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Preload assessment

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29349824/reduced-left-ventricular-filling-following-blood-volume-extraction-does-not-result-in-compensatory-augmentation-of-cardiac-mechanics
#1
Rachel Lord, David MacLeod, Keith George, David Oxborough, Rob Shave, Mike Stembridge
An acute non-invasive reduction in preload has been shown to augment cardiac mechanics to maintain stroke volume and cardiac output. Such interventions induce concomitant changes in heart rate (HR), whereas blood volume extraction reduces preload without HR changes. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to determine whether a preload reduction in isolation resulted in augmented stroke volume achieved via enhanced cardiac mechanics. Nine healthy volunteers (4 female, age 29 ± 11 years) underwent echocardiography for the assessment of left ventricular (LV) volumes and mechanics in a supine position at baseline and end-extraction following the controlled removal of 25% of total blood volume (1062 ± 342 ml)...
January 18, 2018: Experimental Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29342222/mechano-electric-feedback-effects-in-a-three-dimensional-3d-model-of-the-contracting-cardiac-ventricle
#2
Ani Amar, Sharon Zlochiver, Ofer Barnea
Mechano-electric feedback affects the electrophysiological and mechanical function of the heart and the cellular, tissue, and organ properties. To determine the main factors that contribute to this effect, this study investigated the changes in the action potential characteristics of the ventricle during contraction. A model of stretch-activated channels was incorporated into a three-dimensional multiscale model of the contracting ventricle to assess the effect of different preload lengths on the electrophysiological behavior...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339401/the-impact-of-preload-reduction-with-head-up-tilt-testing-on-longitudinal-and-transverse-left-ventricular-mechanics-a-study-utilizing-deformation-volume-analysis
#3
Caroline Schneider, Lynsey Forsythe, John Somauroo, Keith George, David Oxborough
BACKGROUND: Left ventricular (LV) function is dependent on load, intrinsic contractility and relaxation with a variable impact on specific mechanics. Strain (ε) imaging allows the assessment of cardiac function; however, the direct relationship between volume and strain is currently unknown. The aim of this study was to establish the impact of preload reduction through head-up tilt (HUT) testing on simultaneous left ventricular (LV) longitudinal and transverse function and their respective contribution to volume change...
March 2018: Echo Research and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331221/mechanisms-of-changes-in-functional-mitral-regurgitation-by-preload-alterations
#4
Atsuko Furukawa, Yukio Abe, Kazato Ito, Shingo Hosogi, Katsuhito Yamamoto, Hiroshi Ito
BACKGROUND: This study aimed to investigate the mechanisms of acute changes in functional mitral regurgitation (FMR) by preload alterations. METHODS: Twenty-two consecutive patients with left ventricular ejection fraction <40% and at least mild FMR underwent transthoracic echocardiography. Passive leg lifting and sublingual administration of nitroglycerin were performed to alter preload. Mitral regurgitant volume (MRV) was assessed using the Doppler method. RESULTS: MRV changed in parallel with preload alterations...
January 10, 2018: Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29305313/effectiveness-of-the-gocheck-kids-vision-screener-in-detecting-amblyopia-risk-factors
#5
M Millicent W Peterseim, Ryan S Rhodes, Rupa N Patel, M Edward Wilson, Luke E Edmondson, Sarah A Logan, Edward W Cheeseman, Emily Shortridge, Rupal H Trivedi
Effectiveness of the GoCheck Kids Vision Screener in Detecting Amblyopia Risk Factors, MMW Peterseim, RS Rhodes, RN Patel, ME Wilson, LE Edmondson, SA Logan, EW Cheeseman, E Shortridge, RH Trivedi. INTRODUCTION: The GoCheck Kids smartphone photoscreening app (Gobiquity Mobile Health, Scottsdale, Arizona), introduced in 2014, is marketed to pediatricians with little published validation. We wished to evaluate the GoCheck Kids Screener for accuracy in detecting amblyopia risk factors (ARF) using 2013 AAPOS guidelines...
January 2, 2018: American Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29298772/the-impact-of-preload-reduction-with-head-up-tilt-testing-on-longitudinal-and-transverse-left-ventricular-mechanics
#6
Caroline Schneider, Lynsey Forsythe, John Somauroo, Keith George, David Oxborough
BACKGROUND: Left ventricular (LV) function is dependent on load, intrinsic contractility and relaxation with a variable impact on specific mechanics. Strain (ε) imaging allows the assessment of cardiac function however the direct relationship between volume and strain is currently unknown. The aim of this study was to establish the impact of preload reduction through head-up tilt (HUT) testing on simultaneous left ventricular (LV) longitudinal and transverse function and their respective contribution to volume change...
January 3, 2018: Echo Research and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29290485/tricuspid-valve-adaptation-during-the-first-interstage-period-in-hypoplastic-left-heart-syndrome
#7
Timothy Colen, Shelby Kutty, Richard B Thompson, Edythe Tham, Andrew S Mackie, Ling Li, Dongngan T Truong, Michiko Maruyama, Jeffrey F Smallhorn, Nee Scze Khoo
BACKGROUND: Tricuspid regurgitation (TR) is an important risk factor for morbidity and mortality in hypoplastic left heart syndrome (HLHS), yet the evolution of tricuspid valve (TV) dysfunction in HLHS is poorly understood. This study sought to examine changes in TV function in HLHS between the first two stages of surgical palliation and to determine the mechanism of TR at the time of stage two surgery-bidirectional cavopulmonary anastomosis (BCPA). METHODS: We prospectively investigated 44 infants at two time points-prior to Norwood-Sano (T1 - median age 5...
December 29, 2017: Journal of the American Society of Echocardiography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29282886/biorefining-of-platinum-group-metals-from-model-waste-solutions-into-catalytically-active-bimetallic-nanoparticles
#8
Angela J Murray, Ju Zhu, Joe Wood, Lynne E Macaskie
Bacteria can fabricate platinum group metal (PGM) catalysts cheaply, a key consideration of industrial processes and waste decontaminations. Biorecovery of PGMs from wastes is promising but PGM leachates made from metallic scraps are acidic. A two-step biosynthesis 'pre-seeds' metallic deposits onto bacterial cells benignly; chemical reduction of subsequent metal from acidic solution via the seeds makes bioscaffolded nanoparticles (NPs). Cells of Escherichia coli were seeded using Pd(II) or Pt(IV) and exposed to a mixed Pd(II)/Pt(IV) model solution under H2 to make bimetallic catalyst...
December 28, 2017: Microbial Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29275062/intravenous-infusion-of-bone-marrow-derived-mesenchymal-stem-cells-reduces-erectile-dysfunction-following-cavernous-nerve-injury-in-rats
#9
Yohei Matsuda, Masanori Sasaki, Yuko Kataoka-Sasaki, Akio Takayanagi, Ko Kobayashi, Shinichi Oka, Masahito Nakazaki, Naoya Masumori, Jeffery D Kocsis, Osamu Honmou
INTRODUCTION: Intravenous preload (delivered before cavernous nerve [CN] injury) of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) can prevent or decrease postoperative erectile dysfunction (J Sex Med 2015;12:1713-1721). In the present study, the potential therapeutic effects of intravenously administered MSCs on postoperative erectile dysfunction were evaluated in a rat model of CN injury. METHODS: Male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomized into 2 groups after electric CN injury...
December 20, 2017: Sexual Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223594/femoral-neck-fractures-after-removal-of-hardware-in-healed-trochanteric-fractures
#10
REVIEW
Antonio Barquet, Peter V Giannoudis, Andrés Gelink
INTRODUCTION: Hardware removal in healed trochanteric fractures (TF) in the absence of infection or significant mechanical complications is rarely indicated. However, in patients with persistent pain, prominent material and discomfort in the activities of daily living, the implant is eventually removed. Publications of ipsilateral femoral neck fracture after removal of implants from healed trochanteric fractures (FNFARIHTF) just because of pain or discomfort are rare. The purpose of this systematic review of the literature is to report on the eventual risk factors, the mechanisms, the clinical presentation, and frequency, and to pay special emphasis in their prevention...
December 2017: Injury
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29202887/the-effects-of-gelled-konjac-glucomannan-fibre-on-appetite-and-energy-intake-in-healthy-individuals-a-randomised-cross-over-trial
#11
Fei Au-Yeung, Elena Jovanovski, Alexandra L Jenkins, Andreea Zurbau, Hoang V T Ho, Vladimir Vuksan
Konjac glucomannan (KGM) is a viscous dietary fibre that can form a solid, low-energy gel when hydrated and is commonly consumed in a noodle form (KGM-gel). Increased meal viscosity from gel-forming fibres have been associated with prolonged satiety, but no studies to date have evaluated this effect with KGM-gel. Thus, our objective was to evaluate subsequent food intake and satiety of KGM-gel noodles when replacing a high-carbohydrate preload, in a dose-response manner. Utilising a randomised, controlled, cross-over design, sixteen healthy individuals (twelve females/four males; age: 26·0 (sd 11·8) years; BMI: 23·1 (sd 3·2) kg/m2) received 325 ml volume-matched preloads of three KGM-gel noodle substitution levels: (i) all pasta with no KGM-gel (1849 kJ (442 kcal), control), half pasta and half KGM-gel (1084 kJ (259 kcal), 50-KGM) or no pasta and all KGM-gel (322 kJ (77 kcal), 100-KGM)...
December 5, 2017: British Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29200483/biomechanical-analysis-of-range-of-motion-and-failure-characteristics-of-osteoporotic-spinal-compression-fractures-in-human-cadaver
#12
Robert F Heary, Naresh K Parvathreddy, Nitin Agarwal
Background: Vertebroplasty is a treatment for osteoporotic vertebral compression fractures. The optimal location of needle placement for cement injection remains a topic of debate. As such, the authors assessed the effects of location of two types of cement instillations. In addition, the motion and failure modes at the index and adjacent segments were measured. Materials and Methods: Seven human osteoporotic cadaver spines (T1-L4), cut into four consecutive vertebral segments, were utilized...
November 2017: Indian Journal of Orthopaedics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29177071/a-pilot-investigation-to-optimise-methods-for-a-future-satiety-preload-study
#13
Mark R Hobden, Laetitia Guérin-Deremaux, Daniel M Commane, Ian Rowland, Glenn R Gibson, Orla B Kennedy
Background: Preload studies are used to investigate the satiating effects of foods and food ingredients. However, the design of preload studies is complex, with many methodological considerations influencing appetite responses. The aim of this pilot investigation was to determine acceptability, and optimise methods, for a future satiety preload study. Specifically, we investigated the effects of altering (i) energy intake at a standardised breakfast (gender-specific or non-gender specific), and (ii) the duration between mid-morning preload and ad libitum lunch meal, on morning appetite scores and energy intake at lunch...
2017: Pilot and Feasibility Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29165778/cardiac-ultrasound-a-true-haemodynamic-monitor
#14
Jan Poelaert, Manu L N G Malbrain
Cardiac ultrasound has been used in the critically ill for more than thirty years. The technology has made enormous progression with respect to image quality and quantity, various Doppler techniques, as well as connectivity, the transfer of data and offline calculations. Some consider cardiac ultrasound as the stethoscope of the Twenty-first century. The potential of eye-balling moving cardiac structures gives undeniable power to this diagnostic and monitoring tool. The main shortcoming is the discontinuous mode of monitoring and the fact that optimal information acquisition can only be obtained when one is well-trained and experienced...
November 22, 2017: Anaesthesiology Intensive Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29153929/accuracy-of-a-simulation-algorithm-for-modelling-lv-contractility-diastolic-capacitance-and-energetics-using-data-available-from-common-hemodynamic-monitors-and-echocardiography
#15
Paul M Heerdt, Scott Korfhagen, Hesham Ezz, Clara Oromendia
OBJECTIVE: To test the hypothesis that a simulation algorithm populated with data readily available from hemodynamic monitors and echocardiography can accurately model cardiac contractility, diastolic capacitance, and energetics. DESIGN: Bland-Altman analysis of paired data sets. SETTING: University laboratory. PARTICIPANTS: Archived data previously recorded from 7 anesthetized swine. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: Left ventricular pressure and volume (LVV) data that had been continuously recorded over a range of inotropic conditions were used as reference data...
September 27, 2017: Journal of Cardiothoracic and Vascular Anesthesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29126782/feasibility-and-limitations-of-mitral-valve-repair-with-or-without-left-ventricular-reconstruction-in-non-ischemic-dilated-cardiomyopathy
#16
Yasushige Shingu, Tomonori Ooka, Hiroki Katoh, Tsuyoshi Tachibana, Suguru Kubota, Yoshiro Matsui
BACKGROUND: Although non-transplant surgical interventions for non-ischemic dilated cardiomyopathy (NIDCM) are relatively effective, their feasibility and limitations have not been fully elucidated. The aim of this study was to define the feasibility and limitations of mitral valve repair, with or without surgical ventricular reconstruction for patients with NIDCM in terms of postoperative low cardiac output syndrome (LOS). METHODS: Twenty non-transplant candidates (aged 57±13 years) with NIDCM and significant mitral regurgitation had undergone mitral valve repair combined with submitral procedures...
November 7, 2017: Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29074465/comparison-of-three-dimensional-helical-axes-of-the-cervical-spine-between-in-vitro-and-in-vivo-testing
#17
René Jonas, Robert Demmelmaier, Steffen P Hacker, Hans-Joachim Wilke
BACKGROUND CONTEXT: The range of motion is a well-accepted parameter for the assessment and evaluation of cervical motion. However, more qualitative data of the kinematics of the cervical spine is needed for the development and success of cervical disc arthroplasty [1]. PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to provide basic information about helical axes of human cervical spine under in vitro conditions. Furthermore it should clarify whether the three-dimensional helical axes of cervical motion gained from in vitro experiments are in agreement with those gained from in vivo experiments and therefore to prove its reliability...
October 23, 2017: Spine Journal: Official Journal of the North American Spine Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29061576/sodium-glucose-cotransporter-2-inhibition-in-heart-failure-potential-mechanisms-clinical-applications-and-summary-of-clinical-trials
#18
REVIEW
Yuliya Lytvyn, Petter Bjornstad, Jacob A Udell, Julie A Lovshin, David Z I Cherney
Despite current established therapy, heart failure (HF) remains a leading cause of hospitalization and mortality worldwide. Novel therapeutic targets are therefore needed to improve the prognosis of patients with HF. The EMPA-REG OUTCOME trial ([Empagliflozin] Cardiovascular Outcome Event Trial in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Patients) demonstrated significant reductions in mortality and HF hospitalization risk in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D) and cardiovascular disease with the antihyperglycemic agent, empagliflozin, a sodium glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitor...
October 24, 2017: Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29056408/effect-of-gravitational-gradients-on-cardiac-filling-and-performance
#19
Kazuaki Negishi, Allen G Borowski, Zoran B Popović, Neil L Greenberg, David S Martin, Michael W Bungo, Benjamin D Levine, James D Thomas
BACKGROUND: Gravity affects every aspect of cardiac performance. When gravitational gradients are at their greatest on Earth (i.e., during upright posture), orthostatic intolerance may ensue and is a common clinical problem that appears to be exacerbated by the adaptation to spaceflight. We sought to elucidate the alterations in cardiac performance during preload reduction with progressive upright tilt that are relevant both for space exploration and the upright posture, particularly the preload dependence of various parameters of cardiovascular performance...
October 19, 2017: Journal of the American Society of Echocardiography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053805/longitudinal-measures-of-deformation-are-associated-with-a-composite-measure-of-contractility-derived-from-pressure-volume-loop-analysis-in-children
#20
Shahryar M Chowdhury, Ryan J Butts, Carolyn L Taylor, Varsha M Bandisode, Karen S Chessa, Anthony M Hlavacek, Arni Nutting, Girish S Shirali, G Hamilton Baker
Aims: The relationship between echocardiographic measures of left ventricular (LV) systolic function and reference-standard measures have not been assessed in children. The objective of this study was to assess the validity of echocardiographic indices of LV systolic function via direct comparison to a novel composite measure of contractility derived from pressure-volume loop (PVL) analysis. Methods and results: Children with normal loading conditions undergoing routine left heart catheterization were prospectively enrolled...
June 29, 2017: European Heart Journal Cardiovascular Imaging
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