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astrocytoma review

Philip Sutera, Ronny Kalash, John Flickinger, Johnathan Engh, Dwight E Heron
INTRODUCTION: Despite multimodal treatment for high-grade gliomas, prognosis remains grim. Prior Radiation Therapy Oncology Group-Recursive Partitioning Analysis (RTOG-RPA) reports indicate based on pretreatment and treatment-related factors, a subset of patients experience a significantly improved survival. Since the development of the RTOG-RPA, high-grade gliomas have seen the widespread introduction of temozolomide and tumor oncogenetics. Here we aimed to determine whether the RTOG-RPA retained prognostic significance in the context of modern treatment, as well as generate an updated RPA incorporating both clinical and genetic variables...
June 14, 2018: American Journal of Clinical Oncology
Markus Bookland, Min Tang-Schomer, Eileen Gillan, Antonina Kolmakova
BACKGROUND: Juvenile pilocytic astrocytomas represent the largest group of pediatric brain tumors. The ideal management for these tumors is early, total surgical resection. To detect and track treatment response, a screening tool is needed to identify patients for surgical evaluation and assess the quality of treatment. The identification of aberrant miRNA profiles in the sera of juvenile pilocytic astrocytoma patients could provide such a screening tool. METHODS: The authors reviewed the serum profiles of 84 oncologically relevant miRNAs in pediatric juvenile pilocytic astrocytoma patients via qPCR screening...
June 18, 2018: Acta Neurochirurgica
Debajyoti Chatterjee, Chandni Garg, Navneet Singla, Bishan Dass Radotra
Desmoplastic Infantile Astrocytoma/Ganglioglioma (DIA/DIG) are rare primary glioneuronal tumors that comprise 0.5-1.0% of all intracranial tumors. While BRAF mutation is found in up to 50% of pediatric gangliogliomas, data for DIA/DIGs is limited. This study was carried out to evaluate the frequency of BRAF V600E mutation in DIA/DIG. All cases of DIA/DIGs diagnosed over 7years (2010-2016) were reviewed retrospectively. The clinical, radiological and histopathological characteristics of these patients were evaluated along with immunohistochemical analysis for glial and neuronal markers...
June 11, 2018: Human Pathology
Hamid-Borghei Razavi, Hilary Koech, Mayur Sharma, Daria Krivosheya, Bryan S Lee, Gene Barnett, Alireza Mohammadi
OBJECTIVE: The application of laser interstitial thermal therapy (LITT) for intracranial lesions in the posterior fossa tumors remains challenging due to the smaller size of this compartment as well as the thickness and angle of the occipital bone. The objective of this study was to review our experience with this treatment modality for posterior fossa lesions. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed our series of eight patients with posterior fossa tumors treated with LITT from an IRB approved brain tumor database (2012 to 2017) of over 200 LITT cases in our institution...
June 5, 2018: World Neurosurgery
Jack B Fu, Shinichiro Morishita, Rajesh Yadav
Neurologic tumors account for over 50% of American acute inpatient rehabilitation facility cancer admissions. WHO Grade IV astrocytoma (also known as glioblastoma multiforme, high grade glioma or GBM) is the most common primary brain tumor in adults and is invariably fatal. The majority of primary brain tumor patients experience neurologic deficits. However, under-referral from oncology to rehabilitation has been reported. This brief narrative review article covers functional, medical and regulatory considerations when rehabilitating brain tumor inpatients...
June 2018: Current Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation Reports
M Tourne, A Tauziède-Espariat, E Dezamis, R Saffroy, F Dhermain, F Chrétien, P Varlet
BACKGROUND: Collision tumours are often difficult to distinguish from intratumoural heterogeneity in diffuse gliomas. CASE DESCRIPTION: We report the case of a 44-year-old woman admitted for intracranial hypertension. MRI revealed a right intra-axial frontal mass, composed of a hypervascular nodular portion contrasting with a large non-enhanced infiltrative and muliticystic portion. Histopathological examination showed the occurrence of two morphologically different gliomas...
May 30, 2018: World Neurosurgery
Satya Narayana Patro, Daniela Iancu, Taleb Al Mansoori, Howard Lesiuk, Michael Vassilyadi
Radiation-associated vascular changes most commonly present in the form of stenosis, thrombosis and occlusion. However, development of intracranial aneurysms secondary to radiation is far less common and often manifests with rupture. These aneurysms are difficult to treat and associated with high morbidity and mortality when ruptured compared with saccular aneurysms unrelated to radiation treatment. Both surgical and endovascular options are available for treatment of these aneurysms. We present a young patient with a radiation-induced intracranial pseudoaneurysm arising from the lenticulostriate branch of the left middle cerebral artery (MCA); this developed 1 year 4 months after 59...
January 1, 2018: Interventional Neuroradiology
Mahmoud Abbassy, Khaled Aref, Ahmed Farhoud, Anwar Hekal
BACKGROUND: Tumors within the pineal region represent 1.5 to 8.5% of the pediatric brain tumors and 1.2% of all brain tumors. A management algorithm has been proposed in several publications. The algorithm includes endoscopic third ventriculostomy (ETV) and biopsy in cases presenting with hydrocephalus. In this series, we are presenting the efficacy of a single-trajectory approach for both ETV and biopsy. METHODS: Eleven cases were admitted to Alexandria main university hospital from 2013 to 2016 presenting with pineal region tumors and hydrocephalus...
May 28, 2018: Child's Nervous System: ChNS: Official Journal of the International Society for Pediatric Neurosurgery
Pengfei Liu, Peiwen Li, Ting Lei, Limei Qu, Haiyan Huang, Qingchun Mu
Temozolomide (TMZ) is a second-generation oral alkylating agent that functions against a number of central nervous system neoplasms, and is generally used to treat high-grade gliomas, including anaplastic astrocytoma and glioblastoma multiforme. Therapy-related secondary myelodysplastic syndrome and acute myeloid leukemia have been reported in patients following prolonged exposure to TMZ. However, TMZ-related acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) is extremely rare. The present study describes the case of an 11-year-old boy with a 3-day history of generalized tonic-clonic seizures and a contrast-enhanced lesion in the left temporooccipital region with focal cystic degeneration, as detected by magnetic resonance imaging...
June 2018: Oncology Letters
Stefania Maraka, Karam Asmaro, Tobias Walbert, Ian Lee
OBJECTIVE: Laser interstitial thermal therapy (LITT) is an image-guided technique that uses high temperature to ablate pathological tissue. Brain tumor patients undergoing LITT may also undergo radiation therapy (RT) either before or after LITT. Both procedures have been reported to increase cerebral edema and thereby the two treatments in close succession may worsen existing edema that can be difficult to control. The purpose of our study was to determine the frequency of increased and/or symptomatic cerebral edema after combined LITT and RT, the radiographic and clinical signs of this cerebral edema, and the treatment required...
May 25, 2018: Lasers in Surgery and Medicine
Dejun She, Jianyi Liu, Z Zeng, Z Xing, Dairong Cao
PURPOSE: Supratentorial pilocytic astrocytoma (PA) may mimic pleomorphic xanthoastrocytoma (PXA) on conventional MR imaging, and a differentiation is clinically important because of distinct recurrence rate and anaplastic transformation rate. The purpose of this study was to investigate the diagnostic potential of diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) in differentiating supratentorial PA from PXA. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed DWI and conventional MR imaging of 16 patients with supratentorial PA and 8 patients with PXA...
May 24, 2018: Neuroradiology
Sunhee C Lee
Diffuse gliomas comprise the bulk of "brain cancer" in adults. The recent update to the 4th edition of the World Health Organization's classification of tumors of the central nervous system reflects an unprecedented change in the landscape of the diagnosis and management of diffuse gliomas that will affect all those involved in the management and care of patients. Of the recently discovered gene alterations, mutations in the Krebs cycle enzymes isocitrate dehydrogenases (IDHs) 1 and 2 have fundamentally changed the way the gliomas are understood and classified...
May 18, 2018: Archives of Pathology & Laboratory Medicine
Yahya Ghazwani, Ibrahim Qaddoumi, Johnnie K Bass, Shengjie Wu, Jason Chiang, Frederick Boop, Amar Gajjar, Zsila Sadighi
Background: Hearing loss may occur in patients with posterior fossa low-grade glioma who undergo surgery. Methods: We retrospectively reviewed 217 patients with posterior fossa low-grade glioma, including 115 for whom results of hearing tests performed after surgery and before chemotherapy or radiation therapy were available. We explored the association of UHL with age at diagnosis, sex, race, tumor location, extent of resection, posterior fossa syndrome, ventriculoperitoneal shunt placement, and histology...
May 2018: Neuro-oncology Practice
Martine Fohlen, Sarah Ferrand-Sorbets, Olivier Delalande, Georg Dorfmüller
OBJECTIVE: Subependymal giant cell astrocytomas (SEGAs) are low-grade intraventricular glial tumors that develop in 10-15% of patients with tuberous sclerosis complex; they often cause hydrocephalus and are potentially accessible to a surgical treatment. Our aim is to evaluate morbidity and results after surgery in symptomatic and asymptomatic patients. METHOD: We present a retrospective series of 18 pediatric patients operated on for SEGA between 2006 and 2016 at our institution...
May 15, 2018: Child's Nervous System: ChNS: Official Journal of the International Society for Pediatric Neurosurgery
Subhas K Konar, B N Nandeesh, M Sandhya, N Chandana, B Indira Devi, Dhananjaya I Bhat
Pilocytic astrocytoma is a benign low-grade tumor with a favorable prognosis. We present a 47-year-old- lady with a posterior fossa pilocytic astrocytoma who underwent surgical decompression. She developed multiple early local recurrences Along with malignant transformation of the cranial lesion she developed skeletal dissemination within a very short time frame. There were no features or family history of neurofibromatosis 1. She did not receive radiotherapy or chemotherapy prior to the recurrences.
May 10, 2018: British Journal of Neurosurgery
Hidehiro Kohzuki, Masahide Matsuda, Shunichiro Miki, Makoto Shibuya, Eiichi Ishikawa, Akira Matsumura
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 25, 2018: World Neurosurgery
Mitsuaki Shirahata, Takahiro Ono, Damian Stichel, Daniel Schrimpf, David E Reuss, Felix Sahm, Christian Koelsche, Annika Wefers, Annekathrin Reinhardt, Kristin Huang, Philipp Sievers, Hiroaki Shimizu, Hiroshi Nanjo, Yusuke Kobayashi, Yohei Miyake, Tomonari Suzuki, Jun-Ichi Adachi, Kazuhiko Mishima, Atsushi Sasaki, Ryo Nishikawa, Melanie Bewerunge-Hudler, Marina Ryzhova, Oksana Absalyamova, Andrey Golanov, Peter Sinn, Michael Platten, Christine Jungk, Frank Winkler, Antje Wick, Daniel Hänggi, Andreas Unterberg, Stefan M Pfister, David T W Jones, Martin van den Bent, Monika Hegi, Pim French, Brigitta G Baumert, Roger Stupp, Thierry Gorlia, Michael Weller, David Capper, Andrey Korshunov, Christel Herold-Mende, Wolfgang Wick, David N Louis, Andreas von Deimling
According to the 2016 World Health Organization Classification of Tumors of the Central Nervous System (2016 CNS WHO), IDH-mutant astrocytic gliomas comprised WHO grade II diffuse astrocytoma, IDH-mutant (AIIIDHmut ), WHO grade III anaplastic astrocytoma, IDH-mutant (AAIIIIDHmut ), and WHO grade IV glioblastoma, IDH-mutant (GBMIDHmut ). Notably, IDH gene status has been made the major criterion for classification while the manner of grading has remained unchanged: it is based on histological criteria that arose from studies which antedated knowledge of the importance of IDH status in diffuse astrocytic tumor prognostic assessment...
April 23, 2018: Acta Neuropathologica
Seyed Amirhossein Javadi, Christian Hartmann, Gerhard Franz Walter, Roozbeh Banan, Amir Samii
The role of isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 (IDH1) mutation in brain stem glioma is not clear. To the best of our knowledge, six cases of brain stem gliomas carrying IDH1/2 mutations are currently reported in the literature. One case of diffuse brain stem glioma with IDH1 mutation, which was followed for 2 years, is presented and compared with IDH1 negative tumors. A 22-year-old lady was referred with diplopia and left arm palsy. Neuroimaging detected a nonenhancing, nonhomogeneous diffuse infiltrating brain stem tumor extending from pons to medulla...
April 2018: Asian Journal of Neurosurgery
Gaëtan Poulen, Catherine Gozé, Valérie Rigau, Hugues Duffau
OBJECTIVE World Health Organization grade II gliomas are infiltrating tumors that inexorably progress to a higher grade of malignancy. However, the time to malignant transformation is quite unpredictable at the individual patient level. A wild-type isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH-wt) molecular profile has been reported as a poor prognostic factor, with more rapid progression and a shorter survival compared with IDH-mutant tumors. Here, the oncological outcomes of a series of adult patients with IDH-wt, diffuse, WHO grade II astrocytomas (AII) who underwent resection without early adjuvant therapy were investigated...
April 20, 2018: Journal of Neurosurgery
Matthew A Kirkman, Richard Hayward, Kim Phipps, Kristian Aquilina
OBJECTIVE It is relatively unusual for pediatric CNS tumors to be disseminated at presentation, and the literature on the clinical features, management, and outcomes of this specific group is scarce. Surgical management in this population is often challenging, particularly in the presence of hydrocephalus. The authors present their recent experience of treating pediatric CNS tumors that were disseminated at presentation, and they compare these lesions with focal tumors. METHODS The authors performed a retrospective review of prospectively collected data on children presenting to a tertiary center between 2003 and 2016 inclusive...
June 2018: Journal of Neurosurgery. Pediatrics
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