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Preload assessment

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29748312/noninvasive-assessment-of-preload-reserve-enhances-risk-stratification-of-patients-with-heart-failure-with-reduced-ejection-fraction
#1
Kensuke Matsumoto, Akira Onishi, Hirotsugu Yamada, Kenya Kusunose, Makiko Suto, Yutaka Hatani, Hiroki Matsuzoe, Kazuhiro Tatsumi, Hidekazu Tanaka, Ken-Ichi Hirata
BACKGROUND: The leg-positive pressure maneuver can safely and noninvasively apply preload stress without increase in total body fluid volume. The purpose of this study was to determine whether preload stress could be useful for risk stratification of patients with heart failure with reduced ejection fraction. METHODS AND RESULTS: For this study, 120 consecutive patients with heart failure with reduced ejection fraction were prospectively recruited. The stroke work index was estimated as product of stroke volume index and mean blood pressure, and the E/e' ratio was calculated to estimate ventricular filling pressure...
May 2018: Circulation. Cardiovascular Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29739798/single-beat-estimation-of-right-ventricular-contractility-and-its-coupling-to-pulmonary-arterial-load-in-patients-with-pulmonary-hypertension
#2
Ryo Inuzuka, Steven Hsu, Ryan J Tedford, Hideaki Senzaki
BACKGROUND: An accurate assessment of intrinsic right ventricular (RV) contractility and its relation to pulmonary arterial load is essential for the management of pulmonary hypertension. The pressure-volume relationship with load manipulation is the gold standard assessment used for this purpose, but its clinical application has been hindered by the lack of a single-beat method that is valid for the human RV. In the present study, we sought to validate a novel single-beat method to estimate the preload recruitable stroke work (PRSW) and its derivative for ventriculoarterial coupling in the human RV...
May 8, 2018: Journal of the American Heart Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29728410/what-is-the-normal-haemodynamic-response-to-passive-leg-raise-a-study-of-healthy-volunteers
#3
Mohammed H Elwan, Ashraf Roshdy, Joseph A Reynolds, Eman M Elsharkawy, Salah M Eltahan, Timothy J Coats
OBJECTIVE: Passive leg raise (PLR) is used as self-fluid challenge to optimise fluid therapy by predicting preload responsiveness. However, there remains uncertainty around the normal haemodynamic response to PLR with resulting difficulties in application and interpretation in emergency care. We aim to define the haemodynamic responses to PLR in spontaneously breathing volunteers using a non-invasive cardiac output monitor, thoracic electrical bioimpedance, TEB (PLR-TEB). METHODS: We recruited healthy volunteers aged 18 or above...
May 4, 2018: Emergency Medicine Journal: EMJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29723443/does-dapagliflozin-affect-energy-intake-and-appetite-a-randomized-controlled-exploratory-study-in-healthy-subjects
#4
Elizabeth Bertran, Helen D Berlie, Aaron Nixon, Linda Jaber
The primary aims of this study were to assess the effects of dapagliflozin versus placebo on energy intake and appetite ratings in healthy individuals. This was a randomized, single-blind, placebo-controlled, 2-period crossover study. In each period, healthy individuals received either dapagliflozin or placebo for 2 weeks. On assessment days, participants were asked to consume a standard preload breakfast. Appetite ratings were measured with 100-mm visual analog scales immediately before and during the 4.25-hour period after breakfast...
May 3, 2018: Clinical Pharmacology in Drug Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29721645/midazolam-increases-preload-dependency-during-endotoxic-shock-in-rabbits-by-affecting-venous-vascular-tone
#5
Jianxiao Chen, Tao Yu, Federico Longhini, Xiwen Zhang, Songqiao Liu, Ling Liu, Yi Yang, Haibo Qiu
BACKGROUND: Septic patients often require sedation in intensive care unit, and midazolam is one of the most frequently used sedatives among them. But the interaction between midazolam and septic shock is not known. The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of midazolam on preload dependency in an endotoxic shock model by evaluating systemic vascular tone and cardiac function. METHODS: Eighteen rabbits were randomly divided into three groups: Control group, MID1 group and MID2 group...
May 2, 2018: Annals of Intensive Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29698094/estimating-the-health-and-economic-impacts-of-changes-in-local-air-quality
#6
Martha L Carvour, Amy E Hughes, Neal Fann, Robert W Haley
OBJECTIVES: To demonstrate the benefits-mapping software Environmental Benefits Mapping and Analysis Program-Community Edition (BenMAP-CE), which integrates local air quality data with previously published concentration-response and health-economic valuation functions to estimate the health effects of changes in air pollution levels and their economic consequences. METHODS: We illustrate a local health impact assessment of ozone changes in the 10-county nonattainment area of the Dallas-Fort Worth region of Texas, estimating the short-term effects on mortality predicted by 2 scenarios for 3 years (2008, 2011, and 2013): an incremental rollback of the daily 8-hour maximum ozone levels of all area monitors by 10 parts per billion and a rollback-to-a-standard ambient level of 65 parts per billion at only monitors above that level...
April 2018: American Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29693495/a-randomized-clinical-trial-of-nicotine-preloading-for-smoking-cessation-in-people-with-posttraumatic-stress-disorder
#7
Eric A Dedert, Paul A Dennis, Patrick S Calhoun, Michelle F Dennis, Jean C Beckham
OBJECTIVE: To determine whether augmenting standard smoking cessation treatment by wearing an active nicotine patch before the smoking quit date improves rates of smoking cessation in individuals with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and to explore mechanisms of treatment response such as decreased cigarette craving and symptom relief from smoking. METHODS: Double-blind parallel randomized controlled trial in 81 people with PTSD who smoked cigarettes. Participants were recruited from Veterans Affairs outpatient clinics and flyers in the community...
April 25, 2018: Journal of Dual Diagnosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29692570/comparative-effect-of-implant-abutment-connections-abutment-angulations-and-screw-lengths-on-preloaded-abutment-screw-using-three-dimensional-finite-element-analysis-an-in-vitro-study
#8
Krishna Chaitanya Kanneganti, Dileep Nag Vinnakota, Srinivas Rao Pottem, Mahesh Pulagam
Purpose: The purpose of this study is to compare the effect of implant-abutment connections, abutment angulations, and screw lengths on screw loosening (SL) of preloaded abutment using three dimensional (3D) finite element analysis. Materials and Methods: 3D models of implants (conical connection with hex/trilobed connections), abutments (straight/angulated), abutment screws (short/long), and crown and bone were designed using software Parametric Technology Corporation Creo and assembled to form 8 simulations...
April 2018: Journal of Indian Prosthodontic Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29691755/my-patient-has-received-fluid-how-to-assess-its-efficacy-and-side-effects
#9
REVIEW
Xavier Monnet, Jean-Louis Teboul
Many efforts have been made to predict, before giving fluid, whether it will increase cardiac output. Nevertheless, after fluid administration, it is also essential to assess the therapeutic efficacy and to look for possible adverse effects. Like for any drug, this step should not be missed. Basically, volume expansion is aimed at improving tissue oxygenation and organ function. To assess this final result, clinical signs are often unhelpful. The increase in urine output in case of acute kidney injury is a poor marker of the kidney perfusion improvement...
April 24, 2018: Annals of Intensive Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29677035/outflow-cannula-systolic-slope-in-patients-with-left-ventricular-assist-devices-a-novel-marker-of-myocardial-contractility
#10
Jonathan Grinstein, Eric Kruse, Gabriel Sayer, Gene H Kim, Jayant Raikhelkar, Sara Kalantari, Nitasha Sarswat, Sirtaz Adatya, Takeyoshi Ota, Valluvan Jeevanandam, Victor Mor-Avi, Roberto M Lang, Nir Uriel
Left ventricular (LV) unloading with a LV assist device (LVAD) reverse remodels the heart and may lead to favorable changes in cellular architecture and LV geometry promoting myocardial recovery. Currently, there are no standardized methods for evaluating myocardial recovery. This study assesses the systolic slope of the LVAD outflow cannula as a marker for myocardial contractility. Doppler echocardiography (transthoracic echocardiogram [TTE]) of the LVAD outflow cannula and TTE of the LV cavity were prospectively collected in 57 patients with LVADs...
April 18, 2018: ASAIO Journal: a Peer-reviewed Journal of the American Society for Artificial Internal Organs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29623530/novel-insights-and-treatment-strategies-for-right-heart-failure
#11
REVIEW
Weiqin Lin, Ai-Ling Poh, W H Wilson Tang
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The function of the right ventricle (RV) is intimately linked to its preload (systemic volume status) and afterload (pulmonary vasculature). In this review, we explore current knowledge in RV physiology, RV function assessment, causes of right heart failure (RHF), and specific treatment strategies for RHF. RECENT FINDINGS: We examine the evidence behind new pharmacological therapies available, such as macitentan and riociguat in the treatment of specific etiologies of RHF...
April 6, 2018: Current Heart Failure Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29623416/agreement-between-preload-reserve-measured-by-impedance-cardiography-and-echocardiography-during-pregnancy
#12
Huan Liang, Åse Vårtun, Ganesh Acharya
PURPOSE: Accurate assessment of cardiac function is important during pregnancy. Echocardiography and impedance cardiography (ICG) are commonly used noninvasive methods to measure stroke volume (SV) and cardiac output (CO). The difference in stroke volume (ΔSV) or cardiac output (ΔCO) measured at baseline and after passive leg raising (PLR) is a measure of preload reserve that predicts volume responsiveness. However, the agreement between these two methods in measuring preload reserve during pregnancy is unclear...
April 5, 2018: Archives of Gynecology and Obstetrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29605197/airway-obstruction-and-lung-hyperinflation-in-copd-are-linked-to-an-impaired-left-ventricular-diastolic-filling
#13
Peter Alter, Henrik Watz, Kathrin Kahnert, Michael Pfeifer, Winfried J Randerath, Stefan Andreas, Benjamin Waschki, Björn E Kleibrink, Tobias Welte, Robert Bals, Holger Schulz, Frank Biertz, David Young, Claus F Vogelmeier, Rudolf A Jörres
AIMS: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and cardiovascular diseases are thought to be linked through various factors. We aimed to assess the relationship between airway obstruction, lung hyperinflation and diastolic filling in COPD. METHODS: The study population was a subset of the COPD cohort COSYCONET. Echocardiographic parameters included the left atrial diameter (LA), early (E) and late (A) transmitral flow, mitral annulus velocity (e'), E wave deceleration time (E[dt]), and isovolumic relaxation time (IVRT)...
April 2018: Respiratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29600543/speckle-tracking-analysis-in-intensive-care-unit-a-toy-or-a-tool
#14
REVIEW
Antonello D'Andrea, Juri Radmilovic, Donato Mele, Flavio D'Ascenzi, Eustachio Agricola, Andreina Carbone, Francesco Lo Iudice, Giuseppina Novo, Francesco Ancona, Francesca Maria Righini, Sergio Mondillo, Eduardo Bossone, Maurizio Galderisi
The use of conventional echocardiography in the intensive care unit (ICU) is today established to assess left and right ventricular systolic function, for preload determination and procedural guidance. Next step in ICU echocardiography could be the use of novel ultrasound techniques such as strain echocardiography to assist in the management of patients with acute coronary syndrome, heart failure, or pulmonary embolism. This review has gathered the available evidence supporting the incremental value of strain in the diagnostic workup of cardiac diseases treated in ICU...
March 30, 2018: Echocardiography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29594338/macro-and-micromechanical-remodelling-in-the-fish-atrium-is-associated-with-regulation-of-collagen-1-alpha-3-chain-expression
#15
Adam N Keen, Andrew J Fenna, James C McConnell, Michael J Sherratt, Peter Gardner, Holly A Shiels
Numerous pathologies lead to remodelling of the mammalian ventricle, often associated with fibrosis. Recent work in fish has shown that fibrotic remodelling of the ventricle is 'reversible', changing seasonally as temperature-induced changes in blood viscosity alter haemodynamic load on the heart. The atrial response to varying haemodynamic load is less understood in mammals and completely unexplored in non-mammalian vertebrates. To investigate atrial remodelling, rainbow trout were chronically cooled (from 10 ± 1 to 5 ± 1 °C) and chronically warmed (from 10 ± 1 to 18 ± 1 °C) for a minimum of 8 weeks...
March 28, 2018: Pflügers Archiv: European Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29566072/behaviour-during-transportation-predicts-stress-response-and-lower-airway-contamination-in-horses
#16
Barbara Padalino, Sharanne L Raidal, Peter Knight, Pietro Celi, Leo Jeffcott, Gary Muscatello
This study aimed to document the effects of an eight hour journey on behavioural, clinical, haematological, environmental and respiratory parameters, and to identify possible associations between factors. Twelve horses underwent clinical examination, respiratory endoscopy with tracheal wash (TW) aspiration, and collection of venous and arterial blood before (BJ) and after the journey (AJ). TW were submitted for conventional quantitative bacteriological evaluation and genetic microbiome analyses. Behaviour was assessed in stables prior to transportation and throughout the journey...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29560750/association-of-non-invasive-hemodynamics-with-arterial-stiffness-in-rheumatoid-arthritis
#17
Panagiota Anyfanti, Areti Triantafyllou, Eugenia Gkaliagkousi, Nikolaos Koletsos, Spyros Aslanidis, Stella Douma
OBJECTIVES: Arterial stiffness has emerged as a surrogate marker of cardiovascular disease. We investigated the role of myocardial performance and hemodynamic parameters in arterial stiffness in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA), which is accompanied by excess cardiovascular risk. DESIGN: Arterial stiffness was evaluated with pulse wave velocity (PWV) in RA patients and controls. Cardiac and hemodynamic characterization was based on impedance cardiography...
March 21, 2018: Scandinavian Cardiovascular Journal: SCJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29516759/combined-sustained-release-of-bmp2-and-mmp10-accelerates-bone-formation-and-mineralization-of-calvaria-critical-size-defect-in-mice
#18
Ricardo Reyes, Jose Antonio Rodríguez, Josune Orbe, María Rosa Arnau, Carmen Évora, Araceli Delgado
The effect of dual delivery of bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2) and matrix metalloproteinase 10 (MMP10) on bone regeneration was investigated in a murine model of calvarial critical-size defect, hypothesizing that it would result in an enhanced bone formation. Critical-size calvarial defects (4 mm diameter) were created in mice and PLGA microspheres preloaded with either BMP-2, MMP10 or a microsphere combination of both were transplanted into defect sites at different doses. Empty microspheres were used as the negative control...
November 2018: Drug Delivery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29472039/safety-of-bolus-dose-phenylephrine-for-hypotensive-emergency-department-patients
#19
Kjirsten Swenson, Shannon Rankin, Leticia Daconti, Tomas Villarreal, Jens Langsjoen, Darren Braude
INTRODUCTION: Bolus-dose phenylephrine (BDPE) is routinely used to treat hypotension in the operating room. BDPE's fast onset of action and ability to be administered peripherally have prompted calls for its use in the Emergency Department (ED). There are few published data on the safety of BDPE use in the ED. Primary concerns include BDPE's potential to cause dangerous hypertension or reflex bradycardia. We hypothesize that BDPE is a safe short-term vasopressor choice for hypotensive ED patients...
February 19, 2018: American Journal of Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29471071/intragastric-preloads-of-l-tryptophan-reduce-ingestive-behavior-via-oxytocinergic-neural-mechanisms-in-male-mice
#20
Sarah N Gartner, Fraser Aidney, Anica Klockars, Colin Prosser, Elizabeth A Carpenter, Kiriana Isgrove, Allen S Levine, Pawel K Olszewski
Human and laboratory animal studies suggest that dietary supplementation of a free essential amino acid, l-tryptophan (TRP), reduces food intake. It is unclear whether an acute gastric preload of TRP decreases consumption and whether central mechanisms underlie TRP-driven hypophagia. We examined the effect of TRP administered via intragastric gavage on energy- and palatability-induced feeding in mice. We sought to identify central mechanisms through which TRP suppresses appetite. Effects of TRP on consumption of energy-dense and energy-dilute tastants were established in mice stimulated to eat by energy deprivation or palatability...
June 1, 2018: Appetite
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