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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938083/how-many-species-of-insects-and-other-terrestrial-arthropods-are-there-on-earth
#1
Nigel E Stork
In the last decade, new methods of estimating global species richness have been developed and existing ones improved through the use of more appropriate statistical tools and new data. Taking the mean of most of these new estimates indicates that globally there are approximately 1.5 million, 5.5 million, and 7 million species of beetles, insects, and terrestrial arthropods, respectively. Previous estimates of 30 million species or more based on the host specificity of insects to plants now seem extremely unlikely...
September 22, 2017: Annual Review of Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28937751/high-precision-simultaneous-18-o-16-o-13-c-12-c-and-17-o-16-o-analyses-for-%C3%A2%C2%B5g-quantities-of-caco3-by-tunable-infrared-laser-absorption-spectroscopy
#2
Saburo Sakai, Shinichi Matsuda, Toshihide Hikida, Akio Shimono, Barry J McManus, Mark S Zahniser, David D Nelson, David Dettman, Danzhou Yang, Naohiko Ohkouchi
Stable isotope ratios ((18)O/(16)O, (13)C/(12)C and (17)O/(16)O) in carbonates have contributed greatly to understanding of Earth and planetary systems, climates, and history. Current methods for measuring isotopologues of CO2 derived from CaCO3 are primarily gas-source isotope ratio mass spectroscopy (IRMS). However, IRMS has drawbacks, such as mass overlap by multiple CO2 isotopologues and contaminants, the requirement of careful sample purification, and use of major instrumentation needing permanent installation and a high power electrical supply...
September 22, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28936507/a-pyrene-modified-cobalt-salophen-complex-immobilized-on-multiwalled-carbon-nanotubes-acting-as-a-precursor-for-efficient-electrocatalytic-water-oxidation
#3
Ting-Ting Li, Jinjie Qian, Qianqian Zhou, Jian-Li Lin, Yue-Qing Zheng
Immobilization of earth-abundant water oxidation catalysts (WOCs) on carbon supports to produce functional electrodes for electrochemical water splitting is a crucial approach for future clean energy production. Herein we report the non-covalent immobilization of a pyrene-bearing cobalt(ii) Schiff base complex (2) on the surface of multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) to form a hybrid anode for electrocatalytic water oxidation. The 2/MWCNT anode displayed excellent catalytic activity and durability in neutral aqueous solution, and a catalytic current density of 1...
September 22, 2017: Dalton Transactions: An International Journal of Inorganic Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28936277/self-limiting-adsorption-of-wo3-oligomers-on-oxide-substrates-in-solution
#4
Matthias Müllner, Jan Balajka, Michael Schmid, Ulrike Diebold, Stijn F L Mertens
Electrochemical surface science of oxides is an emerging field with expected high impact in developing, for instance, rationally designed catalysts. The aim in such catalysts is to replace noble metals by earth-abundant elements, yet without sacrificing activity. Gaining an atomic-level understanding of such systems hinges on the use of experimental surface characterization techniques such as scanning tunneling microscopy (STM), in which tungsten tips have been the most widely used probes, both in vacuum and under electrochemical conditions...
September 14, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry. C, Nanomaterials and Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28935863/archaean-and-proterozoic-diamond-growth-from-contrasting-styles-of-large-scale-magmatism
#5
Janne M Koornneef, Michael U Gress, Ingrid L Chinn, Hielke A Jelsma, Jeff W Harris, Gareth R Davies
Precise dating of diamond growth is required to understand the interior workings of the early Earth and the deep carbon cycle. Here we report Sm-Nd isotope data from 26 individual garnet inclusions from 26 harzburgitic diamonds from Venetia, South Africa. Garnet inclusions and host diamonds comprise two compositional suites formed under markedly different conditions and define two isochrons, one Archaean (2.95 Ga) and one Proterozoic (1.15 Ga). The Archaean diamond suite formed from relatively cool fluid-dominated metasomatism during rifting of the southern shelf of the Zimbabwe Craton...
September 21, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28935801/titanium-isotopic-evidence-for-felsic-crust-and-plate-tectonics-3-5-billion-years-ago
#6
Nicolas D Greber, Nicolas Dauphas, Andrey Bekker, Matouš P Ptáček, Ilya N Bindeman, Axel Hofmann
Earth exhibits a dichotomy in elevation and chemical composition between the continents and ocean floor. Reconstructing when this dichotomy arose is important for understanding when plate tectonics started and how the supply of nutrients to the oceans changed through time. We measured the titanium isotopic composition of shales to constrain the chemical composition of the continental crust exposed to weathering and found that shales of all ages have a uniform isotopic composition. This can only be explained if the emerged crust was predominantly felsic (silica-rich) since 3...
September 22, 2017: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934701/hydrothermal-synthesis-of-4zno%C3%A2-b2o3%C3%A2-h2o-ln-3-ln-eu-tb-phosphors-morphology-tunable-and-luminescence-properties
#7
Shiwei Cao, Yang Jiao, Weifang Han, Chunhua Ge, Bo Song, Jie Wang, Xiangdong Zhang
4ZnO·B2O3·H2O:Ln(3+) (Ln=Eu, Tb) phosphors with different morphologies have been successfully synthesized via one-step hydrothermal method through regulating the molar amount of Eu(3+) and Tb(3+). Comprehensive scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) Fourier transform infrared spectrum (FT-IR) and inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometer (ICP-AES) characterizations all confirm that obtained products are 4ZnO·B2O3·H2O:Ln(3+) (Ln=Eu, Tb). The experimental results displayed that the morphology and photoluminescence of compounds is regularly changed with increased the molar amount of rare earth ions...
September 18, 2017: Spectrochimica Acta. Part A, Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933685/adsorption-of-re-3-from-aqueous-solutions-by-bayberry-tannin-immobilized-on-chitosan
#8
Xianying Qiu, Yueyue Shen, Ruilin Yang, Hongcheng Zhang, Shilin Zhao
Bayberry tannin immobilized on chitosan (CS-BT) was successfully prepared, and its adsorption performance was studied for aqueous solutions of rare earth ions. The as-prepared absorbents were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectrometry and scanning electron microscopy. The equilibrium adsorption capacity was achieved in approximately 30 min. The adsorption process of CS-BT for Nd(3+) ion was well fitted with a Freundlich model. Sorption of Nd(3+) onto CS-BT could be well described by the pseudo second-order kinetics...
September 21, 2017: Environmental Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933129/-analysis-of-color-regulation-of-fluoritum-in-chinese-pharmacopoeia-based-on-the-coloration-mechanism-of-fluorite
#9
Ting Han, Zhe Jia, Hui Zhang, Huan Liu, Yan Gao, Ying Zhang, Qing-Hua Lin, Shu-Ya Xu, Xin-Fang Xu, Xiang-Ri Li
The fluoritum is used for gynecology frequently and it's for those diseases: kidney yang deficiency, Gong cold sterility, palpitation due to fright, insomnia and dreaminess and cold cough. It's ruled in Chinese Pharmacopoeia (1985 edition) that the fluoritum originates from fluorite which belongs to fluoride minerals. Its main content is CaF2. The colors are of differents grades with purple or green. In the market, there are large differences in quality and it has various colors. Besides of the ruled color of purple and green, white and yellow are also common colors...
December 2016: Zhongguo Zhong Yao za Zhi, Zhongguo Zhongyao Zazhi, China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28932233/three-key-sub-leaf-modules-and-the-diversity-of-leaf-designs
#10
Le Li, Zeqing Ma, Ülo Niinemets, Dali Guo
Earth harbors a highly diverse array of plant leaf forms. A well-known pattern linking diverse leaf forms with their photosynthetic function across species is the global leaf economics spectrum (LES). However, within homogeneous plant functional groups such as tropical woody angiosperms or temperate deciduous woody angiosperms, many species can share a similar position in the LES but differ in other vital leaf traits, and thus function differently under the given suite of environmental drivers. How diverse leaves differentiate from each other has yet to be fully explained...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931912/growth-of-epitaxial-znsnxge1-xn2-alloys-by-mbe
#11
Amanda M Shing, Yulia Tolstova, Nathan S Lewis, Harry A Atwater
ZnSnxGe1-xN2 alloys are chemically miscible semiconductor compounds with potential application as earth-abundant alternatives to InxGa1-xN. Preparation of ZnSnxGe1-xN2 thin-films by reactive RF sputter deposition yield low-mobility, nanocrystalline films. In contrast, the growth of ZnSnxGe1-xN2 films by molecular-beam epitaxy (MBE) on c-plane sapphire and GaN templates is described herein. Epitaxial films exhibited 3D growth on sapphire and 2D single-crystal quality on GaN, exhibiting substantial improvements in epitaxy and crystallinity relative to nanocrystalline sputtered films...
September 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931159/isolation-and-molecular-characterization-of-the-transformer-gene-from-bactrocera-cucurbitae-diptera-tephritidae
#12
Ya Luo, Santao Zhao, Jiahui Li, Peizheng Li, Rihui Yan
transformer (tra) is a switch gene of sex determination in many insects, particularly in Dipterans. However, the sex determination pathway in Bactrocera cucurbitae (Coquillett), a very destructive pest on earth, remains largely uncharacterized. In this study, we have isolated and characterized one female-specific and two male-specific transcripts of the tra gene (Bcutra) of B. cucurbitae. The genomic structure of Bcutra has been determined and the presence of multiple conserved Transformer (TRA)/TRA-2 binding sites in Bcutra has been found...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Insect Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930693/managing-military-training-related-environmental-disturbance
#13
Rick Zentelis, Sam Banks, J Dale Roberts, Stephen Dovers, David Lindenmayer
Military Training Areas (MTAs) cover at least 2 percent of the Earth's terrestrial surface and occur in all major biomes. These areas are potentially important for biodiversity conservation. The greatest challenge in managing MTAs is balancing the disturbance associated with military training and environmental values. These challenges are unique as no other land use is managed for these types of anthropogenic disturbances in a natural setting. We investigated how military training-related disturbance is best managed on MTAs...
September 17, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930298/comparison-of-questionnaire-based-estimation-of-pesticide-residue-intake-from-fruits-and-vegetables-with-urinary-concentrations-of-pesticide-biomarkers
#14
Yu-Han Chiu, Paige L Williams, Lidia Mínguez-Alarcón, Matthew Gillman, Qi Sun, Maria Ospina, Antonia M Calafat, Russ Hauser, Jorge E Chavarro
We developed a pesticide residue burden score (PRBS) based on a food frequency questionnaire and surveillance data on food pesticide residues to characterize dietary exposure over the past year. In the present study, we evaluated the association of the PRBS with urinary concentrations of pesticide biomarkers. Fruit and vegetable (FV) intake was classified as having high (PRBS≥4) or low (PRBS<4) pesticide residues for 90 men from the EARTH study. Two urine samples per man were analyzed for seven biomarkers of organophosphate and pyrethroid insecticides, and the herbicide 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid...
September 20, 2017: Journal of Exposure Science & Environmental Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28929827/food-and-starvation-is-earth-able-to-feed-its-growing-population
#15
Khaled Moustafa, Joanna Cross, Seif Gasim
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 20, 2017: International Journal of Food Sciences and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28929752/speciation-and-sources-of-brown-carbon-in-precipitation-at-seoul-korea-insights-from-excitation-emission-matrix-spectroscopy-and-carbon-isotopic-analysis
#16
Ge Yan, Guebuem Kim
Brown carbon (BrC) plays a significant role in the Earth's radiative balance, yet its sources and chemical composition remain poorly understood. In this work, we investigated BrC in the atmospheric environment of Seoul by characterizing dissolved organic matter in precipitation using excitation-emission matrix (EEM) fluorescence spectroscopy coupled with parallel factor analysis (PARAFAC). The two independent fluorescent components identified by PARAFAC were attributed to humic-like substance (HULIS) and biologically-derived material based on their significant correlations with measured HULIS isolated using solid-phase extraction and total hydrolyzable tyrosine...
September 20, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28929745/stabilization-of-polyoxometalate-water-oxidation-catalysts-on-hematite-by-atomic-layer-deposition
#17
Sarah M Lauinger, Brandon Deane Piercy, Wei Li, Qiushi Yin, Daniel Lynn Collins-Wildman, Elliot N Glass, Mark D Losego, Dunwei Wang, Yurii V Geletii, Craig L Hill
Fast and earth-abundant-element polyoxometalates (POMs) have been heavily studied recently as water oxidation catalysts (WOCs) in homogeneous solution. However, POM WOCs can be quite unstable when supported on electrode or photoelectrode surfaces under applied potential. This article reports for the first time that a nanoscale oxide coating (Al2O3) applied by atomic layer deposition (ALD) aids immobilization and greatly stabilizes this now large family of molecular WOCs when on electrode surfaces. In this study, [{RuIV4(OH)2(H2O)4}(γ-SiW10O34)2]10- (Ru4Si2) is supported on hematite photoelectrodes, then protected by ALD Al2O3, and this ternary system was characterized before and after photoelectrocatalytic water oxidation by FTIR, XPS, EDX and voltammetry...
September 20, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28929548/an-fe-iii-aza-macrocyclic-complex-as-ph-tunable-catholyte-and-anolyte-for-redox-flow-battery-applications
#18
Pavel B Tsitovich, Anjula M Kosswattaarachchi, Matthew R Crawley, Timothy Y Tittiris, Timoth R Cook, Janet Ruth Morrow
A reversible Fe3+/Fe2+ redox couple of an aza-macrocyclic complex is evaluated as an electrolyte with a pH-tunable potential range for aqueous redox-flow batteries (RFBs). The Fe(III) complex is formed by 1,4,7-triazacyclononane (TACN) appended with three 2-methyl-imidazole donors, denoted as Fe(Tim). This complex exhibits pH-sensitive redox couples that span E1/2(Fe3+/Fe2+)=317 to -270 mV vs. NHE at pH 3.3 and pH 12.8, respectively. The 590 mV shift in potential and kinetic inertness are driven by ionization of the imidazoles at various pH values...
September 19, 2017: Chemistry: a European Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928466/magnetic-field-effect-in-natural-cryptochrome-explored-with-model-compound
#19
Shubhajit Paul, Alexey S Kiryutin, Jinping Guo, Konstantin L Ivanov, Jörg Matysik, Alexandra V Yurkovskaya, Xiaojie Wang
Many animals sense the Earth's magnetic-field and use it for navigation. It is proposed that a light-dependent quantum effect in cryptochrome proteins, residing in the retina, allows for such an iron-free spin-chemical compass. The photochemical processes, spin-dynamics and its magnetic field dependence in natural cryptochrome are not fully understood by the in vivo and in vitro studies. For a deeper insight into these biophysical mechanisms in cryptochrome, we had introduced a flavin-tryptophan dyad (F10T)...
September 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926792/u-isotopes-distribution-in-the-lower-rhone-river-and-its-implication-on-radionuclides-disequilibrium-within-the-decay-series
#20
REVIEW
Mathilde Zebracki, Xavier Cagnat, Stéphanie Gairoard, Nicolas Cariou, Frédérique Eyrolle-Boyer, Béatrice Boulet, Christelle Antonelli
The large rivers are main pathways for the delivery of suspended sediments into coastal environments, affecting the biogeochemical fluxes and the ecosystem functioning. The radionuclides from (238)U and (232)Th-series can be used to understand the dynamic processes affecting both catchment soil erosion and sediment delivery to oceans. Based on annual water discharge the Rhone River represents the largest river of the Mediterranean Sea. The Rhone valley also represents the largest concentration in nuclear power plants in Europe...
September 16, 2017: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
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