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twin study

Matthew S Panizzon, Richard L Hauger, Hong Xian, Kristen Jacobson, Michael J Lyons, Carol E Franz, William S Kremen
Animal and human research suggests that testosterone is associated with hippocampal structure and function. Studies examining the association between testosterone and either hippocampal structure or hippocampal-mediated cognitive processes have overwhelmingly focused on the effects of testosterone alone, without considering the interaction of other neuroendocrine factors. The aim of the present study was to examine the interactive effects of testosterone and cortisol in relation to hippocampal volume and episodic memory in a sample of late-middle aged men from the Vietnam Era Twin Study of Aging...
March 9, 2018: Psychoneuroendocrinology
Muralidhar Pai K, R Chandrasekhar Naidu, A Raja, Y S Rai, Niranjan Kumar, Anand Kini, Santhosh Joseph, Vinod Hegde, H S Ballal, Ramoorthi Rao, Saroja V Sharma, Vinay Kumar Valakatte
Craniopagus twins are conjoined twins fused at the cranium. This is the rarest anomaly seen in conjoined twins and craniopagus twins account for 2- 6% of conjoined twins. Conjoined twins are also extremely rare, with the anomaly seen in about 10-20 subjects per billion births. A female preponderance has been noted. Craniopagus twins can be classified into complete or partial, depending on whether or not they have shared dural venous sinuses. They can be further classified into angular or total depending on the alignment of the inter-twin longitudinal axis...
March 2018: Neurology India
Zoë W Hawks, Natasha Marrus, Anne L Glowinski, John N Constantino
Previous research has suggested that behavioral comorbidity is the rule rather than the exception in autism. The present study aimed to trace the respective origins of autistic and general psychopathologic traits-and their association-to infancy. Measurements of autistic traits and early liability for general psychopathology were assessed in 314 twins at 18 months, ascertained from the general population using birth records. 222 twins were re-evaluated at 36 months. Standardized ratings of variation in social communication at 18 months were highly heritable and strongly predicted autistic trait scores at 36 months...
March 16, 2018: Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology
Ahmad Alobeid, Tarek El-Bialy, Susanne Reimann, Ludger Keilig, Dirk Cornelius, Andreas Jäger, Christoph Bourauel
Background/objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of tooth alignment with conventional and self-ligating labial and lingual orthodontic bracket systems. Materials/methods: We tested labial brackets (0.022″ slot size) and lingual brackets (0.018″ slot size). The labial brackets were: (i) regular twin brackets (GAC-Twin [Dentsply]), (ii) passive self-ligating brackets including (Damon-Q® [ORMCO]; Ortho classic H4™ [Orthoclassic]; FLI®SL [RMO]), and (iii) active self-ligating brackets (GAC In-Ovation®C [DENTSPLY] and SPEED™[Strite])...
March 13, 2018: European Journal of Orthodontics
Jun Xi Liu, Shiu Lun Au Yeung, Man Ki Kwok, June Yue Yan Leung, Shi Lin Lin, Lai Ling Hui, Gabriel Matthew Leung, C Mary Schooling
Birth weight (BW) is inversely associated with diabetes and liver function in Mendelian Randomization studies. Observationally, lower BW is usually also associated with poorer liver function. However, these studies could be confounded by socioeconomic position. Here we assessed if BW is associated with liver function in a unique population with little socio-economic patterning of BW, using both instrumental variable and an observational analysis. We used instrumental variable analysis (IVA) to assess the association of BW with liver function (alanine transaminase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), bilirubin, and albumin) at ~17 years with twin status as an instrumental variable in the prospective population-representative "Children of 1997" birth cohort (n = 8327)...
March 12, 2018: Preventive Medicine
Kim C M Bul, Lisa L Doove, Ingmar H A Franken, Saskia Van der Oord, Pamela M Kato, Athanasios Maras
OBJECTIVE: The aim of the current study was to identify which subgroups of children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) benefitted the most from playing a Serious Game (SG) intervention shown in a randomized trial to improve behavioral outcomes. METHOD: Pre-intervention characteristics [i.e., gender, age, intellectual level of functioning, medication use, computer experience, ADHD subtype, severity of inattention problems, severity of hyperactivity/impulsivity problems, comorbid Oppositional Defiant Disorder (ODD) and Conduct Disorder (CD) symptoms] were explored as potential moderators in a Virtual Twins (VT) analysis to identify subgroups for whom the SG intervention was most effective...
2018: PloS One
Rachel M Latham, Katharine M Mark, Bonamy R Oliver
Parenting sense of competence (PSOC) is a critical aspect of parental adjustment that may be undermined by children's disruptive behavior. Interparental relationships have been shown to shape how parents react and respond to their children's characteristics, but little is known about the role of parenting teamwork, known as 'coparenting.' We examined mothers' and fathers' perceptions of children's disruptive behavior and the quality of coparenting, as well as their interaction in association with PSOC. Mothers and fathers from 108 'intact' families participating in the Twins, Family, and Behavior (TFaB) Study reported on their children's disruptive behavior, coparenting and PSOC via postal questionnaire (Mchild age = 6 years, SDchild age = 6...
February 2018: Journal of Family Psychology: JFP
Nancy L Segal
This article begins with the story of a 51-year-old Los Angeles, California man, Justin Goldberg, whose daughter caught a glimpse of his striking look-alike at a popular market. Many people have so-called doppelgängers, but this occurrence is especially intriguing - the individual in question, born in New York City in the mid-1960s to an unwed mother, was an adoptee placed by the Louise Wise Adoption Agency. This agency, under the guidance of a prominent psychiatrist, decided to place twins in separate homes...
March 15, 2018: Twin Research and Human Genetics: the Official Journal of the International Society for Twin Studies
Neeraja Purandare, Mallika Somayajulu, Maik Hüttemann, Lawrence I Grossman, Siddhesh Aras
Coiled-coil-helix-coiled-coil-helix domain-containing 10 (CHCHD10) and CHCHD2 (MNRR1) are homologous proteins with 58% sequence identity and belong to the twin CX9C family of proteins that mediate cellular stress responses. Despite the identification of several neurodegeneration-associated mutations in the CHCHD10 gene, few studies have assessed its physiological role. Here, we investigated CHCHD10's function as a regulator of oxidative phosphorylation in the mitochondria and the nucleus. We show that CHCHD10 co-purifies with cytochrome c oxidase (COX) and up-regulates COX activity by serving as a scaffolding protein required for MNRR1 phosphorylation, mediated by ARG (ABL proto-oncogene 2, non-receptor tyrosine kinase [ABL2])...
March 14, 2018: Journal of Biological Chemistry
D P Berry, A O'Brien, J O'Donovan, N McHugh, E Wall, S Randles, K McDermott, R E O'Connor, M A Patil, J Ho, A Kennedy, N Byrne, D C Purfield
Early detection of karyotype abnormalities, including aneuploidy, could aid producers in identifying animals which, for example, would not be suitable candidate parents. Genome-wide genetic marker data in the form of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) are now being routinely generated on animals. The objective of the present study was to describe the statistics that could be generated from the allele intensity values from such SNP data to diagnose karyotype abnormalities; of particular interest was whether detection of aneuploidy was possible with both commonly used genotyping platforms in agricultural species, namely the Applied BiosystemsTM AxiomTM and the Illumina platform...
March 15, 2018: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
Kathrine Vauvert R Hviid, Sara Sofia Malchau, Anja Pinborg, Henriette Svarre Nielsen
BACKGROUND: The incidence of monozygotic twins (MZT) after ART appears to be higher than the incidence after spontaneous conceptions contradicting the aim of ART to avoid multiple pregnancies because of the associated risks. OBJECTIVE AND RATIONALE: The aim was to study the frequency of MZT after IVF and ICSI and how it is influenced by the day of embryo transfer, maternal age, zona pellucida manipulation, controlled ovarian stimulation, stimulation protocol, culture media and embryo quality...
March 12, 2018: Human Reproduction Update
Tamas Jilling, Namasivayam Ambalavanan, C Michael Cotten, Colin A Martin, Akhil Maheshwari, Kurt Schibler, Joshua Levy, Grier P Page
BACKGROUND: Twin studies suggest that genetic factors may account for up to 50% increased risk for necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC), but genome-wide association studies (GWAS) for NEC are lacking. METHODS: Genotyping was done on Illumina BeadChip, followed by analysis using PLINK with logistic regression under an additive model. RESULTS: Among 751 extremely low birth weight (<1000 g, >401 g) neonates, 30 had surgical NEC. 261 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) showed association with NEC at P<0...
March 14, 2018: Pediatric Research
Graciela Muniz-Terrera, Fernando Massa, Tatiana Benaglia, Boo Johansson, Andrea Piccinin, Annie Robitaille
OBJECTIVES: To model trajectories of visuospatial reasoning measured using Kohs Block Design test under realistic missing data assumptions and evaluate their association with hazard of death. METHODS: A joint longitudinal-survival model was used to estimate trajectories of visuospatial reasoning under a missing not at random assumption of participants from the Origins of Variance in the Old-Old: Octogenarian Twins study. Sensitivity analyses to missing data assumptions were conducted...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Aging and Health
Ramona Weber, Rainer Hospes, Axel Wehrend
The aim of this study was to summarize the current status of the possible causes, clinical symptoms and pathogenesis of abortion in the mare and to evaluate the frequency of varying causes of abortion in German thoroughbred breeding. An analysis of the literature using electronic libraries, journals and textbooks was performed. In addition, the results of examinations of 123 abortions of thoroughbred breeding in central Germany were evaluated. In the literature, bacterial infections are the most frequently described cause of abortion...
February 2018: Tierärztliche Praxis. Ausgabe G, Grosstiere/Nutztiere
Jinlong Du, Zaoming Wu, Engang Fu, Yanxiang Liang, Xingjun Wang, Peipei Wang, Kaiyuan Yu, Xiangdong Ding, Meimei Li, Marquis Kirk
The mechanism of radiation-induced detwinning is different from that of deformation detwinning as the former is dominated by supersaturated radiation-induced defects while the latter is usually triggered by global stress. In situ Kr ion irradiation was performed to study the detwinning mechanism of nanotwinned Cu films with various twin thicknesses. Two types of incoherent twin boundaries (ITBs), so-called fixed ITBs and free ITBs, are characterized based on their structural features, and the difference in their migration behavior is investigated...
2018: Science and Technology of Advanced Materials
Klaus Bsl Batista, Badri Thiruvenkatachari, Jayne E Harrison, Kevin D O'Brien
BACKGROUND: Prominent upper front teeth are a common problem affecting about a quarter of 12-year-old children in the UK. The condition develops when permanent teeth erupt. These teeth are more likely to be injured and their appearance can cause significant distress. Children are often referred to an orthodontist for treatment with dental braces to reduce the prominence of their teeth. If a child is referred at a young age, the orthodontist is faced with the dilemma of whether to treat the patient early or to wait and provide treatment in adolescence...
March 13, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Satoshi Kanazawa, Nancy L Segal, David de Meza
STUDY QUESTION: Are there more same-sex (SS) than opposite-sex (OS) pairs among dizygotic twins? SUMMARY ANSWER: In violation of Weinberg's Differential Rule, there are significantly more SS than OS pairs among dizygotic twins in nationally representative samples both in the UK and the USA. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: Since at least 1874, twin researchers have assumed that dizygotic twins were equally likely to be SS or OS (later formalized as Weinberg's Differential Rule)...
March 9, 2018: Human Reproduction
Jenni Hällfors, Teemu Palviainen, Ida Surakka, Richa Gupta, Jadwiga Buchwald, Anu Raevuori, Samuli Ripatti, Tellervo Korhonen, Pekka Jousilahti, Pamela A F Madden, Jaakko Kaprio, Anu Loukola
The heritability of nicotine dependence based on family studies is substantial. Nevertheless, knowledge of the underlying genetic architecture remains meager. Our aim was to identify novel genetic variants responsible for interindividual differences in smoking behavior. We performed a genome-wide association study on 1715 ever smokers ascertained from the population-based Finnish Twin Cohort enriched for heavy smoking. Data imputation used the 1000 Genomes Phase I reference panel together with a whole genome sequence-based Finnish reference panel...
March 13, 2018: Addiction Biology
Lindsey A Hines, Katherine I Morley, Fruhling Rijsdijk, John Strang, Arpana Agrawal, Elliot C Nelson, Dixie Statham, Nicholas G Martin, Michael T Lynskey
BACKGROUND: The genetic component of Cannabis Use Disorder may overlap with influences acting more generally on early stages of cannabis use. This paper aims to determine the extent to which genetic influences on the development of cannabis abuse/dependence are correlated with those acting on the opportunity to use cannabis and frequency of use. METHODS: A cross-sectional study of 3303 Australian twins, measuring age of onset of cannabis use opportunity, lifetime frequency of cannabis use, and lifetime DSM-IV cannabis abuse/dependence...
March 13, 2018: Psychological Medicine
Kristin Gustavson, Ann Kristin Knudsen, Ragnar Nesvåg, Gun Peggy Knudsen, Stein Emil Vollset, Ted Reichborn-Kjennerud
BACKGROUND: Mental disorders often have onset early in life, contribute substantially to the global disease burden, and may interfere with young people's ability to complete age-relevant tasks in important developmental periods. However, knowledge about prevalence and course of mental disorders in young adulthood is sparse. The aim of the current study was to estimate prevalence and stability of mental disorders from the twenties to the thirties/forties. METHODS: DSM-IV mental disorders were assessed with the Composite International Diagnostic Interview in two waves (1999-2004 and 2010-2011) in 1623 young adult Norwegian twins (63...
March 12, 2018: BMC Psychiatry
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