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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161499/polymerization-of-well-aligned-organic-nanowires-on-a-ferromagnetic-rare-earth-surface-alloy
#1
Mikel Abadía, Maxim Ilyn, Ignacio Piquero-Zulaica, Pierluigi Gargiani, Celia Rogero, Jose Enrique Ortega, Jens Brede
The high reactivity of magnetic substrate toward molecular overlayers has so far inhibited the realization of more sophisticated on-surface reactions thereby depriving these interfaces of a significant class of chemically tailored organics such as graphene nanoribbons, oligonuclear spin-chains, and metal-organic networks. Here, we present a multi-technique characterization of the polymerization of 4,4″-dibromo-p-terphenyl precursors into ordered poly (p-phenylene) arrays on top of the bi-metallic GdAu$_2$ surface alloy...
November 21, 2017: ACS Nano
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161046/heavy-metal-free-tannin-from-bark-for-sustainable-energy-storage
#2
Alolika Mukhopadhyay, Yucong Jiao, Rui Katahira, Peter N Ciesielski, Michael E Himmel, Hongli Zhu
A novel renewable cathode made from earth-abundant, low-cost materials can contribute to the intermittent storage needs of renewable energy based society. Inspired by Nature, we report for the first-time tannin as a cathode material. Our approach exploits the charge storage mechanism of the redox active quinone moiety. Tannins extracted from tree bark using environmental friendly aqueous solvents has the highest phenol content (5.56 mol g-1) among all the natural phenolic biopolymers, 5000 times higher than lignin...
November 21, 2017: Nano Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29160927/climate-change-impacts-on-selected-global-rangeland-ecosystem-services
#3
Randall B Boone, Richard T Conant, Jason Sircely, Philip K Thornton, Mario Herrero
Rangelands are Earth's dominant land cover and are important providers of ecosystem services. Reliance on rangelands is projected to grow, thus understanding the sensitivity of rangelands to future climates is essential. We used a new ecosystem model of moderate complexity that allows, for the first time, to quantify global changes expected in rangelands under future climates. The mean global annual net primary production (NPP) may decline by 10 g C m(-2) yr(-1) in 2050 under Representative Concentration Pathway (RCP) 8...
November 21, 2017: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29160306/discovery-of-a-big-void-in-khufu-s-pyramid-by-observation-of-cosmic-ray-muons
#4
Kunihiro Morishima, Mitsuaki Kuno, Akira Nishio, Nobuko Kitagawa, Yuta Manabe, Masaki Moto, Fumihiko Takasaki, Hirofumi Fujii, Kotaro Satoh, Hideyo Kodama, Kohei Hayashi, Shigeru Odaka, Sébastien Procureur, David Attié, Simon Bouteille, Denis Calvet, Christopher Filosa, Patrick Magnier, Irakli Mandjavidze, Marc Riallot, Benoit Marini, Pierre Gable, Yoshikatsu Date, Makiko Sugiura, Yasser Elshayeb, Tamer Elnady, Mustapha Ezzy, Emmanuel Guerriero, Vincent Steiger, Nicolas Serikoff, Jean-Baptiste Mouret, Bernard Charlès, Hany Helal, Mehdi Tayoubi
The Great Pyramid or Khufu's Pyramid was built on the Giza Plateau (Egypt) during the IV(th) dynasty by the pharaoh Khufu (Cheops), who reigned from 2509 to 2483 BC(1). Despite being one of the oldest and largest monuments on Earth, there is no consensus about how it was built(2,3). To better understand its internal structure, we imaged the pyramid using muons, which are by-products of cosmic rays that are only partially absorbed by stone(4-6). The resulting cosmic-ray muon radiography allows us to visualize the known and potentially unknown voids in the pyramid in a non-invasive way...
November 2, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29159995/multiple-abc-glucoside-transporters-mediate-sugar-stimulated-growth-in-the-heterocyst-forming-cyanobacterium-anabaena-sp-strain-pcc-7120
#5
Mercedes Nieves-Morión, Enrique Flores
Cyanobacteria are generally capable of photoautotrophic growth and are widely distributed on Earth. The model filamentous, heterocyst-forming strain Anabaena sp. PCC 7120 has been long considered a strict photoautotroph but is now known to be able to assimilate fructose. We have previously described two components of ABC glucoside uptake transporters from Anabaena that are involved in uptake of the sucrose analog esculin: GlsC (a nucleotide-binding domain subunit [NBD]) and GlsP (a transmembrane component [TMD])...
November 21, 2017: Environmental Microbiology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29159926/deep-ocean-prokaryotic-communities-are-remarkably-malleable-when-facing-long-term-starvation
#6
Marta Sebastián, Jean-Christophe Auguet, Claudia Ximena Restrepo Ortiz, Maria Montserrat Sala, Celia Marrasé, Josep M Gasol
The bathypelagic ocean is one of the largest ecosystems on Earth, and sustains half of the ocean's microbial activity. This microbial activity strongly relies on surface-derived particles, but there is growing evidence that the carbon released through solubilisation of these particles may not be sufficient to meet the energy demands of deep ocean prokaryotes. To explore how bathypelagic prokaryotes respond to the absence of external inputs of carbon, we followed the long-term (1 yr) dynamics of an enclosed community...
November 21, 2017: Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29159878/arsenobetaine-an-ecophysiologically-important-organoarsenical-confers-cytoprotection-against-osmotic-stress-and-growth-temperature-extremes
#7
Tamara Hoffmann, Bianca Warmbold, Sander H J Smits, Britta Tschapek, Stefanie Ronzheimer, Abdallah Bashir, Chiliang Chen, Anne Rolbetzki, Marco Pittelkow, Mohamed Jebbar, Andreas Seubert, Lutz Schmitt, Erhard Bremer
Arsenic, a highly cytotoxic and cancerogenic metalloid, is brought into the biosphere through geochemical sources and anthropogenic activities. A global biogeochemical arsenic biotransformation cycle exists in which inorganic arsenic species are transformed into organoarsenicals, which are subsequently mineralized again into inorganic arsenic compounds. Microorganisms contribute to this biotransformation process greatly and one of the organoarsenicals synthesized and degraded in this cycle is arsenobetaine...
November 21, 2017: Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29159814/ceres-an-ab-initio-code-dedicated-to-the-calculation-of-the-electronic-structure-and-magnetic-properties-of-lanthanide-complexes
#8
Simone Calvello, Matteo Piccardo, Shashank Vittal Rao, Alessandro Soncini
We have developed and implemented a new ab initio code, Ceres (Computational Emulator of Rare Earth Systems), completely written in C++11, which is dedicated to the efficient calculation of the electronic structure and magnetic properties of the crystal field states arising from the splitting of the ground state spin-orbit multiplet in lanthanide complexes. The new code gains efficiency via an optimized implementation of a direct configurational averaged Hartree-Fock (CAHF) algorithm for the determination of 4f quasi-atomic active orbitals common to all multi-electron spin manifolds contributing to the ground spin-orbit multiplet of the lanthanide ion...
November 20, 2017: Journal of Computational Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29159518/uniaxial-magnetization-performance-of-textured-fe-nanowire-arrays-electrodeposited-by-a-pulsed-potential-deposition-technique
#9
C Neetzel, T Ohgai, T Yanai, M Nakano, H Fukunaga
Textured ferromagnetic Fe nanowire arrays were electrodeposited using a rectangular-pulsed potential deposition technique into anodized aluminum oxide nanochannels. During the electrodeposition of Fe nanowire arrays at a cathodic potential of - 1.2 V, the growth rate of the nanowires was ca. 200 nm s(-1). The aspect ratio of Fe nanowires with a diameter of 30 ± 5 nm reached ca. 2000. The long axis of Fe nanowires corresponded with the <200> direction when a large overpotential during the on-time pulse was applied, whereas it orientated to the <110> direction under the potentiostatic condition with a small overpotential...
November 21, 2017: Nanoscale Research Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29159288/extreme-enrichment-in-atmospheric-15-n-15-n
#10
Laurence Y Yeung, Shuning Li, Issaku E Kohl, Joshua A Haslun, Nathaniel E Ostrom, Huanting Hu, Tobias P Fischer, Edwin A Schauble, Edward D Young
Molecular nitrogen (N2) comprises three-quarters of Earth's atmosphere and significant portions of other planetary atmospheres. We report a 19 per mil (‰) excess of (15)N(15)N in air relative to a random distribution of nitrogen isotopes, an enrichment that is 10 times larger than what isotopic equilibration in the atmosphere allows. Biological experiments show that the main sources and sinks of N2 yield much smaller proportions of (15)N(15)N in N2. Electrical discharge experiments, however, establish (15)N(15)N excesses of up to +23‰...
November 2017: Science Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29158868/prevalence-of-papular-urticaria-caused-by-flea-bites-and-associated-factors-in-children-1-6%C3%A2-years-of-age-in-bogot%C3%A3-d-c
#11
Evelyne Halpert, Elizabeth Borrero, Milciades Ibañez-Pinilla, Pablo Chaparro, Jorge Molina, Maritza Torres, Elizabeth García
Background: Papular urticaria is a chronic inflammatory disease caused by exposure to arthropod bites. The disease has been reported in children attending medical centers, but the causes as the risk factors associated with the disease have not been established. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of papular urticaria caused by flea bite and identify the risk factors in children between 1 to 6 years of age in Bogotá D.C, between March 2009 and June 2011. Methods: A cross-sectional, two-stage, clustered study using random probability sampling and stratified with proportional allocation was carried out in children (1-6 years of age) in educational institutions in Bogotá D...
2017: World Allergy Organization Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29157202/target-proteins-reprogrammed-by-as-and-as%C3%A2-%C3%A2-si-treatments-in-solanum-lycopersicum-l-fruit
#12
Marta Marmiroli, Francesca Mussi, Davide Imperiale, Nelson Marmiroli
BACKGROUND: Arsenic is an important contaminant of many arable soils worldwide, while silicon, one of the most abundant elements in the earth's crust, interacts with As in the context of plant metabolism. As toxicity results largely from its stimulation of reactive oxygen species, and it is believed that Si can mitigate this process through reduction of the level of oxidative stress. Experiments targeting the proteomic impact of exposure to As and Si have to date largely focused on analyses of root, shoot and seed of a range of mainly non-solanaceous species, thus it remains unclear whether oxidative stress is the most important manifestation of As toxicity in Solanum lycopersicum fruit which during ripening go through drastic physiological and molecular readjustments...
November 21, 2017: BMC Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156444/survival-of-microbes-in-earth-s-stratosphere
#13
REVIEW
Priya DasSarma, Shiladitya DasSarma
The remarkable survival of microorganisms high above the surface of the Earth is of increasing interest. At stratospheric levels, multiple stressors including ultraviolet and ionizing radiation, low temperatures, hypobaric conditions, extreme desiccation, and nutrient scarcity are all significant challenges. Our understanding of which microorganisms are capable of tolerating such stressful conditions has been addressed by stratospheric sample collection and survival assays, through launching and recovery, and exposure to simulated conditions in the laboratory...
November 17, 2017: Current Opinion in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156339/silicification-process-in-diatom-algae-using-different-silicon-chemical-sources-colloidal-silicic-acid-interactions-at-cell-surface
#14
Silvia Casabianca, Antonella Penna, Samuela Capellacci, Michela Cangiotti, Maria Francesca Ottaviani
The silicon transport and use inside cells are key processes for understanding how diatoms metabolize this element in the silica biogenic cycle in the ocean. A spin-probe electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) study over time helped to investigate the interacting properties and the internalization mechanisms of silicic acid from different silicon sources into the cells. Diatom cells were grown in media containing biogenic amorphous substrates, such as diatomaceous earth and sponge spicules, and crystalline sodium metasilicate...
November 14, 2017: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155770/determination-of-thermodynamic-properties-of-alkaline-earth-liquid-metal-alloys-using-the-electromotive-force-technique
#15
Thomas P Nigl, Nathan D Smith, Timothy Lichtenstein, Jarrod Gesualdi, Kuldeep Kumar, Hojong Kim
A novel electrochemical cell based on a CaF2 solid-state electrolyte has been developed to measure the electromotive force (emf) of binary alkaline earth-liquid metal alloys as functions of both composition and temperature in order to acquire thermodynamic data. The cell consists of a chemically stable solid-state CaF2-AF2 electrolyte (where A is the alkaline-earth element such as Ca, Sr, or Ba), with binary A-B alloy (where B is the liquid metal such as Bi or Sb) working electrodes, and a pure A metal reference electrode...
November 3, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155374/testing-the-waters-from-moringa-seeds-to-fruit-peels-researchers-are-seeking-out-new-ways-to-clean-up-the-world-s-drinking-water
#16
Wudan Yan
Water on Earth-in our oceans, rivers, lakes, and wetlands-might seem plentiful, but water that is clean and safe enough to drink actually isn't so abundant. Nearly one in ten people still lacks access to safe water worldwide, according to the World Health Organization. In some of the world's most remote and impoverished communities, people live with no taps, showers, flushing toilets, or nearby springs, making it difficult to keep water supplies safe from bacteria, chemicals, and particulates. Moreover, access to clean drinking water isn't just a problem in the developing world; groundwater in developed countries is typically used far more quickly than it is being replenished...
November 2017: IEEE Pulse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154175/improving-human-health-outcomes-with-a-low-cost-intervention-to-reduce-exposures-from-lead-acid-battery-recycling-dong-mai-vietnam
#17
Bret Ericson, Thi To Duong, John Keith, Trong Cuu Nguyen, Deborah Havens, William Daniell, Catherine J Karr, Doan Ngoc Hai, Lo Van Tung, Tran Thi Nhi Ha, Brian Wilson, David Hanrahan, Gerry Croteau, Mark Patrick Taylor
This study details the first comprehensive evaluation of the efficacy of a soil lead mitigation project in Dong Mai village, Vietnam. The village's population had been subject to severe lead poisoning for at least a decade as a result of informal Used Lead Acid Battery (ULAB) recycling. Between July 2013 to February 2015, Pure Earth and the Centre for Environment and Community Development (Hanoi, Vietnam) implemented a multi-faceted environmental and human health intervention. The intervention consisted of a series of institutional and low-cost engineering controls including the capping of lead contaminated surface soils, cleaning of home interiors, an education campaign and the construction of a work-clothes changing and bathing facility...
November 15, 2017: Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154116/lanthanum-toxicity-to-five-different-species-of-soil-invertebrates-in-relation-to-availability-in-soil
#18
Jinxia Li, Rudo A Verweij, Cornelis A M van Gestel
This study determined the toxicity of lanthanum, one of the most commonly used rare earth elements (REEs), to five representative soil invertebrates after 3-4 weeks exposure. Toxicity was related to total, 0.01 M CaCl2-extractable and porewater concentrations in the standard LUFA 2.2 soil, and for earthworms also to body concentrations. La sorption to LUFA 2.2 soil, estimated by relating total soil concentrations to CaCl2-extractable or porewater concentrations seemed to reach saturation at >1000 mg La/kg dry soil...
November 10, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29153904/comparison-of-cellulose-vs-plastic-cigarette-filter-decomposition-under-distinct-disposal-environments
#19
François-Xavier Joly, Mathieu Coulis
It is estimated that 4.5 trillion cigarette butts are discarded annually, making them numerically the most common type of litter on Earth. To accelerate their disappearance after disposal, a new type of cigarette filters made of cellulose, a readily biodegradable compound, has been introduced in the market. Yet, the advantage of these cellulose filters over the conventional plastic ones (cellulose acetate) for decomposition, remains unknown. Here, we compared the decomposition of cellulose and plastic cigarettes filters, either intact or smoked, on the soil surface or within a composting bin over a six-month field decomposition experiment...
November 15, 2017: Waste Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29152609/matricial-wasserstein-1-distance
#20
Yongxin Chen, Tryphon T Georgiou, Lipeng Ning, Allen Tannenbaum
We propose an extension of the Wasserstein 1-metric (W1) for density matrices, matrix-valued density measures, and an unbalanced interpretation of mass transport. We use duality theory and, in particular, a "dual of the dual" formulation of W1. This matrix analogue of the Earth Mover's Distance has several attractive features including ease of computation.
July 2017: IEEE Control Syst Lett
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