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astrocytoma review

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29211682/the-natural-history-of-subependymal-giant-cell-astrocytomas-in-tuberous-sclerosis-complex-a-review
#1
Denise L Chan, Tessa Calder, John A Lawson, David Mowat, Sean E Kennedy
Tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) is an auto-somal-dominant inherited condition with an incidence of approximately 1:6000 births, characterised by deregulated mTOR activity with multi-site hamartomas. Subependymal giant cell astrocytomas (SEGA) are one such hamartoma, affecting up to 24% of patients with TSC. Their intraventricular location may lead to life-threatening obstructive hydrocephalus. Current management is hampered by a lack of understanding regarding the natural history, behaviour and growth patterns of SEGA...
December 6, 2017: Reviews in the Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29204027/a-simplified-overview-of-world-health-organization-classification-update-of-central-nervous-system-tumors-2016
#2
REVIEW
Anshu Gupta, Tanima Dwivedi
After 8 years, an update of central nervous system (CNS) tumors was published in 2016 after 2007. First time ever, molecular markers along with histology have been used in classification of any tumor. Major changes are seen in glioma and medulloblastoma groups. Few entities have been added such as diffuse midline glioma, H3 K27M-mutant, RELA fusion-positive ependymoma, embryonal tumor with multilayered rosettes, C19MC-altered, and hybrid nerve sheath tumors. Few variants and patterns that no longer have diagnostic and/or biological relevance and have been deleted such as glioblastoma cerebri, protoplasmic and fibrillary astrocytoma, and cellular ependymoma...
October 2017: Journal of Neurosciences in Rural Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29198335/micrornas-in-glioblastoma-pathogenesis-and-therapy-a-comprehensive-review
#3
REVIEW
Bhavesh K Ahir, Howard Ozer, Herbert H Engelhard, Sajani S Lakka
Glioblastoma (GBM), also known as grade IV astrocytoma, is the most aggressive primary intracranial tumor of the adult brain. MicroRNAs (miRNAs), a class of small non-coding RNA species, have critical functions across various biological processes. A great deal of progress has been made recently in dissecting miRNA pathways associated with the pathogenesis of GBM. miRNA expression signatures called gene signatures also characterize and contribute to the phenotypic diversity of GBM subclasses through their ability to regulate developmental growth and differentiation...
December 2017: Critical Reviews in Oncology/hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29186201/prognostic-markers-for-survival-in-patients-with-oligodendroglial-tumors-a-single-institution-review-of-214-cases
#4
Maria Zetterling, Luwam Berhane, Irina Alafuzoff, Asgeir S Jakola, Anja Smits
BACKGROUND: In the 2016 WHO classification, the diagnosis of oligodendroglioma has been restricted to IDH mutated, 1p19q codeleted tumors (IDHmut-codel). IDHmut oligoastrocytoma is now classified either as oligodendroglioma or astrocytoma based on presence of 1p19q codeletion. There is growing evidence that this molecular classification more closely reflects patient outcome. Due to the strong association between IDHmut-codel with oligodendroglial morphology, the additional impact of these markers on prognostic accuracy is largely unknown...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29180079/adult-pilocytic-astrocytoma-an-institutional-series-and-systematic-literature-review-for-extent-of-resection-and-recurrence
#5
REVIEW
Kamila M Bond, Joshua D Hughes, Amanda L Porter, Josiah Orina, Shanna Fang, Ian F Parney
INTRODUCTION: Pilocytic astrocytoma is a classically-benign tumor that most often affects pediatric patients. Rarely, it occurs during adulthood. We present a case series and systematic literature review of adult pilocytic astrocytoma (APA) to examine the clinical presentation, extent of resection, and recurrence rate associated with this tumor in this population. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Our institutional records were retrospectively reviewed for cases of pilocytic astrocytoma in adults...
November 24, 2017: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29165393/the-role-of-hypoxia-in-glioblastoma-invasion
#6
REVIEW
Ana Rita Monteiro, Richard Hill, Geoffrey J Pilkington, Patrícia A Madureira
Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM), a grade IV astrocytoma, is the most common and deadly type of primary malignant brain tumor, with a patient's median survival rate ranging from 15 to 17 months. The current treatment for GBM involves tumor resection surgery based on MRI image analysis, followed by radiotherapy and treatment with temozolomide. However, the gradual development of tumor resistance to temozolomide is frequent in GBM patients leading to subsequent tumor regrowth/relapse. For this reason, the development of more effective therapeutic approaches for GBM is of critical importance...
November 22, 2017: Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29125440/long-term-outcomes-of-primarily-metastatic-juvenile-pilocytic-astrocytoma-in-children
#7
Derek Yecies, Paul Graham Fisher, Samuel Cheshier, Michael Edwards, Gerald Grant
OBJECTIVE Primarily metastatic juvenile pilocytic astrocytoma (JPA) is rare, likely representing 2%-3% of all cases of JPA. Due to the rarity of primarily metastatic JPA, there is currently no standard treatment paradigm and the long-term outcomes are not fully known. The goal of this case series was to add to the current understanding of this disease process. METHODS The authors searched a comprehensive database of pediatric patients with brain and spinal cord tumors treated at Lucile Packard Children's Hospital from 1997 to 2016 and identified 5 patients with primarily metastatic JPA...
November 10, 2017: Journal of Neurosurgery. Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29114301/subependymal-giant-cell-astrocytoma-associated-hyperproteinorrhachia-causing-shunt-failures-and-nonobstructive-hydrocephalus-report-of-successful-treatment-with-long-term-follow-up
#8
Ekkehard Kasper, Yosef Laviv, Mohammed-Adeeb E Sebai, Ning Lin, William Butler
Subependymal giant cell astrocytomas (SEGAs) are histologically benign tumors most frequently associated with tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC). Despite their benign histopathological appearance, they may cause unfavorable outcomes due to their intraventricular location. Rarely, SEGA may be associated with hyperproteinorrhachia (high levels of proteins in the cerebrospinal fluid [CSF]), which causes malresorptive, communicating hydrocephalus; certainly, this scenario makes shunt obstruction likely in this patient population...
October 2017: Asian Journal of Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29045978/-clinicopathologic-features-of-infant-dysembryoplastic-neuroepithelial-tumor-a-case-report-and-literature-review
#9
H Wang, J T Ye, H X Yao, D Li, Y Dong
Dysembryoplastic neuroepithelial tumor (DNT) has traditionally been viewed as rare benign tumors that present with seizure widely considered curable with surgery alone. Most DNTs occur in childhood and young adults. However, rare reported cases occur in infants. This paper reported an infant case of DNT and its diagnosis, differential diagnosis, treatment, molecular features and prognosis based on the review of current literatures. The age onset of this patient was only 11 months old. The clinical manifestations were partial seizures and the imaging data untypical; CT and MRI were all supportive of astrocytoma...
October 18, 2017: Beijing da Xue Xue Bao. Yi Xue Ban, Journal of Peking University. Health Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031036/-the-role-of-chemotherapy-in-the-treatment-of-low-grade-gliomas
#10
R Lakomý, T Kazda, A Poprach, P Pospíšil, R Jančálek, P Šlampa
BACKGROUND: The standard postsurgical options for low-grade gliomas include watchful waiting or radiotherapy depending on the risk factors for recurrence. The use of chemotherapy for the treatment of this disease is generally controversial, although the recently published results of the first of two large randomized phase III clinical trials (RTOG 9802 a EORTC 22033-26033), focusing on the evaluation of chemotherapy for the upfront treatment of newly diagnosed low-grade gliomas, are reassuring in this respect...
2017: Klinická Onkologie: Casopis Ceské a Slovenské Onkologické Spolecnosti
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031035/-controversy-in-the-postoperative-treatment-of-low-grade-gliomas
#11
T Kazda, R Lakomý, A Poprach, P Pospíšil, R Jančálek, P Šlampa
BACKGROUND: The optimal treatment for low-grade gliomas remains controversial. Neurosurgery, radiotherapy, and chemotherapy are the main treatment options. Despite advances in oncology, there are still a lot of uncertainties, and the optimal sequences, combinations, and timings of these procedures have not yet been optimized. It is still unclear whether temozolomide can replace effective, but toxic PCV chemotherapy (procarbazine, lomustine, vincristine) and whether temozolomide can be used upfront alone instead of radiotherapy alone...
2017: Klinická Onkologie: Casopis Ceské a Slovenské Onkologické Spolecnosti
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28984519/surgical-management-of-incidentally-discovered-diffusely-infiltrating-low-grade-glioma
#12
Michael Opoku-Darko, Stefan T Lang, James Artindale, J Gregory Cairncross, Robert J Sevick, John J P Kelly
OBJECTIVE Occasionally, diffusely infiltrating low-grade gliomas (LGGs) are identified as incidental findings in patients who have no signs or symptoms that can be ascribed to the tumors. The diagnosis of incidental, asymptomatic LGGs has become more frequent due to the vast increase in access to medical imaging technology. While management of these lesions remains controversial, early surgery has been suggested to improve outcome. The authors set out to identify and review the characteristics and surgical outcomes of patients who underwent surgical intervention for incidental LGG...
October 6, 2017: Journal of Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28983585/complex-role-of-connexin-43-in-astrocytic-tumors-and-possible-promotion-of-glioma%C3%A2-associated-epileptic-discharge-review
#13
Hui Dong, Xing-Wang Zhou, Xiang Wang, Yuan Yang, Jie-Wen Luo, Yan-Hui Liu, Qing Mao
Connexin (Cx)43 is a multifunction protein which forms gap junction channels and hemi‑channels. It also contains abundant binding domains which possess the ability to interact with certain Cx43‑associated proteins and therefore serve a fundamental role in various physiological and pathological functions. However, the understanding of the association between cancer and Cx43 along with Cx43‑gap junctions (GJ) remains unclear. All available data illustrate that Cx43 and its associated GJ serve important functions in cancers...
December 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28982039/whorling-sclerosing-meningioma-a-review-on-the-histological-features-of-a-rare-tumor-including-an-illustrative-case
#14
REVIEW
İlhan Elmaci, Meric Adil Altinoz, Aydin Sav, Fatih Han Bolükbaşı, Mustafa Önöz, Özdil Başkan, Ramazan Sari
Whorling-Sclerosing variant of meningioma (WSM) is a very rare variant of meningioma and only 28 cases were previously reported in the English medical literature. The term "whorling" describes different morphological features including psammoma bodies formed by precipitated calcium or by layered whorling sheets of tumor cells in meningothelial meningiomas. In WSM, the sclerosing structures are formed by typical paucicellular or acellular collagen whorls which form the majority of tumor volume. Hence, diagnosis of these tumors is based more often on morphological and histochemical features rather than on immunohistochemical findings...
November 2017: Clinical Neurology and Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28980149/hemorrhagic-presentation-of-intracranial-pilocytic-astrocytomas-literature-review
#15
REVIEW
G Lakshmi Prasad, B N Nandeesh, Girish R Menon
Pilocytic astrocytomas (PAs) are seemingly innocuous and benign tumors. However, in recent times, many case series have documented high rates of hemorrhage in these neoplasms. We hereby provide a detailed analysis on hemorrhagic pilocytic astrocytomas (HPA) in adults and report one such case managed at our institute. In addition, salient differences between adult and pediatric hemorrhagic PA have been briefed. Hospital records were retrieved for our case. Literature review was conducted by searching online databases for the following keywords-pilocytic astrocytoma, hemorrhage, cranial, pediatric, and adults...
October 4, 2017: Neurosurgical Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28977789/intraoperative-squash-and-touch-preparation-cytology-of-brain-lesions-stained-with-h-e-and-diff-quik%C3%A2-a-20-year-retrospective-analysis-and-comparative-literature-review
#16
Makoto Hamasaki, Karen H F Chang, Kazuki Nabeshima, Pamela S Tauchi-Nishi
OBJECTIVE: Squash preparation (SP) is a rapid technique for the intraoperative assessment of brain lesions. Only a few studies have employed touch preparation (TP) cytology and Diff-QuikTM (DQ) staining in conjunction with SP. Our study aimed to assess the diagnostic efficacy of SP of brain lesions at our institution, ascertain the additional effect of TP and DQ staining, examine factors affecting the sensitivity and specificity of our methods, and compare our findings with those of previous investigations...
October 5, 2017: Acta Cytologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28968159/pediatric-thalamic-gliomas-an-updated-review
#17
REVIEW
Avneesh Gupta, Nathan Shaller, Kathryn A McFadden
CONTEXT: - Neoplasms originating in the thalamus are rare overall (1% of all brain tumors); however, they comprise approximately 5% of pediatric intracranial tumors and approach 15% of all malignant pediatric intracranial tumors in some series. OBJECTIVE: - To update readers about the current understanding of the diverse histology, biology, and behavior of pediatric thalamic tumors. Histologic verification is now thought to be critical for planning treatment, and, as a result, biopsy and total/subtotal resections are much more common today than in the past...
October 2017: Archives of Pathology & Laboratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28962117/nearly-asymptomatic-intracranial-capillary-hemangiomas-a-case-report-and-literature-review
#18
Xiaoyu Xia, Haoju Zhang, Hongyan Gao, Yi Yang, Yiwu Dai, Yang Jiao, Jianghong He
The present study reported a nearly asymptomatic case of intracranial capillary hemangioma (ICHs), which are rare benign vascular tumors or tumor-like lesions. A 33-year-old female came to the hospital with a complaint of a slight but recurring morning headache concentrated in the left posterior occipital area. These headaches spontaneously resolved without any treatment. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging revealed a mass inside the left occipital lobe. The patient refused to undergo conservative observation at home and insisted on radical therapy...
September 2017: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28947983/deceptive-morphologic-and-epigenetic-heterogeneity-in-diffuse-intrinsic-pontine-glioma
#19
Marianna Bugiani, Sophie E M Veldhuijzen van Zanten, Viola Caretti, Pepijn Schellen, Eleonora Aronica, David P Noske, William P Vandertop, Gertjan J L Kaspers, Dannis G van Vuurden, Pieter Wesseling, Esther Hulleman
Historically, the diagnosis of diffuse intrinsic pontine glioma (DIPG) was based on typical imaging findings and clinical characteristics instead of pathology. However, the discovery of mutations in histone H3 variants, and the availability of tumor material for molecular analysis, has led to a paradigm shift in DIPG research and clinical practice. Using data from whole-brain autopsies in a series of nine DIPG patients with known histone mutational status, we here aim to review histopathological characteristics with special focus on intratumoral heterogeneity (ITH) and histone 3 K27 trimethylation (H3 K27me3)...
September 1, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28941523/a-review-of-visual-and-oculomotor-outcomes-in-children-with-posterior-fossa-tumors
#20
Crandall E Peeler
Tumors of the posterior fossa represent the most common solid malignancy of childhood and can affect the visual system in several ways. This article outlines the relevant visual anatomy affected by these tumors and reviews the visual and oculomotor outcomes associated with the following 3 most common tumor types-medulloblastoma, juvenile pilocytic astrocytoma, and ependymoma. The available data suggest that the rate of permanent vision loss is low (5.9%-8.3%), with patients having juvenile pilocytic astrocytoma demonstrating the best outcomes...
May 2017: Seminars in Pediatric Neurology
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