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Cardiac microvascular disease

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637886/cardiovascular-disease-and-type-2-diabetes-has-the-dawn-of-a-new-era-arrived
#1
Muhammad Abdul-Ghani, Ralph A DeFronzo, Stefano Del Prato, Robert Chilton, Rajvir Singh, Robert E J Ryder
Hyperglycemia is the major risk factor for microvascular complications in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D). However, cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the principal cause of death, and lowering HbA1c has only a modest effect on reducing CVD risk and mortality. The recently published LEADER and SUSTAIN-6 trials demonstrate that, in T2D patients with high CVD risk, the glucagon-like peptide 1 receptor agonists liraglutide and semaglutide reduce the primary major adverse cardiac events (MACE) end point (cardiovascular death, nonfatal myocardial infarction, nonfatal stroke) by 13% and 24%, respectively...
July 2017: Diabetes Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630913/an-innovative-biologic-system-for-photon-powered-myocardium-in-the-ischemic-heart
#2
Jeffrey E Cohen, Andrew B Goldstone, Michael J Paulsen, Yasuhiro Shudo, Amanda N Steele, Bryan B Edwards, Jay B Patel, John W MacArthur, Michael S Hopkins, Casey E Burnett, Kevin J Jaatinen, Akshara D Thakore, Justin M Farry, Vi N Truong, Alexandra T Bourdillon, Lyndsay M Stapleton, Anahita Eskandari, Alexander S Fairman, William Hiesinger, Tatiana V Esipova, William L Patrick, Keven Ji, Judith A Shizuru, Y Joseph Woo
Coronary artery disease is one of the most common causes of death and disability, afflicting more than 15 million Americans. Although pharmacological advances and revascularization techniques have decreased mortality, many survivors will eventually succumb to heart failure secondary to the residual microvascular perfusion deficit that remains after revascularization. We present a novel system that rescues the myocardium from acute ischemia, using photosynthesis through intramyocardial delivery of the cyanobacterium Synechococcus elongatus...
June 2017: Science Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28616394/new-method-of-sudomotor-function-measurement-to-detect-microvascular-disease-and-sweat-gland-nerve-or-unmyelinated-c-fiber-dysfunction-in-adults-with-retinopathy
#3
John E Lewis, Steven E Atlas, Ammar Rasul, Ashar Farooqi, Laura Lantigua, Oscar L Higuera, Andrea Fiallo, Lianette Laria, Renata Picciani, Ken Wals, Zohar Yehoshua, Armando Mendez, Janet Konefal, Sharon Goldberg, Judi Woolger
BACKGROUND: Diabetes-associated microvascular complications such as retinopathy and neuropathy often lead to end-organ and tissue damage. Impaired skin microcirculation often precedes the detection of other advanced diabetic complications. The ANS-1 system contains a redesigned sympathetic skin response (ANS-1 SSR) device that measures sudomotor function, a photoplethysmography sensor, and a blood pressure device to comprehensively assess cardiac autonomic neuropathy and endothelial dysfunction...
2017: Journal of Diabetes and Metabolic Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28611075/identification-and-functional-characterization-of-hypoxia-induced-endoplasmic-reticulum-stress-regulating-lncrna-hyperlnc-in-pericytes
#4
Florian C Bischoff, Astrid Werner, David John, Jes-Niels Boeckel, Maria-Theodora Melissari, Phillip Grote, Simone F Glaser, Shemsi Demolli, Shizuka Uchida, Katharina M Michalik, Benjamin Meder, Hugo A Katus, Jan Haas, Wei Chen, Soni S Pullamsetti, Werner Seeger, Andreas M Zeiher, Stefanie Dimmeler, Christoph M Zehendner
Rationale: Pericytes are essential for vessel maturation and endothelial barrier function. Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) regulate many cellular functions, but their role in pericyte biology remains unexplored. Objective: Here we investigate the effect of Hypoxia-Induced Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress Regulating lncRNA (HypERlnc, also known as ENSG00000262454) on pericyte function in vitro and its regulation in human heart failure and idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension. Methods and Results: RNA sequencing in human primary pericytes (hPCs) identified hypoxia regulated lncRNAs, including HypERlnc...
June 13, 2017: Circulation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28607546/histologic-sequelae-of-apical-hypertrophic-cardiomyopathy-dystrophic-calcification
#5
Shahryar G Saba, John N Makaryus, Navid Rahmani, Ram Jadonath
We present cardiac computed tomography (CT) findings demonstrating apical hypertrophic cardiomyopathy with dystrophic calcification of the left ventricular apex. The absence of significant epicardial coronary artery disease demonstrated by coronary CT angiography suggests that increased wall tension and decreased microvascular perfusion over time account for the dyskinetic apical myocardium, rather than myocardial infarction secondary to atherosclerotic plaque rupture. These observations support CT as the imaging modality of choice to visualize the deposition of calcium in injured myocardial tissue, a recognized occurrence in chronically infarcted myocardium...
2017: Clinical Medicine Insights. Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28605043/typical-angina-is-associated-with-greater-coronary-endothelial-dysfunction-but-not-abnormal-vasodilatory-reserve
#6
Ahmed AlBadri, Derek Leong, C Noel Bairey Merz, Janet Wei, Eileen M Handberg, Chrisandra L Shufelt, Puja K Mehta, Michael D Nelson, Louise E Thomson, Daniel S Berman, Leslee J Shaw, Galen Cook-Wiens, Carl J Pepine
BACKGROUND: Typical angina (TA) is defined as substernal chest pain precipitated by physical exertion or emotional stress and relieved with rest or nitroglycerin. Women and elderly patients are usually have atypical symptoms both at rest and during stress, often in the setting of nonobstructive coronary artery disease (CAD). HYPOTHESIS: To further understand this, we performed subgroup analysis comparing subjects who presented with TA vs nontypical angina (NTA) using baseline data of patients with nonobstructive CAD and coronary microvascular dysfunction (CMD) enrolled in a clinical trial...
June 12, 2017: Clinical Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28604116/the-cognitive-decline-in-older-patients-with-end-stage-renal-disease-cope-study-rationale-and-design
#7
Noeleen Berkhout-Byrne, Marije H Kallenberg, André Gaasbeek, Ton J Rabelink, Sebastiaan Hammer, Mark A van Buchem, Matthias J van Osch, Lucia J M Kroft, Henk Boom, Simon P Mooijaart, Marjolijn van Buren
BACKGROUND: Older patients with end stage renal disease (ESRD) are at increased risk for cognitive decline, but detailed studies of the magnitude of cognitive decline on dialysis or comprehensive conservative management (CCM) are lacking and the underlying pathophysiological mechanisms have poorly been studied. OBJECTIVE: To describe the rationale and design of the COPE study. Study objectives are firstly to examine the severity of cognitive impairment in older patients reaching ESRD before dialysis and the rate of decline after dialysis or CCM initiation...
June 10, 2017: Current Medical Research and Opinion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28598888/long-term-diabetes-complications-after-pancreas-transplantation
#8
Trond Jenssen, Anders Hartmann, Kåre I Birkeland
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The intention of this study is to summarize present knowledge about adverse effects of hyperglycemia in diabetes, and in this context review more recent data concerning the effects of pancreas transplantation on a wide range of diabetic complications. RECENT FINDINGS: Effective blood glucose control by insulin delays progression of microvascular complications and probably improves survival in type 1 diabetes. A successful pancreas transplantation combined with a kidney graft has recently been found to prevent diabetic kidney lesions, and registry data support improved long-term patient survival...
June 8, 2017: Current Opinion in Organ Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28574936/coronary-microcirculatory-dysfunction-in-human-cardiomyopathies-a-pathologic-and-pathophysiologic-review
#9
Kristina Selthofer-Relatic, Martina Mihalj, Aleksandar Kibel, Ana Stupin, Marko Stupin, Ivana Jukic, Akos Koller, Ines Drenjancevic
Cardiomyopathies are a heterogeneous group of diseases of the myocardium. The term cardiomyopathy involves a wide range of pathogenic mechanisms that affect the structural and functional states of cardiomyocytes, extravascular tissues, and coronary vasculature, including both epicardial coronary arteries and the microcirculation. In the developed phase, cardiomyopathies present with various clinical symptoms: dyspnea, chest pain, palpitations, swelling of the extremities, arrhythmias, and sudden cardiac death...
July 2017: Cardiology in Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28553592/study-of-neutrophil-lymphocyte-ratio-as-novel-marker-for-diabetic-nephropathy-in-type-2-diabetes
#10
Sagar Ashokrao Khandare, Sachin Chittawar, Nitin Nahar, T N Dubey, Zahraan Qureshi
INTRODUCTION: Diabetic nephropathy (DN) is a microvascular complication of diabetes. DN is clinically manifested as an increase in urine albumin excretion. Total white blood cell count is a crude but sensitive indicator of inflammation and studied in many cardiac and noncardiac diseases as an inflammatory marker such as acute myocardial infarction, stroke, and heart failure. In this study, the association of neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) with DN is studied. PATIENTS AND METHODS: It is an observational cross-sectional study...
May 2017: Indian Journal of Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542516/evaluation-of-the-systemic-micro-and-macrovasculature-in-stable-angina-a-case-control-study
#11
Ulf Neisius, Erin Olson, Sabrina H Rossi, Hagar A Ibrahim, Gemma Currie, Anna F Dominiczak, Christian Delles
AIMS: The diagnosis of stable angina involves the use of probability estimates based on clinical presentation, age, gender and cardiovascular risk factors. In view of the link between the cardiac and systemic vasculature we tested whether non-invasive measures of systemic micro- and macrovascular structure and function differentiate between individuals with flow-limiting coronary artery disease (CAD) and those with normal coronary arteries (NCA). METHODS AND RESULTS: We recruited 84 patients undergoing elective coronary angiography for investigation of symptoms of stable angina...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534977/runx3-modulates-hypoxia-induced-endothelial-to-mesenchymal-transition-of-human-cardiac-microvascular-endothelial-cells
#12
Yanhua Liu, Jin Zou, Bingong Li, Yuqin Wang, Delong Wang, Yanqin Hao, Xuan Ke, Xingxing Li
Endothelial-mesenchymal transition (EndMT) is an essential mechanism in the cardiovascular system, for both cardiovascular development and cardiovascular diseases (CVDs). Recent studies indicate that runt-related transcription factor 3 (RUNX3) contributes to EndMT and endothelial cell dysfunction. However, the underlying molecular mechanism remains unknown. The present study was designed to investigate the role of RUNX3 in EndMT and endothelial cell function, and to elucidate the underlying molecular mechanism...
May 22, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528579/phosphodiesterase-type-5-inhibition-may-reduce-diastolic-function-in-women-with-ischemia-but-no-obstructive-coronary-artery-disease
#13
Michael D Nelson, Puja K Mehta, Janet Wei, Behzad Sharif, Louise E J Thomson, Daniel Berman, Debiao Li, C Noel Bairey Merz
BACKGROUND: Ischemia, in the absence of obstructive coronary artery disease, is prevalent in women, and associated with increased risk for major cardiovascular events. Coronary microvascular dysfunction is prevalent in these patients, and associated with impaired diastolic function. Despite our general understanding, however, optimal treatment of this cohort remains elusive. METHODS: To address this knowledge gap, we performed an open-label treatment trial to assess whether phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibition improves coronary microvascular perfusion and diastolic function in women with signs and symptoms of ischemia but no evidence of obstructive coronary artery disease...
May 22, 2017: Journal of Medical Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526473/coronary-flow-reserve-is-reduced-in-sarcoidosis
#14
Seref Kul, Gonul Aciksari Kutlu, Tolga Sinan Guvenc, Murat Kavas, Kenan Demircioglu, Yusuf Yilmaz, Halil Ibrahim Yakar, Asiye Kanbay, Sibel Boga, Mustafa Caliskan
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Sarcoidosis is a multisystem disease with frequent cardiac involvement, albeit manifest cardiac disease is rare. Though epicardial coronary arteries are not frequently involved, microvascular disease is rather common in both symptomatic and asymptomatic patients. The mechanism of microvascular involvement has not been elaborated yet. The aim of this study is to investigate coronary flow velocity reserve (CFVR) using transthoracic echocardiography in patients with sarcoidosis but without known atherosclerotic coronary artery disease or risk factors for atherosclerosis...
May 4, 2017: Atherosclerosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28512159/employing-extracellular-volume-cardiovascular-magnetic-resonance-measures-of-myocardial-fibrosis-to-foster-novel-therapeutics
#15
REVIEW
Erik B Schelbert, Hani N Sabbah, Javed Butler, Mihai Gheorghiade
Quantifying myocardial fibrosis (MF) with myocardial extracellular volume measures acquired during cardiovascular magnetic resonance promises to transform clinical care by advancing pathophysiologic understanding and fostering novel therapeutics. Extracellular volume quantifies MF by measuring the extracellular compartment depicted by the myocardial uptake of contrast relative to plasma. MF is a key domain of dysfunctional but viable myocardium among others (eg, microvascular dysfunction and cardiomyocyte/mitochondrial dysfunction)...
June 2017: Circulation. Cardiovascular Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28509723/determinants-of-retinal-microvascular-features-and-their-relationships-in-two-european-populations
#16
Mirna Kirin, Reka Nagy, Thomas J MacGillivray, Ozren Polašek, Caroline Hayward, Igor Rudan, Harry Campbell, Sarah Wild, Alan F Wright, James F Wilson, Veronique Vitart
OBJECTIVES: To examine factors influencing retinal vasculature in two environmentally contrasted, cross-sectional studies of adult participants of European descent and to estimate the extent and specificity of genetic contributions to each retinal vasculature feature. METHODS: Retinal images from 1088 participants in the Orkney Complex Disease Study and 387 in the CROATIA-Korčula study, taken using the same nonmydriatic camera system and graded by the same person, were evaluated...
May 13, 2017: Journal of Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28481466/investigation-of-mthfr-gene-c677t-polymorphism-in-cardiac%C3%A2-syndrome-x-patients
#17
Cemre Kandaz, Burak Önal, Deniz Özen, Bülent Demir, A Gökhan Akkan, Sibel Özyazgan
BACKGROUND: Definition of Cardiac Syndrome X (CSX) refers to groups of patients with positive exercise stress test and normal epicardial coronary arteries on coronary angiography accompanied by chest pain. Although the etiology of CSX is not completely understood, there is a common consensus that its pathophysiology may be associated with endothelial dysfunction resulting in impaired coronary flow. Some polymorphisms observed on the MTHFR gene cause inactivation of the MTHFR enzyme, leading to hyperhomocysteinemia and homocysteinuria, which are prominent risk factors of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases...
May 8, 2017: Journal of Clinical Laboratory Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28476516/effects-of-neuropeptide-y-on-coronary-artery-vasomotion-in-patients-with-microvascular-angina
#18
Giuseppe M C Rosano, Dimitris Tousoulis, Eugene McFadden, John Clarke, Graham J Davies, Juan Carlos Kaski
BACKGROUND: Patients with microvascular angina (exertional angina, positive exercise tests and normal coronary arteriograms) usually have a reduced coronary blood flow reserve. Neuropeptide Y (NPY) is a potent endogenous vasoconstrictor involved in modulation of coronary vasomotor tone and may play a role in microvascular angina. METHODS: We compared the effects of NPY (0.2-1.0pmol/kg, intracoronary) on the vasomotor response of proximal and distal segments of the coronary arteries in 7 patients with microvascular angina, 9 with chronic stable angina, and 9 control individuals...
March 16, 2017: International Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28473401/ranolazine-in-symptomatic-diabetic-patients-without-obstructive-coronary-artery-disease-impact-on-microvascular-and-diastolic-function
#19
Nishant R Shah, Michael K Cheezum, Vikas Veeranna, Stephen J Horgan, Viviany R Taqueti, Venkatesh L Murthy, Courtney Foster, Jon Hainer, Karla M Daniels, Jose Rivero, Amil M Shah, Peter H Stone, David A Morrow, Michael L Steigner, Sharmila Dorbala, Ron Blankstein, Marcelo F Di Carli
BACKGROUND: Treatments for patients with myocardial ischemia in the absence of angiographic obstructive coronary artery disease are limited. In these patients, particularly those with diabetes mellitus, diffuse coronary atherosclerosis and microvascular dysfunction is a common phenotype and may be accompanied by diastolic dysfunction. Our primary aim was to determine whether ranolazine would quantitatively improve exercise-stimulated myocardial blood flow and cardiac function in symptomatic diabetic patients without obstructive coronary artery disease...
May 4, 2017: Journal of the American Heart Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28455826/subendocardial-viability-ratio-in-patients-with-rheumatoid-arthritis-comparison-with-healthy-controls-and-identification-of-prognostic-factors
#20
Panagiota Anyfanti, Areti Triantafyllou, Eugenia Gkaliagkousi, Georgios Triantafyllou, Nikolaos Koletsos, Sophia Chatzimichailidou, Panagiotis Panagopoulos, Ioannis Botis, Spyros Aslanidis, Stella Douma
Cardiac involvement is common in rheumatoid arthritis. Subendocardial viability ratio (SEVR) is a non-invasive measure of microvascular coronary perfusion, yet it remains unclear whether it is affected in rheumatoid arthritis patients. We additionally sought predictors of SEVR in rheumatoid arthritis among a wide range of disease-related parameters, cardiac and hemodynamic factors, and markers of atherosclerosis, arteriosclerosis, and endothelial dysfunction. SEVR was estimated in rheumatoid arthritis patients and healthy controls by applanation tonometry, which was also used to evaluate arterial stiffness (pulse wave velocity and augmentation index)...
June 2017: Clinical Rheumatology
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