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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149834/cystatin-c-in-cerebrovascular-disorders
#1
Yaru Zhang, Li Sun
Cystatin C (CysC), a cysteine protease inhibitor, has been widely proven to be a highly sensitive biomarker to predict the kidney function. The similarity of the renal and cerebral small vessels has awakened a surge of studies suggesting that CysC plays a key role in various cerebrovascular disorders. This review focuses on four major mechanisms of CysC in a variety of cerebrovascular diseases. (1)The property of the CysC Leu-68-Gln (L68Q) variant to aggregate and the property of the wild type CysC protein to co-aggregate with Amyloid-β (Aβ); (2)The disruption of equilibrium between CysC and related cysteine proteases; (3)The function of CysC as an inflammatory inducing factor; (4)The ability of CysC to induce autophagy...
November 15, 2017: Current Neurovascular Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29147474/new-onset-of-insomnia-in-hospitalized-patients-in-general-medical-wards-incidence-causes-and-resolution-rate
#2
An Ho, Bronson Raja, Richard Waldhorn, Valentina Baez, Idiris Mohammed
Background: Insomnia is common in hospitalized patients. However, no study has examined new onset of insomnia in patients without a prior history of insomnia. Objectives: Incidence of new onset of insomnia in inpatients, associated factors and resolution rate after 2 weeks. Method: This is a prospective observational study conducted at a community hospital. We used the Insomnia Severity Index questionnaire to screen for insomnia in all patients located in the general medical floors from day 3 to day 5 of their hospital stay...
2017: Journal of Community Hospital Internal Medicine Perspectives
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145457/association-between-environmental-noise-and-subjective-symptoms-related-to-cardiovascular-diseases-among-elderly-individuals-in-japan
#3
Kenichi Azuma, Iwao Uchiyama
Noise in housing environments may increase the risk of cardiovascular diseases (CVDs); however, the most significant sources of noise among elderly individuals remain poorly understood. A nationwide cross-sectional study comprised of 6,181 elderly people (age ≥ 65 years) was conducted using a web-based self-reported questionnaire in 2014. Questions pertaining to CVD-related subjective symptoms within the past year addressed symptoms of chest pain, disturbances in pulse, acute impaired tongue movement, limb paralysis, and foot pain or numbness during walking...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29131654/association-between-nonmedical-use-of-prescription-drugs-and-sleep-quality-in-a-large-college-student-sample
#4
Yahya A Alamir, Keith J Zullig, Sijin Wen, Hawley Montgomery-Downs, Alfgeir L Kristjansson, Ranjita Misra, Jianjun Zhang
OBJECTIVE/BACKGROUND: Poor sleep and nonmedical use (NMU) of prescription drugs (NMUPD) are both common among college students. Since lack of sleep adversely influences academic performance, this study examined the association between NMUPD and subjective sleep quality among college students. PARTICIPANTS: Students who completed the American College Health Association-National College Health Assessment data (Fall 2010, Spring 2011; N = 135,874). METHODS: Associations were examined between NMUPD in four classes over the past 12 months (Antidepressant, Painkillers, Sedatives, and Stimulants), and five aspects of sleep quality (Enough Sleep, Early Awakening, Daytime Sleepiness, Difficulty Falling Asleep, and Problem with Daytime Sleepiness) in the past seven days...
November 13, 2017: Behavioral Sleep Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29123376/intracameral-ketorolac-concentration-at-the-beginning-and-end-of-cataract-surgery-following-preoperative-topical-ketorolac-administration
#5
Douglas A Katsev, Cailyn C Katsev, Jen Pinnow, Catherine M Lockhart
Purpose: To evaluate the intracameral concentration of ketorolac tromethamine (ketorolac) at the beginning and end of cataract surgery following preoperative topical administration. Setting: Santa Barbara Surgery Center, Santa Barbara, CA, USA. Design: This was a pre-post, interventional, single-arm study. Patients and methods: Patients undergoing cataract extraction and lens replacement (CELR) were eligible. Written informed consent was obtained from 14 patients who were prescribed topical ophthalmic ketorolac according to the surgeon's usual practice beginning the day prior to surgery...
2017: Clinical Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29119809/sleep-in-young-children-with-asthma-and-their-parents
#6
Lisa J Meltzer, Cara E Pugliese
Sleep problems are common in healthy young children, as well as in older children and adolescents with asthma; yet little is known about the sleep patterns and sleep issues of young children with asthma. Further, when young children have sleep disruptions, parental sleep is also typically disrupted. The purpose of this study was to characterize sleep in young children (one to four years) with and without asthma and their parents. Parents of young children ( n = 364) from the general community completed measures of sleep patterns and sleep issues in their children and in themselves...
September 2017: Journal of Child Health Care: for Professionals Working with Children in the Hospital and Community
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29112763/insight-into-reduction-of-wakefulness-by-suvorexant-in-patients-with-insomnia-analysis-of-wake-bouts
#7
Vladimir Svetnik, Ellen S Snyder, Peining Tao, Thomas E Scammell, Thomas Roth, Christopher Lines, W Joseph Herring
Objectives: To examine the duration and frequency of wake bouts underlying the wakefulness-after-sleep-onset (WASO) reduction with suvorexant. Methods: We analyzed polysomnogram recordings from clinical trials involving 1518 insomnia patients receiving suvorexant (40/30mg, 20/15mg) or placebo to determine: 1) the number of, and time spent in, long or short wake bouts, 2) the association between sleep quality and bout characteristics. We also compared wake and sleep bout characteristics of suvorexant in insomnia patients versus zolpidem in healthy subjects undergoing experimentally-induced transient insomnia...
November 3, 2017: Sleep
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29112079/acute-physiologic-stress-and-subsequent-anxiety-among-family-members-of-icu-patients
#8
Sarah J Beesley, Ramona O Hopkins, Julianne Holt-Lunstad, Emily L Wilson, Jorie Butler, Kathryn G Kuttler, James Orme, Samuel M Brown, Eliotte L Hirshberg
OBJECTIVES: The ICU is a complex and stressful environment and is associated with significant psychologic morbidity for patients and their families. We sought to determine whether salivary cortisol, a physiologic measure of acute stress, was associated with subsequent psychologic distress among family members of ICU patients. DESIGN: This is a prospective, observational study of family members of adult ICU patients. SETTING: Adult medical and surgical ICU in a tertiary care center...
November 3, 2017: Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29111783/would-you-say-yes-in-the-evening-time-of-day-effect-on-response-bias-in-four-types-of-working-memory-recognition-tasks
#9
Koryna Lewandowska, Barbara Wachowicz, Tadeusz Marek, Halszka Oginska, Magdalena Fafrowicz
Across a wide range of tasks, cognitive functioning is affected by circadian fluctuations. In this study, we investigated diurnal variations of working memory performance, taking into account not only hits and errors rates, but also sensitivity (d') and response bias (c) indexes (established by signal detection theory). Fifty-two healthy volunteers performed four experimental tasks twice - in the morning and in the evening (approximately 1 and 10 h after awakening). All tasks were based on Deese-Roediger-McDermott paradigm version dedicated to study working/short-term memory distortions...
November 7, 2017: Chronobiology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29110731/level-of-asthma-control-and-risk-factors-for-poor-asthma-control-among-clinic-patients-seen-at-a-referral-hospital-in-addis-ababa-ethiopia
#10
Tewodros H Gebremariam, Amsalu B Binegdie, Abebe S Mitiku, Aschalew W Ashagrie, Kibrom G Gebrehiwot, Dawit K Huluka, Charles B Sherman, Neil W Schluger
OBJECTIVE: Uncontrolled asthma negatively impacts patients, families, and the community. The level of symptom control among asthmatics in Ethiopia has not been well studied. We investigated the level of asthma control and risk factors for poor asthma control in clinic patients seen in the largest public hospital in Ethiopia. RESULTS: In this cross-sectional study, we studied all 182 consecutive subjects with a physician diagnosis of asthma who were seen in chest clinic at Tikur Anbessa Specialized Hospital between July and December 2015...
November 6, 2017: BMC Research Notes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29102815/combining-genetic-and-epigenetic-parameters-of-the-serotonin-transporter-gene-in-obsessive-compulsive-disorder
#11
Edna Grünblatt, Zoya Marinova, Alexander Roth, Elena Gardini, Juliane Ball, Julia Geissler, Tomasz K Wojdacz, Marcel Romanos, Susanne Walitza
While genetic variants have been reported to be associated with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), the small effect sizes suggest that epigenetic mechanisms such as DNA methylation may also be relevant. The serotonin transporter (SLC6A4) gene has been extensively investigated in relation to OCD, since serotonin reuptake inhibitors are the pharmacological treatment of choice for the disorder. The current study set three questions: Firstly, whether the high expressing loci of the SLC6A4 polymorphisms, 5-HTTLPR + rs25531, rs25532 and rs16965628 are associated with family-based (n = 164 trios) and case-control OCD (n = 186, 152, respectively)...
October 16, 2017: Journal of Psychiatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29102031/blood-lead-levels-and-hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal-function-in-middle-aged-individuals
#12
Gérard Ngueta, Marc-André Verner, Alexandra J Fiocco, Sonia Lupien, Pierrich Plusquellec
Experimental and epidemiological studies suggested that exposure to lead (Pb) may influence the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. However, previous studies have yielded mixed results. We evaluated changes in basal salivary cortisol levels and acute cortisol responsivity to psychological stress in relation with blood Pb levels (BPb), in Caucasian individuals 50-67 years of age. Data were collected through the Study of Genetics, Stress and Cognitive Development (2004-2006). Diurnal basal and stress-reactive salivary cortisol levels were collected and BPb levels were determined using inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy...
October 25, 2017: Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29099542/chloral-hydrate-as-a-sedating-agent-for-neurodiagnostic-procedures-in-children
#13
REVIEW
Choong Yi Fong, Chee Geap Tay, Lai Choo Ong, Nai Ming Lai
BACKGROUND: Paediatric neurodiagnostic investigations, including brain neuroimaging and electroencephalography (EEG), play an important role in the assessment of neurodevelopmental disorders. The use of an appropriate sedative agent is important to ensure the successful completion of the neurodiagnostic procedures, particularly in children, who are usually unable to remain still throughout the procedure. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effectiveness and adverse effects of chloral hydrate as a sedative agent for non-invasive neurodiagnostic procedures in children...
November 3, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29082633/effects-of-late-night-short-sleep-on-in-home-polysomnography-relation-to-adult-age-and-sex
#14
Torbjörn Åkerstedt, Mats Lekander, Gustav Nilsonne, Sandra Tamm, Paolo D'onofrio, Göran Kecklund, Håkan Fischer, Johanna Schwarz
Bedtime is frequently delayed by many factors in life, and a homeostatic response to the delay may compensate partly for increased time awake and shortened sleep. Because sleep becomes shorter with age and women complain of disturbed sleep more often than men, age and sex differences in the homeostatic response to a delayed bedtime may modify the homeostatic response. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effect of late-night short-sleep (3 h with awakening at about 07:00 hours) on in-home recorded sleep in men and women in two age groups (20-30 and 65-75 years)...
October 30, 2017: Journal of Sleep Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29081351/integrating-biological-treatment-mechanisms-into-randomized-clinical-trials-design-of-progress-prolonged-exposure-and-sertraline-trial
#15
Sheila A M Rauch, Naomi M Simon, H Myra Kim, Ron Acierno, Anthony P King, Sonya B Norman, Margaret R Venners, Katherine Porter, K Luan Phan, Peter W Tuerk, Carolyn Allard, Israel Liberzon, Barbara O Rothbaum, Brian Martis, Murray B Stein, Charles W Hoge
Increased emphasis on mechanisms of treatment effectiveness, biomarker predictors, and objective indicators of treatment response has sparked interest in integrated, translational treatment outcomes trials. The PROlonGed ExpoSure and Sertraline Trial (PROGrESS) is one such randomized controlled trial (RCT) focused on a key question in clinical management of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) - the comparative and combined effectiveness of medication and psychotherapy. PROGrESS employs a state of the art trial design to examine psychotherapy and medication effects across three conditions: 1) Prolonged Exposure (PE) plus pill placebo, 2) Sertraline (SERT) plus Enhanced Medication Management (EMM), and 3) Combined treatment (PE/SERT)...
October 29, 2017: Contemporary Clinical Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29080950/is-poor-sleep-associated-with-obesity-in-older-adults-a-narrative-review-of-the-literature
#16
Maria C Norton, Stefano Eleuteri, Silvia Cerolini, Andrea Ballesio, Salvatore C Conte, Paolo Falaschi, Fabio Lucidi
INTRODUCTION: To address the worldwide epidemic of obesity, a sizable literature implicates sleep problems in the onset of obesity in younger populations. However, less is known about how this process may operate among older adults, which is of concern, given demographic shifts that have resulted in a much higher proportion of developed nations around the world reaching late life. METHODS: We offer a current review of the literature studying older adults and examining associations between sleep quality and obesity in this population...
October 28, 2017: Eating and Weight Disorders: EWD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29079674/myocardial-bridge-bridging-the-differential-diagnosis
#17
Mayur Patel, Brenen Swofford, Edward Distler
A 50-year-old man with a history of vasospastic angina diagnosed 3 months prior presented with recurrent episodes of substernal chest pain. His chest pain was characterised as 'squeezing', lasting 10 min and typically occurred on awakening. Medications included isosorbide, nitroglycerin and ranolazine; however, due to lack of insurance he was unable to obtain these medications. On admission, patient was given a full-dose aspirin and nitroglycerin, which acutely worsened his chest pain. ECG did not reveal ischaemic changes and initial troponin was negative...
October 27, 2017: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29078755/clinically-significant-discrepancies-between-sleep-problems-assessed-by-standard-clinical-tools-and-actigraphy
#18
Kjersti Marie Blytt, Bjørn Bjorvatn, Bettina Husebo, Elisabeth Flo
BACKGROUND: Sleep disturbances are widespread among nursing home (NH) patients and associated with numerous negative consequences. Identifying and treating them should therefore be of high clinical priority. No prior studies have investigated the degree to which sleep disturbances as detected by actigraphy and by the sleep-related items in the Cornell Scale for Depression in Dementia (CSDD) and the Neuropsychiatric Inventory - Nursing Home version (NPI-NH) provide comparable results. Such knowledge is highly needed, since both questionnaires are used in clinical settings and studies use the NPI-NH sleep item to measure sleep disturbances...
October 27, 2017: BMC Geriatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29076400/the-cortisol-awakening-response-after-sleep-deprivation-is-the-cortisol-awakening-response-a-response-to-awakening-or-a-circadian-process
#19
Ivan Vargas, Nestor Lopez-Duran
This study tested whether the cortisol awakening response is dependent on the transition from sleep to awakening, or alternatively, a circadian-driven process that is independent of awakening. A total of 40 participants were randomly assigned to either a total sleep deprivation or a sleep condition. Salivary cortisol was also assessed. Participants in the sleep condition demonstrated a traditional cortisol awakening response, whereas participants in the total sleep deprivation condition showed no increases in morning cortisol...
October 1, 2017: Journal of Health Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29072591/frequency-of-loud-snoring-and-metabolic-syndrome-among-korean-adults-results-from-the-health-examinees-hexa-study
#20
Claire E Kim, Sangah Shin, Hwi-Won Lee, Jiyeon Lim, Jong-Koo Lee, Daehee Kang
Studies regarding the association between snoring and metabolic abnormalities have been inconsistent. We examine whether snoring frequency and obstructive sleep apnea markers are associated with metabolic syndrome (MetS) among Koreans aged 40-69 years. A total of 72,885 subjects (24,856 men, 48,029 women) from the Health Examinees Gem study between 2009 and 2013 were included. Snoring frequency was grouped into five categories (never, 1-3/month, 1-3/week, 4-5/week, 6+/week). Obstructive sleep apnea markers included breathing interruptions and awakenings...
October 26, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
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