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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906176/epigenetic-programming-of-dnmt3a-mediated-by-ap2%C3%AE-is-required-for-granting-preadipocyte-the-ability-to-differentiate
#1
Wei Guo, Jiangnan Chen, Ying Yang, Jianbei Zhu, Jiarui Wu
Adipogenesis has an important role in regulating energy homeostasis in mammals. 3T3-L1 preadipocytes have been widely used as an in vitro model for analyzing the molecular mechanism of adipogenesis. Previous reports indicated that the stage of contact inhibition (CI), through which the proliferating cells exit from the cell cycle, was required for granting preadipocyte the ability to differentiate. While this kind of the granting mechanism remains elusive. In the present study, we showed that DNA (cytosine-5) methyltransferase 3a (Dnmt3a) was upregulated at both the mRNA and protein level during the CI stage, and resulted in increasing promoter methylation of adipogenic genes...
December 1, 2016: Cell Death & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903986/adult-t-cell-leukemia-aggressivenness-correlates-with-loss-of-both-5-hydroxymethylcytosine-and-tet2-expression
#2
Ambroise Marçais, Laetitia Waast, Julie Bruneau, Katia Hanssens, Vahid Asnafi, Philippe Gaulard, Felipe Suarez, Patrice Dubreuil, Antoine Gessain, Olivier Hermine, Claudine Pique
Mutations in TET2, encoding one of the TET members responsible for the conversion of DNA cytosine methylation to hydroxymethylation (5-hmc), have been recently described in Human T-lymphotropic virus type 1-associated adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATLL). However, neither the amount of genomic 5-hmc in ATLL tumor cells nor TET2 expression has been studied yet. In this study, we analyzed these two parameters as well as the mutational status of TET2 in ATLL patients. By employing a direct in situ approach, we documented that tumor T cells infiltrating lymph nodes exhibit low level of 5-hmc compared to residual normal T cells...
November 26, 2016: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903915/max-is-an-epigenetic-sensor-of-5-carboxylcytosine-and-is-altered-in-multiple-myeloma
#3
Dongxue Wang, Hideharu Hashimoto, Xing Zhang, Benjamin G Barwick, Sagar Lonial, Lawrence H Boise, Paula M Vertino, Xiaodong Cheng
The oncogenic transcription factor MYC and its binding partner MAX regulate gene expression by binding to DNA at enhancer-box (E-box) elements 5'-CACGTG-3'. In mammalian genomes, the central E-box CpG has the potential to be methylated at the 5-position of cytosine (5mC), or to undergo further oxidation to the 5-hydroxymethyl (5hmC), 5-formyl (5fC), or 5-carboxyl (5caC) forms. We find that MAX exhibits the greatest affinity for a 5caC or unmodified C-containing E-box, and much reduced affinities for the corresponding 5mC, 5hmC or 5fC forms...
November 29, 2016: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903255/epigenetic-evidence-for-involvement-of-the-oxytocin-receptor-gene-in-obsessive-compulsive-disorder
#4
Carolina Cappi, Juliana Belo Diniz, Guaraci L Requena, Tiaya Lourenço, Bianca Cristina Garcia Lisboa, Marcelo Camargo Batistuzzo, Andrea H Marques, Marcelo Q Hoexter, Carlos A Pereira, Euripedes Constantino Miguel, Helena Brentani
BACKGROUND: Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is a chronic neurodevelopmental disorder that affects up to 3% of the general population. Although epigenetic mechanisms play a role in neurodevelopment disorders, epigenetic pathways associated with OCD have rarely been investigated. Oxytocin is a neuropeptide involved in neurobehavioral functions. Oxytocin has been shown to be associated with the regulation of complex socio-cognitive processes such as attachment, social exploration, and social recognition, as well as anxiety and other stress-related behaviors...
November 30, 2016: BMC Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27901495/air-pollution-and-dna-methylation-alterations-in-lung-cancer-a-systematic-and-comparative-study
#5
Cheng-Lan Jiang, Shui-Wang He, Yun-Dong Zhang, He-Xian Duan, Tao Huang, Yun-Chao Huang, Gao-Feng Li, Ping Wang, Li-Ju Ma, Guang-Biao Zhou, Yi Cao
The lung cancer incidence in the Xuanwei and neighboring region, Yunnan, China, is among the highest in China and is attributed to severe air pollution with high benzo(a)pyrene levels. We systematically and comparatively analyzed DNA methylation alterations at genome and gene levels in Xuanwei lung cancer tissues and cell lines, as well as benzo(a)pyrene-treated cells and mouse samples. We obtained a comprehensive dataset of genome-wide cytosine-phosphate-guanine island methylation in air pollution-related lung cancer samples...
November 25, 2016: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895808/mendelian-inheritance-of-trimodal-cpg-methylation-sites-suggests-distal-cis-acting-genetic-effects
#6
Shaza B Zaghlool, Mashael Al-Shafai, Wadha A Al Muftah, Pankaj Kumar, Christian Gieger, Melanie Waldenberger, Mario Falchi, Karsten Suhre
BACKGROUND: Environmentally influenced phenotypes, such as obesity and insulin resistance, can be transmitted over multiple generations. Epigenetic modifications, such as methylation of DNA cytosine-guanine (CpG) pairs, may be carriers of inherited information. At the population level, the methylation state of such "heritable" CpG sites is expected to follow a trimodal distribution, and their mode of inheritance should be Mendelian. METHODS: Using the Illumina Infinium 450 K DNA methylation array, we determined DNA CpG-methylation in blood cells from a family cohort 123 individuals of Arab ethnicity, including 18 elementary father-mother-child trios, we asked whether Mendelian inheritance of CpG methylation is observed, and most importantly, whether it is independent of any genetic signals...
2016: Clinical Epigenetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890639/oxidized-c5-methyl-cytosine-bases-in-dna-5-hydroxymethylcytosine-5-formylcytosine-and-5-carboxycytosine
#7
Arne Klungland, Adam B Robertson
Recent reports suggest that the Tet enzyme family catalytically oxidize 5-methylcytosine in mammalian cells. The oxidation of 5-methylcytosine can result in three chemically distinct species - 5-hydroxymethylcytsine, 5-formylcytosine, and 5-carboxycytosine. While the base excision repair machinery processes 5-formylcytosine and 5-carboxycytosine rapidly, 5-hydroxymethylcytosine is stable under physiological conditions. As a stable modification 5-hydroxymethylcytosine has a broad range of functions, from stem cell pluriopotency to tumorigenesis...
November 24, 2016: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27885849/dna-methylation-at-diagnosis-is-associated-with-response-to-disease-modifying-drugs-in-early-rheumatoid-arthritis
#8
John R Glossop, Nicola B Nixon, Richard D Emes, Julius Sim, Jon C Packham, Derek L Mattey, William E Farrell, Anthony A Fryer
AIM: A proof-of-concept study to explore whether DNA methylation at first diagnosis is associated with response to disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARDs) in patients with early rheumatoid arthritis (RA). PATIENTS & METHODS: DNA methylation was quantified in T-lymphocytes from 46 treatment-naive patients using HumanMethylation450 BeadChips. Treatment response was determined in 6 months using the European League Against Rheumatism (EULAR) response criteria...
November 25, 2016: Epigenomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27884142/dna-methylation-patterns-associated-with-oxidative-stress-in-an-ageing-population
#9
Åsa K Hedman, Mihkel Zilmer, Johan Sundström, Lars Lind, Erik Ingelsson
BACKGROUND: Oxidative stress has been related to type 2 diabetes (T2D) and cardiovascular disease (CVD), the leading global cause of death. Contributions of environmental factors such as oxidative stress on complex traits and disease may be partly mediated through changes in epigenetic marks (e.g. DNA methylation). Studies relating differential methylation with intermediate phenotypes and disease endpoints may be useful in identifying additional candidate genes and mechanisms involved in disease...
November 25, 2016: BMC Medical Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27878068/genome-methylation-patterns-across-castes-and-generations-in-a-parasitoid-wasp
#10
Roei Shaham, Rachel Ben-Shlomo, Uzi Motro, Tamar Keasar
Environmental influences shape phenotypes within and across generations, often through DNA methylations that modify gene expression. Methylations were proposed to mediate caste and task allocation in some eusocial insects, but how an insect's environment affects DNA methylation in its offspring is yet unknown. We characterized parental effects on methylation profiles in the polyembryonic parasitoid wasp Copidosoma koehleri, as well as methylation patterns associated with its simple caste system. We used methylation-sensitive amplified fragment length polymorphism (MS-AFLP) to compare methylation patterns, among (1) reproductive and soldier larvae; and (2) offspring (larvae, pupae, and adults) of wasps that were reared at either high or low larval density and mated in the four possible combinations...
November 2016: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27866770/tetanus-vaccination-is-associated-with-differential-dna-methylation-reduces-the-risk-of-asthma-in-adolescence
#11
Vimala Devi Janjanam, Nandini Mukherjee, Gabrielle A Lockett, Faisal I Rezwan, Ramesh Kurukulaaratchy, Frances Mitchell, Hongmei Zhang, Hasan Arshad, John W Holloway, Wilfried Karmaus
BACKGROUND: Vaccinations have been suggested to be associated with increased risk of allergic diseases. Tetanus vaccination is one of the most frequently administered vaccines as a part of wound management and was also found to be associated with increased serum IgE levels. We hypothesized that the vaccination modifies the risk of allergic diseases through epigenetic changes such as DNA methylation. METHOD: Data on tetanus vaccination between 10 and 18years of age was collected from a birth cohort established on the Isle of Wight UK in 1989...
December 12, 2016: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27865480/biofluids-cell-mechanics-and-epigenetics-flow-induced-epigenetic-mechanisms-of-endothelial-gene-expression
#12
Peter F Davies, Elisabetta Manduchi, Juan M Jiménez, Yi-Zhou Jiang
Epigenetics is the regulation of gene expression (transcription) in response to changes in the cell environment through genomic modifications that largely involve the non-coding fraction of the human genome and that cannot be attributed to modification of the primary DNA sequence. Epigenetics is dominant in establishing cell fate and positioning during programmed embryonic development. However the same pathways are used by mature postnatal and adult mammalian cells during normal physiology and are implicated in disease mechanisms...
November 11, 2016: Journal of Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27862296/dna-methylation-changes-in-mexican-children-exposed-to-arsenic-from-two-historic-mining-areas-in-san-luis-potos%C3%A3
#13
Jorge Alejandro Alegría-Torres, Leticia Carrizales-Yánez, Fernando Díaz-Barriga, Fernando Rosso-Camacho, Valeria Motta, Letizia Tarantini, Valentina Bollati
Arsenic is a carcinogen and epimutagen that threatens the health of exposed populations worldwide. In this study, we examined the methylation status of Alu and long interspersed nucleotide elements (LINE-1) and their association with levels of urinary arsenic in 84 Mexican children between 6 and 12 years old from two historic mining areas in the State of San Luis Potosí, Mexico. Urinary arsenic levels were determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometry and DNA methylation analysis was performed in peripheral blood leukocytes by bisulfite-pyrosequencing...
December 2016: Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27859417/runx3-inhibits-laryngeal-squamous-cell-carcinoma-malignancy-under-the-regulation-of-mir-148a-3p-dnmt1-axis
#14
Su Jili, Lu Eryong, Lu Lijuan, Zhang Chao
Laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma (LSCC) is a highly aggressive malignant cancer and accounts for 1% to 2% of all malignancies diagnosed worldwide. Runt-related transcription factor 3 (RUNX3), an important tumor suppressor, is known to related to lymph node metastasis and the development of LSCC. However, the biological roles and potential mechanisms RUNX3 expression was not well understood. In this study, we reported that the RUNX3 was significantly downregulated and highly methylated in LSCC compared with their matched normal...
November 15, 2016: Cell Biochemistry and Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27859411/dna-demethylation-pathways-additional-players-and-regulators
#15
Matthias Bochtler, Agnieszka Kolano, Guo-Liang Xu
DNA demethylation can occur passively by "dilution" of methylation marks by DNA replication, or actively and independently of DNA replication. Direct conversion of 5-methylcytosine (5mC) to cytosine (C), as originally proposed, does not occur. Instead, active DNA methylation involves oxidation of the methylated base by ten-eleven translocations (TETs), or deamination of the methylated or a nearby base by activation induced deaminase (AID). The modified nucleotide, possibly together with surrounding nucleotides, is then replaced by the BER pathway...
November 16, 2016: BioEssays: News and Reviews in Molecular, Cellular and Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27856615/epigenetic-regulation-of-intestinal-stem-cells-by-tet1-mediated-dna-hydroxymethylation
#16
Rinho Kim, Karyn L Sheaffer, Inchan Choi, Kyoung-Jae Won, Klaus H Kaestner
Methylated cytosines are associated with gene silencing. The ten-eleven translocation (TET) hydroxylases, which oxidize methylated cytosines to 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5hmC), are essential for cytosine demethylation. Gene silencing and activation are critical for intestinal stem cell (ISC) maintenance and differentiation, but the potential role of TET hydroxylases in these processes has not yet been examined. Here, we generated genome-wide maps of the 5hmC mark in ISCs and their differentiated progeny. Genes with high levels of hydroxymethylation in ISCs are strongly associated with Wnt signaling and developmental processes...
November 17, 2016: Genes & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27852843/dna-bisulfite-sequencing-for-single-nucleotide-resolution-dna-methylation-detection
#17
Paul M Lizardi, Qin Yan, Narendra Wajapeyee
DNA methylation plays an important role in multiple biological processes. Therefore, methodologies that can detect changes in DNA methylation are of general importance. A popular and reliable method for measuring DNA methylation status is DNA bisulfite sequencing. This protocol details the steps required for bisulfite conversion and analysis of either genes or a specific genomic region. Denatured DNA (i.e., single-stranded DNA) is treated with sodium bisulfite under conditions that preferentially convert unmethylated cytosine (C) residues to uracil (U) residues while methylated cytosines remain unmodified...
November 16, 2016: Cold Spring Harbor Protocols
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27852840/methyl-cytosine-based-immunoprecipitation-for-dna-methylation-analysis
#18
Paul M Lizardi, Qin Yan, Narendra Wajapeyee
In mammalian cells, DNA methylation at the 5-position of cytosine leads to recruitment of proteins that selectively recognize and bind 5-methylcytosine (5mC). Taking advantage of the structural identity of 5mC, various affinity purification-based protocols have been developed to enrich for either DNA that is modified by 5mC or proteins that recognize 5mC. In this protocol, an antibody against 5mC is used to immunoprecipitate the methylated DNA. The method can be scaled up to perform genome-wide DNA methylation analysis...
November 16, 2016: Cold Spring Harbor Protocols
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27852839/analysis-of-dna-methylation-in-mammalian-cells
#19
Paul M Lizardi, Qin Yan, Narendra Wajapeyee
Methylation of DNA, the most experimentally accessible epigenetic alteration of eukaryotic cells, has generated an extensive literature and an abundance of analytical tools. The term "methylome" (referring to the complete set of cytosine modifications in a genome) is appearing with greater frequency in the literature, reflecting the growing number of researchers in the field. Here we introduce a set of robust protocols for methods that can be performed routinely for the elucidation of DNA chemical modifications involving methylation of cytosine...
November 16, 2016: Cold Spring Harbor Protocols
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27851806/5-hydroxymethylcytosine-precedes-loss-of-cpg-methylation-in-enhancers-and-genes-undergoing-activation-in-cardiomyocyte-maturation
#20
David K Kranzhöfer, Ralf Gilsbach, Björn A Grüning, Rolf Backofen, Thomas G Nührenberg, Lutz Hein
BACKGROUND: Cardiomyocytes undergo major changes in DNA methylation during maturation and transition to a non-proliferative state after birth. 5'-hydroxylation of methylated cytosines (5hmC) is not only involved in DNA loss of CpG methylation but is also thought to be an epigenetic mark with unique distribution and functions. Here, we sought to get insight into the dynamics of 5'-hydroxymethylcytosine in newborn and adult cardiomyocytes. METHODS: Cardiomyocyte nuclei from newborn and adult C57BL/6 mice were purified by flow cytometric sorting...
2016: PloS One
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