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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28920084/effects-of-methamphetamine-on-locomotor-activity-and-thalamic-gene-expression-in-leptin-deficient-obese-mice
#1
Betina González, Candela González, Verónica Bisagno, Francisco J Urbano
Leptin is an adipose-derived hormone that regulates energy balance. Leptin receptors are expressed in extrahypothalamic sites and several reports showed that leptin can influence feeding and locomotor behavior via direct actions on dopaminergic neurons. The leptin deficient mouse (ob/ob) has been used as an animal model of blunted leptin action, and presents with obesity and mild type 2 diabetes. We used ob/ob mice to study the effect of repeated 7-day methamphetamine (METH) administration analyzing locomotion, behavioral sensitization, and somatosensory thalamic mRNA expression of voltage-gated calcium channels and glutamatergic receptors using RT-PCR...
July 2017: Translational Brain Rhythmicity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915118/delayed-diagnosis-of-proopiomelanocortin-pomc-deficiency-with-type-1-diabetes-in-a-9-year-old-girl-and-her-infant-sibling
#2
Elif Ozsu, Allison Bahm
BACKGROUND: Proopiomelanocortin (POMC) protein, encoded by the POMC gene, is the precursor of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) that is released from the anterior pituitary gland. Homozygous mutations in the POMC gene is associated with hyperphagia, severe and early-onset obesity, adrenal insufficiency, hypopigmentation of the skin and red hair. CASE PRESENTATION: A 9-year-old girl from a consanguineous family of Iraqi origin was diagnosed with type 1 diabetes...
September 15, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Endocrinology & Metabolism: JPEM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28911141/glucagon-decreases-igf-1-bioactivity-in-humans-independently-of-insulin-by-modulating-its-binding-proteins
#3
Zeinab Sarem, Christiane Bumke-Vogt, Ayman M Mahmoud, Biruhalem Assefa, Martin O Weickert, Aikatarini Adamidou, Volker Bähr, Jan Frystyk, Matthias Möhlig, Joachim Spranger, Stefanie Lieske, Andreas L Birkenfeld, Andreas F H Pfeiffer, Ayman M Arafat
Context: Depending on its lipolytic activity, glucagon plays a promising role in obesity treatment. Glucagon-induced growth hormone (GH) release can promote its effect on lipid metabolism, although the underlying mechanisms have not been well-defined. Objective: The present study highlights the glucagon effect on the GH/insulinlike growth factor 1 (IGF-1)/IGF-binding protein (IGFBP) axis in vivo and in vitro, taking into consideration insulin as a confounding factor...
September 1, 2017: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28905106/recombinant-mouse-osteocalcin-secreted-by-lactococcus-lactis-promotes-glucagon-like-peptide-1-induction-in-stc-1-cells
#4
Fu Namai, Suguru Shigemori, Koichi Sudo, Takashi Sato, Yoshinari Yamamoto, Shireen Nigar, Tasuku Ogita, Takeshi Shimosato
An osteoblastic protein, osteocalcin (OC), exists in vivo in two forms: carboxylated OC, and uncarboxylated or low-carboxylated OC (ucOC). ucOC acts as a hormone to regulate carbon and energy metabolism. Recent studies demonstrated that ucOC exerts insulinotropic effects, mainly through the glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) pathway. GLP-1 is an insulinotropic hormone secreted by enteroendocrine L cells in the small intestine. Thus, efficient delivery of ucOC to the small intestine may be a new therapeutic option for metabolic diseases such as diabetes and obesity...
September 13, 2017: Current Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28904020/gtrap3-18-regulates-food-intake-and-body-weight-by-interacting-with-pro-opiomelanocortin
#5
Koji Aoyama, Wattanaporn Bhadhprasit, Masahiko Watabe, Fan Wang, Nobuko Matsumura, Toshio Nakaki
Pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC)-expressing neurons provide α-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (α-MSH), which stimulates melanocortin 4 receptor to induce hypophagia by AMPK inhibition in the hypothalamus. α-MSH is produced by POMC cleavage in secretory granules and released. However, it is not known yet whether any posttranscriptional regulatory mechanism of POMC signaling exists upstream of the secretory granules in neurons. Here we show that glutamate transporter-associated protein 3-18 (GTRAP3-18), an anchor protein that retains interacting proteins in the endoplasmic reticulum, is a critical regulator of food intake and body weight by interacting with POMC...
September 13, 2017: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28903914/long-term-treatment-with-the-ghrelin-receptor-antagonist-d-lys3-ghrp-6-does-not-improve-glucose-homeostasis-in-non-obese-diabetic-mkr-mice
#6
Rasha Mosa, Lili Huang, Hongzhuo Li, Michael Grist, Derek LeRoith, Chen Chen
Ghrelin secretion has been associated with increased caloric intake and adiposity. The expressions of ghrelin and its receptor (GHS-R1a) in pancreas have raised the interest about the role of ghrelin in glucose homeostasis. Most of the studies showed that ghrelin promoted hyperglycaemia and inhibited insulin secretion. This raised the interest in using GHS-R1a antagonists as therapeutic targets for type 2 diabetes. Available data of GHS-R antagonists are on a short-term basis. Moreover, the complexity of GHS-R1a signalling makes it difficult to understand the mechanism of action of GHS-R1a antagonists...
September 13, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28894292/partitioning-of-adipose-lipid-metabolism-by-altered-expression-and-function-of-ppar-isoforms-after-bariatric-surgery
#7
C Jahansouz, H Xu, A V Hertzel, S Kizy, K A Steen, R Foncea, F J Serrot, N Kvalheim, G Luthra, K Ewing, D B Leslie, S Ikramuddin, D A Bernlohr
BACKGROUND: Bariatric surgery remains the most effective treatment for reducing adiposity and eliminating type 2 diabetes; however, the mechanism(s) responsible have remained elusive. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPAR) encompass a family of nuclear hormone receptors that upon activation exert control of lipid metabolism, glucose regulation and inflammation. Their role in adipose tissue following bariatric surgery remains undefined. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Subcutaneous adipose tissue biopsies and serum were obtained and evaluated from time of surgery and on postoperative day 7 in patients randomized to Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (n=13) or matched caloric restriction (n=14), as well as patients undergoing vertical sleeve gastrectomy (n=33)...
August 14, 2017: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28892990/prevalence-of-acanthosis-nigricans-and-related-factors-in-iranian-obese-children
#8
Fatemeh Sayarifard, Azadeh Sayarifard, Bahar Allahverdi, Sara Ipakchi, Mastaneh Moghtaderi, Bahareh Yaghmaei
INTRODUCTION: Recognition of Acanthosis nigricans (AN) provides important opportunities for screening of obesity syndrome, dyslipidemia, hypertension and insulin resistance with diabetes mellitus 2. Considering the high prevalence of obesity among Iranian children, we designed this study to estimate the prevalence of AN and related laboratory factors in Iranian obese children. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Seventy-one obese children were enrolled in this study. Diagnosis of AN was done by clinical examination...
July 2017: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28891932/inadequate-vitamin-c-status-in-prediabetes-and-type-2-diabetes-mellitus-associations-with-glycaemic-control-obesity-and-smoking
#9
Renée Wilson, Jinny Willis, Richard Gearry, Paula Skidmore, Elizabeth Fleming, Chris Frampton, Anitra Carr
Vitamin C (ascorbate) is an essential micronutrient in humans, being required for a number of important biological functions via acting as an enzymatic cofactor and reducing agent. There is some evidence to suggest that people with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) have lower plasma vitamin C concentrations compared to those with normal glucose tolerance (NGT). The aim of this study was to investigate plasma vitamin C concentrations across the glycaemic spectrum and to explore correlations with indices of metabolic health...
September 9, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28890700/dietary-capsaicin-improves-glucose-homeostasis-and-alters-the-gut-microbiota-in-obese-diabetic-ob-ob-mice
#10
Jun-Xian Song, Hui Ren, Yuan-Feng Gao, Chong-You Lee, Su-Fang Li, Feng Zhang, Long Li, Hong Chen
Background: The effects of capsaicin on obesity and glucose homeostasis are still controversial and the mechanisms underlying these effects remain largely unknown. This study aimed to investigate the potential relationship between the regulation of obesity and glucose homeostasis by dietary capsaicin and the alterations of gut microbiota in obese diabetic ob/ob mice. Methods: The ob/ob mice were subjected to a normal, low-capsaicin (0.01%), or high-capsaicin (0.02%) diet for 6 weeks, respectively. Obesity phenotypes, glucose homeostasis, the gut microbiota structure and composition, short-chain fatty acids, gastrointestinal hormones, and pro-inflammatory cytokines were measured...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28887444/insulin-glucagon-and-somatostatin-stores-in-the-pancreas-of-subjects-with-type-2-diabetes-and-their-lean-and-obese-non-diabetic-controls
#11
Jean-Claude Henquin, Majeed M Ibrahim, Jacques Rahier
In type-2 diabetes, both insufficient insulin and excessive glucagon secretion contribute to hyperglycemia. We compared insulin, glucagon and somatostatin stores in pancreas obtained at autopsy of 20 lean and 19 obese non-diabetic (ND), and 18 type-2 diabetic (T2D) subjects. From concentrations and pancreas weight, total content of hormones was calculated. Insulin content was 35% lower in T2D than ND subjects (7.4 versus 11.3 mg), whereas glucagon content was similar (0.76 versus 0.81 mg). The higher ratio of glucagon/insulin contents in T2D was thus explained by the decrease in insulin...
September 8, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28887275/ffa4-gpr120-as-a-fatty-acid-sensor-involved-in-appetite-control-insulin-sensitivity-and-inflammation-regulation
#12
REVIEW
Dong-Soon Im
Unsaturated long-chain fatty acids have been suggested to be beneficial in the context of cardiovascular disorders based in epidemiologic studies conducted in Greenland and Mediterranean. DHA and EPA are omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids that are plentiful in fish oil, and oleic acid is an omega-9 monounsaturated fatty acid, rich in olive oil. Dietary intake of these unsaturated long-chain fatty acids have been associated with insulin sensitivity and weight loss, which contrasts with the impairment of insulin sensitivity and weight gain associated with high intakes of saturated long-chain fatty acids...
September 8, 2017: Molecular Aspects of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28882554/the-impact-of-androgen-actions-in-neurons-on-metabolic-health-and-disease
#13
REVIEW
Jamie J Morford, Sheng Wu, Franck Mauvais-Jarvis
The male hormone testosterone exerts different effects on glucose and energy homeostasis in males and females. Testosterone deficiency predisposes males to visceral obesity, insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. However, testosterone excess predisposes females to similar metabolic dysfunction. Here, we review the effects of testosterone actions in the central nervous system on metabolic function in males and females. In particular, we highlight changes within the hypothalamus that control glucose and energy homeostasis...
September 4, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28873387/just-a-gut-feeling-central-nervous-effects-of-peripheral-gastrointestinal-hormones
#14
Christian L Roth, Robert Patrick Doyle
Despite greater health education, obesity remains one of the greatest health challenges currently facing the world. The prevalence of obesity among children and adolescents and the rising rates of prediabetes and diabetes are of particular concern. A deep understanding of regulatory pathways and development of new anti-obesity drugs with increased efficacy and safety are of utmost necessity. The 2 major biological players in the regulation of food intake are the gut and the brain as peptides released from the gut in response to meals convey information about the energy needs to brain centers of energy homeostasis...
2017: Endocrine Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28865774/clock-genes-metabolism-and-cardiovascular-risk
#15
REVIEW
Roberto Tarquini, Gianluigi Mazzoccoli
The molecular clockwork drives rhythmic oscillations of signaling pathways managing intermediate metabolism; the circadian timing system synchronizes behavioral cycles and anabolic/catabolic processes with environmental cues, mainly represented by light/darkness alternation. Metabolic pathways, bile acid synthesis, and autophagic and immune/inflammatory processes are driven by the biological clock. Proper timing of hormone secretion, metabolism, bile acid turnover, autophagy, and inflammation with behavioral cycles is necessary to avoid dysmetabolism...
October 2017: Heart Failure Clinics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28858890/fat-soluble-micronutrients-and-metabolic-syndrome
#16
Aurélie Goncalves, Marie-Josèphe Amiot
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is associated with increased risk of obesity, type 2 diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular diseases. MetS prevalence has been associated with diet inadequacy. Conversely, the cumulative incidence of MetS has been inversely associated with a Mediterranean-style diet that includes many different health-beneficial nutrients. Adherence to a Mediterranean-style diet could reduce or at least stabilize metabolic risk factors. RECENT FINDINGS: Low serum level of fat-soluble micronutrients, such as carotenoids, vitamin (vit) A, D and E, has been linked to MetS...
August 30, 2017: Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28855269/roles-of-increased-glycemic-variability-glp-1-and-glucagon-in-hypoglycaemia-after-roux-en-y-gastric-bypass
#17
George Tharakan, Preeshila Behary, Nicolai Jacob Wewer Albrechtsen, Harvinder Chahal, Julia Kenkre, Alexander D Miras, Ahmed R Ahmed, Jens Juul Holst, Steve R Bloom, Tricia Mei Mei Tan
Objective Roux-en-Y Gastric Bypass (RYGB) surgery is currently the most effective treatment for diabetes and obesity. An increasingly recognized complication of RYGB surgery is postprandial hypoglycemia (PPH). The pathophysiology of PPH remains unclear with multiple mechanisms suggested including nesidioblastosis, altered insulin clearance and increased glucagon-like-1 peptide (GLP-1) secretion. Whilst many PPH patients respond to dietary modification, some have severely disabling symptoms. Multiple treatments have been trialled ranging from acarbose, to both GLP-1 agonists and antagonists, even to reversal of RYGB...
August 30, 2017: European Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28855169/follicle-stimulating-hormone-its-association-with-cardiometabolic-risk-factors-and-10-year-risk-of-cardiovascular-disease-in-postmenopausal-women
#18
Ningjian Wang, Hongfang Shao, Yi Chen, Fangzhen Xia, Chen Chi, Qin Li, Bing Han, Yincheng Teng, Yingli Lu
BACKGROUND: Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of mortality in postmenopausal women. Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) shows negative associations with obesity and diabetes mellitus in postmenopausal women. We aimed to study the associations between FSH and 10-year risk of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) in postmenopausal women. METHODS AND RESULTS: SPECT-China (the Survey on Prevalence in East China for Metabolic Diseases and Risk Factors) is a 22-site, population-based study conducted during 2014-2015...
August 30, 2017: Journal of the American Heart Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28854950/prevalence-and-risk-factors-for-type-2-diabetes-mellitus-with-prader-willi-syndrome-a-single-center-experience
#19
Aram Yang, Jinsup Kim, Sung Yoon Cho, Dong-Kyu Jin
BACKGROUND: Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) is often related to severe obesity and type-2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). However, few studies, and none in Korea, have examined prevalence of T2DM and other variables in PWS. The aim of this study was to identify the prevalence and associated risk factors for T2DM in Korean patients with PWS. METHODS: We performed a retrospective cohort study of the 84 PWS patients aged 10 or over (10.3-35.8 years of age) diagnosed with PWS at Samsung Medical Center from 1994 to 2016...
August 30, 2017: Orphanet Journal of Rare Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28851750/food-in-synchrony-with-melatonin-and-corticosterone-relieves-constant-light-disturbed-metabolism
#20
Adrian Báez-Ruiz, Natali Guerrero-Vargas, Fernando Cázarez Márquez, Elizabeth Sabath, Maria Basualdo, Roberto Salgado, Carolina Escobar, Ruud Buijs
Circadian disruption is associated with metabolic disturbances such as hepatic-steatosis (HS), obesity and type-2 diabetes. We hypothesized that HS, resulting from constant-light (LL) exposure is due to an inconsistency between signals related to food intake and endocrine driven suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) outputs. Indeed exposing rats to LL induced locomotor, food intake and hormone arrhythmicity together with development of HS. We investigated whether providing temporal signals such as 12-hour food availability or driving a corticosterone plus melatonin rhythm could restore rhythmicity and prevent the metabolic disturbances under LL conditions in male rats...
August 29, 2017: Journal of Endocrinology
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