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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915151/earth-strength-magnetic-field-affects-the-rheotactic-threshold-of-zebrafish-swimming-in-shoals
#1
Alessandro Cresci, Rosario De Rosa, Nathan F Putman, Claudio Agnisola
Rheotaxis, the unconditioned orienting response to water currents, is a main component of fish behaviour. Rheotaxis is achieved using multiple sensory systems, including visual and tactile cues. Rheotactic orientation in open or low-visibility waters might also benefit from the stable frame of reference provided by the geomagnetic field, but this possibility has not been explored before. Zebrafish (Danio rerio) form shoals living in freshwater systems with low visibility, show a robust positive rheotaxis, and respond to geomagnetic fields...
November 30, 2016: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part A, Molecular & Integrative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914216/synthesis-and-luminescence-characterization-of-y2-bazno5-re-re%C3%A2-%C3%A2-eu-3-tb-3-pr-3-and-sm-3-phosphors
#2
D R Taikar, C P Joshi, S V Moharil
Modified synthesis and luminescence of Y2 BaZnO5 phosphors activated with the rare earths (RE) Eu(3)(+) , Tb(3)(+) , Pr(3)(+) and Sm(3)(+) are reported. RE2 BaZnO5 phosphors have attracted attention because of their interesting magnetic and optical properties; and are usually prepared using a two-step solid-state reaction. In the first step, carbonates or similar precursors are thoroughly mixed and heated at 900°C to decompose them to oxides. To eliminate the unwanted phases like BaRE2 O4 , the resulting powders are reheated at 1100°C for a long time...
December 2, 2016: Luminescence: the Journal of Biological and Chemical Luminescence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914179/ammonothermal-synthesis-of-novel-nitrides-case-study-on-cagasin3
#3
Jonas Häusler, Lukas Neudert, Mathias Mallmann, Robin Niklaus, Anna-Carina L Kimmel, Nicolas S A Alt, Eberhard Schlücker, Oliver Oeckler, Wolfgang Schnick
The first gallium-containing nitridosilicate CaGaSiN3 was synthesized in newly developed high-pressure autoclaves using supercritical ammonia as solvent and nitriding agent. The reaction was conducted in ammonobasic environment starting from intermetallic CaGaSi with NaN3 as mineralizer. At 770 K, intermediate compounds were obtained, which were subsequently converted to the crystalline nitride at temperatures up to 1070 K (70 - 150 MPa). The impact of other mineralizers (e. g. LiN3, KN3 and CsN3) on the product formation was investigated as well...
December 3, 2016: Chemistry: a European Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911783/deglacial-temperature-history-of-west-antarctica
#4
Kurt M Cuffey, Gary D Clow, Eric J Steig, Christo Buizert, T J Fudge, Michelle Koutnik, Edwin D Waddington, Richard B Alley, Jeffrey P Severinghaus
The most recent glacial to interglacial transition constitutes a remarkable natural experiment for learning how Earth's climate responds to various forcings, including a rise in atmospheric CO2 This transition has left a direct thermal remnant in the polar ice sheets, where the exceptional purity and continual accumulation of ice permit analyses not possible in other settings. For Antarctica, the deglacial warming has previously been constrained only by the water isotopic composition in ice cores, without an absolute thermometric assessment of the isotopes' sensitivity to temperature...
November 28, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911552/relativistic-electrons-produced-by-foreshock-disturbances-observed-upstream-of-earth-s-bow-shock
#5
L B Wilson, D G Sibeck, D L Turner, A Osmane, D Caprioli, V Angelopoulos
Charged particles can be reflected and accelerated by strong (i.e., high Mach number) astrophysical collisionless shock waves, streaming away to form a foreshock region in communication with the shock. Foreshocks are primarily populated by suprathermal ions that can generate foreshock disturbances-large-scale (i.e., tens to thousands of thermal ion Larmor radii), transient (∼5-10  per day) structures. They have recently been found to accelerate ions to energies of several keV. Although electrons in Saturn's high Mach number (M>40) bow shock can be accelerated to relativistic energies (nearly 1000 keV), it has hitherto been thought impossible to accelerate electrons beyond a few tens of keV at Earth's low Mach number (1≤M<20) bow shock...
November 18, 2016: Physical Review Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911473/enhancement-of-upconverted-fluorescence-by-interference-layers
#6
Janina Wirth, Kory K Green, Megan O'Connor, Shuang F Lim
Upconverting nanoparticles show potential applications in the field of photovoltaics and array-based detection devices. While fluorescence enhancement using interference of incident radiation is well known in Stokes-shift type systems such as fluorescent dyes; the effect of such interference geometry in nonlinear Anti-Stokes type emission, such as in upconversion rare earth photophysics is demonstrated for the first time. This work describes in detail the influence of the interference modulation on both the excitation (interion energy transfer) and radiative decay with nonradiative decay processes active between emissive levels...
December 2, 2016: Small
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910968/designing-hierarchical-hollow-nanostructures-of-cu2mos4-for-improved-hydrogen-evolution-reaction
#7
Ke Zhang, Yongli Zheng, Yunxiang Lin, Changda Wang, Hengjie Liu, Daobin Liu, Chuanqiang Wu, Shuangming Chen, Yanxia Chen, Li Song
Layered Cu2MoS4, consisting of earth-abundant elements, is regarded as a potential catalyst for the hydrogen evolution reaction (HER). Herein, we demonstrate a Cu2O-based template strategy to synthesise hierarchical hollow nanostructures of Cu2MoS4. The characterizations reveal that the electrochemically active surface of the hollow Cu2MoS4 is largely enhanced, in contrast to the nanosheet or nanoparticle structures. As the direct outcome, the designed hierarchical hollow structures display excellent HER activities with a low overvoltage and small Tafel slope...
December 2, 2016: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910849/hydroxyl-radical-induced-formation-of-highly-oxidized-organic-compounds
#8
Torsten Berndt, Stefanie Richters, Tuija Jokinen, Noora Hyttinen, Theo Kurtén, Rasmus V Otkjær, Henrik G Kjaergaard, Frank Stratmann, Hartmut Herrmann, Mikko Sipilä, Markku Kulmala, Mikael Ehn
Explaining the formation of secondary organic aerosol is an intriguing question in atmospheric sciences because of its importance for Earth's radiation budget and the associated effects on health and ecosystems. A breakthrough was recently achieved in the understanding of secondary organic aerosol formation from ozone reactions of biogenic emissions by the rapid formation of highly oxidized multifunctional organic compounds via autoxidation. However, the important daytime hydroxyl radical reactions have been considered to be less important in this process...
December 2, 2016: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910841/incommensurate-density-modulation-in-a-na-rich-plagioclase-feldspar-z-contrast-imaging-and-single-crystal-x-ray-diffraction-study
#9
Huifang Xu, Shiyun Jin, Bruce C Noll
Plagioclase feldspars are the most abundant mineral in the Earth's crust. Intermediate plagioclase feldspars commonly display incommensurately modulated or aperiodic structures. Z-contrast images show both Ca-Na ordering and density modulation. The local structure of lamellae domains has I1-like symmetry. The neighboring lamellae domains are in an inversion twinning relationship. With a state-of-the-art X-ray diffraction unit, second-order satellite reflections (f-reflections) are observed for the first time in andesine (An45), a Na-rich e-plagioclase...
December 1, 2016: Acta Crystallographica Section B, Structural Science, Crystal Engineering and Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910832/vacancy-pairing-and-superstructure-in-the-high-pressure-silicate-k1-5mg2si2o7h0-5-a-new-potential-host-for-potassium-in-the-deep-earth
#10
M D Welch, L Bindi, V Petříček, J Plášil
The high-pressure silicate K1.5Mg2Si2O7H0.5, synthesized and characterized by Welch et al. [(2012), Am. Mineral. 97, 1849-1857], has been re-examined with the aim of determining the nature of the superstructure noted in their study. The composition corresponds to a 1:1 combination of KMg2Si2O7H and K2Mg2Si2O7 end-members, but it is not a solid solution. Single-crystal X-ray diffraction data for one of the original K1.5Mg2Si2O7H0.5 crystals synthesized at 16 GPa/1573 K, has been collected using a much longer exposure time in order to improve the intensity statistics of weak superlattice reflections identified by Welch et al...
December 1, 2016: Acta Crystallographica Section B, Structural Science, Crystal Engineering and Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910446/self-calibration-method-of-the-bias-of-a-space-electrostatic-accelerometer
#11
Shao-Bo Qu, Xiao-Mei Xia, Yan-Zheng Bai, Shu-Chao Wu, Ze-Bing Zhou
The high precision space electrostatic accelerometer is an instrument to measure the non-gravitational forces acting on a spacecraft. It is one of the key payloads for satellite gravity measurements and space fundamental physics experiments. The measurement error of the accelerometer directly affects the precision of gravity field recovery for the earth. This paper analyzes the sources of the bias according to the operating principle and structural constitution of the space electrostatic accelerometer. Models of bias due to the asymmetry of the displacement sensing system, including the mechanical sensor head and the capacitance sensing circuit, and the asymmetry of the feedback control actuator circuit are described separately...
November 2016: Review of Scientific Instruments
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909353/gas-phase-detection-of-solid-state-fission-product-complexes-for-post-detonation-nuclear-forensic-analysis
#12
S Adam Stratz, Steven A Jones, Colton J Oldham, Austin D Mullen, Ashlyn V Jones, John D Auxier, Howard L Hall
This study presents the first known detection of fission products commonly found in post-detonation nuclear debris samples using solid sample introduction and a uniquely coupled gas chromatography inductively-coupled plasma time-of-flight mass spectrometer. Rare earth oxides were chemically altered to incorporate a ligand that enhances the volatility of the samples. These samples were injected (as solids) into the aforementioned instrument and detected for the first time. Repeatable results indicate the validity of the methodology, and this capability, when refined, will prove to be a valuable asset for rapid post-detonation nuclear forensic analysis...
2016: Journal of Radioanalytical and Nuclear Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909212/black-carbon-emission-reduction-strategies-in-healthcare-industry-for-effective-global-climate-change-management
#13
Emilia Mmbando Raila, David O Anderson
Climate change remains one of the biggest threats to life on earth to date with black carbon (BC) emissions or smoke being the strongest cause after carbon dioxide (CO2). Surprisingly, scientific evidence about black carbon emissions reduction in healthcare settings is sparse. This paper presents new research findings on the reduction of black carbon emissions from an observational study conducted at the UN Peacekeeping Operations (MINUSTAH) in Haiti in 2014. Researchers observed 20 incineration cycles, 30 minutes for each cycle of plastic and cardboard sharps healthcare waste (HCW) containers ranged from 3 to 14...
November 30, 2016: Waste Management & Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906039/peering-below-the-diffraction-limit-robust-and-specific-sorting-of-viruses-with-flow-cytometry
#14
Shea T Lance, David J Sukovich, Kenneth M Stedman, Adam R Abate
BACKGROUND: Viruses are incredibly diverse organisms and impact all forms of life on Earth; however, individual virions are challenging to study due to their small size and mass, precluding almost all direct imaging or molecular analysis. Moreover, like microbes, the overwhelming majority of viruses cannot be cultured, impeding isolation, replication, and study of interesting new species. Here, we introduce PCR-activated virus sorting, a method to isolate specific viruses from a heterogeneous population...
December 1, 2016: Virology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905827/modeling-pn2-through-geological-time-implications-for-planetary-climates-and-atmospheric-biosignatures
#15
E E Stüeken, M A Kipp, M C Koehler, E W Schwieterman, B Johnson, R Buick
Nitrogen is a major nutrient for all life on Earth and could plausibly play a similar role in extraterrestrial biospheres. The major reservoir of nitrogen at Earth's surface is atmospheric N2, but recent studies have proposed that the size of this reservoir may have fluctuated significantly over the course of Earth's history with particularly low levels in the Neoarchean-presumably as a result of biological activity. We used a biogeochemical box model to test which conditions are necessary to cause large swings in atmospheric N2 pressure...
December 1, 2016: Astrobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905534/pore-scale-dynamics-of-enzyme-adsorption-swelling-and-reactive-dissolution-determine-sugar-yield-in-hemicellulose-hydrolysis-for-biofuel-production
#16
Sajal Kanti Dutta, Saikat Chakraborty
Hemicelluloses are the earth's second most abundant structural polymers, found in lignocellulosic biomass. Efficient enzymatic depolymerization of xylans by cleaving their β-(1 → 4)-glycosidic bonds to produce soluble sugars is instrumental to the cost-effective production of liquid biofuels. Here we show that the multi-scale two-phase process of enzymatic hydrolysis of amorphous hemicelluloses is dominated by its smallest scale-the pores. In the crucial first five hours, two to fourfold swelling of the xylan particles allow the enzymes to enter the pores and undergo rapid non-equilibrium adsorption on the pore surface before they hydrolyze the solid polymers, albeit non-competitively inhibited by the products xylose and xylobiose...
December 1, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905453/speedy-antarctic-drills-start-hunt-for-earth-s-oldest-ice
#17
Quirin Schiermeier
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 29, 2016: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905442/quantifying-global-soil-carbon-losses-in-response-to-warming
#18
T W Crowther, K E O Todd-Brown, C W Rowe, W R Wieder, J C Carey, M B Machmuller, B L Snoek, S Fang, G Zhou, S D Allison, J M Blair, S D Bridgham, A J Burton, Y Carrillo, P B Reich, J S Clark, A T Classen, F A Dijkstra, B Elberling, B A Emmett, M Estiarte, S D Frey, J Guo, J Harte, L Jiang, B R Johnson, G Kröel-Dulay, K S Larsen, H Laudon, J M Lavallee, Y Luo, M Lupascu, L N Ma, S Marhan, A Michelsen, J Mohan, S Niu, E Pendall, J Peñuelas, L Pfeifer-Meister, C Poll, S Reinsch, L L Reynolds, I K Schmidt, S Sistla, N W Sokol, P H Templer, K K Treseder, J M Welker, M A Bradford
The majority of the Earth's terrestrial carbon is stored in the soil. If anthropogenic warming stimulates the loss of this carbon to the atmosphere, it could drive further planetary warming. Despite evidence that warming enhances carbon fluxes to and from the soil, the net global balance between these responses remains uncertain. Here we present a comprehensive analysis of warming-induced changes in soil carbon stocks by assembling data from 49 field experiments located across North America, Europe and Asia...
November 30, 2016: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905411/the-rapid-formation-of-sputnik-planitia-early-in-pluto-s-history
#19
Douglas P Hamilton, S A Stern, J M Moore, L A Young
Pluto's Sputnik Planitia is a bright, roughly circular feature that resembles a polar ice cap. It is approximately 1,000 kilometres across and is centred on a latitude of 25 degrees north and a longitude of 175 degrees, almost directly opposite the side of Pluto that always faces Charon as a result of tidal locking. One explanation for its location includes the formation of a basin in a giant impact, with subsequent upwelling of a dense interior ocean. Once the basin was established, ice would naturally have accumulated there...
November 30, 2016: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905276/salting-the-earth-the-environmental-impact-of-oil-and-gas-wastewater-spills
#20
Lindsey Konkel
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 1, 2016: Environmental Health Perspectives
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