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Cardiac microvascular disease

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28272770/sex-differences-in-vascular-dysfunction-and-cardiovascular-outcomes-the-cardiac-endothelial-function-and-arterial-stiffness-in-esrd-ceres-study
#1
Isabella Guajardo, Amrita Ayer, Alexander D Johnson, Peter Ganz, Claire Mills, Catherine Donovan, Rebecca Scherzer, Sanjiv J Shah, Carmen A Peralta, Ruth F Dubin
INTRODUCTION: Recent studies suggest that women with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) may have higher rates of mortality than men, but it is unknown whether sex differences in vascular function explain this disparity. The cardiac, endothelial function, and arterial stiffness in ESRD (CERES) study is an ongoing, prospective observational study designed to investigate vascular function, myocardial injury, and cardiovascular outcomes in ESRD. METHODS: Among 200 CERES participants (34% women), we evaluated arterial wave reflections as augmentation index normalized to a heart rate of 75 (AIx75), arterial stiffness as pulse wave velocity, and macro- and microvascular endothelial dysfunction as flow-mediated dilation and velocity time integral (VTI)...
March 8, 2017: Hemodialysis International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28266999/combination-of-panaxadiol-and-panaxatriol-type-saponins-and-ophioponins-from-shenmai-formula-attenuates-lipopolysaccharide-induced-inflammatory-injury-in-cardiac-microvascular-endothelial-cells-by-blocking-nf-kappa-b-pathway
#2
Jinqiang Zhu, Yubin Liang, Shaoqian Yue, Guanwei Fan, Han Zhang, Meng Zhang
Vascular inflammatory injury leads to vascular endothelial dysfunction, thereby resulting in a variety of cardiovascular diseases (CVDs). Thus, attenuating vascular inflammatory injury has great significance for the prevention and treatment of CVDs. In China, Shenmai formula, a well-known ancient Chinese prescription, has been widely used to treat CVDs, such as coronary atherosclerosis and viral myocarditis. In vivo study has demonstrated that the optimal combination of 3 major active components from Shenmai formula, panaxadiol and panaxatriol type saponins and ophioponins, in a ratio of 1:2:2 might exert significant cardioprotective effects and anti-inflammatory activities...
March 2017: Journal of Cardiovascular Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28261153/non-invasive-respiratory-impedance-enhances-cerebral-perfusion-in-healthy-adults
#3
Christopher G Favilla, Ashwin B Parthasarathy, John A Detre, Arjun G Yodh, Michael T Mullen, Scott E Kasner, Kimberly Gannon, Steven R Messé
Optimization of cerebral blood flow (CBF) is the cornerstone of clinical management in a number of neurologic diseases, most notably ischemic stroke. Intrathoracic pressure influences cardiac output and has the potential to impact CBF. Here, we aim to quantify cerebral hemodynamic changes in response to increased respiratory impedance (RI) using a non-invasive respiratory device. We measured cerebral perfusion under varying levels of RI (6 cm H2O, 9 cm H2O, and 12 cm H2O) in 20 healthy volunteers. Simultaneous measurements of microvascular CBF and middle cerebral artery mean flow velocity (MFV), respectively, were performed with optical diffuse correlation spectroscopy and transcranial Doppler ultrasound...
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28258906/association-between-subclinical-left-ventricular-systolic-dysfunction-and-glycemic-control-in-asymptomatic-type-2-diabetic-patients-with-preserved-left-ventricular-function
#4
Giacomo Zoppini, Corinna Bergamini, Stefano Bonapace, Andrea Rossi, Maddalena Trombetta, Alessandro Mantovani, Anna Toffalini, Laura Lanzoni, Lorenzo Bertolini, Luciano Zenari, Enzo Bonora, Giovanni Targher
BACKGROUND: Type 2 diabetes is strongly associated with the occurrence of cardiovascular diseases, especially heart failure. Some studies have suggested that subclinical systolic dysfunction as assessed by tissue Doppler imaging (TDI) is already present in uncomplicated diabetic patients with normal left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF). Considering the importance of this aspect, the aim of this cross-sectional study was to examine the relationship between glycated hemoglobin and mean s' wave velocity (a reliable measure of early LV systolic dysfunction) in a cohort of type 2 diabetic outpatients with preserved LVEF and without ischemic heart disease...
February 13, 2017: Journal of Diabetes and its Complications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28219921/predictive-value-of-dobutamine-stress-perfusion-echocardiography-in-contemporary-end-stage-liver-disease
#5
Bipul Baibhav, Chetaj A Mahabir, Feng Xie, Valerie K Shostrom, Timothy M McCashland, Thomas R Porter
BACKGROUND: The assessment of cardiac risk in contemporary liver transplantation (LT) has required more sensitive testing for the detection of occult coronary artery disease as well as microvascular and functional cardiac abnormalities. Because dobutamine stress perfusion echocardiography provides an assessment of both regional systolic and diastolic function as well as microvascular perfusion (MVP), we sought to examine its incremental value in this setting. METHODS AND RESULTS: We evaluated the predictive value of dobutamine stress perfusion echocardiography in 296 adult patients with end-stage liver disease and preserved systolic function who underwent LT between 2008 and 2014...
February 20, 2017: Journal of the American Heart Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214792/suppression-of-tumorigenicity-2-in-heart-failure-with-preserved-ejection-fraction
#6
Omar F AbouEzzeddine, Paul M McKie, Shannon M Dunlay, Susanna R Stevens, G Michael Felker, Barry A Borlaug, Horng H Chen, Russell P Tracy, Eugene Braunwald, Margaret M Redfield
BACKGROUND: Soluble suppression of tumorigenicity 2 (sST2) receptor is a biomarker that is elevated in certain systemic inflammatory diseases. Comorbidity-driven microvascular inflammation is postulated to play a key role in heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) pathophysiology, but data on how sST2 relates to clinical characteristics or inflammatory conditions or biomarkers in HFpEF are limited. We sought to determine circulating levels and clinical correlates of sST2 in HFpEF...
February 18, 2017: Journal of the American Heart Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28203465/st-segment-elevation-myocardial-infarction-and-normal-coronary-arteries-after-consuming-energy-drinks
#7
S Michael Gharacholou, Nkechinyere Ijioma, Emma Banwart, Freddy Del Carpio Munoz
The use of energy drinks, which often contain stimulants, is common among young persons, yet there have been few reports of adverse cardiac events. We report the case of a 27-year-old man who was admitted to our facility with an acute ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction in the setting of using energy drinks. Angiography revealed no obstructive coronary disease. The patient had elevation of cardiac troponin. Noninvasive testing with echocardiography and cardiac magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated both abnormalities in resting wall motion at the anterior apex along with late gadolinium enhancement of the anterior wall, respectively...
2017: Case Reports in Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28183822/development-of-a-technique-for-determination-of-pulmonary-artery-pulse-wave-velocity-in-horses
#8
Gonçalo Teixeira de Almeida Silva, Bruce B Guest, Diego E Gomez, Martine McGregor, Laurent Viel, M Lynne O'Sullivan, John Runciman, Luis G Arroyo
Calcification of the tunica media of the axial pulmonary arteries (PA) has been reported in a large proportion of racehorses. In humans, medial calcification is a significant cause of arterial stiffening and is implicated in the pathogenesis of cardiac, cerebral and renal microvascular diseases. Pulse wave velocity (PWV) provides a measure of arterial stiffness. This study aimed to develop a technique to determine PA-PWV in horses, and secondarily to investigate a potential association between PA-PWV and arterial fibro-calcification...
February 9, 2017: Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28178960/ultrasound-and-dynamic-functional-imaging-in-vascular-cognitive-impairment-and-alzheimer-s-disease
#9
REVIEW
Branko Malojcic, Panteleimon Giannakopoulos, Farzaneh A Sorond, Elsa Azevedo, Marina Diomedi, Janja Pretnar Oblak, Nicola Carraro, Marina Boban, Laszlo Olah, Stephan J Schreiber, Aleksandra Pavlovic, Zsolt Garami, Nantan M Bornstein, Bernhard Rosengarten
BACKGROUND: The vascular contributions to neurodegeneration and neuroinflammation may be assessed by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and ultrasonography (US). This review summarises the methodology for these widely available, safe and relatively low cost tools and analyses recent work highlighting their potential utility as biomarkers for differentiating subtypes of cognitive impairment and dementia, tracking disease progression and evaluating response to treatment in various neurocognitive disorders...
February 9, 2017: BMC Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28139436/predictors-of-cardiovascular-risk-among-patients-with-type-1-diabetes-a-critical-analysis-of-the-metabolic-syndrome-and-its-components
#10
V Gingras, C Leroux, A Fortin, L Legault, R Rabasa-Lhoret
Patients with type 1 diabetes (T1D) are at increased risk for cardiovascular diseases. The metabolic syndrome (MetS), a complex disorder defined by a cluster of interconnected factors including abdominal obesity, hypertension, dyslipidaemia and insulin resistance, has been proposed to identify patients with T1D at high cardiovascular risk. The MetS has been identified in 8-45% of patients with T1D, depending on the definition and cohort studied. However, clinicians and researchers face several issues with the criteria for MetS in patients with T1D, therefore questioning its value in routine care...
January 27, 2017: Diabetes & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28138813/noninvasive-pet-quantitative-myocardial-blood-flow-with-regadenoson-for-assessing-cardiac-allograft-vasculopathy-in-orthotopic-heart-transplantation-patients
#11
Miguel Hernandez Pampaloni, Uttam M Shrestha, Maria Sciammarella, Youngho Seo, Grant T Gullberg, Elias H Botvinick
BACKGROUND: Risk stratification and early detection of cardiac allograft vasculopathy (CAV) is essential in orthotopic heart transplantation (OHT) patients. This study assesses the changes in myocardial blood flow (MBF) noninvasively in OHT patients using quantitative cardiac PET with regadenoson. METHODS: Twelve patients (Group 1) (8 males, 4 females, mean age 55 ± 7 years) with no history of post OHT myocardial ischemia were enrolled 5.4 ± 2.0 years after OHT...
January 30, 2017: Journal of Nuclear Cardiology: Official Publication of the American Society of Nuclear Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28132957/risk-of-heart-failure-with-preserved-ejection-fraction-in-older-women-after-contemporary-radiotherapy-for-breast-cancer
#12
Hirofumi Saiki, Ivy A Petersen, Christopher G Scott, Kent R Bailey, Shannon M Dunlay, Randi R Finley, Kathryn J Ruddy, Elizabeth Yan, Margaret M Redfield
BACKGROUND: -Cardiomyocytes are resistant to radiation. However, cardiac radiation exposure causes coronary microvascular endothelial inflammation, a perturbation implicated in the pathogenesis of heart failure (HF) and particularly, HF with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF). Radiotherapy for breast cancer results in variable cardiac radiation exposure and may increase the risk of HF. METHODS: -We conducted a population-based case-control study of incident HF in 170 female residents of Olmsted County, Minnesota (59 cases and 111 controls) who underwent contemporary (1998-2013) radiotherapy for breast cancer utilizing computed tomography-assisted radiotherapy planning...
January 29, 2017: Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28130261/impact-of-thrombosis-on-pulmonary-endothelial-injury-and-repair-following-sepsis
#13
Colin Evans, You-Yang Zhao
The prevailing morbidity and mortality in sepsis are largely due to multiple organ dysfunction (MOD), most commonly lung injury, as well as renal and cardiac dysfunction. Despite recent advances in defining many aspects of the pathogenesis of sepsis-related MOD, including acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), there are currently no effective pharmacological or cell-based treatments for the disease. Human and animal studies have shown that pulmonary thrombosis is common in sepsis-induced ARDS, and pre-clinical studies have shown that anti-coagulation may improve outcome following sepsis challenge...
January 27, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28130064/cardiovascular-consequences-of-metabolic-syndrome
#14
REVIEW
Johnathan D Tune, Adam G Goodwill, Daniel J Sassoon, Kieren J Mather
The metabolic syndrome (MetS) is defined as the concurrence of obesity-associated cardiovascular risk factors including abdominal obesity, impaired glucose tolerance, hypertriglyceridemia, decreased HDL cholesterol, and/or hypertension. Earlier conceptualizations of the MetS focused on insulin resistance as a core feature, and it is clearly coincident with the above list of features. Each component of the MetS is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease and the combination of these risk factors elevates rates and severity of cardiovascular disease, related to a spectrum of cardiovascular conditions including microvascular dysfunction, coronary atherosclerosis and calcification, cardiac dysfunction, myocardial infarction, and heart failure...
January 9, 2017: Translational Research: the Journal of Laboratory and Clinical Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28120034/prognostic-impact-of-disseminated-intravascular-coagulation-score-in-acute-heart-failure-patients-referred-to-a-cardiac-intensive-care-unit-a-retrospective-cohort-study
#15
Ryosuke Itani, Yuichiro Minami, Shintaro Haruki, Erisa Watanabe, Nobuhisa Hagiwara
Thrombosis within the vascular system in relation to inflammation and stasis is potentially associated with poor prognosis in patients with heart failure. The aim of this study was to clarify the association between disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) score, a scoring system for microvascular thrombosis and multiple organ dysfunction, and outcome in hospitalized patients with acute heart failure (AHF). We retrospectively evaluated 160 AHF patients referred to a cardiac intensive care unit who had their DIC score measured according to the Japanese Association for Acute Medicine (JAAM) DIC scoring system on admission...
January 24, 2017: Heart and Vessels
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088910/sodium-glucose-cotransporter-2-inhibitors-sglt2i-their-role-in-cardiometabolic-risk-management
#16
Niki Katsiki, Dimitri P Mikhailidis, Michael J Theodorakis
BACKGROUND: Sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitors (SGLT2i) are a novel category of oral antidiabetic drugs that inhibit renal glucose reabsorption and increase renal glucose excretion, thus lowering plasma glucose levels. This unique mechanism of SGLT2i action is insulin independent, thus improving glycemic control without promoting hypoglycemia in the absence of exogenously administered insulin. METHODS: The present narrative review addresses the putative associations between SGLT2i and several cardiovascular (CV) and microvascular risk factors, as well as their effects on cardiac and renal function...
January 13, 2017: Current Pharmaceutical Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28081214/cold-pressor-stress-cardiac-magnetic-resonance-myocardial-flow-reserve-is-not-useful-for-detection-of-coronary-endothelial-dysfunction-in-women-with-signs-and-symptoms-of-ischemia-and-no-obstructive-cad
#17
Sofy Landes, Sherwin Dela Cruz, Janet Wei, Ahmed AlBadri, Chrisandra Shufelt, Puja Mehta, Louise E Thomson, Marcio A Diniz, Xiao Zhang, John W Petersen, R David Anderson, Carl J Pepine, Daniel S Berman, C Noel Bairey Merz
BACKGROUND: Coronary endothelial function testing using acetylcholine is not routinely available, while non-pharmacological cold pressor testing (CPT) is considered an endothelial stressor. Noninvasive cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (CMRI) myocardial perfusion reserve index (MPRI) can detect coronary microvascular dysfunction (CMD). We evaluated if CPT stress CMRI MPRI could detect invasive coronary endothelial dysfunction. METHODS: Coronary reactivity testing was performed in 189 women with symptoms and signs of ischemic but no obstructive coronary artery disease as previously described plus CPT stress...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28075427/evaluation-of-sudomotor-function-in-adult-patients-with-long%C3%A2-lasting-type-1-diabetes
#18
Agnieszka Gandecka, Aleksandra Araszkiewicz, Stanisław Piłaciński, Bogna Wierusz-Wysocka, Dorota Zozulińska-Ziółkiewicz
INTRODUCTION The function of the sweat glands appears to be impaired in patients with diabetic complications. OBJECTIVES The aim of the study was to evaluate sudomotor function in adult patients with type 1 diabetes (DM1) and healthy controls and its relationship with metabolic control and diabetic complications. PATIENTS AND METHODS The study group included 404 patients with DM1 (194 women), aged 41 years (interquartile range [IQR], 32-51 years) and with disease duration of 23 years (IQR, 18-31 years). The control group included 84 healthy volunteers...
January 10, 2017: Pol Arch Intern Med
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28060863/the-systematic-evaluation-of-identifying-the-infarct-related-artery-utilizing-cardiac-magnetic-resonance-in-patients-presenting-with-st-elevation-myocardial-infarction
#19
Carine E Hamo, Igor Klem, Sunil V Rao, Vincent Songco, Samer Najjar, Edward G Lakatta, Subha V Raman, Robert A Harrington, John F Heitner
BACKGROUND: Identification of the infarct-related artery (IRA) in patients with STEMI using coronary angiography (CA) is often based on the ECG and can be challenging in patients with severe multi-vessel disease. The current study aimed to determine how often percutaneous intervention (PCI) is performed in a coronary artery different from the artery supplying the territory of acute infarction on cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (CMR). METHODS: We evaluated 113 patients from the Reduction of infarct Expansion and Ventricular remodeling with Erythropoetin After Large myocardial infarction (REVEAL) trial, who underwent CMR within 4±2 days of revascularization...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28011232/cardiac-biomarkers-in-diabetes-mellitus-new-dawn-for-risk-stratification
#20
REVIEW
Alexander E Berezin
Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) remains a leading cause of cardiovascular (CV) events and diseases worldwide. The aim of the review is to summarize our knowledge regarding clinical implementation of the biomarker-based strategy of the CV risk assessment in T2DM patient population. There is large body of evidence regarding use of the cardiac biomarkers to risk stratification at higher CV risk individuals who belongs to general population and cohort with established CV disease. Although T2DM patients have higher incidence of macrovascular and microvascular CV complications than the general population, whether cardiac biomarkers would be effective to risk stratification of the T2DM is not fully understood...
December 13, 2016: Diabetes & Metabolic Syndrome
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