqbal, Tingting Wang, Ying Wang, Xiaomei Yao
OBJECTIVE: Our aim was to investigate thyroid function alterations attributed to high iodide supplementation in maternal rats and their offspring. METHODS: Depending on their iodide intake, the pregnant rats were randomly divided into three groups: normal iodide intake (NI), 10 times high iodide intake (10 HI) and 100 times high iodide intake (100 HI) groups. Iodine concentration in the urine and maternal milk; iodine content and mitochondrial superoxide production; expression of TRα1, TRβ1, NIS and Dio1 in both the thyroid and mammary glands were all measured...
May 2018: Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine and Biology
Kai Qian, Lu Di, Kai Guo, Xiaoke Zheng, Qinghai Ji, Zhuoying Wang
PURPOSE: Salivary duct carcinoma (SDC) is an aggressive malignancy that is not yet fully understood. We designed the present retrospective study to investigate the factors affecting the prognosis of SDC and the effects of adjuvant therapies on the clinical outcomes of patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Patients with SDC treated surgically from 2006 to 2016 were enrolled in the present retrospective cohort study. The demographic data, clinical pathologic characteristics, and follow-up results were recorded...
February 19, 2018: Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery
Andrew Best, Jason M Kamilar
Sweating is an unusual thermoregulatory strategy for most mammals, yet is critical for humans. This trait is commonly hypothesized to result from human ancestors moving from a forest to a warmer and drier open environment. As soft tissue traits do not typically fossilize, this idea has been difficult to test. Therefore, we used a comparative approach to examine 15 eccrine gland traits from 35 primate species. For each trait we measured phylogenetic signal, tested three evolutionary models to explain trait variation, and used phylogenetic models to examine how traits varied in response to climate variables...
April 2018: Journal of Human Evolution
Shazia Imran, Maryam Shan, Shazia Muazam
OBJECTIVE: To observe the effects of Shisha smoke on submucosal glands of trachea of mice; and compare it with tracheal glands of mice exposed to cigarette smoke. STUDY DESIGN: Randomised controlled trial. PLACE AND DURATION OF STUDY: Department of Anatomy, Islamic International Medical College, Rawalpindi, in collaboration with National Institute of Health (NIH), Islamabad from October 2013 till April 2014. METHODOLOGY: Sample comprised of 40 adult male mice of strain BALB/c...
March 2018: Journal of the College of Physicians and Surgeons—Pakistan: JCPSP
Hanane Eddaoualline, Khadija Mazouz, Bouchra Rafiq, Ghizlane El Mghari Tabib, Nawal El Ansari, Rhizlane Belbaraka, Abdelhamid El Omrani, Mouna Khouchani
BACKGROUND: Ewing sarcoma/primitive neuroectodermal tumor is a family of highly malignant proliferation of neuroectodermal origin, most often skeletal, adrenal localization is extremely rare. Only few cases have been reported in the literature. Classical management includes radical surgery with adjuvant chemotherapy or radiotherapy or both. This case report is the only one where recurrence was surgically removed, and it confirms the importance of adjuvant treatment, and the efficacy of neoadjuvant chemotherapy...
March 16, 2018: Journal of Medical Case Reports
Giulio Innamorati, Thomas M Wilkie, Havish S Kantheti, Maria Teresa Valenti, Luca Dalle Carbonare, Luca Giacomello, Marco Parenti, Davide Melisi, Claudio Bassi
BACKGROUND: Mutations activating the α subunit of heterotrimeric Gs protein are associated with a number of highly specific pathological molecular phenotypes. One of the best characterized is the McCune Albright syndrome. The disease presents with an increased incidence of neoplasias in specific tissues. MAIN BODY: A similar repertoire of neoplasms can develop whether mutations occur spontaneously in somatic tissues during fetal development or after birth. Glands are the most "permissive" tissues, recently found to include the entire gastrointestinal tract...
March 15, 2018: BMC Cancer
Natthanon Leelarasamee, Lei Zhang, Cynthia Gleason
Root-knot nematodes secrete effectors that manipulate their host plant cells so that the nematode can successfully establish feeding sites and complete its lifecycle. The root-knot nematode feeding structures, their "giant cells," undergo extensive cytoskeletal remodeling. Previous cytological studies have shown the cytoplasmic actin within the feeding sites looks diffuse. In an effort to study root-knot nematode effectors that are involved in giant cell organogenesis, we have identified a nematode effector called MiPFN3 (Meloidogyne incognita Profilin 3)...
March 15, 2018: PLoS Pathogens
Martina Baneckova, Abbas Agaimy, Simon Andreasen, Tomas Vanecek, Petr Steiner, David Slouka, Tomas Svoboda, Marketa Miesbauerova, Michael Michal, Alena Skálová
Secretory carcinoma, originally described as mammary analog secretory carcinoma (MASC), is a low-grade salivary gland tumor characterized by a t(12;15)(p13;q25) translocation, resulting in an ETV6-NTRK3 gene fusion. Most MASCs are localized to the parotid gland and intraoral minor salivary glands. Moreover, ETV6-rearranged carcinomas with secretory features have been reported recently in the thyroid (with and without a history of radiation exposure), skin, and in very rare instances in the sinonasal tract. Here, we describe 2 cases of primary MASC in the sinonasal tract and provide a detailed clinical and histopathologic characterization of their morphology, immunohistochemical profile, and genetic background and highlight features allowing for its separation from its recently described molecular mimicker, ETV6-rearranged low-grade sinonasal adenocarcinoma...
March 14, 2018: American Journal of Surgical Pathology
Young Joon Choi, Si Yoon Park, Ikhyun Jun, Moonjung Choi, Kyoung Yul Seo, Eung Kweon Kim, Tae-Im Kim
PURPOSE: To evaluate perioperative dry eye (DE) syndrome and meibomian gland dysfunction (MGD) parameters associated with persistent DE symptoms after cataract surgery. METHODS: We enrolled patients who underwent uncomplicated cataract surgery without previous ocular comorbidities and previous use of ophthalmic treatment except for artificial tears at a single tertiary hospital. Lipid layer thickness, meibomian gland (MG) dropout, tear breakup time, Oxford staining score, lid margin abnormality, meibum quality, meibum expressibility, MG orifice obstruction, MGD stage, Ocular Surface Disease Index (OSDI), and Schirmer test score were prospectively assessed in order at baseline and 1 and 3 months postoperative...
March 14, 2018: Cornea
Sandra Heese, Kerstin Hammer, Mareike Möllers, Helen A Köster, Maria K Falkenberg, Maria Eveslage, Janina Braun, Kathrin Oelmeier de Murcia, Walter Klockenbusch, Ralf Schmitz
OBJECTIVE: To compare the adrenal gland size of fetal growth restricted (FGR) and normal control fetuses. STUDY DESIGN: In this prospective study the adrenal gland size of 63 FGR fetuses and 343 normal controls was measured between 20 and 41 weeks of gestation. The total width and the medulla width were measured in a new standardized transversal plane. The cortex width and a calculated ratio of the total and medulla width (adrenal gland ratio) were compared between both groups...
March 15, 2018: Journal of Perinatal Medicine
Zer Vue, Gabriel Gonzalez, C Allison Stewart, Shyamin Mehra, Richard R Behringer
Endometrial or uterine glands secrete substances essential for uterine receptivity to the embryo, implantation, conceptus survival, and growth. Adenogenesis is the process of gland formation within the stroma of the uterus. In the mouse, uterine gland formation initiates at postnatal day (P) 5. Uterine gland morphology is poorly understood because it is primarily based on two-dimensional (2D) histology. To more fully describe uterine gland morphogenesis, we generated three-dimensional (3D) models of postnatal uterine glands from P0 to P21, based on volumetric imaging using light sheet microscopy...
March 15, 2018: Molecular Reproduction and Development
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