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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938182/the-genetic-epidemiology-of-substance-use-disorder-a-review
#1
REVIEW
Elizabeth C Prom-Wormley, Jane Ebejer, Danielle M Dick, M Scott Bowers
BACKGROUND: Substance use disorder (SUD) remains a significant public health issue. A greater understanding of how genes and environment interact to regulate phenotypes comprising SUD will facilitate directed treatments and prevention. METHODS: The literature studying the neurobiological correlates of SUD with a focus on the genetic and environmental influences underlying these mechanisms was reviewed. Results from twin/family, human genetic association, gene-environment interaction, epigenetic literature, phenome-wide association studies are summarized for alcohol, nicotine, cannabinoids, cocaine, and opioids...
August 1, 2017: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938072/machine-learning-for-silver-nanoparticle-electron-transfer-property-prediction
#2
Baichuan Sun, Michael Fernandez, Amanda S Barnard
Nanoparticles exhibit diverse structural and morphological features that are often inter-connected, making the correlation of structure/property relationships challenging. In this study a multi-structure/single-property relationship of silver nanoparticles is developed for the energy of Fermi level, which can be tuned to improve the transfer of electrons in a variety of applications. By combining different machine learning analytical algorithms, including k-mean, logistic regression and random forest with electronic structure simulations, we find that the degree of twinning (characterised by the fraction of hexagonal closed packed atoms) and the population of {111} facet (characterized by a surface coordination number of 9) are strongly correlated to the Fermi energy of silver nanoparticles...
September 22, 2017: Journal of Chemical Information and Modeling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28936587/metabolite-ratios-as-potential-biomarkers-for-type-2-diabetes-a-direct-study
#3
Sophie Molnos, Simone Wahl, Mark Haid, E Marelise W Eekhoff, René Pool, Anna Floegel, Joris Deelen, Daniela Much, Cornelia Prehn, Michaela Breier, Harmen H Draisma, Nienke van Leeuwen, Annemarie M C Simonis-Bik, Anna Jonsson, Gonneke Willemsen, Wolfgang Bernigau, Rui Wang-Sattler, Karsten Suhre, Annette Peters, Barbara Thorand, Christian Herder, Wolfgang Rathmann, Michael Roden, Christian Gieger, Mark H H Kramer, Diana van Heemst, Helle K Pedersen, Valborg Gudmundsdottir, Matthias B Schulze, Tobias Pischon, Eco J C de Geus, Heiner Boeing, Dorret I Boomsma, Anette G Ziegler, P Eline Slagboom, Sandra Hummel, Marian Beekman, Harald Grallert, Søren Brunak, Mark I McCarthy, Ramneek Gupta, Ewan R Pearson, Jerzy Adamski, Leen M 't Hart
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Circulating metabolites have been shown to reflect metabolic changes during the development of type 2 diabetes. In this study we examined the association of metabolite levels and pairwise metabolite ratios with insulin responses after glucose, glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and arginine stimulation. We then investigated if the identified metabolite ratios were associated with measures of OGTT-derived beta cell function and with prevalent and incident type 2 diabetes...
September 21, 2017: Diabetologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28935396/evaluation-of-familial-factors-in-a-mexican-population-based-setting-with-gastroschisis-further-evidence-for-an-underlying-genetic-susceptibility
#4
REVIEW
Victor M Salinas-Torres, Rafael A Salinas-Torres, Ricardo M Cerda-Flores, Laura E Martínez-de-Villarreal
PURPOSE: To evaluate the occurrence of gastroschisis attributable to familial factors in a Mexican population-based setting. METHODS: A descriptive study was performed among gastroschisis cases born from 2010 through 2016 at Tijuana General Hospital (Baja California, Mexico) to generate multigenerational pedigrees. RESULTS: There were 87 gastroschisis cases from 57,217 live births. Six probands (6.9%) had another affected family member. Two half-siblings, a set of monozygotic twins, a mother-and-daughter occurrence, a distant paternal cousin and a distant maternal uncle were identified...
September 1, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28935062/no-260-ultrasound-in-twin-pregnancies
#5
Lucie Morin, Kenneth Lim
OBJECTIVE: To review the literature with respect to the use of diagnostic ultrasound in the management of twin pregnancies. To make recommendations for the best use of ultrasound in twin pregnancies. OUTCOMES: Reduction in perinatal mortality and morbidity and short- and long-term neonatal morbidity in twin pregnancies. Optimization of ultrasound use in twin pregnancies. EVIDENCE: Published literature was retrieved through searches of PubMed and the Cochrane Library in 2008 and 2009 using appropriate controlled vocabulary (e...
October 2017: Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Canada: JOGC, Journal D'obstétrique et Gynécologie du Canada: JOGC
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934089/postpartum-hemorrhage-with-transfusion-trends-near-misses-risk-factors-and-management-at-the-scale-of-a-perinatal-network
#6
M Marocchini, J Lauféron, C Quantin, P Sagot
OBJECTIVES: To analyze temporal trends and management of postpartum hemorrhage (PPH) with transfusion and its related maternal near-miss (MNM) cases between 2006 and 2014 and to study risk factors. MATERIAL AND METHODS: This retrospective cohort study from two prospective databases included 156,047 women giving birth in all the maternity hospitals of Burgundy. We analyzed temporal trends and the distribution of PPH with transfusion, the circumstances of transfer of patients between hospitals and factors associated with PPH with transfusion...
May 2017: Journal of gynecology obstetrics and human reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28932600/abnormal-n400-semantic-priming-effect-may-reflect-psychopathological-processes-in-schizophrenia-a-twin-study
#7
Anuradha Sharma, Heinrich Sauer, Holger Hill, Claudia Kaufmann, Stephan Bender, Matthias Weisbrod
OBJECTIVE: Activation of semantic networks is indexed by the N400 effect. We used a twin study design to investigate whether N400 effect abnormalities reflect genetic/trait liability or are related to psychopathological processes in schizophrenia. METHODS: We employed robust linear regression to compare N400 and behavioral priming effects across 36 monozygotic twin pairs (6 pairs concordant for schizophrenia/schizoaffective disorder, 11 discordant pairs, and 19 healthy control pairs) performing a lexical decision task...
2017: Schizophrenia Research and Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28932479/crystal-structure-of-2-6-di-benzyl-pyrrolo-3-4-f-iso-indole-1-3-5-7-2h-6h-tetra-thione
#8
Hansu Im, Hyunjin Park, Tae Ho Kim, Chang Hwa Woo
The title compound, C24H16N2S4, consists of a central pyromellitic di-imide substituted with an S atom and terminal benzyl groups. The mol-ecule lies on a crystallographic inversion centre so that the asymmetric unit contains half of the mol-ecule. The mol-ecule was prepared by thio-nation of N,N'-di-benzyl-pyromellitic di-imide with Lawesson's reagent and has an S-shaped conformation similar to other compounds of this type. The phenyl groups are tilted by 72.69 (8)° with respect to the plane of the central arene ring...
September 1, 2017: Acta Crystallographica. Section E, Crystallographic Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930062/single-motherhood-alcohol-dependence-and-smoking-during-pregnancy-a-propensity-score-analysis
#9
Mary Waldron, Kathleen K Bucholz, Min Lian, Christina N Lessov-Schlaggar, Ruth Huang Miller, Michael T Lynskey, Valerie S Knopik, Pamela A F Madden, Andrew C Heath
OBJECTIVE: Few studies linking single motherhood and maternal smoking during pregnancy consider correlated risk from problem substance use beyond history of smoking and concurrent use of alcohol. In the present study, we used propensity score methods to examine whether the risk of smoking during pregnancy associated with single motherhood is the result of potential confounders, including alcohol dependence. METHOD: Data were drawn from mothers participating in a birth cohort study of their female like-sex twin offspring (n = 257 African ancestry; n = 1,711 European or other ancestry)...
September 2017: Journal of Studies on Alcohol and Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926832/persistent-pulmonary-hypertension-of-the-newborn-in-twin-twin-transfusion-syndrome-a-case-control-study
#10
Manon Gijtenbeek, M C Haak, Derk Jan Ten Harkel, Arjan B Te Pas, Johanna M Middeldorp, Frans J C M Klumper, Nan van Geloven, Dick Oepkes, Enrico Lopriore
BACKGROUND: Persistent pulmonary hypertension of the newborn (PPHN) is associated with severe morbidity and mortality. Twin-twin transfusion syndrome (TTTS) is suggested to increase the risk of PPHN. OBJECTIVES: To describe the incidence of PPHN in TTTS twins and to identify risk factors in TTTS twins for the development of severe PPHN. METHODS: Cases with severe PPHN were extracted from our monochorionic twin database (2002-2016). Severe PPHN was defined as severe hypoxaemia requiring mechanical ventilation and inhaled nitric oxide (iNO) treatment, confirmed by strict echocardiographic criteria...
September 20, 2017: Neonatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926258/matrix-isolation-studies-of-novel-intermediates-in-the-reaction-of-trimethylaluminum-with-ozone
#11
H Dushanee M Sriyarathne, Bruce S Ault
The thermal reaction of ozone with trimethyl aluminum has been explored using twin jet, concentric jet and merged jet deposition into cryogenic matrixes. Infrared spectroscopy and density functional theory calculations have been employed to identify and characterize the products formed in each case. Together, these deposition techniques provide information over the essentially full course of the gas phase reaction. At short times with twin jet deposition, the primary product is the O atom insertion product (CH3)2AlOCH3...
September 19, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry. A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28925288/twins-and-socioeconomic-factors-changes-in-the-last-20%C3%A2-years
#12
Ariadne Malamitsi-Puchner, Konstantinos Voulgaris, Emmanouela Sdona, Christos Christou, Despina D Briana
Socioeconomic factors associated with twins/multiples have been sparsely studied. Analyzing data from the Hellenic Statistical Authority, regarding twin out of total births from 1996 to 2015, we showed that twinning rate in Greece has increased from 1996 and onwards, in parallel with advanced maternal age and decline in total births. Higher twin rates are associated with higher maternal education, better paid parental occupations, and thus wealthier families, married maternal status, while immigrants present a lower twinning rate than Greeks...
September 19, 2017: Journal of Maternal-fetal & Neonatal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28924506/automated-classification-of-tropical-shrub-species-a-hybrid-of-leaf-shape-and-machine-learning-approach
#13
Miraemiliana Murat, Siow-Wee Chang, Arpah Abu, Hwa Jen Yap, Kien-Thai Yong
Plants play a crucial role in foodstuff, medicine, industry, and environmental protection. The skill of recognising plants is very important in some applications, including conservation of endangered species and rehabilitation of lands after mining activities. However, it is a difficult task to identify plant species because it requires specialized knowledge. Developing an automated classification system for plant species is necessary and valuable since it can help specialists as well as the public in identifying plant species easily...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923532/cognitive-trajectories-in-relation-to-hospitalization-among-older-swedish-adults
#14
Jenny Hallgren, Eleonor I Fransson, Chandra A Reynolds, Deborah Finkel, Nancy L Pedersen, Anna K Dahl Aslan
INTRODUCTION: Research indicate that cognitive impairment might be related to hospitalization, but little is known about these effects over time. OBJECTIVE: To assess cognitive change before and after hospitalization among older adults in a population-based longitudinal study with up to 25 years of follow-up. METHOD: A longitudinal study on 828 community living men and women aged 50-86 from the Swedish Adoption/Twin Study of Ageing (SATSA) were linked to The Swedish National Inpatient Register...
September 9, 2017: Archives of Gerontology and Geriatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922846/different-complicated-brain-pathologies-in-monozygotic-twins-with-gerstmann-str%C3%A3-ussler-scheinker-disease
#15
Hiroyuki Honda, Kensuke Sasaki, Hiroshi Takashima, Daisuke Mori, Sachiko Koyama, Satoshi O Suzuki, Toru Iwaki
Gerstmann-Sträussler-Scheinker disease (GSS) is an autosomal, dominantly inherited prion disease. In this study, we present different complicated brain pathologies determined postmortem of monozygotic GSS twin sisters. Case 1 showed cerebellar ataxia at the age of 58 years, and died at 66 years. Case 2 became symptomatic at the age of 75 years, and died at 79 years. There was a 17-year difference in the age of onset between the twins. Postmortem examination revealed numerous prion protein (PrP) plaques in the brains of both cases...
October 1, 2017: Journal of Neuropathology and Experimental Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922598/proteolytic-unlocking-of-ultrastable-twin-acylhydrazone-linkers-for-lysosomal-acid-triggered-release-of-anticancer-drugs
#16
Yiwu Zheng, Jing Ren, Yaqi Wu, Xiaoting Meng, Yibing Zhao, Chuanliu Wu
Targeted prodrugs exploiting cleavable linkers capable of responding to endogenous stimuli have increasingly been explored for cancer therapy. Successful application of these prodrug designs relies on the manipulation of both stability and responsiveness of the cleavable linkers, which, however, are difficult to be finely regulated, particularly for acid-responsive acylhydrazone bonds. Here we developed a new class of peptide-bridged twin-acylhydrazone linkers (PTA linkers) displaying both an ultrahigh stability and a rapid responsiveness-highly stable in neutral and acidic conditions due to the effect of cooperativity between the two acylhydrazone bonds, easily cleavable in acidic conditions after enzymatically triggered unlocking of the two bonds...
September 22, 2017: Bioconjugate Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921187/moderation-of-genetic-influences-on-alcohol-involvement-by-rural-residency-among-adolescents-results-from-the-1962-national-merit-twin-study
#17
Christal N Davis, Shanaliz S Natta, Wendy S Slutske
Adolescents in rural and urban areas may experience different levels of environmental restrictions on alcohol use, with those in rural areas experiencing greater monitoring and less access to alcohol. Such restrictions may limit expression of genetic vulnerability for alcohol use, resulting in a gene-environment interaction (G × E). This phenomenon has previously been reported in Finnish and Minnesota adolescents. The current study used data from 839 same-sex twin pairs from the 1962 National Merit Scholarship Qualifying Test to determine whether the G × E interaction would be evident in this earlier time period...
September 18, 2017: Behavior Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918426/aortic-isthmus-flow-recording-predicts-the-outcome-of-the-recipient-twin-after-laser-coagulation-in-twin-twin-transfusion-syndrome
#18
France Leduc, Amélie Delabaere, Roxanne Gendron, Florent Fuchs, Sandrine Wavrant, Marie-Josée Raboisson, Jean-Claude Fouron, François Audibert
INTRODUCTION: The objective was to assess the prognostic value of the systolic flow through the aortic isthmus in monochorionic pregnancies complicated by twin-twin transfusion syndrome (TTTS) treated by placental laser ablation. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Fetal echocardiography and outcome data of 105 cases of TTTS treated by laser photocoagulation of placental anastomoses were reviewed. Hemodynamic parameters were collected before and after treatment. The isthmic systolic index (ISI) was calculated as the peak systolic velocity/systolic nadir ratio...
September 16, 2017: Fetal Diagnosis and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918370/a-metric-study-of-insole-foot-impressions-in-footwear-of-identical-twins
#19
Michael S Nirenberg, Kewal Krishan, Tanuj Kanchan
Foot impressions are of utmost importance in crime scene investigations. Foot impressions are available in the form of barefoot prints, sock-clad footprints, and as impressions within footwear. Sometimes suspects leave their footwear at the crime scene, and the insole of this footwear may contain the foot impression of the suspect which may be important evidence linking him or her to the crime. The task of identification based on the analysis of footprints can be challenging when the footprints belonging to one of the identical twin is available for examination...
September 11, 2017: Journal of Forensic and Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915120/ultrasound-study-of-fetal-movements-in-singleton-and-twin-pregnancies-at-12-19-weeks
#20
Mohamed Ahmed Mostafa AboEllail, Kenji Kanenishi, Nobuhiro Mori, Junko Noguchi, Genzo Marumo, Toshiyuki Hata
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate fetal behavioral differences between singleton and twin fetuses before 20 weeks of gestation using four-dimensional (4D) ultrasound. METHODS: 4D ultrasound was used to examine fetal movements in 58 singleton and 48 twin normal fetuses at 12-19 weeks. The frequencies of eight fetal movements were assessed through 15-min recordings. The fetuses were divided into two gestational age groups (12-13 and 14-19 weeks) to evaluate the changes with advancing gestation in twin versus singleton fetuses...
September 15, 2017: Journal of Perinatal Medicine
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