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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786972/a-lyophilized-and-thermal-two-step-synthesis-of-cofe-alloy-nanoparticles-embedded-in-n-doped-carbon-nanosheets-carbon-nanotubes-for-highly-efficient-oxygen-evolution-reaction
#1
Yang Liu, Feng Li, Haidong Yang, Jing Li, Ping Ma, Yan Zhu, Jiantai Ma
There is a vital need to explore highly-efficient and stable nonprecious-metal catalysts for oxygen evolution reaction (OER) to reduce the overpotential and further improve the energy conversion efficiency. Herein, we report a unique and cost-effective lyophilized and thermal two step procedure to synthesize high-performance CoFe alloy nanoparticles embedded in N-doped carbon nanosheets interspersed with carbon nanotubes (CoFe-N-CN/CNTs) hybrid. The lyophilization step during catalysts preparation is beneficial to uniform the dispersion of carbon-like precursors and avoid the agglomeration of metal particles...
May 22, 2018: ChemSusChem
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785766/schizophyllum-commune-an-unexploited-source-for-lignocellulose-degrading-enzymes
#2
REVIEW
Omar Eduardo Tovar-Herrera, Adriana Mayrel Martha-Paz, Yordanis Pérez-LLano, Elisabet Aranda, Juan Enrique Tacoronte-Morales, María Teresa Pedroso-Cabrera, Katiushka Arévalo-Niño, Jorge Luis Folch-Mallol, Ramón Alberto Batista-García
Lignocellulose represents the most abundant source of carbon in the Earth. Thus, fraction technology of the biomass turns up as an emerging technology for the development of biorefineries. Saccharification and fermentation processes require the formulation of enzymatic cocktails or the development of microorganisms (naturally or genetically modified) with the appropriate toolbox to produce a cost-effective fermentation technology. Therefore, the search for microorganisms capable of developing effective cellulose hydrolysis represents one of the main challenges in this era...
May 21, 2018: MicrobiologyOpen
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785607/green-certification-e-commerce-and-low-carbon-economy-for-international-tourist-hotels
#3
Long-Fei Chen
Increasing population and over-consumption are placing unprecedented demands on agriculture and natural resources. The Earth is suffering from global warning and environmental destruction while our agricultural systems are concurrently degrading land, water, biodiversity, and climate on a global scale. For a sustainable future, green certification, e-commerce, and environment education can boost low-carbon economy with decreasing carbon emissions, but very few researches address them for the hotel industry...
May 22, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29784804/structure-of-xyloglucan-xylosyltransferase-1-reveals-simple-steric-rules-that-define-biological-patterns-of-xyloglucan-polymers
#4
Alan T Culbertson, Jacqueline J Ehrlich, Jun-Yong Choe, Richard B Honzatko, Olga A Zabotina
The plant cell wall is primarily a polysaccharide mesh of the most abundant biopolymers on earth. Although one of the richest sources of biorenewable materials, the biosynthesis of the plant polysaccharides is poorly understood. Structures of many essential plant glycosyltransferases are unknown and suitable substrates are often unavailable for in vitro analysis. The dearth of such information impedes the development of plants better suited for industrial applications. Presented here are structures of Arabidopsis xyloglucan xylosyltransferase 1 (XXT1) without ligands and in complexes with UDP and cellohexaose...
May 21, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29784799/amorphous-boron-oxide-at-megabar-pressures-via-inelastic-x-ray-scattering
#5
Sung Keun Lee, Yong-Hyun Kim, Paul Chow, Yunming Xiao, Cheng Ji, Guoyin Shen
Structural transition in amorphous oxides, including glasses, under extreme compression above megabar pressures (>1 million atmospheric pressure, 100 GPa) results in unique densification paths that differ from those in crystals. Experimentally verifying the atomistic origins of such densifications beyond 100 GPa remains unknown. Progress in inelastic X-ray scattering (IXS) provided insights into the pressure-induced bonding changes in oxide glasses; however, IXS has a signal intensity several orders of magnitude smaller than that of elastic X-rays, posing challenges for probing glass structures above 100 GPa near the Earth's core-mantle boundary...
May 21, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29784790/the-biomass-distribution-on-earth
#6
Yinon M Bar-On, Rob Phillips, Ron Milo
A census of the biomass on Earth is key for understanding the structure and dynamics of the biosphere. However, a global, quantitative view of how the biomass of different taxa compare with one another is still lacking. Here, we assemble the overall biomass composition of the biosphere, establishing a census of the ≈550 gigatons of carbon (Gt C) of biomass distributed among all of the kingdoms of life. We find that the kingdoms of life concentrate at different locations on the planet; plants (≈450 Gt C, the dominant kingdom) are primarily terrestrial, whereas animals (≈2 Gt C) are mainly marine, and bacteria (≈70 Gt C) and archaea (≈7 Gt C) are predominantly located in deep subsurface environments...
May 21, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29784781/c-4-sterol-demethylation-enzymes-distinguish-bacterial-and-eukaryotic-sterol-synthesis
#7
Alysha K Lee, Amy B Banta, Jeremy H Wei, David J Kiemle, Ju Feng, José-Luis Giner, Paula V Welander
Sterols are essential eukaryotic lipids that are required for a variety of physiological roles. The diagenetic products of sterol lipids, sterane hydrocarbons, are preserved in ancient sedimentary rocks and are utilized as geological biomarkers, indicating the presence of both eukaryotes and oxic environments throughout Earth's history. However, a few bacterial species are also known to produce sterols, bringing into question the significance of bacterial sterol synthesis for our interpretation of sterane biomarkers...
May 21, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29784343/facile-synthesis-of-ni-based-metal-organic-frameworks-wrapped-mno-2-nanowires-with-high-performance-toward-electrochemical-oxygen-evolution-reaction
#8
Yujie Han, You Yu, Lingling Zhang, Liang Huang, Junfeng Zhai, Shaojun Dong
The transition metal oxides based catalysts have drawn great attention for their application in the electrolysis of water for renewable energy generation. Although manganese oxides were rarely used as oxygen evolution reaction (OER) catalysts, they were still considered as active and efficient OER catalysts due to the earth-abundant and low toxic nature of manganese. In this work, we proposed a facile method for the synthesis of high-performance electrochemical OER catalyst by magnetically stirring the mixture of 1,3,4-thiadiazole-2,5-dithiol (DMTD), Ni2+ and MnO2 nanowires (NWs) in ethanol at room temperature, noted as Ni/DMTD/MnO2 ...
August 15, 2018: Talanta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29784340/quantitative-study-of-the-mineralogical-composition-of-mineral-dust-aerosols-by-x-ray-diffraction
#9
Sophie Nowak, Sandra Lafon, Sandrine Caquineau, Emilie Journet, Benoit Laurent
Mineral dust aerosols, produced by wind erosion in arid regions and semi-arid surfaces, are important components of the atmosphere that affect the Earth radiative budget, atmospheric chemistry and biogeochemical cycles. Dust aerosol particles are composed of a complex mixture of various minerals, mainly clays, calcite, quartz, feldspars and iron oxides. The nature and the relative abundance of the minerals are key parameters to evaluate mineral dust environmental impacts. Strong limitations remain to quantify the mineralogical composition of dust particles, mainly due to the low mass of in-situ collected dust particle samples...
August 15, 2018: Talanta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29784069/first-molecular-phylogeny-of-agrilus-coleoptera-buprestidae-the-largest-genus-on-earth-with-dna-barcode-database-for-forestry-pest-diagnostics
#10
I Kelnarova, E Jendek, V V Grebennikov, L Bocak
All more than 3000 species of Agrilus beetles are phytophagous and some cause economically significant damage to trees and shrubs. Facilitated by international trade, Agrilus species regularly invade new countries and continents. This necessitates a rapid identification of Agrilus species, as the first step for subsequent protective measures. This study provides the first DNA reference library for ~100 Agrilus species from the Northern Hemisphere based on three mitochondrial markers: cox1-5' (DNA barcode fragment), cox1-3', and rrnL...
May 22, 2018: Bulletin of Entomological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782636/a-boxplot-for-circular-data
#11
Davide Buttarazzi, Giuseppe Pandolfo, Giovanni C Porzio
The box-and-whiskers plot is an extraordinary graphical tool that provides a quick visual summary of an observed distribution. In spite of its many extensions, a really suitable boxplot to display circular data is not yet available. Thanks to its simplicity and strong visual impact, such a tool would be especially useful in all fields where circular measures arise: biometrics, astronomy, environmetrics, Earth sciences, to cite just a few. For this reason, in line with Tukey's original idea, a Tukey-like circular boxplot is introduced...
May 21, 2018: Biometrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29781800/linkage-of-the-nit1c-gene-cluster-to-bacterial-cyanide-assimilation-as-a-nitrogen-source
#12
Lauren B Jones, Pallab Ghosh, Jung-Hyun Lee, Chia-Ni Chou, Daniel A Kunz
A genetic linkage between a conserved gene cluster (Nit1C) and the ability of bacteria to utilize cyanide as the sole nitrogen source was demonstrated for nine different bacterial species. These included three strains whose cyanide nutritional ability has formerly been documented (Pseudomonas fluorescens Pf11764, Pseudomonas putida BCN3 and Klebsiella pneumoniae BCN33), and six not previously known to have this ability [Burkholderia (Paraburkholderia) xenovorans LB400, Paraburkholderia phymatum STM815, Paraburkholderia phytofirmans PsJN, Cupriavidus (Ralstonia) eutropha H16, Gluconoacetobacter diazotrophicus PA1 5 and Methylobacterium extorquens AM1]...
May 21, 2018: Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29780995/magnetic-conjugated-polymer-nanoparticles-doped-with-a-europium-complex-for-biomedical-imaging
#13
E Kemal, R Peters, S Bourke, S Fairclough, P Bergstrom-Mann, D M Owen, L Sandiford, L A Dailey, M Green
Self-assembling conjugated polymer nanoparticles containing PVK and PLGA-PEG as a matrix polymer were doped with both a luminescent rare-earth complex and magnetic nanoparticles (SPIONs), giving rise to materials that are both luminescent and magnetic. Nanoparticle sizes ranged from 80-110 nm without SPIONs and showed an increase in size (200-1000 nm) with additional SPION content (11-54%). Quantum yields (QYs) of 24% and 18% were measured for systems without and with 11% SPIONs, respectively. Optical properties were stable and suitable for biological imaging applications...
May 21, 2018: Photochemical & Photobiological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29780886/efficient-and-stable-silicon-microwire-photocathodes-with-a-nickel-silicide-interlayer-for-operation-in-strongly-alkaline-solutions
#14
Wouter Vijselaar, Roald M Tiggelaar, Han Gardeniers, Jurriaan Huskens
Most photoanodes commonly applied in solar fuel research (e.g., of Fe2 O3 , BiVO4 , TiO2 , or WO3 ) are only active and stable in alkaline electrolytes. Silicon (Si)-based photocathodes on the other hand are mainly studied under acidic conditions due to their instability in alkaline electrolytes. Here, we show that the in-diffusion of nickel into a 3D Si structure, upon thermal annealing, yields a thin (sub-100 nm), defect-free nickel silicide (NiSi) layer. This has allowed us to design and fabricate a Si microwire photocathode with a NiSi interlayer between the catalyst and the Si microwires...
May 11, 2018: ACS Energy Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29780679/magnetotail-fast-flow-occurrence-rate-and-dawn-dusk-asymmetry-at-x-gsm-%C3%A2-60-r-e
#15
S A Kiehas, A Runov, V Angelopolos, H Hietala, D Korovinksiy
As a direct result of magnetic reconnection, plasma sheet fast flows act as primary transporter of mass, flux, and energy in the Earth's magnetotail. During the last decades, these flows were mainly studied within X GSM >-60 R E , as observations near or beyond lunar orbit were limited. By using 5 years (2011-2015) of ARTEMIS (Acceleration, Reconnection, Turbulence, and Electrodynamics of the Moons Interaction with the Sun) data, we statistically investigate earthward and tailward flows at around 60  R E downtail...
March 2018: Journal of Geophysical Research. Space Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29780666/chitin-distribution-in-the-oithona-digestive-and-reproductive-systems-revealed-by-fluorescence-microscopy
#16
Kevin Sugier, Benoit Vacherie, Astrid Cornils, Patrick Wincker, Jean-Louis Jamet, Mohammed-Amin Madoui
Among copepods, which are the most abundant animals on Earth, the genus Oithona is described as one of the most numerous and plays a major role in the marine food chain and biogeochemical cycles, particularly through the excretion of chitin-coated fecal pellets. Despite the morphology of several Oithona species is well known, knowledge of its internal anatomy and chitin distribution is still limited. To answer this problem, Oithona nana and O. similis individuals were stained by Wheat Germ Agglutinin-Fluorescein IsoThioCyanate (WGA-FITC) and DiAmidino-2-PhenylIndole (DAPI) for fluorescence microscopy observations...
2018: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29780532/towards-a-molecular-understanding-of-cellulose-dissolution-in-ionic-liquids-anion-cation-effect-synergistic-mechanism-and-physicochemical-aspects
#17
REVIEW
Yao Li, Jianji Wang, Xiaomin Liu, Suojiang Zhang
Cellulose is one of the most abundant bio-renewable materials on the earth and its conversion to biofuels provides an appealing way to satisfy the increasing global energy demand. However, before carrying out the process of enzymolysis to glucose or polysaccharides, cellulose needs to be pretreated to overcome its recalcitrance. In recent years, a variety of ionic liquids (ILs) have been found to be effective solvents for cellulose, providing a new, feasible pretreatment strategy. A lot of experimental and computational studies have been carried out to investigate the dissolution mechanism...
May 7, 2018: Chemical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29780530/long-distance-ion-water-interactions-in-aqueous-sulfate-nanodrops-persist-to-ambient-temperatures-in-the-upper-atmosphere
#18
Matthew J DiTucci, Christiane N Stachl, Evan R Williams
The effect of temperature on the patterning of water molecules located remotely from a single SO4 2- ion in aqueous nanodrops was investigated for nanodrops containing between 30 and 55 water molecules using instrument temperatures between 135 and 360 K. Magic number clusters with 24, 36 and 39 water molecules persist at all temperatures. Infrared photodissociation spectroscopy between 3000 and 3800 cm-1 was used to measure the appearance of water molecules that have a free O-H stretch at the nanodroplet surface and to infer information about the hydrogen bonding network of water in the nanodroplet...
April 28, 2018: Chemical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29780460/redox-and-photocatalytic-properties-of-a-ni-ii-complex-with-a-macrocyclic-biquinazoline-mabiq-ligand
#19
Michael Grübel, Irene Bosque, Philipp J Altmann, Thorsten Bach, Corinna R Hess
We present a late, first row transition metal photosensitizer that promotes photocatalytic C-C bond formation. The title compound, [Ni(Mabiq)]OTf, as well as its one-electron reduced form, Ni(Mabiq), were synthesized and molecular structures of both were obtained. The electronic structure of the reduced complex additionally was characterized by spectroscopic and DFT computational methods. Notably, [NiII (Mabiq)]OTf is photoactive: reduction of the compound was achieved photochemically upon irradiation at λ = 457 nm and reductive quenching by NEt3 ...
April 7, 2018: Chemical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29780369/identification-and-removal-of-contaminant-sequences-from-ribosomal-gene-databases-lessons-from-the-census-of-deep-life
#20
Cody S Sheik, Brandi Kiel Reese, Katrina I Twing, Jason B Sylvan, Sharon L Grim, Matthew O Schrenk, Mitchell L Sogin, Frederick S Colwell
Earth's subsurface environment is one of the largest, yet least studied, biomes on Earth, and many questions remain regarding what microorganisms are indigenous to the subsurface. Through the activity of the Census of Deep Life (CoDL) and the Deep Carbon Observatory, an open access 16S ribosomal RNA gene sequence database from diverse subsurface environments has been compiled. However, due to low quantities of biomass in the deep subsurface, the potential for incorporation of contaminants from reagents used during sample collection, processing, and/or sequencing is high...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
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