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astrocytoma review

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425761/adult-pilocytic-astrocytoma-of-conus-medullaris-clinical-considerations-and-review-of-the-literature
#1
José Pedro Lavrador, Edson Oliveira, José Pimentel, Sérgio Livraghi
Astrocytomas are responsible for 30% of all primitive intramedullary tumors with cervicothoracic predominance. However, only about one hundred cases of intramedullary pilocytic astrocytomas were described. The authors described the case of a 69 year-old patient presenting with a broad-base gait, bilateral pain and dysesthesia of inferior limbs with a diagnosis of an intra-axial cystic lesion centered to the conus medullaris, diagnosed as pilocytic astrocytoma of conus medullaris (PACM) after surgery. To the best of our knowledge, only two previous reports concerning PACM were made...
April 2017: CNS Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28384595/clinical-outcomes-from-maximum-safe-resection-of-primary-and-metastatic-brain-tumors-using-awake-craniotomy
#2
Anastasia Groshev, Devang Padalia, Sephalie Patel, Rosemarie Garcia-Getting, Solmaz Sahebjam, Peter A Forsyth, Frank D Vrionis, Arnold B Etame
OBJECTIVE: To retrospectively analyze outcomes in patients undergoing awake craniotomies for tumor resection at our institution in terms of extent of resection, functional preservation and length of hospital stay. PATIENTS AND METHODS: All cases of adults undergoing awake-craniotomy from September 2012-February 2015 were retrospectively reviewed based on an IRB approved protocol. Information regarding patient age, sex, cancer type, procedure type, location, hospital stay, extent of resection, and postoperative complications was extracted...
March 20, 2017: Clinical Neurology and Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28357411/gnao1-encephalopathy-broadening-the-phenotype-and-evaluating-treatment-and-outcome
#3
Federica Rachele Danti, Serena Galosi, Marta Romani, Martino Montomoli, Keren J Carss, F Lucy Raymond, Elena Parrini, Claudia Bianchini, Tony McShane, Russell C Dale, Shekeeb S Mohammad, Ubaid Shah, Neil Mahant, Joanne Ng, Amy McTague, Rajib Samanta, Gayatri Vadlamani, Enza Maria Valente, Vincenzo Leuzzi, Manju A Kurian, Renzo Guerrini
OBJECTIVE: To describe better the motor phenotype, molecular genetic features, and clinical course of GNAO1-related disease. METHODS: We reviewed clinical information, video recordings, and neuroimaging of a newly identified cohort of 7 patients with de novo missense and splice site GNAO1 mutations, detected by next-generation sequencing techniques. RESULTS: Patients first presented in early childhood (median age of presentation 10 months, range 0-48 months), with a wide range of clinical symptoms ranging from severe motor and cognitive impairment with marked choreoathetosis, self-injurious behavior, and epileptic encephalopathy to a milder phenotype, featuring moderate developmental delay associated with complex stereotypies, mainly facial dyskinesia and mild epilepsy...
April 2017: Neurology. Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28342104/a-comprehensive-review-of-paediatric-low-grade-diffuse-glioma-pathology-molecular-genetics-and-treatment
#4
Scott Ryall, Uri Tabori, Cynthia Hawkins
Gliomas are the most common central nervous system neoplasms affecting children and can be both high- and low-grade. Paediatric low-grade glioma may be either World Health Organization grade I or grade II. Despite being classified as grade II diffuse astrocytoma, these neoplasms arising in children are distinct clinically and molecularly from their adult counterparts. They do not tend to progress to higher grade lesions and only rarely harbour an IDH mutation. Here, we review the clinical, histologic and molecular features of paediatric grade II diffuse glioma, highlighting their diagnostic criteria, prevalence across brain locations, their most common molecular features and how to test for them, and lastly the current status of therapeutic options available for their treatment...
March 25, 2017: Brain Tumor Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339700/a-clinical-perspective-on-the-2016-who-brain-tumor-classification-and-routine-molecular-diagnostics
#5
Martin J van den Bent, Michael Weller, Patrick Y Wen, Johan M Kros, Ken Aldape, Susan Chang
The 2007 World Health Organization (WHO) classification of brain tumors did not use molecular abnormalities as diagnostic criteria. Studies have shown that genotyping allows a better prognostic classification of diffuse glioma with improved treatment selection. This has resulted in a major revision of the WHO classification, which is now for adult diffuse glioma centered around isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH) and 1p/19q diagnostics. This revised classification is reviewed with a focus on adult brain tumors, and includes a recommendation of genes of which routine testing is clinically useful...
February 21, 2017: Neuro-oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28328117/noonan-syndrome-ptpn11-mutations-and-brain-tumors-a-clinical-report-and-review-of-the-literature
#6
Aurore Siegfried, Claude Cances, Marie Denuelle, Najat Loukh, Maïté Tauber, Hélène Cavé, Marie-Bernadette Delisle
Noonan syndrome (NS), an autosomal dominant disorder, is characterized by short stature, congenital heart defects, developmental delay, and facial dysmorphism. PTPN11 mutations are the most common cause of NS. PTPN11 encodes a non-receptor protein tyrosine phosphatase, SHP2. Hematopoietic malignancies and solid tumors are associated with NS. Among solid tumors, brain tumors have been described in children and young adults but remain rather rare. We report a 16-year-old boy with PTPN11-related NS who, at the age of 12, was incidentally found to have a left temporal lobe brain tumor and a cystic lesion in the right thalamus...
April 2017: American Journal of Medical Genetics. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324583/revisiting-cdk-inhibitors-for-treatment-of-glioblastoma-multiforme
#7
REVIEW
Dorota Lubanska, Lisa Porter
Despite extensive efforts and continual progress in research and medicine, outcomes for patients with high-grade glioma remain exceptionally poor. Over the past decade, research has revealed a great deal about the complex biology behind glioma development, and has brought to light some of the major barriers preventing successful treatment. Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) (stage 4 astrocytoma) is a highly dynamic tumour and one of the most extreme examples of intratumoural heterogeneity, making targeting with specific therapeutics an inefficient and highly unpredictable goal...
March 21, 2017: Drugs in R&D
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324188/autobiographical-memory-loss-following-a-right-prefrontal-lobe-tumour-resection-a-case-report-and-review-of-the-literature
#8
A A B Jamjoom, P Gallo, J Kandasamy, J Phillips, D Sokol
INTRODUCTION: The right prefrontal lobe has not traditionally been considered eloquent brain. Resection of tumours within this region does not typically lead to permanent functional impairment. In this report, we highlight the case of a patient who developed autobiographical memory loss following an uncomplicated resection of a right prefrontal tumour. CASE MATERIAL: A previously fit and well 15-year old presented with a persistent right-sided headache. An MRI demonstrated an expanded right mid-frontal gyrus with changes consistent with a low-grade tumour...
March 21, 2017: Child's Nervous System: ChNS: Official Journal of the International Society for Pediatric Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28273642/idh-mutations-associated-impact-on-related-cancer-epidemiology-and-subsequent-effect-toward-hif-1%C3%AE
#9
REVIEW
Herve Semukunzi, Debmalya Roy, Hongyang Li, Ghulam Jilany Khan, Xiaodan Lyu, Shengtao Yuan, Sensen Lin
Particular mutations in the isocitrate dehydrogenase gene (IDH) were discovered in several gliomas citing astrocytoma, oligodendroglioma, and glioblastoma multiform, but also in leukemia; these mutations were discovered in nearly all cases of secondary glioblastomas, they evolve from lower-grade gliomas, but are limited in primary high-grade glioblastoma multiform. These mutations distinctively produce (D)-2-hydroxyglutarate (D-2-HG) from alpha-ketoglutarate (α-KG). (D)-2-hydroxyglutarate is accumulated to very high concentrations which inhibit the function of enzymes that are dependent on alpha-ketoglutarate...
March 5, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28271343/new-molecular-considerations-for-glioma-idh-atrx-braf-tert-h3-k27m
#10
REVIEW
Michael Karsy, Jian Guan, Adam L Cohen, Randy L Jensen, Howard Colman
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review will discuss the role of several key players in glioma classification and biology, namely isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 and 2 (IDH1/2), alpha thalassemia/mental retardation syndrome X-linked (ATRX), B-Raf (BRAF), telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT), and H3K27M. RECENT FINDINGS: IDH1/2 mutation delineates oligoden-droglioma, astrocytoma, and secondary glioblastoma (GBM) from primary GBM and lower-grade gliomas with biology similar to GBM...
February 2017: Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28270230/risk-factors-for-the-development-of-autism-spectrum-disorder-in-children-with-tuberous-sclerosis-complex-protocol-for-a-systematic-review
#11
Rebecca Mitchell, Sarah Barton, A Simon Harvey, Katrina Williams
BACKGROUND: Tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) is an autosomal dominant condition, caused by mutations in either the TSC1 or TSC2 gene. It has widespread systemic manifestations and is associated with significant neurological morbidity. In addition to seizures and cerebral pathology including cortical tubers, subependymal nodules, subependymal giant cell astrocytoma and abnormal white matter, there are recognised neuropsychiatric difficulties including intellectual disability, autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and a range of learning and behaviour problems, recently conceptualised as "tuberous sclerosis-associated neuropsychiatric disorders", or "TAND"...
March 8, 2017: Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28257299/optic-pathway-glioma-of-childhood
#12
REVIEW
Nailyn Rasool, Jeffrey G Odel, Michael Kazim
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Optic pathway gliomas (OPG) are the most common tumor of the anterior visual pathway and can involve the optic nerve, chiasm, tract, and optic radiations. They are typically benign lesions, often pilocytic astrocytomas, which are diagnosed in childhood. We review the epidemiology, clinical presentation, diagnosis, and management of these lesions in patients with and without neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF-1). RECENT FINDINGS: Most commonly, patients diagnosed with OPG have NF-1 especially if the lesions are bilateral...
May 2017: Current Opinion in Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222441/unusual-occurrence-of-multifocal-desmoplastic-infantile-astrocytoma-a-case-report-and-review-of-the-literature
#13
Vinayak Narayan, Amey R Savardekar, Anita Mahadevan, Arimappamagan Arivazhagan, Lingegowda Appaji
Desmoplastic infantile gliomas are rare, benign tumors of the early infancy period. Two histological subtypes - desmoplastic infantile astrocytoma (DIA) and desmoplastic infantile ganglioglioma - have been described. The characteristic features of DIAs are lobar location, glial histology, and excellent prognosis after complete surgical excision. DIAs usually present as solitary, cortical-surfacing, solid-cystic neoplasms; however, atypical, aggressive, and multifocal variants of DIA have been reported in the literature...
February 22, 2017: Pediatric Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28219020/anthropometrics-at-birth-and-risk-of-a-primary-central-nervous-system-tumour-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#14
REVIEW
Marios K Georgakis, Eleni I Kalogirou, Athanasios Liaskas, Maria A Karalexi, Paraskevi Papathoma, Kyriaki Ladopoulou, Maria Kantzanou, Georgios Tsivgoulis, Eleni Th Petridou
BACKGROUND: The aetiology of primary central nervous system (CNS) tumours remains largely unknown, but their childhood peak points to perinatal parameters as tentative risk factors. In this meta-analysis, we opted to quantitatively synthesise published evidence on the association between birth anthropometrics and risk of primary CNS tumour. METHODS: Eligible studies were identified via systematic literature review; random-effects meta-analyses were conducted for the effect of birth weight and size-for-gestational-age on childhood and adult primary CNS tumours; subgroup, sensitivity, meta-regression and dose-response by birth weight category analyses were also performed...
February 17, 2017: European Journal of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28187964/brain-perfusion-and-diffusion-abnormalities-in-children-treated-for-posterior-fossa-brain-tumors
#15
Matthew D Li, Nils D Forkert, Palak Kundu, Cheryl Ambler, Robert M Lober, Terry C Burns, Patrick D Barnes, Iris C Gibbs, Gerald A Grant, Paul G Fisher, Samuel H Cheshier, Cynthia J Campen, Michelle Monje, Kristen W Yeom
OBJECTIVE: To compare cerebral perfusion and diffusion in survivors of childhood posterior fossa brain tumor with neurologically normal controls and correlate differences with cognitive dysfunction. STUDY DESIGN: We analyzed retrospectively arterial spin-labeled cerebral blood flow (CBF) and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) in 21 patients with medulloblastoma (MB), 18 patients with pilocytic astrocytoma (PA), and 64 neurologically normal children. We generated ANCOVA models to evaluate treatment effects on the cerebral cortex, thalamus, caudate, putamen, globus pallidus, hippocampus, amygdala, nucleus accumbens, and cerebral white matter at time points an average of 5...
February 7, 2017: Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28173580/multifocal-intradural-extramedullary-pilocytic-astrocytomas-of-the-spinal-cord-a-case-report-and-review-of-the-literature
#16
Azam Basheer, Richard Rammo, Steven Kalkanis, Michelle M Felicella, Mokbel Chedid
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 1, 2017: Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28161014/neuroglial-intramedullary-tumors-the-collaboration-between-neurosurgeons-and-neuropathologists
#17
G Cossu, C Lacroix, C Adams, R T Daniel, F Parker, M Messerer
Intramedullary tumors constitute approximately 5% of spinal tumors and about 80% are of neuroglial origin. We reviewed our series of adult patients with spinal neuroglial intramedullary tumors operated on between 1984 and 2011 at the neurosurgical department of Bicêtre hospital. The histopathological records for 196 patients were retrospectively analyzed. The majority of tumors were ependymomas (68%) and astrocytomas (27.5%). The importance of a proper and detailed neuropathological diagnosis is the key to define patient management...
February 1, 2017: Neuro-Chirurgie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28156189/feline-glioma-a-retrospective-study-and-review-of-the-literature
#18
Daniel R Rissi, Andrew D Miller
Case series summary This study aimed to evaluate the pathologic and diagnostic features of 13 cases of feline glioma diagnosed at two veterinary diagnostic institutions over 16 years. A retrospective search was conducted using the laboratory information system. Selected cases were reviewed, tumors were classified according to the 2007 World Health Organization Classification of Tumours of the Central Nervous System, and tissue sections were submitted to an immunohistochemistry panel for further characterization...
February 1, 2017: Journal of Feline Medicine and Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28131206/pik3ca-mutation-in-a-mixed-dysembryoplastic-neuroepithelial-tumor-and-rosette-forming-glioneuronal-tumor-a-case-report-and-literature-review
#19
Philip George Eye, Laurence Davidson, Patrick J Malafronte, Sarah Cantrell, Brett J Theeler
BACKGROUND: Rosette forming glioneuronal tumors are rare, World Health Organization (WHO) grade I novel tumors frequently affecting the fourth ventricle or posterior fossa with typical neuronal pseudorosettes. RGNTs have been described as possessing additional histologic features of DNETs or pilocytic astrocytomas. Activating PIK3CA mutations have been identified as recurring genetic event in RGNTs. METHODS: We report a 35year old man who presented with binocular diplopia, headache, and was found to have a third ventricle tumor...
February 15, 2017: Journal of the Neurological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28120069/middle-temporal-gyrus-versus-inferior-temporal-gyrus-transcortical-approaches-to-high-grade-astrocytomas-in-the-mediobasal-temporal-lobe-a-comparison-of-outcomes-functional-restoration-and-surgical-considerations
#20
Alfredo Quinones-Hinojosa, Shaan M Raza, Ishrat Ahmed, Jordina Rincon-Torroella, Kaisorn Chaichana, Alessandro Olivi
INTRODUCTION: High-grade astrocytomas of the mesial temporal lobe may pose surgical challenges. Several approaches (trans-sylvian, subtemporal, and transcortical) have been designed to circumnavigate the critical neurovascular structures and white fiber tracts that surround this area. Considering the paucity of literature on the transcortical approach for these lesions, we describe our institutional experience with transcortical approaches to Grade III/IV astrocytomas in the mesial temporal lobe...
2017: Acta Neurochirurgica. Supplement
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