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Rudolph M Navari
The approach to the treatment of nausea and vomiting in a cancer patient should begin with a complete assessment, including the frequency, duration, and intensity of the nausea/vomiting; associated activities; and whether anorexia or cachexia is present. It is important to determine whether the nausea and vomiting is related to treatment (chemotherapy, radiation) or is independent of cancer treatment. Nausea/vomiting unrelated to chemotherapy and/or radiation may have an etiology for which there is a specific and potentially successful intervention...
March 15, 2018: Oncology (Williston Park, NY)
Nadine Oppermann, Jürgen Weitz, Christoph Reißfelder, Sören Torge Mees
In Germany, medical students in their final year will work in hospitals or medical offices to gain clinical experience. The final year is designed to prepare medical students for their work as junior doctors. It is divided into three parts and includes internal medicine and general surgery as mandatory parts. Many students develop enthusiasm or lack of enthusiasm while working in specific disciplines and often apply for jobs based on their experience in their final year. Despite the importance of this educational phase, the 36 medical faculties have implemented several different curricula and there is significant heterogeneity...
March 16, 2018: Zentralblatt Für Chirurgie
Ann-Kristin Niewald, Carina Oedingen, Oliver Razum
BACKGROUND: In 2006, the first human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine was licensed in Europe and in 2007 it was included in the service catalogue of the statutory health insurance. The HPV vaccine led to a controversy in public and print media even before it was licensed. We evaluated the quality of the newspaper coverage of the HPV vaccine during the controversy in Germany. METHODS: The LexisNexis print media database was scanned for health journalism articles on HPV in 4 high-circulation national newspapers and 4 magazines using pre-defined search terms for the period 2006-2009...
March 16, 2018: Das Gesundheitswesen
Caroline Charette, Krista L Best, Emma M Smith, William C Miller, François Routhier
Background: Mobility limitations represent the third most prevalent cause of disability, affecting more than 1.9 million community-dwelling Canadians. Walking aids are often prescribed to reduce the impacts of mobility impairments. There are limited data on walking aids since 2004. Objective: The objective of this study was to investigate the prevalence of walking aid use in Canada and to explore demographic characteristics among users of walking aids. Design: The design used was a secondary analysis of a cross-sectional national survey...
March 14, 2018: Physical Therapy
Christopher D Witiw, Fabrice Smieliauskas, John E O'Toole, Michael G Fehlings, Richard G Fessler
BACKGROUND: Surgery for cervical radiculopathy is often approached by either anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF) or posterior cervical foraminotomy (PCF). ACDF is more common; however, recent single center studies suggest comparable efficacy and significant cost savings with PCF in appropriately selected patients. OBJECTIVE: To compare utilization, adverse events, and costs for each approach from a national perspective. METHODS: Adults undergoing single level ACDF or PCF for cervical radiculopathy were included from a US commercial health insurance claims database spanning 2003 to 2014...
March 14, 2018: Neurosurgery
Gordon G Wisbach, Joshua Peters, Jenise Leon Guerrero, Nelson Mozzini, Helen Metzger
Introduction: The obesity epidemic in the USA includes active duty service members in the military and effects physical readiness. At the Naval Medical Center San Diego command, the Health & Wellness Department is charged with administering the Weight Management Programs (WMP) for sailors in the San Diego area to ensure military physical readiness requirements. The optimal allocation of personnel and resources to manage these programs is paramount for mission success. We analyzed the cost and effectiveness of the WMPs for the active duty population stationed at Naval Medical Center San Diego (NMCSD) with the intent of offering potential recommendations for program optimization...
March 14, 2018: Military Medicine
Krystin A Engelhardt, Elizabeth Hisle-Gorman, Gregory H Gorman, Nicole R Dobson
Background: The Military Health System (MHS) provides universal access to medical care to active duty service members, retirees, and their dependents. Observational data from small studies suggest lower preterm birth rates in the MHS compared with U.S. national averages. The objectives of this study are to determine the rate of preterm birth in the MHS from 2006 to 2012 compared with national rates and to analyze the impact of demographic factors on preterm birth in a universal access health care system...
March 14, 2018: Military Medicine
Rachel A Hoopsick, D Lynn Homish, Paul T Bartone, Gregory G Homish
Background: Much research has focused on stress related to deployments; however, a substantial proportion of soldiers never deploy. In a study of 1.3 million veterans, suicide risk was higher among veterans who had never deployed. Thus, not being deployed may have an impact on soldiers' well-being; however, no measures exist to assess emotions regarding non-deployment. We aimed to develop and test an original measure of non-deployment emotions. Methods: We examined the Non-Deployment Emotions (NDE) questionnaire, a novel four-item measure of guilt, unit value, unit camaraderie, and unit connectedness in a sample of never-deployed male and female US Army Reserve/National Guard (USAR/NG) soldiers (N = 174)...
March 14, 2018: Military Medicine
Asmaa E Kassab, Ehab M Gedawy
As we are interested in synthetizing biologically active leads with dual anticancer and antibacterial activity, we adopted biology oriented drug synthesis (BIODS) strategy to synthesize a series of novel ciprofloxacin (CP) hybrids. The National Cancer Institute (USA) selected seventeen newly synthesized compounds for anticancer evaluation against 59 different human tumor cell lines. Five compounds 3e, 3f, 3h, 3o and 3p were further studied through determination of IC50 values against the most sensitive cancer cell lines...
March 9, 2018: European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
Ruth Schofield, Andrea Chircop, Cynthia Baker, Marie Dietrich Leurer, Susan Duncan, Donalda Wotton
BACKGROUND: Sustaining and strengthening nurses 'contributions to public and population health in the 21st century depends in part on nursing education. Clearly articulated entry-to-practice competencies will contribute to the capacity of undergraduate nursing education programs to prepare graduates to promote local, national and global population health. OBJECTIVES: The Canadian Association of Schools of Nursing created the Public Health Task Force to develop consensus on core, national entry-to-practice competencies in public health nursing for undergraduate nursing students and to support these competencies with corresponding online teaching strategies...
March 8, 2018: Nurse Education Today
Lisa M Jones, Kimberly J Mitchell, Heather A Turner, Michele L Ybarra
Using a national sample of youth from the U.S., this paper examines incidents of bias-based harassment by peers that include language about victims' perceived sexual orientation, race/ethnicity, religion, weight or height, or intelligence. Telephone interviews were conducted with youth who were 10-20 years old (n = 791). One in six youth (17%) reported at least one experience with bias-based harassment in the past year. Bias language was a part of over half (52%) of all harassment incidents experienced by youth...
March 13, 2018: Journal of Adolescence
Natalie Thomas, Melissa Bull
Contemporary research in the drugs field has demonstrated a number of gender differences in patterns and experiences of substance use, and the design and provision of gender-responsive interventions has been identified as an important policy issue. Consequently, whether and how domestic drug policies attend to women and gender issues is an important question for investigation. This article presents a policy audit and critical analysis of Australian national and state and territory policy documents. It identifies and discusses two key styles of problematisation of women's drug use in policy: 1) drug use and its effect on women's reproductive role (including a focus on pregnant women and women who are mothers), and 2) drug use and its relationship to women's vulnerability to harm (including violent and sexual victimisation, trauma, and mental health issues)...
March 13, 2018: International Journal on Drug Policy
Nicolas Hoertel, Hadi Faiz, Guillaume Airagnes, Carlos Blanco, Rachel Pascal De Raykeer, Silvia Franco, Géraldine Ducoutumany, Cédric Lemogne, Frédéric Limosin
BACKGROUND: Heavy drinkers are at high risk for suicide attempt and suicide. Multiple factors, when examined in isolation, have been implicated in the risk of suicide attempt in this population. In this report, we present a comprehensive model of the 3-year risk of suicide attempt in heavy drinkers using a longitudinal nationally representative study, the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC; wave 1, 2001-2002; wave 2, 2004-2005). METHODS: We used structural equation modeling to simultaneously examine effects of four broad groups of clinical factors previously identified as potential predictors of attempted suicides: 1) alcohol use disorder severity, 2) severity of comorbidity, 3) sociodemographic characteristics and 4) help-seeking for alcohol problems...
March 7, 2018: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
M Martínez-García, J Vargas-Barrón, F Bañuelos-Téllez, H González-Pacheco, C Fresno, E Hernández-Lemus, M A Martínez-Ríos, M Vallejo
OBJECTIVE: ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) has an important economic burden that poised the urgent need to evaluate its catastrophic medical expense. This study evaluates the first 5 years of the national health initiative called Popular Insurance (PI) at the National Institute of Cardiology in Mexico. STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective data analysis. METHODS: STEMI patients with (n=317) and without (n=260) PI were selected. Analysed variables included socio-economical context, management care, cost evaluation and three outcomes (mortality, hospital readmission and therapeutic adherence)...
March 13, 2018: Public Health
Arthur M Lee, Rebecca J Scharf, Mark D DeBoer
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to determine if food insecurity is an independent risk factor for obesity in U.S. children. METHODS: We analyzed data from a nationally representative sample of children participating in the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Kindergarten Cohort 2011. Statistical analyses were performed to evaluate longitudinal associations between food security and body mass index (BMI) z-score. All regression models included race/ethnicity, household income, and parental education...
February 5, 2018: Nutrition
Seo Ah Hong, Karl Peltzer, Kyi Tun Lwin, La Seng Aung
BACKGROUND: The aim of the study was to estimate the prevalence of underweight and overweight or obesity and their socio-demographic and lifestyle factors in a female adult population in Myanmar. MATERIAL AND METHODS: In a national cross-sectional population-based survey in the 2015-16 Myanmar Demographic and Health Survey, 12,160 women aged 18-49 years and not currently pregnant completed questionnaires and anthropometric measurements. Nutritional status was determined using Asian body mass index cut-offs: underweight (BMI<18...
2018: PloS One
Yongjian Xu, Jie Ma, Na Wu, Xiaojing Fan, Tao Zhang, Zhongliang Zhou, Jianmin Gao, Jianping Ren, Gang Chen
INTRODUCTION: In 2009, China officially launched the New Health Care Reform (NHCR). One important purpose of the reform was to reduce financial burden of health care through health insurance expansion and health care provider regulations. This study aimed to provide evidence on the effect of the NHCR reform on catastrophic health expenditure (CHE) by comparing the occurrence and inequality of CHE among households with chronic diseases patients before and after the reform. METHODS: This study used the subset of data from the 2008 and 2013 National Health Services Survey conducted in Shaanxi Province...
2018: PloS One
Andrew McDowell, Neeraj Raizada, Sunil D Khaparde, Raghuram Rao, Sanjay Sarin, Aakshi Kalra, Virender Singh Salhotra, Sreenivas Achuthan Nair, Catharina Boehme, Claudia M Denkinger
BACKGROUND: Diagnosing tuberculosis (TB) in children presents considerable challenges. Upfront testing on Xpert® MTB/RIF ('Xpert')-a rapid molecular assay with high sensitivity and specificity-for pediatric presumptive TB patients, as recommended by India's Revised National Tuberculosis Control Program (RNTCP), can pave the way for early TB diagnosis. As part of an ongoing project implemented by Foundation for Innovative New Diagnostics (FIND) dedicated to providing upfront free-of-cost (FOC) Xpert testing to children seeking care in the public and private sectors, a qualitative assessment was designed to understand how national guidelines on TB diagnosis and Xpert technology have been integrated into the pediatric TB care practices of different health providers...
2018: PloS One
Ki-Woong Nam, Tae Jung Kim, Chi Kyung Kim, Heejung Mo, Han-Yeong Jeong, Min Kyoung Kang, Moon-Ku Han, Sang-Bae Ko, Byung-Woo Yoon
BACKGROUND: Ischemic stroke patients with active cancer frequently experience early neurological deterioration (END); however, the predictors of END are not well studied. The neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio (NLR) has recently been described as a predictor of poor outcomes in cancer and stroke. However, its role in cancer-related stroke has not been addressed. AIM: We aimed to evaluate the association between the NLR and END in cancer-related stroke patients. METHODS: We included 85 cryptogenic stroke patients with active cancer...
2018: PloS One
Souheil El-Chemaly, Kevin J O'Brien, Steven D Nathan, Gerald L Weinhouse, Hilary J Goldberg, Jean M Connors, Ye Cui, Todd L Astor, Philip C Camp, Ivan O Rosas, Merte Lemma, Vladislav Speransky, Melissa A Merideth, William A Gahl, Bernadette R Gochuico
Pulmonary fibrosis is a progressive, fatal manifestation of Hermansky-Pudlak syndrome (HPS). Some patients with advanced HPS pulmonary fibrosis undergo lung transplantation despite their disease-associated bleeding tendency; others die while awaiting donor organs. The objective of this study is to determine the clinical management and outcomes of a cohort with advanced HPS pulmonary fibrosis who were evaluated for lung transplantation. Six patients with HPS-1 pulmonary fibrosis were evaluated at the National Institutes of Health Clinical Center and one of two regional lung transplant centers...
2018: PloS One
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