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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29166263/effects-of-melatonin-implantation-on-the-fertility-potentials-of-kivircik-and-charollais-ewes-and-rams-during-the-non-breeding-season
#1
M Cevik, C Yilmazer, A Kocyigit
This study examined the effect of melatonin implantation during the non-breeding season on the reproductive performance of ewes and the testicular dimensions of rams. In seasonally anestrus Kivircik and Charollais ewes and rams were subjected to melatonin. Estrus response was significantly higher in treated than control ewes of both breeds (p<0.001). The pregnancy rate was significantly lower (p<0.001) in the control than in the treated animals. The twinning rate was significantly lower in melatonin implanted Kivircik than Charollais ewes (p<0...
September 26, 2017: Polish Journal of Veterinary Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29165331/an-orientation-sensor-based-head-tracking-system-for-driver-behaviour-monitoring
#2
Yifan Zhao, Lorenz Görne, Iek-Man Yuen, Dongpu Cao, Mark Sullman, Daniel Auger, Chen Lv, Huaji Wang, Rebecca Matthias, Lee Skrypchuk, Alexandros Mouzakitis
Although at present legislation does not allow drivers in a Level 3 autonomous vehicle to engage in a secondary task, there may become a time when it does. Monitoring the behaviour of drivers engaging in various non-driving activities (NDAs) is crucial to decide how well the driver will be able to take over control of the vehicle. One limitation of the commonly used face-based head tracking system, using cameras, is that sufficient features of the face must be visible, which limits the detectable angle of head movement and thereby measurable NDAs, unless multiple cameras are used...
November 22, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29164405/genetic-variance-in-homophobia-evidence-from-self-and-peer-reports
#3
Alexandra Zapko-Willmes, Christian Kandler
The present twin study combined self- and peer assessments of twins' general homophobia targeting gay men in order to replicate previous behavior genetic findings across different rater perspectives and to disentangle self-rater-specific variance from common variance in self- and peer-reported homophobia (i.e., rater-consistent variance). We hypothesized rater-consistent variance in homophobia to be attributable to genetic and nonshared environmental effects, and self-rater-specific variance to be partially accounted for by genetic influences...
November 21, 2017: Behavior Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163289/network-approach-to-understanding-emotion-dynamics-in-relation-to-childhood-trauma-and-genetic-liability-to-psychopathology-replication-of-a-prospective-experience-sampling-analysis
#4
Laila Hasmi, Marjan Drukker, Sinan Guloksuz, Claudia Menne-Lothmann, Jeroen Decoster, Ruud van Winkel, Dina Collip, Philippe Delespaul, Marc De Hert, Catherine Derom, Evert Thiery, Nele Jacobs, Bart P F Rutten, Marieke Wichers, Jim van Os
Background: The network analysis of intensive time series data collected using the Experience Sampling Method (ESM) may provide vital information in gaining insight into the link between emotion regulation and vulnerability to psychopathology. The aim of this study was to apply the network approach to investigate whether genetic liability (GL) to psychopathology and childhood trauma (CT) are associated with the network structure of the emotions "cheerful," "insecure," "relaxed," "anxious," "irritated," and "down"-collected using the ESM method...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29162804/high-velocity-projectile-impact-induced-9r-phase-in-ultrafine-grained-aluminium
#5
Sichuang Xue, Zhe Fan, Olawale B Lawal, Ramathasan Thevamaran, Qiang Li, Yue Liu, K Y Yu, Jian Wang, Edwin L Thomas, Haiyan Wang, Xinghang Zhang
Aluminium typically deforms via full dislocations due to its high stacking fault energy. Twinning in aluminium, although difficult, may occur at low temperature and high strain rate. However, the 9R phase rarely occurs in aluminium simply because of its giant stacking fault energy. Here, by using a laser-induced projectile impact testing technique, we discover a deformation-induced 9R phase with tens of nm in width in ultrafine-grained aluminium with an average grain size of 140 nm, as confirmed by extensive post-impact microscopy analyses...
November 21, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29162184/in-the-eye-of-the-beholder-perceptions-of-neighborhood-adversity-and-psychotic-experiences-in-adolescence
#6
Joanne B Newbury, Louise Arseneault, Avshalom Caspi, Terrie E Moffitt, Candice L Odgers, Jessie R Baldwin, Helena M S Zavos, Helen L Fisher
Adolescent psychotic experiences increase risk for schizophrenia and other severe psychopathology in adulthood. Converging evidence implicates urban and adverse neighborhood conditions in the etiology of adolescent psychotic experiences, but the role of young people's personal perceptions of disorder (i.e., physical and social signs of threat) in their neighborhood is unknown. This was examined using data from the Environmental Risk Longitudinal Twin Study, a nationally representative birth cohort of 2,232 British twins...
December 2017: Development and Psychopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29160406/cheiloscopic-study-among-monozygotic-twins-non-twin-brothers-and-non-relative-individuals
#7
Larissa Chaves Cardoso Fernandes, Julyana de Araújo Oliveira, Bianca Marques Santiago, Patrícia Moreira Rabello, Marcus Vitor Diniz de Carvalho, Reginaldo Inojosa Carneiro Campello, Evelyne Pessoa Soriano
This study aimed to investigate cheiloscopic patterns among monozygotic twins (MT), non-twin siblings (NTS) and unrelated individuals (UI). The sample consisted of 20 pairs of monozygotic twins (G1), 20 pairs of non-twin siblings (G2) and 20 pairs of unrelated individuals (G3). Lip thickness, commissures and grooves were evaluated and the latter were classified as: I - clear-cut vertical grooves; I' - incomplete vertical grooves; II - branched grooves; III - intersecting; IV - reticular grooves and V - undetermined, in 8 labial regions (sub-quadrants)...
July 2017: Brazilian Dental Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155475/weight-discordance-and-perinatal-mortality-in-twin-pregnancies-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#8
REVIEW
Francesco D'Antonio, Anthony O Odibo, Federico Prefumo, Asma Khalil, Danilo Buca, Maria Elena Flacco, Marco Liberati, Lamberto Manzoli, Ganesh Acharya
OBJECTIVES: The primary aim of this systematic review was to explore the strength of association between birthweight (BW) discordance and perinatal mortality in twin pregnancies; the secondary aim was to ascertain the contribution of gestational age and growth restriction in determining mortality in growth discordant twins. METHODS: Medline, Embase, Cinahl and Clinicaltrials.gov databases were searched. Only studies reporting the risk of mortality in twin pregnancies affected compared to those not affected by weight discordance were included...
November 20, 2017: Ultrasound in Obstetrics & Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155061/increasing-oxygen-availability-for-improving-poly-3-hydroxybutyrate-production-by-halomonas
#9
Pengfei Ouyang, Huan Wang, Ivan Hajnal, Qiong Wu, Yingying Guo, Guo-Qiang Chen
Technologies enabling high-cell-density growth are required for economical industrial production of most biotechnological products. However, the key factor limiting cell density in bioreactors is the availability of oxygen during the late phases of fermentation. Although the expression of bacterial Vitreoscilla hemoglobin (VHb) is useful for enhanced oxygen availability, bacterial cell membrane makes efficient hemoglobin-oxygen contact a challenge. On the other hand, periplasmic spaces of Gram-negative microorganisms offer an excellent compartment for the intermittent storage of hemoglobin-bound oxygen...
November 15, 2017: Metabolic Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154882/interaction-of-novel-twin-tailed-oxy-diester-functionalized-surfactant-with-lysozyme-spectroscopic-and-computational-perspective
#10
Imtiyaz Ahmad Bhat, Waseem Feeroze Bhat, Mohd Akram, Kabir-Ud-Din
Herein, we have examined the interaction of oxy-diester novel twin tailed (gemini) surfactant, 2,2(')-[(oxybis(ethane-1,2-diyl))bis(oxy)]bis(N-hexadecyl-N,Ndimethyl-2-oxoethanaminium) dichloride (C16-E2O-C16) with hen egg white lysozyme (HEWL), utilizing a spectroscopic and molecular docking techniques. Steady-state fluorescence infers ground state C16-E2O-C16-HEWL complex formation. Other spectroscopic results validated the conformational, structural and micro-environmental changes in HEWL upon interaction with C16-E2O-C16...
November 14, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154643/gender-nonconformity-of-identical-twins-with-discordant-sexual-orientations-evidence-from-childhood-photographs
#11
Tuesday M Watts, Luke Holmes, Jamie Raines, Sheina Orbell, Gerulf Rieger
Childhood gender nonconformity (femininity in males, masculinity in females) predicts a nonstraight (gay, lesbian, or bisexual) sexual orientation in adulthood. In previous work, nonstraight twins reported more childhood gender nonconformity than their genetically identical, but straight, cotwins. However, self-reports could be biased. We therefore assessed gender nonconformity via ratings of photographs from childhood and adulthood. These ratings came from independent observers naïve to study hypotheses. Identical twins with discordant sexual orientations (24 male pairs, 32 female pairs) visibly differed in their gender nonconformity from mid-childhood, with higher levels of gender nonconformity observed in the nonstraight twins...
November 20, 2017: Developmental Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154458/epigenetic-mechanisms-of-major-depression-targeting-neuronal-plasticity
#12
REVIEW
Shusaku Uchida, Hirotaka Yamagata, Tomoe Seki, Yoshifumi Watanabe
Major depressive disorder is one of the most common mental illnesses as it affects more than 350 million people globally. Major depressive disorder is etiologically complex and disabling. Genetic factors play a role in the etiology of major depression. However, identical twin studies have shown high rates of discordance, indicating non-genetic mechanisms as well. For instance, stressful life events increase the risk of depression. Environmental stressors also induce stable changes in gene expression within the brain that may lead to maladaptive neuronal plasticity in regions implicated in disease pathogenesis...
November 20, 2017: Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29153672/an-intermediate-sflt-1-plgf-ratio-indicates-an-increased-risk-for-adverse-pregnancy-outcome
#13
Janine Hoffmann, Victoria Ossada, Marie Weber, Holger Stepan
OBJECTIVE: The sFlt-1/PlGF ratio is a valid marker in diagnosing or excluding preeclampsia. The currently used cut offs frame an intermediate zone of 33-85 (<34(0) weeks) or 33-110 (≥34(0) weeks), respectively. In this study we sought to evaluate the relevance of an intermediate sFlt-1/PlGF ratio for the clinical pregnancy course and outcome. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We retrospectively analysed 533 consecutive patients with sFlt-1/PlGF ratio measurements for suspected preeclampsia...
October 2017: Pregnancy Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29153442/functional-mri-study-to-examine-possible-emotional-connectedness-in-identical-twins-a-case-study
#14
Efstratios Karavasilis, Foteini Christidi, Kalliopi Platoni, Panagiotis Ferentinos, Nikolaos L Kelekis, Efstathios P Efstathopoulos
In the present case study, we investigated possible emotional connectedness between monozygotic twins by means of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). During the experimental condition, Twin 2 was randomly selected to participate in the neuroimaging protocol while Twin 1 participated in the experimental condition outside the MRI scanner (none of them was aware of the experimental procedure). The experimental condition included two sessions with visual and acoustic stimuli, respectively. Between the two experimental conditions, there was a 2-min break with Twin 1 (i...
October 23, 2017: Explore: the Journal of Science and Healing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29152902/the-genetics-of-human-personality
#15
REVIEW
Sandra Sanchez-Roige, Joshua C Gray, James K MacKillop, Chi-Hua Chen, Abraham A Palmer
Personality traits are the relatively enduring patterns of thoughts, feelings, and behaviors that reflect the tendency to respond in certain ways under certain circumstances. Twin and family studies have demonstrated that personality traits are moderately heritable, and can predict various lifetime outcomes, including psychopathology. The Research Domain Criteria (RDoC) characterizes psychiatric diseases as extremes of normal tendencies, including specific personality traits. This implies that heritable variation in personality traits, such as neuroticism, would share a common genetic basis with psychiatric diseases, such as major depressive disorder (MDD)...
November 20, 2017: Genes, Brain, and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29152887/association-between-maternal-sleep-practices-and-late-stillbirth-findings-from-a-stillbirth-case-control-study
#16
Aep Heazell, M Li, J Budd, Jmd Thompson, T Stacey, R S Cronin, B Martin, D Roberts, E A Mitchell, Lme McCowan
OBJECTIVE: To report maternal sleep practices in women who experienced a stillbirth compared with controls with ongoing live pregnancies at similar gestation. DESIGN: Prospective case-control study. SETTING: Forty-one maternity units in the United Kingdom. POPULATION: Women who had a stillbirth after ≥ 28 weeks' gestation (n = 291) and women with an ongoing pregnancy at the time of interview (n = 733). METHODS: Data were collected using an interviewer-administered questionnaire that included questions on maternal sleep practices before pregnancy, in the four weeks prior to, and on the night before the interview/stillbirth...
November 20, 2017: BJOG: An International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29152234/comparison-of-measured-and-predicted-energy-density-of-an-oral-care-chew-for-dogs
#17
Danielle Nuttall, Richard Butterwick, Katja Strauhs, Phil McGenity
The dog chew studied here is a starch-based, twin-screw cooker extruded dog care and treat (C&T) product with oral health benefits. The manufacturing process and nutrient profile of such products are markedly different from those of main meal pet foods. Predicted metabolisable energy (PME) in pet food is calculated using equations derived from main meal feeding studies so it is unclear whether these equations can be applied to C&T products. The present study aimed to directly measure metabolisable energy (ME) content of the dog chew in dogs and compare with calculated PME...
2017: Journal of Nutritional Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150722/cross-lagged-analysis-of-interplay-between-differential-traits-in-sibling-pairs-validation-and-application-to-parenting-behavior-and-adhd-symptomatology
#18
Arden Moscati, Brad Verhulst, Kevin McKee, Judy Silberg, Lindon Eaves
Understanding the factors that contribute to behavioral traits is a complex task, and partitioning variance into latent genetic and environmental components is a useful beginning, but it should not also be the end. Many constructs are influenced by their contextual milieu, and accounting for background effects (such as gene-environment correlation) is necessary to avoid bias. This study introduces a method for examining the interplay between traits, in a longitudinal design using differential items in sibling pairs...
November 17, 2017: Behavior Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150721/adaptive-snp-set-association-testing-in-generalized-linear-mixed-models-with-application-to-family-studies
#19
Jun Young Park, Chong Wu, Saonli Basu, Matt McGue, Wei Pan
In genome-wide association studies (GWAS), it has been increasingly recognized that, as a complementary approach to standard single SNP analyses, it may be beneficial to analyze a group of functionally related SNPs together. Among the existent population-based SNP-set association tests, two adaptive tests, the aSPU test and the aSPUpath test, offer a powerful and general approach at the gene- and pathway-levels by data-adaptively combining the results across multiple SNPs (and genes) such that high statistical power can be maintained across a wide range of scenarios...
November 17, 2017: Behavior Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150678/dog-ownership-and-the-risk-of-cardiovascular-disease-and-death-a-nationwide-cohort-study
#20
Mwenya Mubanga, Liisa Byberg, Christoph Nowak, Agneta Egenvall, Patrik K Magnusson, Erik Ingelsson, Tove Fall
Dogs may be beneficial in reducing cardiovascular risk in their owners by providing social support and motivation for physical activity. We aimed to investigate the association of dog ownership with incident cardiovascular disease (CVD) and death in a register-based prospective nation-wide cohort (n = 3,432,153) with up to 12 years of follow-up. Self-reported health and lifestyle habits were available for 34,202 participants in the Swedish Twin Register. Time-to-event analyses with time-updated covariates were used to calculate hazard ratios (HR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI)...
November 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
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