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diabetes obesity hormones

F Samuel van Nierop, W Kulik, Erik Endert, Frank G Schaap, Steven W Olde Damink, Johannes A Romijn, Maarten R Soeters
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Bile acids (BA) are pleiotropic hormones affecting glucose and lipid metabolism. The physiochemical properties of different BA species affect their enterohepatic dynamics and their affinity for bile acid receptors. The BA pool composition is altered in patients with type 2 diabetes and obesity. In this study we used a 2-week very-low-calorie diet (VLCD) to investigate the effects of weight loss on BA pool composition and postprandial dynamics. METHODS: We performed mixed meal tests in obese, insulin resistant subjects before and after the VLCD...
October 13, 2016: Clinical Nutrition: Official Journal of the European Society of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
Thomas Gilliland, Sylvie Dufour, Gerald I Shulman, Kitt Falk Petersen, Sukru H Emre
NAFLD is a common condition linked to obesity, type 2 diabetes, and metabolic syndrome. Simple hepatic steatosis is a risk factor for inflammatory reactions in the liver (NASH), which may lead to cirrhosis. While the mechanism is unclear, NAFLD and NASH are associated with panhypopituitarism, which in the pediatric population often results from craniopharyngioma or pituitary adenoma and the sequelae of treatment, causing hypothyroidism, adrenal insufficiency, hypogonadotropic hypogonadism, and GH deficiency...
October 20, 2016: Pediatric Transplantation
Jongha Park
Cardiovascular (CV) risk assessment is not easy in chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients. Age, male sex, race, family history of CV disease, smoking status and diabetes should be considered as CV risk factors as the general population. It is also accepted that hypertension (HTN) is associated with the greater risk of CV complications in this population. However, there are some concerns in this issue.First, supporting evidence for specific blood pressure (BP) targets in CKD is scarce. Many observational studies reported a J-shaped association between BP level and CV mortality unlike a linear association in the general population...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Gemma Pujadas, Daniel J Drucker
Regulatory peptides produced in islet and gut endocrine cells, including glucagon, GLP-1, GLP-2, and GIP exert actions with considerable metabolic importance and translational relevance. Although the clinical development of GLP-1 receptor (GLP-1R) agonists and dipeptidyl peptidase-4(DPP4) inhibitors has fostered research into how these hormones act on the normal and diseased heart, less is known about the actions of these peptides on blood vessels. Here we review the effects of these peptide hormones on normal blood vessels, and highlight their vascular actions in the setting of experimental and clinical vascular injury...
October 12, 2016: Endocrine Reviews
E Candeias, A I Duarte, I Sebastião, M A Fernandes, A I Plácido, C Carvalho, S Correia, R X Santos, R Seiça, M S Santos, C R Oliveira, P I Moreira
Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is a highly concerning public health problem of the twenty-first century. Currently, it is estimated that T2D affects 422 million people worldwide with a rapidly increasing prevalence. During the past two decades, T2D has been widely shown to have a major impact in the brain. This, together with the cognitive decline and increased risk for dementia upon T2D, may arise from the complex interaction between normal brain aging and central insulin signaling dysfunction. Among the several features shared between T2D and some neurodegenerative disorders (e...
October 11, 2016: Molecular Neurobiology
Ivonne M C M Rietjens, Jochem Louisse, Karsten Beekmann
Phytoestrogens are plant-derived dietary compounds with structural similarity to 17-β-estradiol (E2), the primary female sex hormone. This structural similarity to E2 enables phytoestrogens to cause (anti)estrogenic effects by binding to the estrogen receptors. The aim of the present review is to present a state-of-the-art overview of the the potential health effects of dietary phytoestrogens. Various beneficial health effects have been ascribed to phytoestrogens, such as a lowered risk on menopausal symptoms like hot flushes and osteoporosis, lowered risks on cardiovascular disease, obesity, metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes, brain function disorders, breast cancer, prostate cancer, bowel cancer and other cancers...
October 9, 2016: British Journal of Pharmacology
Jae-Ho Yoo
The menarcheal age of Korean women has been rapidly decreasing for the last 50 years, and the average menarcheal age of women born in the 1990s is approaching 12.6 years. In addition, interest in early puberty has been increasing recently owing to the rapid increase in precocious puberty. Generally, out of concern for short stature and early menarche, idiopathic central precocious puberty in female adolescents is treated with gonadotropin-releasing hormone analogs. Studies to date have described the association between early menarche and psychosocial problems such as delinquency and risky sexual behavior, as well as physical health problems such as obesity, diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, and breast cancer throughout the lifespan of women...
September 2016: Korean Journal of Pediatrics
Brian Finan, Christoffer Clemmensen, Zhimeng Zhu, Kerstin Stemmer, Karine Gauthier, Luisa Müller, Meri De Angelis, Kristin Moreth, Frauke Neff, Diego Perez-Tilve, Katrin Fischer, Dominik Lutter, Miguel A Sánchez-Garrido, Peng Liu, Jan Tuckermann, Mohsen Malehmir, Marc E Healy, Achim Weber, Mathias Heikenwalder, Martin Jastroch, Maximilian Kleinert, Sigrid Jall, Sara Brandt, Frédéric Flamant, Karl-Werner Schramm, Heike Biebermann, Yvonne Döring, Christian Weber, Kirk M Habegger, Michaela Keuper, Vasily Gelfanov, Fa Liu, Josef Köhrle, Jan Rozman, Helmut Fuchs, Valerie Gailus-Durner, Martin Hrabě de Angelis, Susanna M Hofmann, Bin Yang, Matthias H Tschöp, Richard DiMarchi, Timo D Müller
Glucagon and thyroid hormone (T3) exhibit therapeutic potential for metabolic disease but also exhibit undesired effects. We achieved synergistic effects of these two hormones and mitigation of their adverse effects by engineering chemical conjugates enabling delivery of both activities within one precisely targeted molecule. Coordinated glucagon and T3 actions synergize to correct hyperlipidemia, steatohepatitis, atherosclerosis, glucose intolerance, and obesity in metabolically compromised mice. We demonstrate that each hormonal constituent mutually enriches cellular processes in hepatocytes and adipocytes via enhanced hepatic cholesterol metabolism and white fat browning...
October 20, 2016: Cell
Alessandro D Genazzani
Studies over the last decade have demonstrated that some polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) patients have abnormal insulin sensitivity (insulin resistance), independently from being overweight or obese. This induces the risk of developing type 2 diabetes in such PCOS patients. The use of insulin sensitizers (i.e. metformin), reduces such metabolic, and most hormonal, impairments. As metformin often induces side effects, new integrative strategies have been proposed to treat insulin resistance, such as the use of inositols...
September 16, 2016: Reproductive Biomedicine Online
Kyle E Horst, Susan C Modesitt
OBJECTIVES: Endometrial cancer remains the fourth most common malignancy among US women, and hormonal contraceptives drastically reduce this risk. The study objectives were to assess the prescribing patterns, counseling practices, and knowledge of family physicians and obstetrician/gynecologists (OB/GYNs) regarding hormonal contraceptives, obesity, and cancer prevention. METHODS: A 25-question survey was mailed to 4600 OB/GYNs and family practitioners licensed in Virginia to assess self-reported hormonal contraceptive prescription practices, patient evaluation and counseling, and gynecologic oncology knowledge...
October 2016: Southern Medical Journal
Otto K-W Cheung, Alfred S-L Cheng
Liver cancer is the third most common cancer type and the second leading cause of deaths in men. Large population studies have demonstrated remarkable gender disparities in the incidence and the cumulative risk of liver cancer. A number of emerging risk factors regarding metabolic alterations associated with obesity, diabetes and dyslipidemia have been ascribed to the progression of non-alcoholic fatty liver diseases (NAFLD) and ultimately liver cancer. The deregulation of fat metabolism derived from excessive insulin, glucose, and lipid promotes cancer-causing inflammatory signaling and oxidative stress, which eventually triggers the uncontrolled hepatocellular proliferation...
2016: Frontiers in Genetics
Ulrich Rohde, Cecilie A Federspiel, Peter Vilmann, Ebbe Langholz, Steffen U Friis, Martin Krakauer, Jens F Rehfeld, Jens J Holst, Tina Vilsbøll, Filip K Knop
AIMS: The duodenal-jejunal bypass sleeve ((DJBS) or EndoBarrier Gastrointestinal Liner) induces weight loss in obese subjects and may improve glucose homeostasis in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D). To explore the underlying mechanisms, we evaluated postprandial physiology including glucose metabolism, gut hormone secretion, gallbladder emptying, appetite and food intake in patients undergoing DJBS treatment. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Ten normal glucose tolerant (NGT) obese subjects and nine age, body weight and body mass index-matched metformin-treated T2D patients underwent a liquid mixed meal test and a subsequent ad libitum meal test before implantation with DJBS and one (1w) and 26 weeks (26w) after implantation...
October 3, 2016: Diabetes, Obesity & Metabolism
Miguel Angel Sánchez-Garrido, Kirk M Habegger, Christoffer Clemmensen, Cassie Holleman, Timo D Müller, Diego Perez-Tilve, Pengyun Li, Archita S Agrawal, Brian Finan, Daniel J Drucker, Matthias H Tschöp, Richard D DiMarchi, Alexei Kharitonenkov
OBJECTIVE: Fibroblast activation protein (FAP) is a serine protease belonging to a S9B prolyl oligopeptidase subfamily. This enzyme has been implicated in cancer development and recently reported to regulate degradation of FGF21, a potent metabolic hormone. Using a known FAP inhibitor, talabostat (TB), we explored the impact of FAP inhibition on metabolic regulation in mice. METHODS: To address this question we evaluated the pharmacology of TB in various mouse models including those deficient in FGF21, GLP1 and GIP signaling...
October 2016: Molecular Metabolism
Barbara Licznerska, Wanda Baer-Dubowska
Indole-3-carbinol (I3C), a common phytochemical in cruciferous vegetables, and its condensation product, 3,3'-diindolylmethane (DIM) exert several biological activities on cellular and molecular levels, which contribute to their well-recognized chemoprevention potential. Initially, these compounds were classified as blocking agents that increase drug-metabolizing enzyme activity. Now it is widely accepted that I3C and DIM affect multiple signaling pathways and target molecules controlling cell division, apoptosis, or angiogenesis deregulated in cancer cells...
2016: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
Åsa Segerstolpe, Athanasia Palasantza, Pernilla Eliasson, Eva-Marie Andersson, Anne-Christine Andréasson, Xiaoyan Sun, Simone Picelli, Alan Sabirsh, Maryam Clausen, Magnus K Bjursell, David M Smith, Maria Kasper, Carina Ämmälä, Rickard Sandberg
Hormone-secreting cells within pancreatic islets of Langerhans play important roles in metabolic homeostasis and disease. However, their transcriptional characterization is still incomplete. Here, we sequenced the transcriptomes of thousands of human islet cells from healthy and type 2 diabetic donors. We could define specific genetic programs for each individual endocrine and exocrine cell type, even for rare δ, γ, ε, and stellate cells, and revealed subpopulations of α, β, and acinar cells. Intriguingly, δ cells expressed several important receptors, indicating an unrecognized importance of these cells in integrating paracrine and systemic metabolic signals...
October 11, 2016: Cell Metabolism
Jongha Park
Cardiovascular (CV) risk assessment is not easy in chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients. Age, male sex, race, family history of CV disease, smoking status and diabetes should be considered as CV risk factors as the general population. It is also accepted that hypertension (HTN) is associated with the greater risk of CV complications in this population. However, there are some concerns in this issue.First, supporting evidence for specific blood pressure (BP) targets in CKD is scarce. Many observational studies reported a J-shaped association between BP level and CV mortality unlike a linear association in the general population...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Kazunari Kamiko, Kazutaka Aoki, Hiroshi Kamiyama, Masataka Taguri, Yasuo Terauchi
BACKGROUND: A fast eating speed is reportedly associated with obesity, fatty liver, and metabolic syndrome. As a comparison of postprandial glucose levels after eating quickly or slowly has not been previously reported for Japanese patients with type 2 diabetes, we evaluated the impact of the fast or slow ingestion of an enteral formula (liquid meal) on glucose metabolism. METHODS: Ten Japanese patients with type 2 diabetes who had been hospitalized at our hospital were enrolled...
October 2016: Journal of Clinical Medicine Research
Chris de Graaf, Dan Donnelly, Denise Wootten, Jesper Lau, Patrick M Sexton, Laurence J Miller, Jung-Mo Ahn, Jiayu Liao, Madeleine M Fletcher, Dehua Yang, Alastair J H Brown, Caihong Zhou, Jiejie Deng, Ming-Wei Wang
The glucagon-like peptide (GLP)-1 receptor (GLP-1R) is a class B G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) that mediates the action of GLP-1, a peptide hormone secreted from three major tissues in humans, enteroendocrine L cells in the distal intestine, α cells in the pancreas, and the central nervous system, which exerts important actions useful in the management of type 2 diabetes mellitus and obesity, including glucose homeostasis and regulation of gastric motility and food intake. Peptidic analogs of GLP-1 have been successfully developed with enhanced bioavailability and pharmacological activity...
October 2016: Pharmacological Reviews
Paolo Prandoni
An increasing body of evidence suggests the likelihood of a link between venous and arterial thrombosis. The two vascular complications share several risk factors, such as age, obesity, smoking, diabetes mellitus, blood hypertension, hypertriglyceridemia, and metabolic syndrome. Moreover, there are many examples of conditions accounting for both venous and arterial thrombosis, such as the antiphospholipid antibody syndrome, hyperhomocysteinemia, malignancies, infections, and the use of hormonal treatment. Finally, several recent studies have consistently shown that patients with venous thromboembolism are at a higher risk of arterial thrombotic complications than matched control individuals...
September 15, 2016: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
Seong Lin Teoh, Srijit Das
Obesity continues to be a major global problem. Various cancers are related to obesity and proper understanding of their aetiology, especially their molecular tumour biology is important for early diagnosis and better treatment. Genes play an important role in the development of obesity. Few genes such as leptin, leptin receptor encoded by the db (diabetes), pro-opiomelanocortin, AgRP and NPY and melanocortin-4 receptors and insulin-induced gene 2 were linked to obesity. MicroRNAs control gene expression via mRNA degradation and protein translation inhibition and influence cell differentiation, cell growth and cell death...
September 14, 2016: Tumour Biology: the Journal of the International Society for Oncodevelopmental Biology and Medicine
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