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astrocytoma review

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529554/novel-drugs-in-pediatric-gliomas
#1
Dongli Zhang, Xiaoming Liu, Conghai Fan, Jiao Chen
Astrocytomas (gliomas) are the most common primary brain tumors among adults and second most frequent neoplasm among children. New ideas and novel approaches are being explored world over with aim to devise better management strategeies for this deadly pathological state. We searched the electronic database PubMed for pre-clinical as well as clinical controlled trials reporting importance of various therapeutic drugs against gliomas. It was observed clearly that this approach of using therapeutic drugs is clearly evolving and has been observed to be promising future therapeutic avenue against gliomas...
May 2017: Oncology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522280/primary-spinal-glioma-in-children-results-from-a-referral-pediatric-institution-in-shanghai
#2
J Khalil, Z Chuanying, Z Qing, Y Belkacémi, J Mawei
PURPOSE: Primary spinal cord glioma is a rare entity especially in children; accounting for less than 10% of all central nervous system tumors. Low grade is the most reported subtype. Treatment modalities have largely evolved; large improvements have been made in the surgical field but also in both of radiotherapy and chemotherapy. Nevertheless, the optimal treatment is yet to be defined. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A chart review of 11 pediatric patients with a diagnosis of low grade spinal cord glioma at Xhinhua hospital in Shanghai was conducted...
May 15, 2017: Cancer Radiothérapie: Journal de la Société Française de Radiothérapie Oncologique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28498059/oligodendroglioma-resection-a-surveillance-epidemiology-and-end-results-seer-analysis
#3
Ali A Alattar, Michael G Brandel, Brian R Hirshman, Xuezhi Dong, Kate T Carroll, Mir Amaan Ali, Bob S Carter, Clark C Chen
OBJECTIVE The available evidence suggests that the clinical benefits of extended resection are limited for chemosensitive tumors, such as primary CNS lymphoma. Oligodendroglioma is generally believed to be more sensitive to chemotherapy than astrocytoma of comparable grades. In this study the authors compare the survival benefit of gross-total resection (GTR) in patients with oligodendroglioma relative to patients with astrocytoma. METHODS Using the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) Program (1999-2010) database, the authors identified 2378 patients with WHO Grade II oligodendroglioma (O2 group) and 1028 patients with WHO Grade III oligodendroglioma (O3 group)...
May 12, 2017: Journal of Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28495088/fluorescence-guided-resection-with-5-aminolevulinic-acid-of-a-pilomyxoid-astrocytoma-of-the-third-ventricle
#4
Luis Miguel Bernal García, Jose Manuel Cabezudo Artero, Rafael García Moreno, Maria Bella Marcelo Zamorano, Carlos Mayoral Guisado
Fluorescence-guided resection with 5-aminolevulinic acid has been shown to be useful in the resection of certain brain tumors other than high grade gliomas, facilitating the intraoperative differentiation of neoplastic tissue. The technique enables the surgeon to ensure that no tumor fragments remain, thereby achieving higher rates of complete resection. Tihan first described pilomyxoid astrocytomas in 1999. They are currently classified as grade II astrocytoma according to the WHO classification system and, because of their tendency to recur and their dissemination through the cerebrospinal fluid pathways, they are considered to be more aggressive than pilocytic astrocytoma...
May 8, 2017: Neurocirugía
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28493234/exploration-of-involved-key-genes-and-signaling-diversity-in-brain-tumors
#5
REVIEW
Mojdeh Mahdian Nasser, Parvin Mehdipour
Brain tumors are becoming a major cause of death. The classification of brain tumors has gone through restructuring with regard to some criteria such as the presence or absence of a specific genetic alteration in the 2016 central nervous system World Health Organization update. Two categories of genes with a leading role in tumorigenesis and cancer induction include tumor suppressor genes and oncogenes; tumor suppressor genes are inactivated through a variety of mechanisms that result in their loss of function...
May 10, 2017: Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28490681/-hemorrhagic-onset-of-subependymal-giant-cell-astrocytoma-associated-with-tuberous-sclerosis-a-case-report-and-review-of-literature
#6
Masayo Adachi, Michio Nakamura, Natsuki Shinozaki, Tadashi Miyazaki
We report on a case of subependymal giant cell astrocytoma(SEGA)in a patient with tuberous sclerosis(TSC)that presented with intratumoral hemorrhage and acute hydrocephalus. Initial treatment was external ventricular drainage to control the intracranial pressure;however, the tumor increased in size due to recurrent hemorrhage. Subsequently, the tumor was successfully removed via the transcortical-transventricular approach without neurological deterioration. Although intratumoral hemorrhage is extremely rare in patients with SEGA, subsequent acute hydrocephalus resulting from obstruction of the foramen of Monro will be fatal if prompt surgical treatment is not available...
May 2017: No Shinkei Geka. Neurological Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28488122/the-potential-of-cellular-and-viral-based-immunotherapies-for-malignant-glioma-dendritic-cell-vaccines-adoptive-cell-transfer-and-oncolytic-viruses
#7
REVIEW
Russell Maxwell, Andrew S Luksik, Tomas Garzon-Muvdi, Michael Lim
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Malignant gliomas, including glioblastoma and anaplastic astrocytoma, are the most frequent primary brain tumors and present with many treatment challenges. In this review, we discuss the potential of cellular- and viral-based immunotherapies in the treatment of malignant glioma, specifically focusing on dendritic cell vaccines, adoptive cell therapy, and oncolytic viruses. RECENT FINDINGS: Diverse cellular- and viral-based strategies have been engineered and optimized to generate either a specific or broad antitumor immune response in malignant glioma...
June 2017: Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28484537/dorsally-exophytic-glioblastoma-arising-from-the-medulla-oblongata-in-an-adult-presenting-as-4-th-ventricular-mass
#8
Kuntal Kanti Das, Guru Prasad Bettaswamy, Anant Mehrotra, Sushila Jaiswal, Awadhesh Kumar Jaiswal, Sanjay Behari
Brainstem gliomas are relatively rare in adults (<2% of all gliomas). Exophytic gliomas are focal brainstem lesions, which project into the 4(th) ventricle or cerebellopontine angles. These exophytic lesions are usually of low-grade histology (pilocytic astrocytoma or ganglioglioma) and have a relatively better outcome compared with brainstem gliomas as a whole. Glioblastoma is the commonest primary glial cell neoplasm and mostly occurs in the supratentorial compartment. It is rather uncommon in the brainstem and seldom has been described as having an exophytic growth pattern...
April 2017: Asian Journal of Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28474160/-hereditary-tumor-syndromes-in-neuropathology
#9
REVIEW
C Mawrin
Neoplasms in the central (CNS) and peripheral nervous system (PNS) in hereditary tumor syndromes play an important role in the neuropathological diagnostics. The benign and malignant PNS and CNS tumors that occur in the frequent neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) and type 2 (NF2) often represent essential factors for the course of the disease in those affected. Furthermore, certain clinical constellations (e.g. bilateral schwannomas of the auditory nerve, schwannomas at a young age and multiple meningiomas) can be important indications for a previously undiagnosed hereditary tumor disease...
May 4, 2017: Der Pathologe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28450436/noninvasive-assessment-of-idh-mutational-status-in-world-health-organization-grade-ii-and-iii-astrocytomas-using-dwi-and-dsc-pwi-combined-with-conventional-mr-imaging
#10
Z Xing, X Yang, D She, Y Lin, Y Zhang, D Cao
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH) has been shown to have both diagnostic and prognostic implications in gliomas. The purpose of this study was to examine whether DWI and DSC-PWI combined with conventional MR imaging could noninvasively predict IDH mutational status in World Health Organization grade II and III astrocytomas. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed DWI, DSC-PWI, and conventional MR imaging in 42 patients with World Health Organization grade II and III astrocytomas...
April 27, 2017: AJNR. American Journal of Neuroradiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448550/priority-target-conditions-for-algorithms-for-monitoring-children-s-growth-interdisciplinary-consensus
#11
Pauline Scherdel, Rachel Reynaud, Christine Pietrement, Jean-François Salaün, Marc Bellaïche, Michel Arnould, Bertrand Chevallier, Hugues Piloquet, Emmanuel Jobez, Jacques Cheymol, Emmanuelle Bichara, Barbara Heude, Martin Chalumeau
BACKGROUND: Growth monitoring of apparently healthy children aims at early detection of serious conditions through the use of both clinical expertise and algorithms that define abnormal growth. Optimization of growth monitoring requires standardization of the definition of abnormal growth, and the selection of the priority target conditions is a prerequisite of such standardization. OBJECTIVE: To obtain a consensus about the priority target conditions for algorithms monitoring children's growth...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439198/assessment-of-tumors-in-children-with-tuberous-sclerosis-a-single-centre-s-experience
#12
Suna Emir, Şadan Hacısalihoğlu, Derya Özyörük, Filiz Ekici, Aydan Değerliyurt, Alev Güven, İlker Çetin
AIM: As a result of mutations in TSC1 (9q34) and TSC2 (16p13.3) tumor supressor genes, the mammalian target of the rapamycin (mTor) signaling pathway is overactivated in patients with tuberous sclerosis. Abnormal cell proliferation and differentiation is responsible for the growth several different tumors. The aim of this study was to review tumors in our patients with tuberous sclerosis. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Thirty-six patients with tuberous sclerosis were reviewed retrospectively in terms of age, sex, family history, clinical findings, presence of tumors, and treatments...
March 2017: Türk Pediatri Arşivi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425761/adult-pilocytic-astrocytoma-of-conus-medullaris-clinical-considerations-and-review-of-the-literature
#13
José Pedro Lavrador, Edson Oliveira, José Pimentel, Sérgio Livraghi
Astrocytomas are responsible for 30% of all primitive intramedullary tumors with cervicothoracic predominance. However, only about one hundred cases of intramedullary pilocytic astrocytomas were described. The authors described the case of a 69 year-old patient presenting with a broad-base gait, bilateral pain and dysesthesia of inferior limbs with a diagnosis of an intra-axial cystic lesion centered to the conus medullaris, diagnosed as pilocytic astrocytoma of conus medullaris (PACM) after surgery. To the best of our knowledge, only two previous reports concerning PACM were made...
April 2017: CNS Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28384595/clinical-outcomes-from-maximum-safe-resection-of-primary-and-metastatic-brain-tumors-using-awake-craniotomy
#14
Anastasia Groshev, Devang Padalia, Sephalie Patel, Rosemarie Garcia-Getting, Solmaz Sahebjam, Peter A Forsyth, Frank D Vrionis, Arnold B Etame
OBJECTIVE: To retrospectively analyze outcomes in patients undergoing awake craniotomies for tumor resection at our institution in terms of extent of resection, functional preservation and length of hospital stay. PATIENTS AND METHODS: All cases of adults undergoing awake-craniotomy from September 2012-February 2015 were retrospectively reviewed based on an IRB approved protocol. Information regarding patient age, sex, cancer type, procedure type, location, hospital stay, extent of resection, and postoperative complications was extracted...
June 2017: Clinical Neurology and Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28357411/gnao1-encephalopathy-broadening-the-phenotype-and-evaluating-treatment-and-outcome
#15
Federica Rachele Danti, Serena Galosi, Marta Romani, Martino Montomoli, Keren J Carss, F Lucy Raymond, Elena Parrini, Claudia Bianchini, Tony McShane, Russell C Dale, Shekeeb S Mohammad, Ubaid Shah, Neil Mahant, Joanne Ng, Amy McTague, Rajib Samanta, Gayatri Vadlamani, Enza Maria Valente, Vincenzo Leuzzi, Manju A Kurian, Renzo Guerrini
OBJECTIVE: To describe better the motor phenotype, molecular genetic features, and clinical course of GNAO1-related disease. METHODS: We reviewed clinical information, video recordings, and neuroimaging of a newly identified cohort of 7 patients with de novo missense and splice site GNAO1 mutations, detected by next-generation sequencing techniques. RESULTS: Patients first presented in early childhood (median age of presentation 10 months, range 0-48 months), with a wide range of clinical symptoms ranging from severe motor and cognitive impairment with marked choreoathetosis, self-injurious behavior, and epileptic encephalopathy to a milder phenotype, featuring moderate developmental delay associated with complex stereotypies, mainly facial dyskinesia and mild epilepsy...
April 2017: Neurology. Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28342104/a-comprehensive-review-of-paediatric-low-grade-diffuse-glioma-pathology-molecular-genetics-and-treatment
#16
Scott Ryall, Uri Tabori, Cynthia Hawkins
Gliomas are the most common central nervous system neoplasms affecting children and can be both high- and low-grade. Paediatric low-grade glioma may be either World Health Organization grade I or grade II. Despite being classified as grade II diffuse astrocytoma, these neoplasms arising in children are distinct clinically and molecularly from their adult counterparts. They do not tend to progress to higher grade lesions and only rarely harbour an IDH mutation. Here, we review the clinical, histologic and molecular features of paediatric grade II diffuse glioma, highlighting their diagnostic criteria, prevalence across brain locations, their most common molecular features and how to test for them, and lastly the current status of therapeutic options available for their treatment...
April 2017: Brain Tumor Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339700/a-clinical-perspective-on-the-2016-who-brain-tumor-classification-and-routine-molecular-diagnostics
#17
Martin J van den Bent, Michael Weller, Patrick Y Wen, Johan M Kros, Ken Aldape, Susan Chang
The 2007 World Health Organization (WHO) classification of brain tumors did not use molecular abnormalities as diagnostic criteria. Studies have shown that genotyping allows a better prognostic classification of diffuse glioma with improved treatment selection. This has resulted in a major revision of the WHO classification, which is now for adult diffuse glioma centered around isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH) and 1p/19q diagnostics. This revised classification is reviewed with a focus on adult brain tumors, and includes a recommendation of genes of which routine testing is clinically useful...
February 21, 2017: Neuro-oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28328117/noonan-syndrome-ptpn11-mutations-and-brain-tumors-a-clinical-report-and-review-of-the-literature
#18
Aurore Siegfried, Claude Cances, Marie Denuelle, Najat Loukh, Maïté Tauber, Hélène Cavé, Marie-Bernadette Delisle
Noonan syndrome (NS), an autosomal dominant disorder, is characterized by short stature, congenital heart defects, developmental delay, and facial dysmorphism. PTPN11 mutations are the most common cause of NS. PTPN11 encodes a non-receptor protein tyrosine phosphatase, SHP2. Hematopoietic malignancies and solid tumors are associated with NS. Among solid tumors, brain tumors have been described in children and young adults but remain rather rare. We report a 16-year-old boy with PTPN11-related NS who, at the age of 12, was incidentally found to have a left temporal lobe brain tumor and a cystic lesion in the right thalamus...
April 2017: American Journal of Medical Genetics. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324583/revisiting-cdk-inhibitors-for-treatment-of-glioblastoma-multiforme
#19
REVIEW
Dorota Lubanska, Lisa Porter
Despite extensive efforts and continual progress in research and medicine, outcomes for patients with high-grade glioma remain exceptionally poor. Over the past decade, research has revealed a great deal about the complex biology behind glioma development, and has brought to light some of the major barriers preventing successful treatment. Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) (stage 4 astrocytoma) is a highly dynamic tumour and one of the most extreme examples of intratumoural heterogeneity, making targeting with specific therapeutics an inefficient and highly unpredictable goal...
March 21, 2017: Drugs in R&D
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324188/autobiographical-memory-loss-following-a-right-prefrontal-lobe-tumour-resection-a-case-report-and-review-of-the-literature
#20
A A B Jamjoom, P Gallo, J Kandasamy, J Phillips, D Sokol
INTRODUCTION: The right prefrontal lobe has not traditionally been considered eloquent brain. Resection of tumours within this region does not typically lead to permanent functional impairment. In this report, we highlight the case of a patient who developed autobiographical memory loss following an uncomplicated resection of a right prefrontal tumour. CASE MATERIAL: A previously fit and well 15-year old presented with a persistent right-sided headache. An MRI demonstrated an expanded right mid-frontal gyrus with changes consistent with a low-grade tumour...
March 21, 2017: Child's Nervous System: ChNS: Official Journal of the International Society for Pediatric Neurosurgery
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