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Cardiac microvascular disease

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29742506/neuregulin-1-promotes-myocardial-angiogenesis-in-the-rat-model-of-diabetic-cardiomyopathy
#1
Chun Gui, Zhi-Yu Zeng, Qi Chen, Ya-Wei Luo, Lang Li, Lin-Lin Chen
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Microvascular insufficiency takes a critical role in the development of diabetic cardiomyopathy (DCM). So this study was designed to investigate the effects of Neuregulin-1 (NRG-1) treatment on myocardial angiogenesis and the changes of VEGF/Flk1 and Ang-1/Tie-2 signaling in the rat model of DCM. METHODS: Diabetic rats were induced by a single intraperitoneal injection of Streptozotocin. 12 weeks after the diabetes induction, the rats with NRG-1 treatment were treated with tail vein injection of NRG-1 at the dose of 10µg/kg/d for consecutive 10 days...
May 4, 2018: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29738542/microvascular-retinopathy-and-angiographically-demonstrated-coronary-artery-disease-a-cross-sectional-observational-study
#2
Lisa Cheng, Peter Barlis, Joel Gibson, Deb Colville, Anastasia Hutchinson, Geoff Gleeson, Ecosse Lamoureux, William VanGaal, Judy Savige
Epidemiological studies suggest retinal microvascular abnormalities predict cardiac events. This study examined microvascular features associated with coronary artery abnormalities. This was a single-centre, cross-sectional, observational study of 144 consecutive subjects undergoing coronary angiography for clinical indications. Their angiograms were deidentified and graded for disease (Leaman score, LAD stenosis ≥ 70%, number of vessels stenosed ≥ 70%), and Thrombolysis in Myocardial Infarction (TIMI) blush score...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29737256/cardiovascular-effects-of-liraglutide
#3
Nasser Mikhail
BACKGROUND: Liraglutide is a glucagon-like 1 (GLP-1) agonist approved for treatment of type 2 diabetes and obesity. OBJECTIVE: To review the cardiovascular effects of liraglutide including macrovascular and microvascular events, its use in heart failure, and its effects on heart rate and blood pressure. RESULTS: The impact of liraglutide on cardiovascular outcomes was examined in a large well-designed study published in 2016, the LEADER trial...
May 7, 2018: Current Hypertension Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29735636/potential-protective-mechanism-in-the-cardiac-microvascular-injury
#4
Xiuchuan Li, Juanni Hou, Jin Du, Jian Feng, Yi Yang, Yang Shen, Sha Chen, Juan Feng, Dachun Yang, De Li, Haifeng Pei, Yongjian Yang
Cardiac microvascular injury often occurs in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) who develop hyperglycemia and hyperlipidemia. However, besides reported contradictory roles in cardiac diseases, the function of TRPV1 (transient receptor potential vanilloid 1) in cardiac microvessels is not well defined. This study was performed to determine the detailed role of TRPV1 in cardiac microvascular endothelial cells (CMECs) in T2DM. T2DM mice were established by multiple injections of low-dose streptozotocin and high-fat feeding...
May 7, 2018: Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29734516/dermal-capillary-rarefaction-as-a-marker-of-microvascular-damage-in-patients-with-rheumatoid-arthritis-association-with-inflammation-and-disorders-of-the-macrocirculation
#5
Panagiota Anyfanti, Eugenia Gkaliagkousi, Areti Triantafyllou, Xenophon Zabulis, Panagiotis Dolgyras, Vasiliki Galanopoulou, Spyros Aslanidis, Stella Douma
OBJECTIVE: Capillary rarefaction is observed in various cardiovascular diseases, yet it remains understudied in RA, a chronic inflammatory disease accompanied by excess cardiovascular risk. We quantified capillary density in RA patients and explored potential associations with macrocirculatory disorders, inflammation and cardiovascular risk. METHODS: Dermal capillary density was assessed with nailfold capillaroscopy in RA and non-RA individuals, using specifically designed semiautomated software...
May 7, 2018: Microcirculation: the Official Journal of the Microcirculatory Society, Inc
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29709645/perivascular-fibrosis-and-the-microvasculature-of-the-heart-still-hidden-secrets-of-pathophysiology
#6
REVIEW
Kirsti Ytrehus, Jean-Sébastien Hulot, Cinzia Perrino, Gabriele Giacomo Schiattarella, Rosalinda Madonna
Perivascular fibrosis, the deposition of connective tissue around the vessels, has been demonstrated crucially involved in the development of cardiac dysfunction. Although cardiac fibrosis has been shown to be reversible under certain experimental conditions, effective anti-fibrotic therapies remain largely elusive. Therefore, perivascular fibrosis currently represents a major therapeutic target for cardiovascular diseases. The main topic of this review will be to address the mechanisms underlying perivascular fibrosis of the vasculature within the myocardium, with a special focus on perivascular fibrosis of small vessels, microvascular dysfunction and disease...
April 27, 2018: Vascular Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29696485/relationship-between-microvascular-changes-autonomic-denervation-and-myocardial-fibrosis-in-chagas-cardiomyopathy-evaluation-by-mri-and-spect-imaging
#7
Gustavo Canavaci Barizon, Marcus Vinicius Simões, André Schmidt, Leonardo Pippa Gadioli, Luiz Otávio Murta Junior
BACKGROUND: The relationship between microvasculopathy, autonomic denervation, and myocardial fibrosis, in Chagas cardiomyopathy is incompletely understood. The aim of this study was to explore the relative extent and anatomic distribution of myocardial hypoperfusion, autonomic denervation, and myocardial scarring using Single-Photon Emission Computerized Tomography (SPECT) imaging and Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI). METHODS: Thirteen patients with Chagas disease all had Iodine-123-metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) SPECT, 99m Tc-Sestamibi (MIBI) rest-stress SPECT, and gadolinium late enhancement MRI imaging within a 2-month interval...
April 25, 2018: Journal of Nuclear Cardiology: Official Publication of the American Society of Nuclear Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29693119/rp105-ameliorates-hypoxia%C3%AC-reoxygenation-injury-in-cardiac-microvascular-endothelial-cells-by-suppressing-tlr4%C3%AC-mapks%C3%AC-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-signaling
#8
Xin Guo, Hong Jiang, Jing Chen, Bo-Fang Zhang, Qi Hu, Shuo Yang, Jian Yang, Jing Zhang
The radioprotective 105 kDa protein (RP105) has been implicated in the pathological process of multiple cardiovascular diseases through its functional and physical interactions with Toll‑like receptor 4 (TLR4). However, the effects of RP105 on cardiac microvascular endothelial cells (CMECs) in response to hypoxia̸reoxygenation (H̸R) injury have not been extensively investigated. The aim of the present study was to elucidate the potential roles of RP105 in the protection of CMECs against H̸R injury, and investigate the underlying mechanisms...
April 16, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29687698/microcirculatory-dysfunction-in-the-heart-and-the-brain
#9
Hernán Mejía-Rentería, Jordi A Matias-Guiu, Francesco Lauri, Miguel Yus, Javier Escaned
Coronary microcirculatory dysfunction is a major cause of myocardial ischemia that influences the outcomes of patients with coronary artery disease. The mechanisms of coronary microcirculatory dysfunction are heterogeneous and may result from a spectrum of biological and cardiovascular risk factors that may affect also the microcirculation of other vital organs. Microcirculatory dysfunction of the brain, known as cerebral small vessel disease, is increasingly being recognized as a cause of cognitive decline and neurodegenerative disorders...
April 20, 2018: Minerva Cardioangiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29684003/17%C3%AE-estradiol-promotes-angiogenesis-of-rat-cardiac-microvascular-endothelial-cells-in-vitro
#10
HaiTao Liu, Yin Tao, Mai Chen, Jin Yu, Wei-Jie Li, Ling Tao, Yan Li, Fei Li
BACKGROUND The formation of new blood vessels, known as angiogenesis, is critical for recovery from ischemic heart disease, and estrogen is considered an important factor in this process. Here, we investigated the effects of 17β-estradiol (17β-E2) on proliferation and migration of cardiac microvascular endothelial cells (CMECs) in vitro. MATERIAL AND METHODS Rat CMECs were isolated and cultured with 17β-E2 (0.001-1 µmol/l) in the absence or presence of the estrogen antagonist tamoxifen. Then, the expression level of estrogen receptor alpha was evaluated by using immunofluorescence assay, RT-PCR, and Western blot...
April 23, 2018: Medical Science Monitor: International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29676198/blockade-of-at1-type-receptors-for-angiotensin-ii-prevents-cardiac-microvascular-fibrosis-induced-by-chronic-stress-in-sprague-dawley-rats
#11
Lília Taddeo Firoozmand, Andrea Sanches, Nilsa Regina Damaceno-Rodrigues, Juliana Dinéia Perez, Danielle Sanches Aragão, Rodolfo Mattar Rosa, Fernanda Klein Marcondes, Dulce Elena Casarini, Elia Garcia Caldini, Tatiana Sousa Cunha
To test the effects of chronic-stress on the cardiovascular system, the model of chronic mild unpredictable stress (CMS) has been widely used. The CMS protocol consists of the random, intermittent, and unpredictable exposure of laboratory animals to a variety of stressors, during 3 consecutive weeks. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that exposure to the CMS protocol leads to left ventricle microcirculatory remodeling that can be attenuated by angiotensin II receptor blockade. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly assigned into four groups: Control, Stress, Control + losartan, and Stress + losartan (N = 6, each group, losartan: 20 mg/kg/day)...
April 20, 2018: Stress: the International Journal on the Biology of Stress
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29665185/laminar-shear-stress-modulates-endothelial-luminal-surface-stiffness-in-a-tissue-specific-manner
#12
Nick Merna, Andrew K Wong, Victor Barahona, Pierre Llanos, Balvir Kunar, Brisa Palikuqi, Michael Ginsberg, Shahin Rafii, Sina Y Rabbany
OBJECTIVE: Endothelial cells form vascular beds in all organs and are exposed to a range of mechanical forces that regulate cellular phenotype. We sought to determine the role of endothelial luminal surface stiffness in tissue-specific mechanotransduction of laminar shear stress in microvascular mouse cells and the role of arachidonic acid in mediating this response. METHODS: Microvascular mouse endothelial cells were subjected to laminar shear stress at 4 dynes/cm2 for 12 hours in parallel plate flow chambers that enabled real-time optical microscopy and atomic force microscopy measurements of cell stiffness...
April 17, 2018: Microcirculation: the Official Journal of the Microcirculatory Society, Inc
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29605243/diagnostic-and-prognostic-efficacy-of-coronary-flow-capacity-obtained-using-pressure-temperature-sensor-tipped-wire-derived-physiological-indices
#13
Rikuta Hamaya, Taishi Yonetsu, Yoshihisa Kanaji, Eisuke Usui, Masahiro Hoshino, Masao Yamaguchi, Masahiro Hada, Yoshinori Kanno, Tadashi Murai, Kenzo Hirao, Tsunekazu Kakuta
OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to evaluate the feasibility and efficacy of pressure-temperature sensor-tipped wire-derived coronary flow capacity (PTW-CFC) for assessing flow impairment and prognosis. BACKGROUND: CFC provides an integrated coronary physiological assessment in which coronary flow reserve and coronary flow during hyperemia are organized. METHODS: A total of 643 native de novo lesions for which physiological assessments were performed using a PressureWire (St...
March 23, 2018: JACC. Cardiovascular Interventions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29598865/pet-assessment-of-epicardial-intimal-disease-and-microvascular-dysfunction-in-cardiac-allograft-vasculopathy
#14
Sharon Chih, Aun Yeong Chong, Fernanda Erthal, Robert A deKemp, Ross A Davies, Ellamae Stadnick, Derek Y So, Christopher Overgaard, George Wells, Lisa M Mielniczuk, Rob S B Beanlands
BACKGROUND: Cardiac allograft vasculopathy (CAV) is a leading cause of graft failure and death after heart transplantation. Absolute myocardial blood flow (MBF) quantification using rubidium 82 (Rb-82) positron emission tomography (PET) could enable evaluation of diagnostically challenging diffuse epicardial and microvascular disease in CAV. OBJECTIVES: The authors aimed to evaluate Rb-82 PET detection of CAV. METHODS: Consecutive transplant recipients undergoing coronary angiography were prospectively evaluated with PET, multivessel intravascular ultrasound (IVUS), and intracoronary hemodynamics...
April 3, 2018: Journal of the American College of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29571424/optimizing-risk-stratification-and-noninvasive-diagnosis-of-ischemic-heart-disease-in-women
#15
REVIEW
Habibat A Garuba, Fernanda Erthal, Ellamae Stadnick, Atif Alzahrani, Benjamin Chow, Robert deKemp, Rob S Beanlands
Ischemic heart disease (IHD) is an important and previously underappreciated cause of significant morbidity and mortality in women. Key differences exist in the pathophysiology, sex-specific risk factors, and clinical presentation in women compared with men, which influence diagnostic accuracy and utility of pretest risk assessments and noninvasive testing. Women are disproportionately affected by ischemia from microvascular dysfunction as evidenced by having less obstructive coronary artery disease on angiography, contributing to the challenge in diagnosis and prognosis of IHD in women via conventional methods, which tend to emphasize detection of epicardial stenoses...
April 2018: Canadian Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29543037/prevalence-and-characteristics-of-coronary-microvascular-dysfunction-among-chest-pain-patients-in-the-emergency-department
#16
Basmah Safdar, Gail D'Onofrio, James Dziura, Raymond R Russell, Caitlin Johnson, Albert J Sinusas
AIMS: Coronary microvascular dysfunction (CMD) is common in patients with non-obstructive coronary arteries but has not been described in low-risk symptomatic patients. We therefore assessed the prevalence and characteristics of CMD in low to moderate risk patients with chest pain in an emergency department. METHODS AND RESULTS: We used three-dimensional Rb82 cardiac positron emission tomography/computed tomography to diagnose coronary artery disease (known or new regional defect, any coronary calcification) and CMD (low coronary flow reserve without coronary artery disease) in chest pain patients after being ruled out for acute myocardial infarction...
March 1, 2018: European Heart Journal. Acute Cardiovascular Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29502357/qiliqiangxin-attenuates-hypoxia-induced-injury-in-primary-rat-cardiac-microvascular-endothelial-cells-via-promoting-hif-1%C3%AE-dependent-glycolysis
#17
Yanyan Wang, Xueting Han, Mingqiang Fu, Jingfeng Wang, Yu Song, Yuan Liu, Jingjing Zhang, Jingmin Zhou, Junbo Ge
Protection of cardiac microvascular endothelial cells (CMECs) against hypoxia injury is an important therapeutic strategy for treating ischaemic cardiovascular disease. In this study, we investigated the effects of qiliqiangxin (QL) on primary rat CMECs exposed to hypoxia and the underlying mechanisms. Rat CMECs were successfully isolated and passaged to the second generation. CMECs that were pre-treated with QL (0.5 mg/mL) and/or HIF-1α siRNA were cultured in a three-gas hypoxic incubator chamber (5% CO2 , 1% O2 , 94% N2 ) for 12 hours...
May 2018: Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29495996/diagnosis-of-microvascular-angina-using-cardiac-magnetic-resonance
#18
Alexander Liu, Rohan S Wijesurendra, Joanna M Liu, John C Forfar, Keith M Channon, Michael Jerosch-Herold, Stefan K Piechnik, Stefan Neubauer, Rajesh K Kharbanda, Vanessa M Ferreira
BACKGROUND: In patients with angina and nonobstructive coronary artery disease (NOCAD), confirming symptoms due to coronary microvascular dysfunction (CMD) remains challenging. Cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) assesses myocardial perfusion with high spatial resolution and is widely used for diagnosing obstructive coronary artery disease (CAD). OBJECTIVES: The goal of this study was to validate CMR for diagnosing microvascular angina in patients with NOCAD, compared with patients with obstructive CAD and correlated to the index of microcirculatory resistance (IMR) during invasive coronary angiography...
March 6, 2018: Journal of the American College of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29495995/gadolinium-free-cardiac-mr-stress-t1-mapping-to-distinguish-epicardial-from-microvascular-coronary-disease
#19
Alexander Liu, Rohan S Wijesurendra, Joanna M Liu, Andreas Greiser, Michael Jerosch-Herold, John C Forfar, Keith M Channon, Stefan K Piechnik, Stefan Neubauer, Rajesh K Kharbanda, Vanessa M Ferreira
BACKGROUND: Novel cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) stress T1 mapping can detect ischemia and myocardial blood volume changes without contrast agents and may be a more comprehensive ischemia biomarker than myocardial blood flow. OBJECTIVES: This study describes the performance of the first prospective validation of stress T1 mapping against invasive coronary measurements for detecting obstructive epicardial coronary artery disease (CAD), defined by fractional flow reserve (FFR <0...
March 6, 2018: Journal of the American College of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29490477/hypertrophic-cardiomyopathy-a-vicious-cycle-triggered-by-sarcomere-mutations-and-secondary-disease-hits
#20
Paul J M Wijnker, Vasco Sequeira, Diederik W D Kuster, Jolanda van der Velden
SIGNIFICANCE: Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) is a cardiac genetic disease characterized by left ventricular hypertrophy, diastolic dysfunction, and myocardial disarray. Disease onset occurs between 20 and 50 years of age, thus affecting patients in the prime of their life. HCM is caused by mutations in sarcomere proteins, the contractile building blocks of the heart. Despite increased knowledge of causal mutations, the exact path from genetic defect leading to cardiomyopathy is complex and involves additional disease hits...
April 11, 2018: Antioxidants & Redox Signaling
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