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astrocytoma review

James A McCracken, Michael F Gonzales, Pramit M Phal, Katharine J Drummond
Angiocentric glioma (AG) is a low grade glioma, that was first described in 2002. Since this description, 83 patients with AG have been described, including ours. AG typically presents in childhood with medically refractory seizures that are cured with gross surgical resection. Whilst the natural history is that of a benign tumour, there have been reports of recurrence, transformation, and malignant features that suggest that AG is potentially malignant. We add to the literature a case of a 16-year-old girl who presented in May 2011 with a 3-month history of complex partial seizures, with MRI showing a T2-weighted hyperintense lesion in the left insula and inferior frontal lobe...
October 11, 2016: Journal of Clinical Neuroscience: Official Journal of the Neurosurgical Society of Australasia
Jasna Jančić, Vesna Đurić, Nikola Ivančević, Blažo Nikolić, John N van den Anker, Janko Samardžić
The serine/threonine kinase mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) is an important sensor of the cellular energy condition which, at the same time, represents a kind of master switch between anabolic and catabolic cellular processes. Tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) is a genetic disease which is considered to be a prototype of a dysregulated mTOR signaling pathway. The dysregulated mTOR pathway in TSC leads to characteristic structural and physiologic abnormalities in multiple organs. In this review we focus on the pharmacological properties of mTOR inhibitors and clinical investigations of mTOR inhibitors for two important neurological TSC manifestations: subependymal giant cell astrocytomas (SEGAs) and epilepsy...
October 12, 2016: Current Medicinal Chemistry
Samy L Habib, Noor Y Al-Obaidi, Maciej Nowacki, Katarzyna Pietkun, Barbara Zegarska, Tomasz Kloskowski, Wojciech Zegarski, Tomasz Drewa, Edward A Medina, Zhenze Zhao, Sitai Liang
Tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) is an autosomal dominant and multi-system genetic disorder in humans. TSC affects around 25,000 to 40,000 individuals in the United States and about 1 to 2 million individuals worldwide, with an estimated prevalence of one in 6,000 newborns. TSC occurs in all races and ethnic groups, and in both genders. TSC is caused by defects or mutations in two genes, TSC1 and TSC2. Loss of TSC1/TSC2 leads to dysregulation of mTOR, resulting in aberrant cell differentiation and development, and abnormal enlargement of cells...
2016: Journal of Cancer
Robert T Buckley, Anthony C Wang, John W Miller, Edward J Novotny, Jeffrey G Ojemann
OBJECTIVE Laser ablation is a novel, minimally invasive procedure that utilizes MRI-guided thermal energy to treat epileptogenic and other brain lesions. In addition to treatment of mesial temporal lobe epilepsy, laser ablation is increasingly being used to target deep or inoperable lesions, including hypothalamic hamartoma (HH), subependymal giant cell astrocytoma (SEGA), and exophytic intrinsic hypothalamic/third ventricular tumors. The authors reviewed their early institutional experience with these patients to characterize clinical outcomes in patients undergoing this procedure...
October 2016: Neurosurgical Focus
Alaa Samkari, Faris Alzahrani, Abeer Almehdar, Hussein Algahtani
Desmoplastic infantile astrocytoma (DIA) is a rare, supratentorial, dural-based, large cystic tumor that usually arises in the first 24 months of life. However, non-infantile cases were also reported in the literature. Desmoplastic infantile astrocytoma and desmoplastic infantile ganglioglioma (DIG) are both classified as grade I astrocytoma by the World Health Organization (WHO). Grossly, DIA/DIG are large tumors composed of solid and cystic portions. Although large in nature, they are slow-growing tumors, with good prognosis after complete surgical removal, and rarely require a chemotherapy or radiotherapy...
September 26, 2016: Clinical Neuropathology
Marlon G Saria, Santosh Kesari
BACKGROUND: Glioblastoma (GBM) is a highly aggressive astrocytoma with a dismal prognosis. Since 1976, only three chemotherapeutic agents have been approved for the treatment of GBM. Tumor-treating fields (TTFields) therapy, delivered via a noninvasive device, is a new therapy approved for use in patients with recurrent GBM and in combination with temozolomide for the treatment of newly diagnosed GBM. OBJECTIVES: This article reviews the mechanism of action and findings from preclinical and clinical studies supporting the use of TTFields for patients with newly diagnosed and recurrent GBM...
October 1, 2016: Clinical Journal of Oncology Nursing
Zulma Tovar-Spinoza, Hoon Choi
BACKGROUND: Pediatric low-grade gliomas (LGGs) account for approximately half of all pediatric central nervous system tumors. The low-grade gliomas' first line of treatment is gross total resection. However, when gross total resection is not possible, options for adjuvant therapy are limited. MRI-guided laser ablation (magnetic resonance-guided laser interstitial thermal therapy (MRgLITT)) offers a new option for treatment in selected cases. We present a description of the current MRgLITT technology and an exemplary case-series review of our experience in its use in LGGs...
October 2016: Child's Nervous System: ChNS: Official Journal of the International Society for Pediatric Neurosurgery
Tai-Tong Wong, Hsin-Hung Chen, Muh-Lii Liang, Kevin Li-Chun Hsieh, Yi-Shan Yang, Donald Ming-Tak Ho, Kai-Ping Chang, Yi-Yen Lee, Shih-Chieh Lin, Ting-Rong Hsu, Yi-Wei Chen, Sang-Hue Yen, Feng-Chi Chang, Wan-You Guo, Kuo-Wei Chen, Wei-Kang Kwang, Wu-Yu Hou, Chung-Yih Wang
BACKGROUND: Tumors with epicenter in the thalamus occur in about 4 % of pediatric brain tumors. The histological diagnosis is mainly gliomas. Among them, low-grade glioma (LGG) constituted of a significant entity of the tumors (Cuccia et al., Childs Nerv Syst 13:514-521, 1997; Puget et al., J Neurosurg 106:354-362, 2007; Bernstein et al., J Neurosurg 61:649-656, 1984; Bilginer et al., Childs Nerv Syst 30:1493-1498, 2014). Since Kelly's report in 1989, >90 % resection of thalamic tumors were achieved in reported series (Ozek and Ture, Childs Nerv Syst 18:450-6, 2002; Villarejo et al...
October 2016: Child's Nervous System: ChNS: Official Journal of the International Society for Pediatric Neurosurgery
Gianluca Trevisi, Thomas Roujeau, Hugues Duffau
INTRODUCTION: Brain mapping through a direct cortical and subcortical electrical stimulation during an awake craniotomy has gained an increasing popularity as a powerful tool to prevent neurological deficit while increasing extent of resection of hemispheric diffuse low-grade gliomas in adults. However, few case reports or very limited series of awake surgery in children are currently available in the literature. METHODS: In this paper, we review the oncological and functional differences between pediatric and adult populations, and the methodological specificities that may limit the use of awake mapping in pediatric low-grade glioma surgery...
October 2016: Child's Nervous System: ChNS: Official Journal of the International Society for Pediatric Neurosurgery
F Bianchi, G Tamburrini, L Massimi, M Caldarelli
OBJECT: Desmoplastic infantile gangliogliomas (DIGs) and desmoplastic infantile astrocytomas (DIAs) are tumors typical of the infantile age. A large size, with a mixed solid and cystic component, clinical presentation with progressing signs of increased intracranial pressure, a prominent benign desmoplastic structure at histological examination, and a favorable clinical course in the majority of cases are the prominent features of these tumors. The objective of the present paper was to review the pertinent literature on the topic together with our personal experience, with the aim of an updated review of the subject...
October 2016: Child's Nervous System: ChNS: Official Journal of the International Society for Pediatric Neurosurgery
Alvaro Lassaletta, Michal Zapotocky, Eric Bouffet, Cynthia Hawkins, Uri Tabori
Hemispheric low-grade gliomas account for the second most common location in pediatric low-grade gliomas (PLGGs) after the cerebellum. The pathological spectrum includes gangliogliomas, dysembryoplastic neuroepithelial tumors (DNETs), diffuse astrocytomas, pilocytic astrocytomas, and pleomorphic xanthoastrocytomas (PXAs), among others. Clinically, hemispheric PLGGs represent a well-recognized cause of intractable epilepsy in children and adolescents. With an excellent long-term outcome, surgery remains the cornerstone and patients with gross total resection typically do not need any further therapies...
October 2016: Child's Nervous System: ChNS: Official Journal of the International Society for Pediatric Neurosurgery
Usama Khalid Choudry, Saad Akhtar Khan, Amjad Qureshi, Ehsan Bari
BACKGROUND: Pleomorphic xanthoastrocytoma (PXA) classified as a low Grade (WHO II) astrocytic neoplasm. It is known for its relatively favorable prognosis. It most commonly occurs in young adults. Malignant progression in PXA has been frequently reported since its first description in 1979; however, the presentation of a primary anaplastic PXA tumor with an aggressive clinical course in adults is rare especially in the later age group. CASE DESCRIPTION: We present a case of primary anaplastic PXA in a 53 year old male that manifested with an early recurrence pattern at 9 weeks...
2016: International Journal of Surgery Case Reports
Cléciton Braga Tavares, Francisca das Chagas Sheyla Almeida Gomes-Braga, Danylo Rafhael Costa-Silva, Carla Solange Escórcio-Dourado, Umbelina Soares Borges, Airton Mendes Conde-Junior, Maria da Conceição Barros-Oliveira, Emerson Brandão Sousa, Lorena da Rocha Barros, Luana Mota Martins, Gil Facina, Benedito Borges da-Silva
Gliomas are the most common type of primary central nervous system neoplasm. Astrocytomas are the most prevalent type of glioma and these tumors may be influenced by sex steroid hormones. A literature review for the presence of estrogen and progesterone receptors in astrocytomas was conducted in the PubMed database using the following MeSH terms: "estrogen receptor beta" OR "estrogen receptor alpha" OR "estrogen receptor antagonists" OR "progesterone receptors" OR "astrocytoma" OR "glioma" OR "glioblastoma"...
August 2016: Clinics
L M Rojas-Medina, R Carrasco-Moro, M Rivero-Garvía, L Esteban-Fernández, E Rivas-Infante, J Márquez-Rivas
BACKGROUND: Desmoplastic astrocytoma (DA) is a rare intracranial tumor which usually affects pediatric patients. The aim of this study is to describe the clinical features and management of DA based on a joint analysis of the cases reported in the scientific literature. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A thorough review was carried out, gathering those pathologically proven DAs reported since the first description of this entity. Two new own cases were included in order to illustrate this review...
September 2016: Child's Nervous System: ChNS: Official Journal of the International Society for Pediatric Neurosurgery
Jamie K Capal, David Neal Franz
Tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) is a relatively rare genetic disorder, affecting one in 6,000 births. Mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) inhibitors, such as everolimus, which have been previously used to prevent solid organ transplant rejection, augment anticancer treatment regimens, and prevent neovascularization of artificial cardiac stents, are now approved for treating TSC-related manifestations, such as subependymal giant cell astrocytomas and renal angiomyolipomas. The use of everolimus in treating subependymal giant cell astrocytomas is supported by long-term Phase II and III clinical trials...
2016: Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment
Gabriel Olabiyi Ogun, Amos Olufemi Adeleye, Taiwo Olabimpe Babatunde, Olufunmilola Abimbola Ogun, Ayodeji Salami, Biobele Jotham Brown, Effiong Akang
INTRODUCTION: Contrary to some earlier teachings that central nervous system (CNS) tumours are uncommon in black children, these neoplasms are the fourth most common paediatric tumours in Ibadan. Our centre is the major referral centre for CNS tumours in Nigeria. The last major study of paediatric CNS neoplasms from Ibadan was in 1985. An update of the data on paediatric CNS neoplasms at our centre is presented. METHODS: A retrospective review of all histologically diagnosed CNS tumours in children (0-14 years) from January 2001 to December 2010 from the database of the Department of Pathology, University College Hospital, Ibadan, Nigeria was done...
2016: Pan African Medical Journal
Emeline Tabouret, Anh Tuan Nguyen, Caroline Dehais, Catherine Carpentier, François Ducray, Ahmed Idbaih, Karima Mokhtari, Anne Jouvet, Emmanuelle Uro-Coste, Carole Colin, Olivier Chinot, Hugues Loiseau, Elisabeth Moyal, Claude-Alain Maurage, Marc Polivka, Emmanuèle Lechapt-Zalcman, Christine Desenclos, David Meyronet, Jean-Yves Delattre, Dominique Figarella-Branger
The new WHO classification of diffuse gliomas has been refined and now includes the 1p/19q codeletion, IDH1/2 mutation, and histone H3-K27M mutation. Our objective was to assess the prognostic value of the updated 2016 WHO classification in the French POLA cohort. All cases of high-grade oligodendroglial tumors sent for central pathological review and included into the French nationwide POLA cohort were reclassified according to the updated 4th WHO classification. In total, 1041 patients were included, with a median age at diagnosis of 50...
October 2016: Acta Neuropathologica
Alvaro Lassaletta, Katrin Scheinemann, Shayna M Zelcer, Juliette Hukin, Beverley A Wilson, Nada Jabado, Anne Sophie Carret, Lucie Lafay-Cousin, Valerie Larouche, Cynthia E Hawkins, Gregory Russell Pond, Ken Poskitt, Daniel Keene, Donna L Johnston, David D Eisenstat, Rahul Krishnatry, Matthew Mistry, Anthony Arnoldo, Vijay Ramaswamy, Annie Huang, Ute Bartels, Uri Tabori, Eric Bouffet
PURPOSE: Vinblastine monotherapy has shown promising activity and a low-toxicity profile in patients with pediatric low-grade glioma (PLGG) who experienced treatment failure after initial treatment with chemotherapy and/or radiation. The aim of this study was to assess the activity of vinblastine in therapy-naïve children. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Patients < 18 years old with unresectable and/or progressive therapy-naïve PLGG were eligible. Vinblastine was administered once per week at a dose of 6 mg/m(2) intravenously over a period of 70 weeks...
August 29, 2016: Journal of Clinical Oncology: Official Journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
Hart Isaacs
INTRODUCTION: The purpose of this review is to document the various types of astrocytoma that occur in the fetus and neonate, their locations, initial findings, pathology, and outcome. Data are presented that show which patients are likely to survive or benefit from treatment compared with those who are unlikely to respond. MATERIALS AND METHODS: One hundred one fetal and neonatal tumors were collected from the literature for study. RESULTS: Macrocephaly and an intracranial mass were the most common initial findings...
August 27, 2016: Child's Nervous System: ChNS: Official Journal of the International Society for Pediatric Neurosurgery
Aasheen Munshey, Justin Moore, Catriona Maclean, Anthony Longano, Tony Goldschlager
BACKGROUND: Pilocytic astrocytoma (PA) is a benign neoplasm that typically occurs in the brain within the pediatric and adolescent age groups and is uncommon in adults. It rarely occurs within the ventricles and the overall prognosis is favourable. A pilocytic astrocytoma of the brain with spinal metastasis at presentation has never been reported in an adult. CASE DESCRIPTION: We report a case of a 47-year-old male presenting with sudden onset frontal headache associated with nausea and lethargy...
August 12, 2016: World Neurosurgery
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